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Sample records for find favorable reactions

  1. Find favorable reactions faster

    SciTech Connect

    Yaws, C.L.; Chiang, P.Y. )

    1988-11-01

    Now, equations are given to identify whether the reactions are thermodynamically favorable. The method uses Gibbs free energy of formation for the reactants and products. The equation for any 700 major organic compounds is given as temperature coefficients. Then the reaction can be tested at various temperature levels beyond the standard 298/sup 0/K conditions imposed by many other data tabulations. Data for the water and hydrogen chloride are also included. Gibbs free energy of formation of ideal gas (..delta..G/sub f/, jkoule/g-mol) is calculated from the tabulated coefficients (A, B, C) and the temperature (T, /sup 0/K) using the following equation: (1) ..delta..G/sub f/ = A + BT + CT/sup 2/. Chemical equilibrium for a reaction is associated with the change in Gibbs free energy (..delta..G/sub r/) calculated as follows: (2) ..delta..G/sub r/ = ..delta..G/sub f/, products - ..delta..G/sub f/, reactants. If the change in Gibbs free energy is negative, the thermodynamics for the reaction are favorable. On the other hand, if the change in Gibbs free energy is highly positive, the thermodynamics for the reaction are not favorable and may be feasible only under special circumstances.

  2. An ignored but most favorable channel for NCO +C2H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hong-bin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Shao-wen; Ding, Yi-hong; Sun, Chia-chung

    2006-09-01

    The NCO +C2H2 reaction has been considered as a prototype for understanding the chemical reactivity of the isocyanate radical towards unsaturated hydrocarbons in fuel-rich combustion. It has also been proposed to provide an effective route for formation of oxazole-containing compounds in organic synthesis, and might have potential applications in interstellar processes. Unfortunately, this reaction has met mechanistic controversy both between experiments and between experiments and theoretical calculations. In this paper, detailed theoretical investigations at the Becke's three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr-B3LYP /6-31G(d), B3LYP /6-311++G(d,p), quadratic configuration interaction with single and double excitations QCISD /6-31G(d), and Gaussian-3 levels are performed for the NCO +C2H2 reaction, covering various entrance, isomerization, and decomposition channels. Also, the highly cost-expensive coupled-cluster theory including single and double excitations and perturbative inclusion of triple excitations CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ single-point energy calculation is performed for the geometries obtained at the Becke's three parameter Lee-Yang-Parr-B3LYP /6-311++G(d,p) level. A previously ignored yet most favorable channel via a four-membered ring intermediate with allyl radical character is found. However, formation of P3 H +HCCNCO and the five-membered ring channel predicted by previous experimental and theoretical studies is kinetically much less competitive. With the new channel, master equation rate constant calculations over a wide range of temperatures (298-1500K) and pressures (10-560Torr) show that the predicted total rate constants exhibit a positive-temperature dependence and no distinct pressure dependence effect. This is in qualitative agreement with available experimental results. Under the experimental conditions, the predicted values are about 50% lower than the latest experimental results. Also, the branching ratio variations of the fragments P2 HCN +HCCO and P5

  3. Rethinking spontaneous giving: Extreme time pressure and ego-depletion favor self-regarding reactions

    PubMed Central

    Capraro, Valerio; Cococcioni, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    Previous experimental studies suggest that cooperation in one-shot anonymous interactions is, on average, spontaneous, rather than calculative. To explain this finding, it has been proposed that people internalize cooperative heuristics in their everyday life and bring them as intuitive strategies in new and atypical situations. Yet, these studies have important limitations, as they promote intuitive responses using weak time pressure or conceptual priming of intuition. Since these manipulations do not deplete participants’ ability to reason completely, it remains unclear whether cooperative heuristics are really automatic or they emerge after a small, but positive, amount of deliberation. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we report two experiments demonstrating that spontaneous reactions in one-shot anonymous interactions tend to be egoistic. In doing so, our findings shed further light on the cognitive underpinnings of cooperation, as they suggest that cooperation in one-shot interactions is not automatic, but appears only at later stages of reasoning. PMID:27251762

  4. Rethinking spontaneous giving: Extreme time pressure and ego-depletion favor self-regarding reactions.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Valerio; Cococcioni, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    Previous experimental studies suggest that cooperation in one-shot anonymous interactions is, on average, spontaneous, rather than calculative. To explain this finding, it has been proposed that people internalize cooperative heuristics in their everyday life and bring them as intuitive strategies in new and atypical situations. Yet, these studies have important limitations, as they promote intuitive responses using weak time pressure or conceptual priming of intuition. Since these manipulations do not deplete participants' ability to reason completely, it remains unclear whether cooperative heuristics are really automatic or they emerge after a small, but positive, amount of deliberation. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we report two experiments demonstrating that spontaneous reactions in one-shot anonymous interactions tend to be egoistic. In doing so, our findings shed further light on the cognitive underpinnings of cooperation, as they suggest that cooperation in one-shot interactions is not automatic, but appears only at later stages of reasoning. PMID:27251762

  5. Finding reaction paths using the potential energy as reaction coordinate.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Giménez, Xavier; Bofill, Josep Maria

    2008-03-14

    The intrinsic reaction coordinate curve (IRC), normally proposed as a representation of a reaction path, is parametrized as a function of the potential energy rather than the arc-length. This change in the parametrization of the curve implies that the values of the energy of the potential energy surface points, where the IRC curve is located, play the role of reaction coordinate. We use Caratheodory's relation to derive in a rigorous manner the proposed parametrization of the IRC path. Since this Caratheodory's relation is the basis of the theory of calculus of variations, then this fact permits to reformulate the IRC model from this mathematical theory. In this mathematical theory, the character of the variational solution (either maximum or minimum) is given through the Weierstrass E-function. As proposed by Crehuet and Bofill [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 234105 (2005)], we use the minimization of the Weierstrass E-function, as a function of the potential energy, to locate an IRC path between two minima from an arbitrary curve on the potential energy surface, and then join these two minima. We also prove, from the analysis of the Weierstrass E-function, the mathematical bases for the algorithms proposed to locate the IRC path. The proposed algorithm is applied to a set of examples. Finally, the algorithm is used to locate a discontinuous, or broken, IRC path, namely, when the path connects two first order saddle points through a valley-ridged inflection point. PMID:18345872

  6. Finding reaction paths using the potential energy as reaction coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Giménez, Xavier; Bofill, Josep Maria

    2008-03-01

    The intrinsic reaction coordinate curve (IRC), normally proposed as a representation of a reaction path, is parametrized as a function of the potential energy rather than the arc-length. This change in the parametrization of the curve implies that the values of the energy of the potential energy surface points, where the IRC curve is located, play the role of reaction coordinate. We use Carathéodory's relation to derive in a rigorous manner the proposed parametrization of the IRC path. Since this Carathéodory's relation is the basis of the theory of calculus of variations, then this fact permits to reformulate the IRC model from this mathematical theory. In this mathematical theory, the character of the variational solution (either maximum or minimum) is given through the Weierstrass E-function. As proposed by Crehuet and Bofill [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 234105 (2005)], we use the minimization of the Weierstrass E-function, as a function of the potential energy, to locate an IRC path between two minima from an arbitrary curve on the potential energy surface, and then join these two minima. We also prove, from the analysis of the Weierstrass E-function, the mathematical bases for the algorithms proposed to locate the IRC path. The proposed algorithm is applied to a set of examples. Finally, the algorithm is used to locate a discontinuous, or broken, IRC path, namely, when the path connects two first order saddle points through a valley-ridged inflection point.

  7. Thermodynamically Favorable Synthesis of 2-Oxazolidinones through Silver-Catalyzed Reaction of Propargylic Alcohols, CO2, and 2-Aminoethanols.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing-Wen; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Mei-Yan; Zhang, Kan; Liu, Ping; Xun, Jia-Yao; He, Liang-Nian

    2016-08-23

    Development of catalytic routes to incorporate CO2 into carbonyl compounds at mild conditions remains attractive and challenging. Herein, a one-pot three-component cascade reaction of terminal propargylic alcohols, CO2 , and 2-aminoethanols through Ag(I) -based catalysis is reported for the synthesis of carbonyl compounds through C-O/C-N bond formation. This thermodynamically favorable route can be ingeniously regulated to afford a wide range of 2-oxazolidinones along with concurrent production of α-hydroxyl ketone derivatives in excellent yields and selectivity. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that such a process proceeds through successive formation of α-alkylidene cyclic carbonate, β-oxopropylcarbamate, and 2-oxazolidinones. PMID:27380740

  8. Finding Chemical Reaction Paths with a Multilevel Preconditioning Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, Seyit; Sode, Olaseni; Weare, Jonathan; Dinner, Aaron R.

    2014-11-07

    Finding transition paths for chemical reactions can be computationally costly owing to the level of quantum-chemical theory needed for accuracy. Here, we show that a multilevel preconditioning scheme that was recently introduced (Tempkin et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 140, 184114) can be used to accelerate quantum-chemical string calculations. We demonstrate the method by finding minimum-energy paths for two well-characterized reactions: tautomerization of malonaldehyde and Claissen rearrangement of chorismate to prephanate. For these reactions, we show that preconditioning density functional theory (DFT) with a semiempirical method reduces the computational cost for reaching a converged path that is an optimum under DFT by several fold. In conclusion, the approach also shows promise for free energy calculations when thermal noise can be controlled.

  9. Finding Chemical Reaction Paths with a Multilevel Preconditioning Protocol

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kale, Seyit; Sode, Olaseni; Weare, Jonathan; Dinner, Aaron R.

    2014-11-07

    Finding transition paths for chemical reactions can be computationally costly owing to the level of quantum-chemical theory needed for accuracy. Here, we show that a multilevel preconditioning scheme that was recently introduced (Tempkin et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 140, 184114) can be used to accelerate quantum-chemical string calculations. We demonstrate the method by finding minimum-energy paths for two well-characterized reactions: tautomerization of malonaldehyde and Claissen rearrangement of chorismate to prephanate. For these reactions, we show that preconditioning density functional theory (DFT) with a semiempirical method reduces the computational cost for reaching a converged path that is an optimum undermore » DFT by several fold. In conclusion, the approach also shows promise for free energy calculations when thermal noise can be controlled.« less

  10. Finding Chemical Reaction Paths with a Multilevel Preconditioning Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Finding transition paths for chemical reactions can be computationally costly owing to the level of quantum-chemical theory needed for accuracy. Here, we show that a multilevel preconditioning scheme that was recently introduced (Tempkin et al. J. Chem. Phys.2014, 140, 184114) can be used to accelerate quantum-chemical string calculations. We demonstrate the method by finding minimum-energy paths for two well-characterized reactions: tautomerization of malonaldehyde and Claissen rearrangement of chorismate to prephanate. For these reactions, we show that preconditioning density functional theory (DFT) with a semiempirical method reduces the computational cost for reaching a converged path that is an optimum under DFT by several fold. The approach also shows promise for free energy calculations when thermal noise can be controlled. PMID:25516726

  11. Minor modifications of the C-terminal helix reschedule the favored chemical reactions catalyzed by theta class glutathione transferase T1-1.

    PubMed

    Shokeer, Abeer; Mannervik, Bengt

    2010-02-19

    Adaptive responses to novel toxic challenges provide selective advantages to organisms in evolution. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) play a pivotal role in the cellular defense because they are main contributors to the inactivation of genotoxic compounds of exogenous as well as of endogenous origins. GSTs are promiscuous enzymes catalyzing a variety of chemical reactions with numerous alternative substrates. Despite broad substrate acceptance, individual GSTs display pronounced selectivities such that only a limited number of substrates are transformed with high catalytic efficiency. The present study shows that minor structural changes in the C-terminal helix of mouse GST T1-1 induce major changes in the substrate-activity profile of the enzyme to favor novel chemical reactions and to suppress other reactions catalyzed by the parental enzyme. PMID:20022951

  12. “Covalent Hydration” Reactions in Model Monomeric Ru 2,2'-Bipyridine Complexes: Thermodynamic Favorability as a Function of Metal Oxidation and Overall Spin States

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkanlar, Abdullah; Cape, Jonathan L.; Hurst, James K.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2011-09-05

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to investigate the plausibility of water addition to the simple mononuclear ruthenium complexes, [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)Ru=O]{sup 2+}/{sup 3+} and [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)RuOH]{sup 3+}, in which the OH fragment adds to the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. Activation of bpy toward water addition has frequently been postulated within the literature, although there exists little definitive experimental evidence for this type of 'covalent hydration'. In this study, we examine the energetic dependence of the reaction upon metal oxidation state, overall spin state of the complex, as well as selectivity for various positions on the bipyridine ring. The thermodynamic favorability is found to be highly dependent upon all three parameters, with free energies of reaction that span favorable and unfavorable regimes. Aqueous addition to [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)Ru=O]{sup 3+} was found to be highly favorable for the S = 1/2 state, while reduction of the formal oxidation state on the metal center makes the reaction highly unfavorable. Examination of both facial and meridional isomers reveals that when bipyridine occupies the position trans to the ruthenyl oxo atom, reactivity toward OH addition decreases and the site preferences are altered. The electronic structure and spectroscopic signatures (EPR parameters and simulated spectra) have been determined to aid in recognition of 'covalent hydration' in experimental systems. EPR parameters are found to uniquely characterize the position of the OH addition to the bpy as well as the overall spin state of the system.

  13. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  14. Novel one-step synthesis of wool-ball-like Ni-carbon nanotubes composite cathodes with favorable electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhouhao; Ma, Zhipeng; Song, Jianjun; Wang, Lixin; Shao, Guangjie

    2016-08-01

    In this work, supergravity fields are performed to prepare Ni-CNTs composite cathodes with wool-ball-like morphology from the Watts bath containing well-distributed functionalized CNTs. The prepared Ni-CNTs composite cathodes are used as noble metal-free electrocatalyst with favorable electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solutions. The crystal structure and morphology of the composite cathodes are characterized by XRD and SEM measurements. The electrochemical activities of the cathodes are characterized through Tafel polarization measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric study in 1.0 M NaOH solution. The results indicate that catalytic activities of the Ni-CNTs cathodes prepared under supergravity fields are enhanced significantly, and the sample prepared at rotating speed 3000 rpm from the bath containing 1 g dm-3 CNTs exhibits the highest HER activity with smallest Tafel slope and largest exchange current density of 823.9 μA cm-2. Furthermore, the effects of both the CNTs concentrations and the intensities of supergravity fields on the properties of the Ni-CNTs cathodes are investigated.

  15. Why Do Enolate Anions Favor O-Alkylation over C-Alkylation in the Gas Phase? The Roles of Resonance and Inductive Effects in the Gas-Phase SN2 Reaction between the Acetaldehyde Enolate Anion and Methyl Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Christian G; Zhang, Huaiyu; Mo, Yirong; Karty, Joel M

    2016-05-01

    Contributions by resonance and inductive effects toward the net activation barrier were determined computationally for the gas-phase SN2 reaction between the acetaldehyde enolate anion and methyl fluoride, for both O-methylation and C-methylation, in order to understand why this reaction favors O-methylation. With the use of the vinylogue extrapolation methodology, resonance effects were determined to contribute toward increasing the size of the barrier by about 9.5 kcal/mol for O-methylation and by about 21.2 kcal/mol for C-methylation. Inductive effects were determined to contribute toward increasing the size of the barrier by about 1.7 kcal/mol for O-methylation and 4.2 kcal/mol for C-methylation. Employing our block-localized wave function methodology, we determined the contributions by resonance to be 12.8 kcal/mol for O-methylation and 22.3 kcal/mol for C-methylation. Thus, whereas inductive effects have significant contributions, resonance is the dominant factor that leads to O-methylation being favored. More specifically, resonance serves to increase the size the barrier for C-methylation significantly more than it does for O-methylation. PMID:27011344

  16. Dose site reactions and related findings after vaccine administration in safety studies.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Potential new human vaccines undergo toxicology testing to evaluate local reactogenicity and systemic toxicity. A review of 30 recently published and in-house repeat dose toxicity studies with a variety of vaccines was performed. Species tested were generally rat or rabbit, usually by intramuscular (although occasionally subcutaneous) injection. Results showed no unexpected findings indicating vaccine toxicity, but classic signs of enhanced acute and/or chronic inflammation at the dose site compared with that seen in injected control animals, often accompanied by changes in draining lymph nodes and the spleen (lymphoid hyperplasia and/or increased weight). Other associated signs of a response to vaccine dosing were altered clinical pathology parameters (commonly raised blood neutrophil count and altered globulin level). No obvious difference in dose site or systemic reaction was seen across vaccine, species or the dose route used. A non-dose recovery period of 2 to 4 weeks was sufficient to show evidence of reversibility of dose site effects. Injection site, lymphoid tissue and clinical pathological changes can be interpreted as related to an expected reaction after vaccine dosing, with generation of an immune response largely as a result of the presence of adjuvant, although direct vaccine antigen involvement was also occasionally demonstrated by the presence of a slightly increased inflammatory response seen over adjuvant treatment only. Overall, the need for toxicity testing of vaccines is in line with current regulatory guideline requirements and has proven to be a valuable part of the safety evaluation process prior to human use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26968331

  17. CT Findings of Foreign Body Reaction to a Retained Endoloop Ligature Plastic Tube Mimicking Acute Appendicitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae Hong; Kang, Chae Hoon; Choi, Soo-Jung; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Shick; Shin, Dong Rock

    2016-01-01

    Many hospitals experience one or more retained surgical instrument events with risk of patient morbidity and medicolegal problems. Identification of retained surgical instrument is important. The radiologists should be familiar with imaging finding of retained surgical instrument. In a 62-year-old female with a retained plastic tube, localized peritoneal infiltration around air-containing tubular structure mimicked acute appendicitis on abdomen computed tomography (CT), one year after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We reported CT findings of foreign body reaction related to retained Endoloop ligature plastic tube mimicking acute appendicitis. PMID:27390545

  18. CT Findings of Foreign Body Reaction to a Retained Endoloop Ligature Plastic Tube Mimicking Acute Appendicitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chae Hoon; Choi, Soo-Jung; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Shick; Shin, Dong Rock

    2016-01-01

    Many hospitals experience one or more retained surgical instrument events with risk of patient morbidity and medicolegal problems. Identification of retained surgical instrument is important. The radiologists should be familiar with imaging finding of retained surgical instrument. In a 62-year-old female with a retained plastic tube, localized peritoneal infiltration around air-containing tubular structure mimicked acute appendicitis on abdomen computed tomography (CT), one year after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We reported CT findings of foreign body reaction related to retained Endoloop ligature plastic tube mimicking acute appendicitis. PMID:27390545

  19. Histopathological Findings in Immunohistological Staining of the Granulomatous Tissue Reaction Associated with Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Shirin; Pourabdollah, Mihan; Sadr, Makan; Karbasi, Mehrdad; Bahadori, Moslem

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The histological diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains a diagnostic challenge despite different methods. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) not only could confirm granulomatous tissue involvement but also can demonstrate MTB antigen immunolocalization. This study tries to clarify the details of immunohistochemical staining for MTB with pAbBCG. Materials/Methods. Twenty-three confirmed TB granulomatous tissue samples were studied by Ziehl-Neelsen and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with pAbBCG. Samples were selected from the archive of the Department of Pathology, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Tehran, Iran. Results. IHC staining was positive in all samples, whereas Ziehl-Neelsen was positive in 9 cases out of 23 (39.1%). Tissue types used were pleural tissue, lymph nodes, and lung tissue. IHC showed positive coarse granular cytoplasmic and round, fragmented bacillary staining. In this study, epithelioid cells clearly showed more positive staining at the periphery of the granuloma rather than the center of granuloma. There is also positive staining in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages outside the granuloma. Conclusion. Considering the criteria of positive immunohistochemical staining of TB granulomatous reactions, this stain not only highlights the presence of mycobacterial antigens for tissue diagnosis, but also could morphologically localize its distribution in different cells. PMID:24511393

  20. Touchdown polymerase chain reaction detection of polycystic kidney disease and laboratory findings in different cat populations.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Marcela C; da Silva, Thamiris F; Aquino, Larissa C; Carneiro, Filipe T; Lima, Maíra G da M; Lemos, Marcelle Dos S; Paludo, Giane R

    2014-06-10

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent inherited genetic disease of cats, predominantly affecting Persian and Persian-related cats. A point mutation (C→A transversion) in exon 29 of the PKD1 gene causes ADPKD, and is the specific molecular target for genetic diagnosis in cats. The current study describes a newly developed touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect this single point mutation, using 2 primers specific for the mutant allele, adapted from an existing multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS PCR). Furthermore, correlations between the clinical outcomes of tested animals and the results of the genetic test were investigated. A total of 334 cats were tested, 188 from the Veterinary Hospital of Small Animals at the University of Brasilia, and 146 from an anti-rabies vaccine campaign of the Federal District. A total prevalence of 9% was evident among the samples, with 33% of the Persian cats testing positive, and 7% of the Brazilian long- and shorthaired cats testing positive. Prevalence was not correlated with gender or hemogram. Positive animals exhibited hyperglobulinemia (P = 0.02). This research demonstrated that the mutation does not only occur in Persian and Persian-related cats, and that a touchdown PCR can be used to diagnose ADPKD. PMID:24916445

  1. ‘Chameleonic’ Serological Findings Leading to Life-Threatening Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Sümnig, Ariane; Mayer, Beate; Kiefel, Volker; Greinacher, Andreas; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The phenomena of co-incidence of transfusion-induced allo- and autoantibodies, blockage and/or loss of red blood cell (RBC) antigens are conspicuous and may result in confusion and misdiagnosis. Case Report A 67-year-old female was transferred to the intensive care unit due to hemolysis which developed 2 days following transfusion of three Rh(D)-negative RBC units in the presence of strongly reactive autoantibodies. Standard serological testing and genotyping were performed. Upon arrival, the patient was typed as Ccddee. Her hemolysis was decompensated, and an immediate blood transfusion was required. In addition, direct and indirect antiglobulin tests (DAT and IAT) as well as the eluate were strongly positive. Emergency transfusion of Rh(D)-negative RBCs resulted in increased hemolysis and renal failure. An exhaustive testing revealed anti-D, anti-c, CCddee phenotype and CCD.ee genotype. Three units of cryopreserved CCddee RBCs were transfused, and the patient's condition immediately improved. The discrepancy between Rh-D phenotyping and genotyping was likely caused by masking of the D-epitopes by the autoantibodies. In fact, further enquiry revealed that the patient had been phenotyped as Rh(D)-positive 6 months ago and had been transfused at that time following hip surgery. Conclusion The phenomena of transfusion-induced autoantibodies, masked alloantibodies, antigen blockage and/or loss are rare but important features which should be considered in patients presenting with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and/or hemolytic transfusion reactions. PMID:26696804

  2. Handling Gifts, Gratuities, and Favors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, Nick; Jones, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The twelfth in a series of articles featuring the principles of the AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Code of Professional Ethics focuses on the acceptance by professors of gratuities, gifts, or favors that might impair or appear to impair professional judgment. (LRW)

  3. New findings on structure and production of 10He from 11Li with the (d ,3He ) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, A.; Beaumel, D.; Otsu, H.; Lapoux, V.; Timofeyuk, N. K.; Aoi, N.; Assié, M.; Baba, H.; Boissinot, S.; Chen, R. J.; Delaunay, F.; de Sereville, N.; Franchoo, S.; Gangnant, P.; Gibelin, J.; Hammache, F.; Houarner, Ch.; Imai, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Kubo, T.; Kondo, Y.; Kawada, Y.; Khiem, L. H.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Kuzmin, E. A.; Lee, J.; Libin, J. F.; Motobayashi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Nalpas, L.; Nikolskii, E. Yu.; Obertelli, A.; Pollacco, E. C.; Rindel, E.; Rosier, Ph.; Saillant, F.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, H.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Scarpaci, J.-A.; Stefan, I.; Suzuki, D.; Takahashi, K.; Takechi, M.; Takeuchi, S.; Wang, H.; Wolski, R.; Yoneda, K.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first missing mass spectrum of the unbound nucleus 10He, measured at RIKEN using the 11Li(d ,3He ) reaction at 50A MeV. 10He is believed to be a three-body 8He+n +n resonance beyond the limit of nuclear binding. Our observation of a new decay branch, 6He +4 n , and of a puzzling reduction of the 11Li(d ,3He )10He cross section challenges this view. Moreover, our experiment shows a new trend in the evolution of the proton spectroscopic strength in Li isotopes deduced from the comparison of the (d ,3He ) cross sections on 7,8,9,11Li with theoretical predictions. We discuss new questions about physics beyond the limits of nuclear existence raised by these findings.

  4. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  5. GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Terry L; Williams, Paul T; Yin, Shengjun; Klasky, Hilda B; Tadinada, Sashi; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the objective of the GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface project is to create the capability to apply GRIZZLY 3-D finite element (thermal and stress) analysis results as input to FAVOR probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analyses. The one benefit of FAVOR to Grizzly is the PROBABILISTIC capability. This document describes the implementation of the GRIZZLY/FAVOR Interface, the preliminary verification and tests results and a user guide that provides detailed step-by-step instructions to run the program.

  6. [If you go looking for trouble you'll find it. Urticarial reactions to insects of our local areas].

    PubMed

    Maitre, Sylvie; Kaeser, Amelie; Di Lucca, Julie; Spertini, François; Ribi, Camillo

    2016-04-01

    Itchy skin rashes are a frequent reason to seek medical advice. The symptoms may be caused by hypersensitivity reactions to arthropod bites, waterborne parasites or setae from moth caterpillars and are sometimes mistaken for spontaneous urticaria or eczema. Some of these pests are resurging in Switzerland and elsewhere and increasingly responsible for emergency consultation. In this article we review itchy skin rashes caused by bed bugs, scabies, lice, cercariae, Pyemotes spp, caterpillars and harvest mites, which may be confounded with urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis. We detail here clinical manifestations, topographical distribution of skin lesions, epidemiology, treatment and preventive measures. PMID:27197324

  7. Reaction Control System Thruster Cracking Consultation: NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Materials Super Problem Resolution Team (SPRT) Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Shah, Sandeep R.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    The shuttle orbiter s reaction control system (RCS) primary thruster serial number 120 was found to contain cracks in the counter bores and relief radius after a chamber repair and rejuvenation was performed in April 2004. Relief radius cracking had been observed in the 1970s and 1980s in seven thrusters prior to flight; however, counter bore cracking had never been seen previously in RCS thrusters. Members of the Materials Super Problem Resolution Team (SPRT) of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conducted a detailed review of the relevant literature and of the documentation from the previous RCS thruster failure analyses. It was concluded that the previous failure analyses lacked sufficient documentation to support the conclusions that stress corrosion cracking or hot-salt cracking was the root cause of the thruster cracking and lacked reliable inspection controls to prevent cracked thrusters from entering the fleet. The NESC team identified and performed new materials characterization and mechanical tests. It was determined that the thruster intergranular cracking was due to hydrogen embrittlement and that the cracking was produced during manufacturing as a result of processing the thrusters with fluoride-containing acids. Testing and characterization demonstrated that appreciable environmental crack propagation does not occur after manufacturing.

  8. Conservatism in least favorable response analysis and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, T L

    1980-01-01

    In order to assure that mechanical structures can meet design requirements it is desirable to test a structure using an input which is conservative but not a severe overtest. One method available for the specification of shock tests is the method of least favorable response. This method can be used analytically or in the laboratory and is guaranteed to provide tests which are conservative, at least in one sense. When the impulse response function, or equivalently the frequency response function, is available between a point of interest on a structure and the input point of the structure, and when we know the real function which envelops the modulus of the Fourier transform of all possible inputs which might excite the structure, then the method of least favorable response can be used to find an upper bound on the response which the point of interest on the structure can realize. We use this in the analysis of structural peak response. In the laboratory the least favorable response is generated experimentally, for example, by testing the structural unit on a shake table. If the structure survives the laboratory test, then we assume that it could survive any input in the class of inputs whose Fourier transform moduli are enveloped by the function used in the analysis. The objective of this study was to analyze the inherent conservatism of the method of least favorable response. A technique that can be used to do this is demonstrated. First, the method of least favorable response is reviewed and how it is used analytically and experimentally is demonstrated. Next the technique used to measure the conservatism in a least favorable response test is developed. Finally, the method is applied in some numerical examples where the degree of conservatism in the tests of some specific structures is measured. (LCL)

  9. Gynecological Manifestations, Histopathological Findings, and Schistosoma-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Results Among Women With Schistosoma haematobium Infection: A Cross-sectional Study in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Ravaoalimalala, Vololomboahangy Elisabeth; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Feldmeier, Hermann; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; van Lieshout, Lisette; Roald, Borghild; Leutscher, Peter; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2015-01-01

    Background. The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma haematobium infection. Methods. Women aged 15–35 years living in an S. haematobium-endemic area in Madagascar underwent pelvic and colposcopic examinations. Small biopsy specimens were obtained from lesions and examined histopathologically. Schistosoma PCR was done on urine, biopsy, cervicovaginal lavage, and genital mucosal surface specimens. Results. Sandy patches and rubbery papules were found in 41 of 118 women (35%). Rubbery papules reflected an intense cellular immune reaction dominated by eosinophils, epithelial erosion, and viable ova. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of rubbery papules with age, even after adjustment for urinary ova excretion. The sandy patches with grains showed moderate cellular immune reaction and ova (viable and/or calcified). They were most prevalent in cases with low-intensity urinary S. haematobium infection. Forty-two percent of women with Schistosoma-negative urine specimens had at least 1 genital specimen test positive for Schistosoma by PCR. Conclusions. The results indicate a diversity of lesions caused by S. haematobium and a dynamic evolution of the genital lesions. Schistosoma PCR may give an indication of the diagnosis. PMID:25725656

  10. To Form a Favorable Idea of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2010-01-01

    "To confess the truth, Mrs. B., I am not disposed to form a very favorable idea of chemistry, nor do I expect to derive much entertainment from it." That 200-year-old statement by Caroline to Mrs. Bryan, her teacher, appeared on the first page of Jane Marcet's pioneering secondary school textbook, "Conversations on Chemistry". It was published 17…

  11. Molecular Crowding Favors Reactivity of a Human Ribozyme Under Physiological Ionic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Strulson, Christopher A.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Rambo, Robert P.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to relate RNA folding to function under cellular-like conditions, we monitored the self-cleavage reaction of the human hepatitis delta virus (HDV)-like CPEB3 ribozyme in the background of physiological ionic concentrations and various crowding and cosolute agents. We found that under physiological free Mg2+ concentrations (~0.1 to 0.5 mM Mg2+), both crowders and cosolutes stimulate the rate of self-cleavage, up to ~6-fold, but that in 10 mM Mg2+—conditions widely used for in vitro ribozyme studies—these same additives have virtually no effect on self-cleavage rate. We further observe a dependence of self-cleavage rate on crowder size, wherein rate stimulation is diminished for crowders larger than the size of the unfolded RNA. Monitoring effects of crowding and cosolute agents on rates in biological amounts of urea revealed additive-promoted increases in both low and high Mg2+ concentrations, with a maximal stimulation of more than 10-fold and a rescue of the rate to its urea-free values. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments reveal a structural basis for this stimulation in that higher molecular weight crowding agents favor a more compact form of the ribozyme in 0.5 mM Mg2+ that is essentially equivalent to the form under standard ribozyme conditions of 10 mM Mg2+ and no crowder. This finding suggests that at least a portion of the rate enhancement arises from favoring the native RNA tertiary structure. We conclude that cellular-like crowding supports ribozyme reactivity by favoring a compact form of the ribozyme, but only under physiological ionic and cosolute conditions. PMID:24187989

  12. Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Favorable Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rene, Nicholas; Faria, Sergio; Cury, Fabio; David, Marc; Duclos, Marie; Shenouda, George; Souhami, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Since the recognition that prostate cancer probably has a low {alpha}/{beta} ratio, hypofractionated radiotherapy has become an attractive treatment option for localized prostate cancer. However, there is little experience with the use of hypofractionation delivering a high biologically equivalent dose. We report our experience with high-dose hypofractionated radiotherapy. Material and Methods: A total of 129 patients with favorable risk prostate cancer were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy treatment plans to the dose of 66 Gy in 22 fractions, prescribed at the isocenter. Planning target volume consisted of the prostate plus a uniform 7-mm margin, including the rectal margin. No patient received hormonal therapy. Toxicity was prospectively graded by the Common Toxicity Criteria version3. Biochemical relapse was defined as postradiotherapy nadir prostate-specific antigen + 2 ng/mL. Results: With a median follow-up of 51 months, the 5-year actuarial biochemical control rate is 98%. The only 3 cases with biochemical failure did not have a clinical local relapse. More than 50% of patients did not develop acute toxicity. For late toxicity, the worst crude rate of Grade {>=}2 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity seen at any time during follow-up were 32% and 25%, respectively. There was no Grade 4 or 5 toxicity. At the last follow-up, persistent Grade {>=}2 late GU and GI toxicity were 2% and 1.5%, respectively. Conclusions: This hypofractionated regimen provides excellent biochemical control in favorable risk prostate cancer with an acceptable rate of late toxicity. Further studies exploring this hypofractionation regimen are warranted.

  13. Children's need for favorable acoustics in schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peggy B.

    2003-10-01

    Children continue to improve their understanding of speech in noise and reverberation throughout childhood and adolescence. They do not typically achieve adult performance levels until their late teenage years. As a result, schools that are designed to be acoustically adequate for adult understanding may be insufficient for full understanding by young children. In addition, children with hearing loss, those with attention problems, and those learning in a non-native language require even more favorable signal-to-noise ratios. This tutorial will review the literature gathered by the ANSl/ASA working group on classroom acoustics that shaped the recommendations of the working group. Special topics will include speech perception data from typically developing infants and children, from children with hearing loss, and from adults and children listening in a non-native language. In addition, the tutorial will overview recommendations contained within ANSI standard 12.60-2002: Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools. The discussion will also include issues related to designing quiet classrooms and working with local schools and professionals.

  14. Chinese youth favor one-child families.

    PubMed

    Yu, P

    1995-04-01

    with parents about having children or received information from parents about sexuality. 62% knew almost nothing about family planning. Only 16% of 12th grade students knew three or more methods. Sexual practices were not surveyed. More formally educated students and students with a modern outlook were most likely to have greater knowledge of sexual matters. The population education curriculum favored social aspects over reproductive content. PMID:12319246

  15. 22 CFR 1203.735-305 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 1203.735-305....735-305 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a..., gratuity, loan, entertainment, or favor for the employee or another person, particularly one with whom...

  16. Amplitude dynamics favors synchronization in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesus; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study phase synchronization in random complex networks of coupled periodic oscillators. In particular, we show that, when amplitude dynamics is not negligible, phase synchronization may be enhanced. To illustrate this, we compare the behavior of heterogeneous units with both amplitude and phase dynamics and pure (Kuramoto) phase oscillators. We find that in small network motifs the behavior crucially depends on the topology and on the node frequency distribution. Surprisingly, the microscopic structures for which the amplitude dynamics improves synchronization are those that are statistically more abundant in random complex networks. Thus, amplitude dynamics leads to a general lowering of the synchronization threshold in arbitrary random topologies. Finally, we show that this synchronization enhancement is generic of oscillators close to Hopf bifurcations. To this aim we consider coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo units modeling neuron dynamics. PMID:27108847

  17. 18 CFR 706.303 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment....303 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section a..., entertainment, or favor for himself or another person, particularly one with whom he has family, business,...

  18. 36 CFR 905.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 905.735-202 Section 905.735-202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 905.735-202 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. Pursuant to...

  19. 36 CFR 905.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., entertainment, and favors. Pursuant to paragraph (b) of 5 CFR 735.202, the following exceptions to the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 905.735-202 Section 905.735-202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA...

  20. 12 CFR 560.110 - Most favored lender usury preemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Most favored lender usury preemption. 560.110 Section 560.110 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.110 Most favored lender usury preemption. (a)...

  1. 18 CFR 706.202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 706.202 Section 706.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.202 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided...

  2. 22 CFR 1203.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 1203.735-202 Section 1203.735-202 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 1203.735-202 Gifts, entertainment, and favors....

  3. Mechanical Heterogeneity Favors Fragmentation of Strained Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We present a general model of actin filament deformation and fragmentation in response to compressive forces. The elastic free energy density along filaments is determined by their shape and mechanical properties, which were modeled in terms of bending, twisting, and twist-bend coupling elasticities. The elastic energy stored in filament deformation (i.e., strain) tilts the fragmentation-annealing reaction free-energy profile to favor fragmentation. The energy gradient introduces a local shear force that accelerates filament intersubunit bond rupture. The severing protein, cofilin, renders filaments more compliant in bending and twisting. As a result, filaments that are partially decorated with cofilin are mechanically heterogeneous (i.e., nonuniform) and display asymmetric shape deformations and energy profiles distinct from mechanically homogenous (i.e., uniform), bare actin, or saturated cofilactin filaments. The local buckling strain depends on the relative size of the compliant segment as well as the bending and twisting rigidities of flanking regions. Filaments with a single bare/cofilin-decorated boundary localize energy and force adjacent to the boundary, within the compliant cofilactin segment. Filaments with small cofilin clusters were predicted to fragment within the compliant cofilactin rather than at boundaries. Neglecting contributions from twist-bend coupling elasticity underestimates the energy density and gradients along filaments, and thus the net effects of filament strain to fragmentation. Spatial confinement causes compliant cofilactin segments and filaments to adopt higher deformation modes and store more elastic energy, thereby promoting fragmentation. The theory and simulations presented here establish a quantitative relationship between actin filament fragmentation thermodynamics and elasticity, and reveal how local discontinuities in filament mechanical properties introduced by regulatory proteins can modulate both the severing efficiency

  4. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed. PMID:26561887

  5. Does short sleep duration favor abdominal adiposity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the increased body mass index (BMI) characterizing short-duration sleeping children is related to an increased predisposition to abdominal adiposity. A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) involved in the "Québec en Forme" Project were tested for body weight, height, waist circumference, and sleep duration. As there was no gender interaction with the other factors, a partial regression of waist circumference on hours of sleep was performed for both genders combined, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, parental obesity, parental education, total annual family income, frequency of taking breakfast, watching television, playing videogames, computer use, and frequency of practicing sports activities outside of school. Sleep duration had an independent effect on waist circumference, with the correlation between these variables remaining significant after adjustment for BMI and the several other covariates (r=- 0.17, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that short sleep duration favors abdominal adiposity in children. This finding is of particular concern since abdominal obesity is an important feature of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17999284

  6. Why Koreans are More Likely to Favor "Apology," While Americans are More Likely to Favor "Thank You"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hye Eun; Park, Hee Sun

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether apologies or thanks are preferred in asking favors in the United States and Korea, and how this relates to perceptions of reduction in positive and negative face threats. In the first study (n = 224), participants composed an e-mail message where a favor was asked. In the second (n = 807), participants completed…

  7. Psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD reaction index. part II: investigating factor structure findings in a national clinic-referred youth sample.

    PubMed

    Elhai, Jon D; Layne, Christopher M; Steinberg, Alan M; Brymer, Melissa J; Briggs, Ernestine C; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Pynoos, Robert S

    2013-02-01

    We examined the underlying factor structure of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) using data from 6,591 children/adolescents exposed to trauma, presenting for treatment at any of 54 National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) centers. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we tested the 3-factor DSM-IV PTSD model, 2 separate 4-factor models (Dysphoria vs. Emotional Numbing) and a recently conceptualized 5-factor Dysphoric Arousal model. We found a slight, but significant advantage for the Dysphoria model over the Emotional Numbing model on the PTSD-RI, with a difference in Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values of 81 points. As with several recent studies of adult trauma victims, we found a slight advantage for the Dysphoric Arousal model over the other models on the PTSD-RI, with BIC differences exceeding 300 points. Retaining the Dysphoric Arousal model, we tested the convergent validity of the PTSD-RI factors against subscales of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children. Supporting the convergent validity of the PTSD-RI, in the Dysphoric Arousal model, the dysphoric arousal factor related most strongly to anger, whereas the emotional numbing factor related most strongly to depression, and anxious arousal factor related most strongly to anxiety. Results support the use of the PTSD-RI for evaluating PTSD among youth. PMID:23417874

  8. 36 CFR 905.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., entertainment, and favors. Pursuant to paragraph (b) of 5 CFR 735.202, the following exceptions to the... advertising or promotional materials, such as pens, pencils, note pads, calendars and other items of...

  9. 11 CFR 7.20 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Special Commission Employees § 7.20 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. Except as provided at 11 CFR..., shall not receive or solicit from a person having business with the Commission anything of value such...

  10. 36 CFR 905.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., entertainment, and favors. Pursuant to paragraph (b) of 5 CFR 735.202, the following exceptions to the... of value under circumstances which arise from an obvious family or personal relationship(s) (such...

  11. 36 CFR 905.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., entertainment, and favors. Pursuant to paragraph (b) of 5 CFR 735.202, the following exceptions to the... of value under circumstances which arise from an obvious family or personal relationship(s) (such...

  12. 22 CFR 1203.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., entertainment, loan, or any other thing of monetary value, from a person who: (1) Has, or is seeking to obtain... apply to: (1) Gifts, gratuities, favors, entertainments, loans, or any other thing of monetary...

  13. 22 CFR 1203.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., entertainment, loan, or any other thing of monetary value, from a person who: (1) Has, or is seeking to obtain... apply to: (1) Gifts, gratuities, favors, entertainments, loans, or any other thing of monetary...

  14. 22 CFR 1203.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., entertainment, loan, or any other thing of monetary value, from a person who: (1) Has, or is seeking to obtain... apply to: (1) Gifts, gratuities, favors, entertainments, loans, or any other thing of monetary...

  15. 22 CFR 1203.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., entertainment, loan, or any other thing of monetary value, from a person who: (1) Has, or is seeking to obtain... apply to: (1) Gifts, gratuities, favors, entertainments, loans, or any other thing of monetary...

  16. Favored Bc decay modes to search for a Majorana neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sanjoy; Sinha, Nita

    2016-08-01

    Recently, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of the decay mode Bc-→B¯s 0π- with the largest exclusive branching fraction amongst the known decay modes of all the B mesons. Here we propose a search for a few lepton-number violating (Δ L =2 ) decay modes of Bc which can only be induced by Majorana neutrinos. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana nature of neutrinos is an outstanding problem and hence, all possible searches for Majorana neutrinos need to be carried out. Since the lepton number violating modes are expected to be rare, when using meson decay modes for these searches one expects CKM favored modes to be the preferred ones; Bc→Bs is one such transition. With a resonance enhancement of the Majorana neutrino mediating the Bc-→B¯s 0ℓ1-ℓ2-π+ modes one can hope to observe these rare modes, or, even their nonobservation can be used to obtain tight constraints on the mixing angles of the heavy Majorana singlet with the light flavour neutrinos from upper limits of the branching fractions. Using these modes we obtain exclusion curves for the mixing angles which are tighter or compatible with results from earlier studies. However, we find that the relatively suppressed mode Bc-→J /ψ ℓ1- ℓ2-π+ can provide even tighter constraints on |Ve N|2, |Vμ N|2, |Ve NVμ N|, and in a larger range of the heavy neutrino mass. Further, exclusion regions for |Ve NVτ N|, |Vμ NVτ N| can also be obtained for masses larger than those accessible in tau decays. Upper limits on B (Bc-→π+ℓ1- ℓ2-) can also result in stringent exclusion curves for all the mixing elements, including that for |Vτ N|2 in a mass range where it is unconstrained thus far.

  17. Uricase alkaline enzymosomes with enhanced stabilities and anti-hyperuricemia effects induced by favorable microenvironmental changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yunli; Zhang, Mi; He, Dan; Hu, Xueyuan; Xiong, Huarong; Wu, Jianyong; Zhu, Biyue; Zhang, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme therapy is an effective strategy to treat diseases. Three strategies were pursued to provide the favorable microenvironments for uricase (UCU) to eventually improve its features: using the right type of buffer to constitute the liquid media where catalyze reactions take place; entrapping UCU inside the selectively permeable lipid vesicle membranes; and entrapping catalase together with UCU inside the membranes. The nanosized alkaline enzymosomes containing UCU/(UCU and catalase) (ESU/ESUC) in bicine buffer had better thermal, hypothermal, acid-base and proteolytic stabilities, in vitro and in vivo kinetic characteristics, and uric acid lowering effects. The favorable microenvironments were conducive to the establishment of the enzymosomes with superior properties. It was the first time that two therapeutic enzymes were simultaneously entrapped into one enzymosome having the right type of buffer to achieve added treatment efficacy. The development of ESU/ESUC in bicine buffer provides valuable tactics in hypouricemic therapy and enzymosomal application. PMID:26823332

  18. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  19. Filtering the Net in Libraries: The Case (Mostly) in Favor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues and decision-making involved in restricting Internet access in libraries, for the most part favoring filtering devices. Questions to consider when selecting a filtering program are provided. Some of the better filtering programs are described, and Web addresses are included for each. Security risks associated with Java and…

  20. 18 CFR 706.303 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 706.303 Section 706.303 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Special Government Employees §...

  1. 18 CFR 706.303 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 706.303 Section 706.303 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Special Government Employees §...

  2. 18 CFR 706.303 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 706.303 Section 706.303 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Special Government Employees §...

  3. Increasing long term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  4. 18 CFR 706.303 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 706.303 Section 706.303 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Special Government Employees §...

  5. Preschoolers Reduce Inequality While Favoring Individuals with More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Vivian; Spitzer, Brian; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities are everywhere, yet little is known about how children respond to people affected by inequalities. This article explores two responses--minimizing inequalities and favoring those who are advantaged by them. In Studies 1a (N = 37) and 1b (N = 38), 4- and 5-year-olds allocated a resource to a disadvantaged recipient, but judged…

  6. Psychological foundations of xenophilia: the role of major personality traits in predicting favorable attitudes toward cross-cultural contact and exploration.

    PubMed

    Stürmer, Stefan; Benbow, Alison E F; Siem, Birte; Barth, Markus; Bodansky, Alexander N; Lotz-Schmitt, Katharina

    2013-11-01

    Building on an integration of research findings on intergroup behavior from multiple fields of scientific inquiry (biological and cultural paleoanthropology, social psychology), as well as research on the HEXACO personality framework (e.g., Ashton & Lee, 2007), 3 independent studies (total N = 1,007) were conducted to introduce and test a fresh personality perspective on human xenophilia. Even though the studies focused on different criteria (Study 1: favorable attitudes toward contact with immigrants, Study 2: habitual cross-cultural exploration, Study 3: favorable attitudes toward contact with indigenous people) and employed different operationalizations of major personality traits (the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised [HEXACO-PI-R], the 10-item Big Five Inventory [BFI-10]) results were remarkably similar. First, path analyses confirmed that major personality traits were significant and direct predictors of xenophilia that were independent of the contributions of individual differences commonly predicting xenophobic reactions across studies. Second, and in line with the authors' more specific hypotheses, hierarchical regression analyses also corroborated that individual differences in the levels of endeavor-related personality traits (i.e., eXtraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness) had a substantially greater power in predicting individual differences in xenophilia than individual differences in levels of altruism/cooperation-related traits (i.e., Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, and Agreeableness). The implications of these findings for more general psychological theorizing on human sociality are discussed. PMID:23834640

  7. Adult Smokers’ Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers’ reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Results: Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers’ reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. Conclusions: The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking. PMID:23291637

  8. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  9. Factorization Tests with Cabibbo-Favored Hadronic B Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, Richard; Honscheid, K.; Pedlar, T.; von Toerne, E.; Wilksen, T.

    2002-04-01

    Based on a data sample of 9.7 million Υ(4s)arrow B barB decays recorded with CLEO II and II.V we present new measurements of cabibbo-favored, hadronic B meson decays. Precise measurements of these decays provide tests of the factorization hypothesis and allow us to examine the theoretical models which are used to constrain the unitarity triangle. Isospin relations in B arrow D(*) π decays permit the investigation of final state interactions.

  10. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  11. Hydrothermal alteration favoring phreatic eruption processes at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Aßbichler, Donjá; Isaia, Roberto; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles are the main surface manifestations of the strong hydrothermal activity within the Campi Flegrei caldera system and pointing to a significant risk for phreatic eruptions in this densely populated area. Phreatic eruptions, triggered by various processes are hardly predictable in occurrence time and size. Despite their hazard potential, these eruptions, as well as the influence of hydrothermal alteration on their likelihood, magnitude and style, have so far been largely overlooked in experimental volcanology. The physical properties and the mechanical behavior of volcanic rocks are highly dependent on their original magmatic microstructure and on any eventual alteration of those microstructures due to hydrothermal reactions. We have therefore investigated the potential effects of hydrothermal alteration on rock microstructure and, as a consequence, on fragmentation dynamics. Rock samples from the vicinity of the Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles have been characterized 1) geochemically (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction), 2) physically (density, porosity, permeability and elastic wave velocity) and 3) mechanically (uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength). We furthermore have investigated the effects of hydrothermal alteration on fragmentation processes using a shock-tube apparatus, operating with Argon gas, water vapor and superheated water at temperatures up to 400°C and maximum pressures of 20 MPa. Fragmentation and ejection dynamics in the presence of three different energy sources within the pores have been investigated: overpressure by 1) Argon gas; or 2) water vapor and due to 3) steam flashing of superheated water. Fragmentation speed, fragmentation efficiency and fragmented particle ejection velocity were measured. Our results indicate on the one hand, that steam flashing provides the highest energy - resulting in increased fragmentation speed and particle ejection velocity and also a significant higher

  12. [Rapidly evolving diabetic mononeuritis multiplex. Favorable outcome after immunosuppressive treatment].

    PubMed

    Awada, A; Dehoux, E; al Jumah, M; al Ayafi, H

    2001-11-01

    A 61 year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with an extremely rapid and aggressive mononeuritis multiplex. Four months after onset, he had severe postural hypotension and at least 6 cranial nerves and 4 somatic nerves were involved. Extensive work-up failed to discover any etiology for the neuropathy apart from diabetes. Treatment with corticosteroids, i.v. immunoglobulins and cyclosporin was followed by progressive but sustained improvement. This case and few other published ones suggest that some particularly aggressive forms of diabetic neuropathy have an immune mechanism and may be treated favorably with immunosuppressor drugs. PMID:11924012

  13. HOW MUCH FAVORABLE SELECTION IS LEFT IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE?

    PubMed Central

    PRICE, MARY; MCWILLIAMS, J. MICHAEL; HSU, JOHN; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.

    2015-01-01

    The health economics literature contains two models of selection, one with endogenous plan characteristics to attract good risks and one with fixed plan characteristics; neither model contains a regulator. Medicare Advantage, a principal example of selection in the literature, is, however, subject to anti-selection regulations. Because selection causes economic inefficiency and because the historically favorable selection into Medicare Advantage plans increased government cost, the effectiveness of the anti-selection regulations is an important policy question, especially since the Medicare Advantage program has grown to comprise 30 percent of Medicare beneficiaries. Moreover, similar anti-selection regulations are being used in health insurance exchanges for those under 65. Contrary to earlier work, we show that the strengthened anti-selection regulations that Medicare introduced starting in 2004 markedly reduced government overpayment attributable to favorable selection in Medicare Advantage. At least some of the remaining selection is plausibly related to fixed plan characteristics of Traditional Medicare versus Medicare Advantage rather than changed selection strategies by Medicare Advantage plans. PMID:26389127

  14. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  15. Favorable response of reticular erythematous mucinosis to ultraviolet B irradiation using a 308-nm excimer lamp.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Ken; Miyajima, Osamu; Yokogawa, Maki; Sano, Shigetoshi

    2010-02-01

    Abstract Reticular erythematous mucinosis (REM) is a rare chronic mucinosis. Histologically, the presence of mucin in the upper dermis is the most specific feature. A 73-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a 4-year history of netlike macular erythema with slight edema on her left arm. She was diagnosed as having REM on the basis of the clinical picture and histological findings. She was treated with ultraviolet B irradiation using the VTRAC Excimer Lamp system with favorable response. This is the first reported case that was treated with a 308-nm excimer lamp. PMID:20175851

  16. Reticulate evolution is favored in influenza niche switching.

    PubMed

    Ma, Eric J; Hill, Nichola J; Zabilansky, Justin; Yuan, Kyle; Runstadler, Jonathan A

    2016-05-10

    Reticulate evolution is thought to accelerate the process of evolution beyond simple genetic drift and selection, helping to rapidly generate novel hybrids with combinations of adaptive traits. However, the long-standing dogma that reticulate evolutionary processes are likewise advantageous for switching ecological niches, as in microbial pathogen host switch events, has not been explicitly tested. We use data from the influenza genome sequencing project and a phylogenetic heuristic approach to show that reassortment, a reticulate evolutionary mechanism, predominates over mutational drift in transmission between different host species. Moreover, as host evolutionary distance increases, reassortment is increasingly favored. We conclude that the greater the quantitative difference between ecological niches, the greater the importance of reticulate evolutionary processes in overcoming niche barriers. PMID:27114508

  17. On Favorable Thermal Fields for Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Volz, Martin P.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal fields of two Bridgman-like configurations, representative of real systems used in prior experiments for the detached growth of CdTe and Ge crystals, are studied. These detailed heat transfer computations are performed using the CrysMAS code and expand upon our previous analyses [14] that posited a new mechanism involving the thermal field and meniscus position to explain stable conditions for dewetted Bridgman growth. Computational results indicate that heat transfer conditions that led to successful detached growth in both of these systems are in accordance with our prior assertion, namely that the prevention of crystal reattachment to the crucible wall requires the avoidance of any undercooling of the melt meniscus during the growth run. Significantly, relatively simple process modifications that promote favorable thermal conditions for detached growth may overcome detrimental factors associated with meniscus shape and crucible wetting. Thus, these ideas may be important to advance the practice of detached growth for many materials.

  18. Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips.

    PubMed

    Lavanchy, Guillaume; Strehler, Marie; Llanos Roman, Maria Noemi; Lessard-Therrien, Malie; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Dumas, Zoé; Jalvingh, Kirsten; Ghali, Karim; Fontcuberta García-Cuenca, Amaranta; Zijlstra, Bart; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schwander, Tanja

    2016-08-01

    Explaining the overwhelming success of sex among eukaryotes is difficult given the obvious costs of sex relative to asexuality. Different studies have shown that sex can provide benefits in spatially heterogeneous environments under specific conditions, but whether spatial heterogeneity commonly contributes to the maintenance of sex in natural populations remains unknown. We experimentally manipulated habitat heterogeneity for sexual and asexual thrips lineages in natural populations and under seminatural mesocosm conditions by varying the number of hostplants available to these herbivorous insects. Asexual lineages rapidly replaced the sexual ones, independently of the level of habitat heterogeneity in mesocosms. In natural populations, the success of sexual thrips decreased with increasing habitat heterogeneity, with sexual thrips apparently only persisting in certain types of hostplant communities. Our results illustrate how genetic diversity-based mechanisms can favor asexuality instead of sex when sexual lineages co-occur with genetically variable asexual lineages. PMID:27346066

  19. New opioid prescribing guidelines favor non-opioid alternatives.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Determined to make a dent in the growing problem of opioid addiction, the CDC has unveiled new guidelines for opioid prescribing for chronic pain. The recommendations urge providers to be more judicious in their prescribing, opting for opioids only after carefully weighing substantial risks and benefits. Public health authorities note the rampant use and misuse of opioids have "blurred the lines" between prescription opioids and illicit opioids. The new guidelines are designed to help frontline providers balance the need to manage their patients' chronic pain with the duty to curb dangerous prescribing practices. The recommendations are built around three principles: favor non-opioid alternatives for most cases of chronic pain, use the lowest effective dose when prescribing opioids, and exercise caution/monitor patients who are treated with opioids. PMID:27266000

  20. White House Budget Proposal Favorable Overall for Federal Science Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed federal budget of 3.8 trillion for fiscal year (FY) 2013, released on 13 February, provides an overall favorable funding picture for federal science agencies in a tight economic environment. However, there are also a number of proposed decreases, including a sharp cut to NASA's Planetary Science account. Overall, the budget proposal includes 140.8 billion for the federal investment in research and development, a 1.4% increase above the FY 2012 enacted level. Funding for federal basic and applied research would be 64 billion, 3.3% above FY 2012 enacted levels. Funding for defense research and development (R&D) would decrease to 75.9 billion, a drop of 1.5%; nondefense R&D would increase 5% to $64.9 billion.

  1. Favorable Geochemistry from Springs and Wells in COlorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno Nevada Originator: United States Geological Survey (USGS) Originator: Colorado Geological Survey Publication Date: 2012 Title: Favorable Geochemistry Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer contains favorable geochemistry for high-temperature geothermal systems, as interpreted by Richard "Rick" Zehner. The data is compiled from the data obtained from the USGS. The original data set combines 15,622 samples collected in the State of Colorado from several sources including 1) the original Geotherm geochemical database, 2) USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), 3) Colorado Geological Survey geothermal sample data, and 4) original samples collected by R. Zehner at various sites during the 2011 field season. These samples are also available in a separate shapefile FlintWaterSamples.shp. Data from all samples were reportedly collected using standard water sampling protocols (filtering through 0.45 micron filter, etc.) Sample information was standardized to ppm (micrograms/liter) in spreadsheet columns. Commonly-used cation and silica geothermometer temperature estimates are included. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4515595.841032 m Left: 149699.513964 m Right: 757959.309388 m Bottom: 4104156.435530 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard “Rick” Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich

  2. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, confidence interval [CI] = 0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR = 0.22, CI = 0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. PMID:25809795

  3. Phenotypic selection favors missing trait combinations in coexisting annual plants.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Sarah; Gremer, Jennifer R; Huxman, Travis E; Lawrence Venable, D; Angert, Amy L

    2013-08-01

    Trade-offs among traits are important for maintaining biodiversity, but the role of natural selection in their construction is not often known. It is possible that trade-offs reflect fundamental constraints, negative correlational selection, or directional selection operating on costly, redundant traits. In a Sonoran Desert community of winter annual plants, we have identified a trade-off between relative growth rate and water-use efficiency among species, such that species with high relative growth rate have low water-use efficiency and vice versa. We measured selection on water-use efficiency, relative growth rate, and underlying traits within populations of four species at two study sites with different average climates. Phenotypic trait correlations within species did not match the among-species trade-off. In fact, for two species with high water-use efficiency, individuals with high relative growth rate also had high water-use efficiency. All populations experienced positive directional selection for water-use efficiency and relative growth rate. Selection tended to be stronger on water-use efficiency at the warmer and drier site, and selection on relative growth rate tended to be stronger at the cooler and wetter site. Our results indicate that directional natural selection favors a phenotype not observed among species in the community, suggesting that the among-species trade-off could be due to pervasive genetic constraints, perhaps acting in concert with processes of community assembly. PMID:23852354

  4. On favorable thermal fields for detached Bridgman growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Volz, Martin P.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2009-06-01

    The thermal fields of two Bridgman-like configurations, representative of real systems used in prior experiments for the detached growth of CdTe and Ge crystals, are studied. These detailed heat transfer computations are performed using the CrysMAS code and expand upon our previous analysis [C. Stelian, A. Yeckel, J.J. Derby, Influence of thermal phenomena on crystal reattachment during the dewetted Bridgman growth, J. Cryst. Growth, in press] that posited a new mechanism involving the thermal field and meniscus position to explain stable conditions for dewetted Bridgman growth. Computational results indicate that heat transfer conditions that led to successful detached growth in both of these systems are in accordance with our prior assertion, namely that the prevention of crystal reattachment to the crucible wall requires the avoidance of any undercooling of the melt meniscus during the growth run. Significantly, relatively simple process modifications that promote favorable thermal conditions for detached growth may overcome detrimental factors associated with meniscus shape and crucible wetting. Thus, these ideas may be important to advance the practice of detached growth for many materials.

  5. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion.

  6. Ecological Conditions Favoring Budding in Colonial Organisms under Environmental Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Takada, Takenori; Ohtsuki, Akiko; Suzuki, Sayaki U.; Miura, Kanan; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is a topic of great interest in ecology. Many organisms adopt one of two distinct dispersal tactics at reproduction: the production of small offspring that can disperse over long distances (such as seeds and spawned eggs), or budding. The latter is observed in some colonial organisms, such as clonal plants, corals and ants, in which (super)organisms split their body into components of relatively large size that disperse to a short distance. Contrary to the common dispersal viewpoint, short-dispersal colonial organisms often flourish even in environments with frequent disturbances. In this paper, we investigate the conditions that favor budding over long-distance dispersal of small offspring, focusing on the life history of the colony growth and the colony division ratio. These conditions are the relatively high mortality of very small colonies, logistic growth, the ability of dispersers to peacefully seek and settle unoccupied spaces, and small spatial scale of environmental disturbance. If these conditions hold, budding is advantageous even when environmental disturbance is frequent. These results suggest that the demography or life history of the colony underlies the behaviors of the colonial organisms. PMID:24621824

  7. Structures of Neural Correlation and How They Favor Coding.

    PubMed

    Franke, Felix; Fiscella, Michele; Sevelev, Maksim; Roska, Botond; Hierlemann, Andreas; da Silveira, Rava Azeredo

    2016-01-20

    The neural representation of information suffers from "noise"-the trial-to-trial variability in the response of neurons. The impact of correlated noise upon population coding has been debated, but a direct connection between theory and experiment remains tenuous. Here, we substantiate this connection and propose a refined theoretical picture. Using simultaneous recordings from a population of direction-selective retinal ganglion cells, we demonstrate that coding benefits from noise correlations. The effect is appreciable already in small populations, yet it is a collective phenomenon. Furthermore, the stimulus-dependent structure of correlation is key. We develop simple functional models that capture the stimulus-dependent statistics. We then use them to quantify the performance of population coding, which depends upon interplays of feature sensitivities and noise correlations in the population. Because favorable structures of correlation emerge robustly in circuits with noisy, nonlinear elements, they will arise and benefit coding beyond the confines of retina. PMID:26796692

  8. Lagooning of wastewaters favors dissemination of clinically relevant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Petit, Stéphanie M-C; Lavenir, Raphaël; Colinon-Dupuich, Céline; Boukerb, Amine M; Cholley, Pascal; Bertrand, Xavier; Freney, Jean; Doléans-Jordheim, Anne; Nazaret, Sylvie; Laurent, Frédéric; Cournoyer, Benoit

    2013-10-01

    The significance of wastewater treatment lagoons (WWTLs) as point sources of clinically relevant Pseudomonas aeruginosa that can disseminate through rural and peri-urban catchments was investigated. A panel of P. aeruginosa strains collected over three years from WWTLs and community-acquired infections was compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) DNA fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Forty-four distantly related PFGE profiles and four clonal complexes were found among the WWTL strains analyzed. Some genotypes were repeatedly detected from different parts of WWTLs, including the influent, suggesting an ability to migrate and persist over time. MLST showed all investigated lineages to match sequence types described in other countries and strains from major clinical clones such as PA14 of ST253 and "C" of ST17 were observed. Some of these genotypes matched isolates from community-acquired infections recorded in the WWTL geographic area. Most WWTL strains harbored the main P. aeruginosa virulence genes; 13% harbored exoU-encoded cytoxins, but on at least six different genomic islands, with some of these showing signs of genomic instability. P. aeruginosa appeared to be highly successful opportunistic colonizers of WWTLs. Lagooning of wastewaters was found to favor dissemination of clinically relevant P. aeruginosa among peri-urban watersheds. PMID:23792168

  9. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  10. Adaptation of Cupriavidus necator to conditions favoring polyhydroxyalkanoate production.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, João M B T; de Almeida, M Catarina M D; da Fonseca, M Manuela R; de Carvalho, Carla C C R

    2012-12-15

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of the bacterial membrane of Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 was assessed during the time course of two-stage fed-batch cultivations for the production of short-chain polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Changes in the relative proportion of straight, methyl and cyclopropyl saturated, unsaturated, hydroxy substituted and polyunsaturated FA were observed, depending on the C sources and cultivation conditions used to favor the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB-co-4HB)) or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-4-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-4HB-3HV)), under N limiting conditions. The relative percentage of each FA class was studied using glucose or waste glycerol (GRP), as main C source for P(3HB) production. The FA profile was also assessed when GRP was used together with i) γ-butyrolactone (GBL) (precursor of 4HB monomers) for P(3HB-4HB) synthesis and ii) GBL and propionic acid (PA) (3HV precursor) to yield P(3HB-4HB-3HV). The effect of GBL and PA utilization as PHA monomer precursors on the FA profile of the cell membrane was studied under two different dissolved oxygen concentrations (DOC). PMID:23376842

  11. West Florida shelf response to upwelling favorable wind forcing: Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Weisberg, Robert H.

    1999-06-01

    The barotropic responses of the west Florida continental shelf to idealized upwelling favorable alongshore and offshore wind stresses are studied using the three-dimensional, time-dependent, primitive equation Princeton Ocean Model (POM). When forced with uniform winds, the shelf circulation evolves quickly to a quasi steady state. A southeastward alongshore wind lowers sea level along the coast and drives a southeastward coastal jet with a relatively weak northwestward return flow farther offshore. A southwestward offshore wind lowers sea level along the west Florida coast and raises sea level along the Panhandle coast. Two independent circulation gyres are set up in association with these regionally different sea level distributions: an anticyclonic gyre off the west Florida coast consisting of a southeastward coastal jet and a broad return flow over the middle shelf and a cyclonic gyre off the Panhandle coast consisting of a strong northwestward coastal jet and an adjacent narrow southeastward undercurrent. These gyres are separated by the Big Bend region. In both cases (alongshore and offshore wind forcing) the circulations are fully three-dimensional, with opposing surface and bottom boundary layer flows accounting for the across-shelf transports. The shapes of the coastline and the isobaths are important determinants of the shelf-wide responses. Several locally maximum upwelling regions are identified for geometrical reasons. These include the Panhandle coast south of Apalachicola Bay, the west Florida coast south of Tampa Bay, along the Florida Keys, and at the shelf break where topographic Rossby waves are evident.

  12. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  13. Young Adults’ Favorable Perceptions of Snus, Dissolvable Tobacco Products, and Electronic Cigarettes: Findings From a Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Lindsey; Mottey, Neli; Corbett, Amanda; Forster, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored young adults’ perceptions of snus (spitless moist snuff packed in porous bags), dissolvable tobacco products, and electronic cigarettes and intention to try these products. Methods. We conducted 11 focus group discussions involving a total of 66 young adults (18–26 years old) on these new tobacco products (e.g., harmfulness, potential as quit aids, intention to try) held between July and December 2010. We analyzed discussions using a thematic approach. Results. Participants generally reported positive perceptions of the new products, particularly because they came in flavors. Few negative perceptions were reported. Although some participants believed these products were less harmful than cigarettes and helpful in quitting smoking, others thought the opposite, particularly regarding electronic cigarettes. Participants also commented that these products could be gateways to cigarette smoking. Half of the participants, including a mix of smokers and nonsmokers, admitted they would try these products if offered by a friend. Conclusions. Young adults perceive the new tobacco products positively and are willing to experiment with them. Eliminating flavors in these products may reduce young adults’ intentions to try these products. PMID:22813086

  14. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S; Ceglia, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Background Maintaining muscle mass while aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. Metabolic acidosis promotes muscle wasting, and the net acid load from diets that are rich in net acid–producing protein and cereal grains relative to their content of net alkali–producing fruit and vegetables may therefore contribute to a reduction in lean tissue mass in older adults. Objective We aimed to determine whether there was an association of 24-h urinary potassium and an index of fruit and vegetable content of the diet with the percentage lean body mass (%LBM) or change in %LBM in older subjects. Design Subjects were 384 men and women ≥65 y old who participated in a 3-y trial comparing calcium and vitamin D with placebo. Potassium was measured in 24-h urine collections at baseline. The %LBM, defined as total body nonfat, nonbone tissue weight ÷ weight × 100, was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at 3 y. Physical activity, height, and weight were assessed at baseline and at 3 y. Results At baseline, the mean urinary potassium excretion was 67.0 ± 21.1 mmol/d. Urinary potassium (mmol/d) was significantly positively associated with %LBM at baseline (β = 0.033, P = 0.006; adjusted for sex, weight, and nitrogen excretion) but not with 3-y change in %LBM. Over the 3-y study, %LBM increased by 2.6 ± 3.6%. Conclusion Higher intake of foods rich in potassium, such as fruit and vegetables, may favor the preservation of muscle mass in older men and women. PMID:18326605

  15. Ground states of stealthy hyperuniform potentials: I. Entropically favored configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2015-08-01

    Systems of particles interacting with "stealthy" pair potentials have been shown to possess infinitely degenerate disordered hyperuniform classical ground states with novel physical properties. Previous attempts to sample the infinitely degenerate ground states used energy minimization techniques, introducing algorithmic dependence that is artificial in nature. Recently, an ensemble theory of stealthy hyperuniform ground states was formulated to predict the structure and thermodynamics that was shown to be in excellent agreement with corresponding computer simulation results in the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit). In this paper, we provide details and justifications of the simulation procedure, which involves performing molecular dynamics simulations at sufficiently low temperatures and minimizing the energy of the snapshots for both the high-density disordered regime, where the theory applies, as well as lower densities. We also use numerical simulations to extend our study to the lower-density regime. We report results for the pair correlation functions, structure factors, and Voronoi cell statistics. In the high-density regime, we verify the theoretical ansatz that stealthy disordered ground states behave like "pseudo" disordered equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. The pair statistics obey certain exact integral conditions with very high accuracy. These results show that as the density decreases from the high-density limit, the disordered ground states in the canonical ensemble are characterized by an increasing degree of short-range order and eventually the system undergoes a phase transition to crystalline ground states. In the crystalline regime (low densities), there exist aperiodic structures that are part of the ground-state manifold but yet are not entropically favored. We also provide numerical evidence suggesting that different forms of stealthy pair potentials produce the same ground-state ensemble in the zero

  16. Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries Favor Administration of Methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Christian A; Kundu, Bornali; Rosenbluth, Jeffrey; Hawryluk, Gregory W J

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) for treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has been associated with both benefits and adverse events. MPSS administration was the standard of care for acute SCI until recently when its use has become controversial. Patients with SCI have had little input in the debate, thus we sought to learn their opinions regarding administration of MPSS. A summary of the published literature to date on MPSS use for acute SCI was created and adjudicated by 28 SCI experts. This summary was then emailed to 384 chronic SCI patients along with a survey that interrogated the patients' neurological deficits, communication with physicians and their views on MPSS administration. 77 out of 384 patients completed the survey. 28 respondents indicated being able to speak early after injury and of these 24 reported arriving at the hospital within 8 hours of injury. One recalled a physician speaking to them about MPSS and one patient reported choosing whether or not to receive MPSS. 59.4% felt that the small neurological benefits associated with MPSS were 'very important' to them (p<0.0001). Patients had 'little concern' for potential side-effects of MPSS (p = 0.001). Only 1.4% felt that MPSS should not be given to SCI patients regardless of degree of injury (p<0.0001). This is the first study to report SCI patients' preferences regarding MPSS treatment for acute SCI. Patients favor the administration of MPSS for acute SCI, however few had input into whether or not it was administered. Conscious patients should be given greater opportunity to decide their treatment. These results also provide some guidance regarding MPSS administration in patients unable to communicate. PMID:26789007

  17. Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries Favor Administration of Methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Christian A.; Kundu, Bornali; Rosenbluth, Jeffrey; Hawryluk, Gregory W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) for treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has been associated with both benefits and adverse events. MPSS administration was the standard of care for acute SCI until recently when its use has become controversial. Patients with SCI have had little input in the debate, thus we sought to learn their opinions regarding administration of MPSS. A summary of the published literature to date on MPSS use for acute SCI was created and adjudicated by 28 SCI experts. This summary was then emailed to 384 chronic SCI patients along with a survey that interrogated the patients’ neurological deficits, communication with physicians and their views on MPSS administration. 77 out of 384 patients completed the survey. 28 respondents indicated being able to speak early after injury and of these 24 reported arriving at the hospital within 8 hours of injury. One recalled a physician speaking to them about MPSS and one patient reported choosing whether or not to receive MPSS. 59.4% felt that the small neurological benefits associated with MPSS were ‘very important’ to them (p<0.0001). Patients had ‘little concern’ for potential side-effects of MPSS (p = 0.001). Only 1.4% felt that MPSS should not be given to SCI patients regardless of degree of injury (p<0.0001). This is the first study to report SCI patients’ preferences regarding MPSS treatment for acute SCI. Patients favor the administration of MPSS for acute SCI, however few had input into whether or not it was administered. Conscious patients should be given greater opportunity to decide their treatment. These results also provide some guidance regarding MPSS administration in patients unable to communicate. PMID:26789007

  18. The HII Galaxy Hubble Diagram Strongly Favors Rh = ct over ΛCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio

    2016-08-01

    We continue to build support for the proposal to use HII galaxies (HIIGx) and giant extragalactic HII regions (GEHR) as standard candles to construct the Hubble diagram at redshifts beyond the current reach of Type Ia supernovae. Using a sample of 25 high-redshift HIIGx, 107 local HIIGx, and 24 GEHR, we confirm that the correlation between the emission-line luminosity and ionized-gas velocity dispersion is a viable luminosity indicator, and use it to test and compare the standard model ΛCDM and the Rh = ct Universe by optimizing the parameters in each cosmology using a maximization of the likelihood function. For the flat ΛCDM model, the best fit is obtained with Ω _m= 0.40_{-0.09}^{+0.09}. However, statistical tools, such as the Akaike (AIC), Kullback (KIC) and Bayes (BIC) Information Criteria favor Rh = ct over the standard model with a likelihood of ≈94.8% - 98.8% versus only ≈1.2% - 5.2%. For wCDM (the version of ΛCDM with a dark-energy equation of state wde ≡ pde/ρde rather than wde = wΛ = -1), a statistically acceptable fit is realized with Ω _m=0.22_{-0.14}^{+0.16} and w_de= -0.51_{-0.25}^{+0.15} which, however, are not fully consistent with their concordance values. In this case, wCDM has two more free parameters than Rh = ct, and is penalized more heavily by these criteria. We find that Rh = ct is strongly favored over wCDM with a likelihood of ≈92.9% - 99.6% versus only 0.4% - 7.1%. The current HIIGx sample is already large enough for the BIC to rule out ΛCDM/wCDM in favor of Rh = ct at a confidence level approaching 3σ.

  19. Extension of a Kinetic-Theory Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates to Reactions with Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Lewis, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently introduced molecular-level chemistry models that predict equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction rates using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties (i.e., no macroscopic reaction rate information) are extended to include reactions involving charged particles and electronic energy levels. The proposed extensions include ionization reactions, exothermic associative ionization reactions, endothermic and exothermic charge exchange reactions, and other exchange reactions involving ionized species. The extensions are shown to agree favorably with the measured Arrhenius rates for near-equilibrium conditions.

  20. High DBC1 (CCAR2) expression in gallbladder carcinoma is associated with favorable clinicopathological factors

    PubMed Central

    Won, Kyu Yeoun; Cho, Hyuck; Kim, Gou Young; Lim, Sung-Jig; Bae, Go Eun; Lim, Jun Uk; Sung, Ji-Youn; Park, Yong-Koo; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Juhie

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies on gallbladder carcinogenesis, and mutations of the KRAS, TP53, and CDKN2A genes have been reported in gallbladder carcinoma. The DBC1 gene (deleted in breast cancer 1) was initially cloned from region 8p21, which was homozygously deleted in breast cancer. DBC1 has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and death. The functional role of DBC1 in normal cells and the role of DBC1 loss in cancer are not entirely clear. And DBC1 expression and its clinical implications in gallbladder carcinoma have yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated DBC1 expression in 104 gallbladder carcinoma tissues in relation to survival and other prognostic factors via immunohistochemical analysis. DBC1 expression was divided into two categories: high DBC1 expression was observed in 32/104 cases (30.8%) and low expression in 72/104 cases (69.2%). High DBC1 expression correlated significantly with favorable clinicopathologic variables. Furthermore, in survival analysis, the high-DBC1 expression group showed a better survival rate compared to the low-DBC1 expression group. In conclusion, high DBC1 expression is associated with several favorable clinicopathologic factors in gallbladder carcinoma. These findings suggest that loss of DBC1 expression plays a role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:26617872

  1. Characterization of a novel N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase favoring N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenyan; Sun, Wujin; Feng, Jinmei; Song, Tianshun; Zhang, Dalu; Ouyang, Pingkai; Gu, Zhen; Xie, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    N-Acetylneuraminic acid lyase (NAL, E.C. number 4.1.3.3) is a Class I aldolase that catalyzes the reversible aldol cleavage of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from pyruvate and N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Due to the equilibrium favoring Neu5Ac cleavage, the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step of two biocatalytic reactions producing Neu5Ac in industry. We report the biochemical characterization of a novel NAL from a "GRAS" (General recognized as safe) strain C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 (CgNal). Compared to all previously reported NALs, CgNal exhibited the lowest kcat/Km value for Neu5Ac and highest kcat/Km values for ManNAc and pyruvate, which makes CgNal favor Neu5Ac synthesis the most. The recombinant CgNal reached the highest expression level (480 mg/L culture), and the highest reported yield of Neu5Ac was achieved (194 g/L, 0.63 M). All these unique properties make CgNal a promising biocatalyst for industrial Neu5Ac biosynthesis. Additionally, although showing the best Neu5Ac synthesis activity among the NAL family, CgNal is more related to dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) by phylogenetic analysis. The activities of CgNal towards both NAL's and DHDPS' substrates are fairly high, which indicates CgNal a bi-functional enzyme. The sequence analysis suggests that CgNal might have adopted a unique set of residues for substrates recognition. PMID:25799411

  2. Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students

    PubMed Central

    Moss-Racusin, Corinne A.; Dovidio, John F.; Brescoll, Victoria L.; Graham, Mark J.; Handelsman, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to recruit and retain more women, a stark gender disparity persists within academic science. Abundant research has demonstrated gender bias in many demographic groups, but has yet to experimentally investigate whether science faculty exhibit a bias against female students that could contribute to the gender disparity in academic science. In a randomized double-blind study (n = 127), science faculty from research-intensive universities rated the application materials of a student—who was randomly assigned either a male or female name—for a laboratory manager position. Faculty participants rated the male applicant as significantly more competent and hireable than the (identical) female applicant. These participants also selected a higher starting salary and offered more career mentoring to the male applicant. The gender of the faculty participants did not affect responses, such that female and male faculty were equally likely to exhibit bias against the female student. Mediation analyses indicated that the female student was less likely to be hired because she was viewed as less competent. We also assessed faculty participants’ preexisting subtle bias against women using a standard instrument and found that preexisting subtle bias against women played a moderating role, such that subtle bias against women was associated with less support for the female student, but was unrelated to reactions to the male student. These results suggest that interventions addressing faculty gender bias might advance the goal of increasing the participation of women in science. PMID:22988126

  3. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    PubMed

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented. PMID:27471301

  4. 45 CFR 73.735-501 - Prohibited acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. 73.735-501 Section 73.735-501 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-501 Prohibited acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors....

  5. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs. PMID:25897844

  6. Nutrient Enrichment Coupled with Sedimentation Favors Sea Anemones over Corals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs. PMID:25897844

  7. Culture, age and gender: effects on quality of predicted self and colleague reactions.

    PubMed

    Greipp, M E

    1996-02-01

    Ethnocentrism on the part of health care workers has been documented in the literature and has led to misdiagnosis, mistreatment and undertreatment of culturally diverse individuals worldwide. Aversive Insidious Racism and Ingroup Favoritism theories were used as the guiding framework for this study. Two hundred and sixty-eight female nurses from a large, urban, multi-service hospital in the United States were surveyed to identify those psychosocial variables (age, gender and culture status of the client) which enhanced and/or inhibited their predicted reactions with clients and which have the power to contribute to unethical decision making and less than ethical client care. The findings of this study, which is the first to examine nurses' predicted self and colleague reactions to multiple client variables concurrently, demonstrated that Client Gender as a main effect was not significant in itself when examining self and colleague predictions. Client Age as a main effect was significant for self predictions, p < 0.006, and for colleague predictions, p < 0.000. Client Culture as a main effect was significant for self predictions, p < 0.001 and for colleague predictions, p < 0.001. Many two-way and three-way interaction effects were significant. Subjects consistently predicted more favorable self reactions than colleague reactions, supporting Aversive Insidious Racism theory. Study findings did not consistently support Ingroup Favoritism theory. Subjects did not predict most favorable reactions with Caucasian female clients. PMID:8655268

  8. Sustained favorable long-term outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 3-year prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    with shopping and leisure activities. Conclusions Only a small percentage of patients achieved sustained favorable long-term outcome in this study, suggesting there continues to be a great need for improvement in the treatment of schizophrenia. Findings suggest that clinicians could make early projections of health states and identify those patients more likely to achieve favorable long-term outcomes enabling early therapeutic interventions to enhance benefits for patients. PMID:21871092

  9. Development of intelligent model to determine favorable wheelchair tilt and recline angles for people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Jan, Yih-Kuen; Jones, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques have found widespread applications in bioinformatics. Such techniques provide invaluable insight on understanding the complex biomedical mechanisms and predicting the optimal individualized intervention for patients. In our case, we are particularly interested in developing an individualized clinical guideline on wheelchair tilt and recline usage for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The current clinical practice suggests uniform settings to all patients. However, our previous study revealed that the response of skin blood flow to wheelchair tilt and recline settings varied largely among patients. Our finding suggests that an individualized setting is needed for people with SCI to maximally utilize the residual neurological function to reduce pressure ulcer risk. In order to achieve this goal, we intend to develop an intelligent model to determine the favorable wheelchair usage to reduce pressure ulcers risk for wheelchair users with SCI. In this study, we use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to construct an intelligent model that can predict whether a given tilt and recline setting will be favorable to people with SCI based on neurological functions and SCI injury history. Our results indicate that the intelligent model significantly outperforms the traditional statistical approach in accurately classifying favorable wheelchair tilt and recline settings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using intelligent models to predict the favorable wheelchair tilt and recline angles. Our methods demonstrate the feasibility of using ANN to develop individualized wheelchair tilt and recline guidance for people with SCI. PMID:22254738

  10. Minimum Favorable Conditions for Hydrogen-Diesel Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Jacob Dylan

    A test apparatus was designed and fabricated that allowed very small amounts of diesel fuel to be injected into a hydrogen-air mixture. This apparatus was designed to be able to operate near the limits of diesel fuel injectors. The purpose of this apparatus is to find out if the injectors in diesel engines are capable of igniting a hydrogen-air mixture when operated at their limits and to explore past their limits for further advancement in the field of dual-fuel hydrogen-diesel combustion. The minimum flow rate of diesel fuel the apparatus could produce was 120.46 (cm3)/min and the fastest response time that could be achieved was 1 ms. Both of these parameters at least met the limits of the current diesel injection setups. The smallest mass of diesel fuel that could be injected was 15.7 mg. This mass produced combustion in the hydrogen-air mixture for all hydrogen concentrations and temperatures tested.

  11. Adaptive Evolution Favoring KLK4 Downregulation in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Marques, Patrícia Isabel; Fonseca, Filipa; Sousa, Tânia; Santos, Paulo; Camilo, Vânia; Ferreira, Zélia; Quesada, Victor; Seixas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    The human kallikrein (KLK) cluster, located at chromosome 19q13.3-13.4, encodes 15 serine proteases, including neighboring genes (KLK3, KLK2, KLK4, and KLK5) with key roles in the cascades of semen liquefaction, tooth enamel maturation, and skin desquamation. KLK2 and KLK3 were previously identified as targets of adaptive evolution in primates through different mechanisms linked to reproductive biology and, in humans, genome-wide scans of positive selection captured, a yet unexplored, evidence for KLK neutrality departure in East Asians. We perform a detailed evaluation of KLK3-KLK5 variability in the 1000 Genomes samples from East Asia, Europe, and Africa, which was sustained by our own sequencing. In East Asians, we singled out a 70-kb region surrounding KLK4 that combined unusual low levels of diversity, high frequency variants with significant levels of population differentiation (FST > 0.5) and fairly homogenous haplotypes given the large local recombination rates. Among these variants, rs1654556_G, rs198968_T, and rs17800874_A stand out for their location on putative regulatory regions and predicted functional effects, namely the introduction of several microRNA binding sites and a repressor motif. Our functional assays carried out in different cellular models showed that rs198968_T and rs17800874_A operate synergistically to reduce KLK4 expression and could be further assisted by rs1654556_G. Considering the previous findings that KLK4 inactivation causes enamel malformations in humans and mice, and that this gene is coexpressed in epidermal layers along with several substrates involved in either cell adhesion or keratinocyte differentiation, we propose KLK4 as another target of selection in East Asians correlated to tooth and epidermal morphological traits. PMID:26420451

  12. Optimal-Foraging Predator Favors Commensalistic Batesian Mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Atsushi; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Nishida, Takayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Background Mimicry, in which one prey species (the Mimic) imitates the aposematic signals of another prey (the Model) to deceive their predators, has attracted the general interest of evolutionary biologists. Predator psychology, especially how the predator learns and forgets, has recently been recognized as an important factor in a predator–prey system. This idea is supported by both theoretical and experimental evidence, but is also the source of a good deal of controversy because of its novel prediction that in a Model/Mimic relationship even a moderately unpalatable Mimic increases the risk of the Model (quasi-Batesian mimicry). Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a psychology-based Monte Carlo model simulation of mimicry that incorporates a “Pavlovian” predator that practices an optimal foraging strategy, and examined how various ecological and psychological factors affect the relationships between a Model prey species and its Mimic. The behavior of the predator in our model is consistent with that reported by experimental studies, but our simulation's predictions differed markedly from those of previous models of mimicry because a more abundant Mimic did not increase the predation risk of the Model when alternative prey were abundant. Moreover, a quasi-Batesian relationship emerges only when no or very few alternative prey items were available. Therefore, the availability of alternative prey rather than the precise method of predator learning critically determines the relationship between Model and Mimic. Moreover, the predation risk to the Model and Mimic is determined by the absolute density of the Model rather than by its density relative to that of the Mimic. Conclusions/Significance Although these predictions are counterintuitive, they can explain various kinds of data that have been offered in support of competitive theories. Our model results suggest that to understand mimicry in nature it is important to consider the likely presence of

  13. Impact of obesity in favorable-risk AML patients receiving intensive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tavitian, Suzanne; Denis, Amélia; Vergez, François; Berard, Emilie; Sarry, Audrey; Huynh, Anne; Delabesse, Eric; Luquet, Isabelle; Huguet, Françoise; Récher, Christian; Bertoli, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the influence of obesity on the characteristics and prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Indeed, safety of intensive chemotherapy and outcome of obese AML patients in a real-life setting are poorly described, and chemotherapy dosing remains challenging. We included 619 consecutive genetically-defined cases of AML treated with intensive chemotherapy between 2004 and 2012. In this cohort, 93 patients (15%) were classified in the obese category according to WHO classification; 59% of them received capped doses of chemotherapy because of a body surface area above 2 m(2) . Obese patients were older and presented more often with cardiovascular comorbidities. Although obese patients had more frequently de novo AML, main characteristics of AML including white blood cell count, karyotype and mutations were well-balanced between obese and non-obese patients. After induction chemotherapy, early death and complete remission rates were similar. Overall (OS), event-free (EFS) and disease-free (DFS) survival were not significantly different compared to non-obese patients. However, in the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) favorable subgroup, obese patients had lower median OS, EFS and DFS than non-obese patients (18.4, 16.8 and 17.2 vs. 43.6, 31.8 and 29.7 months, respectively) and obesity showed a significant impact on OS (OR 2.54; P = 0.02) in multivariate models. Although we did not find any significant impact of obesity on outcome in the whole series, this study suggests that special efforts for chemotherapy dose optimization are needed in the ELN favorable subgroup since dose capping may be deleterious. PMID:26509505

  14. Platelet count recovery after intravenous immunoglobulin predicts a favorable outcome in children with immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mi Hong; Kim, Sung Jin; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a common acquired bleeding disorder. Even though most children recover, either spontaneously or with therapy, 10-20% of newly diagnosed ITP cases have a chronic course beyond 12 months. This study evaluated whether clinical and laboratory findings can predict the response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and progression to persistent or chronic ITP in children. Methods During the period between March 2003 and June 2015, we retrospectively analyzed 72 children, newly diagnosed with ITP, who received IVIG treatment. Peripheral blood counts were obtained at diagnosis and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after IVIG treatment. Results After 6 months of IVIG treatment, 14 of 72 patients (19.4%) had persistent ITP, and after 12 months, 7 of 40 patients (17.5%) had chronic ITP. Age at diagnosis, gender, history of viral infection, or vaccination before disease onset were not statistically correlated with platelet recovery at 6 and 12 months. However, a platelet count recovery of ≥100×103/µL at 1 and 3 months was significantly correlated with platelet recovery at 6 (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively) and 12 (P=0.007 and P=0.004, respectively) months. Conclusion This study demonstrated that early platelet count recovery, at 1 and 3 months after IVIG treatment, predicts a short disease duration and a favorable outcome in children with newly diagnosed ITP. Further investigation in a larger group of patients is warranted to validate these findings. PMID:27382553

  15. Indirect dynamics in a highly exoergic substitution reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mikosch, Jochen; Zhang, Jiaxu; Trippel, Sebastian; Eichhorn, Christoph; Otto, Rico; Sun, Rui; De Jong, Wibe A.; Weidemuller, Matthias; Hase, William L.; Wester, Roland

    2013-01-16

    The highly exoergic nucleophilic substitution reaction F + CH3I shows strikingly different reaction dynamics than substitution reactions of larger halogen ions. Over a wide range of collision energies, a large fraction of indirect scattering via a long-lived hydrogen-bonded complex is found both in crossed-beam imaging experiments and in direct chemical dynamics simulations. Our measured differential scattering cross sections show dominant large-angle scattering and low product velocities for all collision energies, resulting from efficient transfer of the collision energy to internal energy of the CH3F reaction product. Both findings are in strong contrast to the previously studied substitution reaction of Cl + CH3I [Science 2008, 319, 183] at all but the lowest collision energies, a discrepancy that was not captured in a subsequent study at only a low collision energy [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 2747]. Our direct chemical dynamics simulations at the DFT/B97-1 level of theory show that the reaction is dominated by three atomic-level mechanisms, an indirect reaction proceeding via an F−–HCH2I hydrogen-bonded complex, a direct rebound and a direct stripping reaction. The indirect mechanism is found to contribute ∼ 60% of the overall substitution reaction at both low and high collision energies. This large fraction of indirect scattering at high collision energy is particularly surprising, since the barrier for the F–HCH2I complex to form products is only 0.10 eV. Overall, experiment and simulation agree very favorably in both the scattering angle and the product internal energy distributions.

  16. Magnetically suspended reaction wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabnis, A. V.; Stocking, G. L.; Dendy, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic suspensions offer several advantages over conventional bearings, arising because of the contactless nature of the load support. In application to spacecraft reaction wheels, the advantages are low drag torque, wearfree, unlubricated, vacuum-compatible operation, and unlimited life. By the provision of redundancy in the control electronics, single-point failures are eliminated. The rational for selection of a passive radial, active axial, dc magnetic suspension is presented, and the relative merits of 3-loop and single-loop magnetic suspensions are discussed. The design of a .678 N-m-sec (.5 ft-lb-sec) reaction wheel using the single loop magnetic suspension was developed; the design compares favorably with current ball bearing wheels in terms of weight and power.

  17. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-502 Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity,...

  18. GALNT2 suppresses malignant phenotypes through IGF-1 receptor and predicts favorable prognosis in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Yung-Ming; Lu, Meng-Yao; Yang, Yung-Li; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Chang, Hsiu-Hao; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression of the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens such as Tn antigen is associated with malignant transformation and cancer progression. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2), one of the enzymes that mediate the initial step of mucin-type O-glycosylation, is responsible for forming Tn antigen. GALNT2 is expressed differentially in nervous tissues during mouse embryogenesis; however, the role of GALNT2 in neuroblastoma (NB) remains unclear. Here we showed that increased GALNT2 expression evaluated using immunohistochemistry in NB tumor tissues correlated well with the histological grade of differentiation as well as younger age at diagnosis, early clinical stage, primary tumor originated from the extra-adrenal site, favorable INPC histology, and MYCN non-amplification. Multivariate analysis showed that GALNT2 expression is an independent prognostic factor for better survival for NB patients. GALNT2 overexpression suppressed IGF-1-induced cell growth, migration, and invasion of NB cells, whereas GALNT2 knockdown enhanced these NB phenotypes. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that GALNT2 overexpression modified O-glycans on IGF-1R, which suppressed IGF-1-triggered IGF-1R dimerization and subsequent downstream signaling events. Conversely, these properties were reversed by GALNT2 knockdown in NB cells. Our findings suggest that GALNT2 regulates malignant phenotypes of NB cells through the IGF-1R signaling pathway, suggesting a critical role for GALNT2 in the pathogenesis of NB. PMID:25362349

  19. Type II ligands as chemical auxiliaries to favor enzymatic transformations by P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Amélie; Fabra, Camilo; Huang, Yue; Auclair, Karine

    2012-11-26

    The remarkable ability of P450 enzymes to oxidize inactivated C-H bonds and the high substrate promiscuity of many P450 isoforms have inspired us and others to investigate their use as biocatalysts. Our lab has pioneered a chemical-auxiliary approach to control the promiscuity of P450 3A4 and provide product predictability. The recent realization that type II ligands are sometimes also P450 substrates has prompted the design of a new generation of chemical auxiliaries with type II binding properties. This approach takes advantage of the high affinity of type II ligands for the active site of these enzymes. Although type II ligands typically block P450 activity, we report here that type II ligation can be harnessed to achieve just the opposite, that is, to favor biocatalysis and afford predictable oxidation of small hydrocarbon substrates with P450 2E1. Moreover, the observed predictability was rationalized by molecular docking. We hope that this approach might find future use with other P450 isoforms and yield complimentary products. PMID:23129539

  20. Heightened exposure to parasites favors the evolution of immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, Caldwell; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunologists and evolutionary biologists are interested in how the immune system evolves to fit an ecological niche. We studied the relationship between exposure to parasites and strength of immunity by investigating the response of two species of New World cowbirds (genus Molothrus, Icteridae), obligate brood parasites with contrasting life history strategies, to experimental arboviral infection. The South American shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis) is an extreme host-generalist that lays its eggs in the nests of >225 different avian species. The Central American bronzed cowbird (M. aeneus) is a relative host-specialist that lays its eggs preferentially in the nests of approximately 12 orioles in a single sister genus. West Nile virus provided a strong challenge and delineated immune differences between these species. The extreme host-generalist shiny cowbird, like the North American host-generalist, the brown-headed cowbird, showed significantly lower viremia to three arboviruses than related icterid species that were not brood parasites. The bronzed cowbird showed intermediate viremia. These findings support the interpretation that repeated exposure to a high diversity of parasites favors the evolution of enhanced immunity in brood parasitic cowbirds and makes them useful models for future studies of innate immunity.

  1. Small-Molecule Anticonvulsant Agents with Potent in vitro Neuroprotection and Favorable Drug-like Properties

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Garry R.; Brenneman, Douglas E.; Zhang, Yan; Du, Yanming; Reitz, Allen B.

    2014-01-01

    Severe seizure activity is associated with reoccurring cycles of excitotoxicity and oxidative stress that result in progressive neuronal damage and death. Intervention with these pathological processes is a compelling disease-modifying strategy for the treatment of seizure disorders. We have optimized a series of small molecules for neuroprotective and anticonvulsant activity as well as altered their physical properties to address potential metabolic liabilities, to improve CNS penetration and to prolong the duration of action in vivo. Utilizing phenotypic screening of hippocampal cultures with nutrient medium depleted of antioxidants as a disease model, cell death and decreased neuronal viability produced by acute treatment with glutamate or hydrogen peroxide were prevented. Modifications to our previously reported proof of concept compounds have resulted in a lead which has full neuroprotective action at < 1 nM and antiseizure activity across six animal models, including the kindled rat, and displays excellent pharmacokinetics including high exposure to the brain. These modifications have also eliminated the requirement for a chiral molecule, removing the possibility of racemization and making large scale synthesis more easily accessible. These studies strengthen our earlier findings which indicate that potent, multifunctional neuroprotective anticonvulsants are feasible within a single molecular entity which also possesses favorable CNS-active drug properties in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24277343

  2. GALNT2 suppresses malignant phenotypes through IGF-1 receptor and predicts favorable prognosis in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wan-Ling; Chou, Chih-Hsing; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Lu, Meng-Yao; Yang, Yung-Li; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Chang, Hsiu-Hao; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2014-12-15

    Aberrant expression of the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens such as Tn antigen is associated with malignant transformation and cancer progression. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2), one of the enzymes that mediate the initial step of mucin-type O-glycosylation, is responsible for forming Tn antigen. GALNT2 is expressed differentially in nervous tissues during mouse embryogenesis; however, the role of GALNT2 in neuroblastoma (NB) remains unclear. Here we showed that increased GALNT2 expression evaluated using immunohistochemistry in NB tumor tissues correlated well with the histological grade of differentiation as well as younger age at diagnosis, early clinical stage, primary tumor originated from the extra-adrenal site, favorable INPC histology, and MYCN non-amplification. Multivariate analysis showed that GALNT2 expression is an independent prognostic factor for better survival for NB patients. GALNT2 overexpression suppressed IGF-1-induced cell growth, migration, and invasion of NB cells, whereas GALNT2 knockdown enhanced these NB phenotypes. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that GALNT2 overexpression modified O-glycans on IGF-1R, which suppressed IGF-1-triggered IGF-1R dimerization and subsequent downstream signaling events. Conversely, these properties were reversed by GALNT2 knockdown in NB cells. Our findings suggest that GALNT2 regulates malignant phenotypes of NB cells through the IGF-1R signaling pathway, suggesting a critical role for GALNT2 in the pathogenesis of NB. PMID:25362349

  3. Music, clicks, and their imaginations favor differently the event-based timing component for rhythmic movements.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Riccardo; Quarta, Eros; Del Tongo, Claudia; Carbonaro, Nicola; Tognetti, Alessandro; Minciacchi, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The involvement or noninvolvement of a clock-like neural process, an effector-independent representation of the time intervals to produce, is described as the essential difference between event-based and emergent timing. In a previous work (Bravi et al. in Exp Brain Res 232:1663-1675, 2014a. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-3845-9 ), we studied repetitive isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs), performed while minimizing visual and tactile information, to clarify whether non-temporal and temporal characteristics of paced auditory stimuli affect the precision and accuracy of the rhythmic motor performance. Here, with the inclusion of new recordings, we expand the examination of the dataset described in our previous study to investigate whether simple and complex paced auditory stimuli (clicks and music) and their imaginations influence in a different way the timing mechanisms for repetitive IWFEs. Sets of IWFEs were analyzed by the windowed (lag one) autocorrelation-wγ(1), a statistical method recently introduced for the distinction between event-based and emergent timing. Our findings provide evidence that paced auditory information and its imagination favor the engagement of a clock-like neural process, and specifically that music, unlike clicks, lacks the power to elicit event-based timing, not counteracting the natural shift of wγ(1) toward positive values as frequency of movements increase. PMID:25837726

  4. Galectin-3 is a marker of favorable prognosis and a biologically relevant molecule in neuroblastic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Veschi, V; Petroni, M; Bartolazzi, A; Altavista, P; Dominici, C; Capalbo, C; Boldrini, R; Castellano, A; McDowell, H P; Pizer, B; Frati, L; Screpanti, I; Gulino, A; Giannini, G

    2014-01-01

    Childhood neuroblastic tumors are characterized by heterogeneous clinical courses, ranging from benign ganglioneuroma (GN) to highly lethal neuroblastoma (NB). Although a refined prognostic evaluation and risk stratification of each tumor patient is becoming increasingly essential to personalize treatment options, currently only few biomolecular markers (essentially MYCN amplification, chromosome 11q status and DNA ploidy) are validated for this purpose in neuroblastic tumors. Here we report that Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin involved in multiple biological functions that has already acquired diagnostic relevance in specific clinical settings, is variably expressed in most differentiated and less aggressive neuroblastic tumors, such as GN and ganglioneuroblastoma, as well as in a subset of NB cases. Gal-3 expression is associated with the INPC histopathological categorization (P<0.001) and Shimada favorable phenotype (P=0.001), but not with other prognostically relevant features. Importantly, Gal-3 expression was associated with a better 5-year overall survival (P=0.003), and with improved cumulative survival in patient subsets at worse prognosis, such as older age at diagnosis, advanced stages or NB histopathological classification. In vitro, Gal-3 expression and nuclear accumulation accompanied retinoic acid-induced cell differentiation in NB cell lines. Forced Gal-3 overexpression increased phenotypic differentiation and substrate adherence, while inhibiting proliferation. Altogether, these findings suggest that Gal-3 is a biologically relevant player for neuroblastic tumors, whose determination by conventional immunohistochemistry might be used for outcome assessment and patient's risk stratification in the clinical setting. PMID:24603328

  5. Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Brescoll, Victoria L; Everett, Jim A C; Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality. PMID:26913619

  6. Reaction efficiency effects on binary chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridis, Filippos; Savara, Aditya; Argyrakis, Panos

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the variation of reaction efficiency in binary reactions. We use the well-known A + B → 0 model, which has been extensively studied in the past. We perform simulations on this model where we vary the efficiency of reaction, i.e., when two particles meet they do not instantly react, as has been assumed in previous studies, but they react with a probability γ, where γ is in the range 0 < γ < 1. Our results show that at small γ values the system is reaction limited, but as γ increases it crosses over to a diffusion limited behavior. At early times, for small γ values, the particle density falls slower than for larger γ values. This fall-off goes over a crossover point, around the value of γ = 0.50 for high initial densities. Under a variety of conditions simulated, we find that the crossover point was dependent on the initial concentration but not on the lattice size. For intermediate and long times simulations, all γ values (in the depleted reciprocal density versus time plot) converge to the same behavior. These theoretical results are useful in models of epidemic reactions and epidemic spreading, where a contagion from one neighbor to the next is not always successful but proceeds with a certain probability, an analogous effect with the reaction probability examined in the current work.

  7. Altered serotonin physiology in human breast cancers favors paradoxical growth and cell survival

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The breast microenvironment can either retard or accelerate the events associated with progression of latent cancers. However, the actions of local physiological mediators in the context of breast cancers are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical local regulator of epithelial homeostasis in the breast and other organs. Herein, we report complex alterations in the intrinsic mammary gland serotonin system of human breast cancers. Methods Serotonin biosynthetic capacity was analyzed in human breast tumor tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry for tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Serotonin receptors (5-HT1-7) were analyzed in human breast tumors using the Oncomine database. Serotonin receptor expression, signal transduction, and 5-HT effects on breast cancer cell phenotype were compared in non-transformed and transformed human breast cells. Results In the context of the normal mammary gland, 5-HT acts as a physiological regulator of lactation and involution, in part by favoring growth arrest and cell death. This tightly regulated 5-HT system is subverted in multiple ways in human breast cancers. Specifically, TPH1 expression undergoes a non-linear change during progression, with increased expression during malignant progression. Correspondingly, the tightly regulated pattern of 5-HT receptors becomes dysregulated in human breast cancer cells, resulting in both ectopic expression of some isoforms and suppression of others. The receptor expression change is accompanied by altered downstream signaling of 5-HT receptors in human breast cancer cells, resulting in resistance to 5-HT-induced apoptosis, and stimulated proliferation. Conclusions Our data constitutes the first report of direct involvement of 5-HT in human breast cancer. Increased 5-HT biosynthetic capacity accompanied by multiple changes in 5-HT receptor expression and signaling favor malignant progression of human breast cancer cells (for example, stimulated proliferation

  8. Solvent effects on ozonolysis reaction intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, Emma; Aplincourt, Philippe; Ruiz-López, Manuel F.

    1997-12-01

    Solvent effects on relative stability, electronic and molecular structure of ozonolysis reaction intermediates are analyzed with the help of ab initio MP2/6-31+G ** calculations. A continuum model is employed to account for solute-solvent electrostatic interactions. The results show that there are large effects on the structure and relative stability of carbonyl oxide by substantially favoring its zwitterionic character. A complex formed by carbonyl oxide and formaldehyde is shown to be stable in the gas phase and in solution. This complex can be involved in solvent cage reactions leading to secondary ozonides. Thermodynamically, primary ozonide decomposition is favored by the solvent.

  9. Communication: Resonance reaction in diffusion-influenced bimolecular reactions.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Jakob J; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2016-02-28

    We investigate the influence of a stochastically fluctuating step-barrier potential on bimolecular reaction rates by exact analytical theory and stochastic simulations. We demonstrate that the system exhibits a new "resonant reaction" behavior with rate enhancement if an appropriately defined fluctuation decay length is of the order of the system size. Importantly, we find that in the proximity of resonance, the standard reciprocal additivity law for diffusion and surface reaction rates is violated due to the dynamical coupling of multiple kinetic processes. Together, these findings may have important repercussions on the correct interpretation of various kinetic reaction problems in complex systems, as, e.g., in biomolecular association or catalysis. PMID:26931674

  10. Communication: Resonance reaction in diffusion-influenced bimolecular reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Jakob J.; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the influence of a stochastically fluctuating step-barrier potential on bimolecular reaction rates by exact analytical theory and stochastic simulations. We demonstrate that the system exhibits a new "resonant reaction" behavior with rate enhancement if an appropriately defined fluctuation decay length is of the order of the system size. Importantly, we find that in the proximity of resonance, the standard reciprocal additivity law for diffusion and surface reaction rates is violated due to the dynamical coupling of multiple kinetic processes. Together, these findings may have important repercussions on the correct interpretation of various kinetic reaction problems in complex systems, as, e.g., in biomolecular association or catalysis.

  11. Possibilities for synthesis of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X. J.; Gao, Y.; Li, J. Q.; Zhang, H. F.

    2016-04-01

    In order to find a way to produce superheavy nuclei (SHN), which appear in the gap between the SHN synthesized by cold fusion and those by hot fusion, or those so far not yet been produced in the laboratory, we tried to make use of a set of projectile isotopic chains, to use a radioactive beam projectile, and to test symmetric fusion reactions for gaining more neutrons to synthesize neutron-richer SHN based on the dinuclear system (DNS) model via cold fusion reactions. It is found that the nuclei 265Mt,Ds,272268,273Rg, and 274,275,276Cn may be produced with the detectable evaporation residual cross sections. The intensities of radioactive beams are significantly less than those of the stable beams, therefore using a stable beam is predicted to be the most favorable method for producing SHN. From the symmetric reaction system 136Xe+136Xe , no fusion event was found.

  12. Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Cobalt--(6)Pyrrole Cluster: Density Functional Theory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputro, Adhitya G.; Rusydi, Febdian; Kasai, Hideaki; Dipojono, Hermawan K.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the potential energy surface profile for various water formation reaction schemes on an unsupported cobalt--(6)pyrrole [Co--(6)Ppy] cluster in the vacuum state by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that in the Co--(6)Ppy cluster, the formation of H2O2 is energetically not favorable. Instead of forming H2O2ad, the \\text{HO\\text{2ad} + H reaction forms 2OHad or \\text{O\\text{ad} + H2O immediately. The adsorption of H2O2 on the Co--(6)Ppy cluster is possible only if the H2O2 molecule comes from or forms outside of the cluster. The formation of two OH molecules instead of H2O2 on the Co--(6)Ppy cluster suggests that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) mechanism on the unsupported Co--(6)Ppy cluster in the vacuum state prefers the direct four-electron reduction to water.

  13. Writing audit findings: Be reasonable

    SciTech Connect

    Girvin, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    A customary approach to auditing and reporting deficiencies is to keep a running list of those that are found, evaluate the severity of each, and based on the evidence, document findings or observations or concerns in an audit report. The report is issued and the auditee is normally requested to address root cause'' as part of their corrective action. This paper describes a root problems'' approach to documenting audit findings that is designed not only to put the QA auditor in a more favorable light, but to more effectively enable the auditee to identify root cause and meaningful corrective action. The positive results of this approach are considerable. You will have fewer findings but those you do have will be substantial. You will cite requirements that sound reasonable and make arguments difficult. If some of the supporting deficiencies (examples) prove to be incorrect, you will still have ample support for the original finding. You will be seen as reasonable individual who can help lead the auditee towards identification of root cause without taking away part of the responsibility. You even have a fair chance of fostering a sense of commitment to quality improvement on the auditee's part. This in itself, is its own reward.

  14. Writing audit findings: Be reasonable!

    SciTech Connect

    Girvin, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    A customary approach to auditing and reporting deficiencies is to keep a running list of those that are found, evaluate the severity of each, and based on the evidence, document findings or observations or concerns in an audit report. The report is issued and the auditee is normally requested to address ``root cause`` as part of their corrective action. This paper describes a ``root problems`` approach to documenting audit findings that is designed not only to put the QA auditor in a more favorable light, but to more effectively enable the auditee to identify root cause and meaningful corrective action. The positive results of this approach are considerable. You will have fewer findings but those you do have will be substantial. You will cite requirements that sound reasonable and make arguments difficult. If some of the supporting deficiencies (examples) prove to be incorrect, you will still have ample support for the original finding. You will be seen as reasonable individual who can help lead the auditee towards identification of root cause without taking away part of the responsibility. You even have a fair chance of fostering a sense of commitment to quality improvement on the auditee`s part. This in itself, is its own reward.

  15. 49 CFR 805.735-5 - Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan, or any other thing of monetary value, from a person.... (e) Members and employees shall not accept a gift, present, decoration, or other thing from a...

  16. Bidirectional correction in social judgments: how a cue to the risk of bias causes more favorable ratings of some groups but less favorable of others.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Øyvind; Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Correction of judgments of people of different ethnicities and sexes was explored by exposing participants to cues to the risk of making biased judgments (from explicit warnings to subtle hints). In three experiments, a three-way interaction was revealed, where the effect of a cue to bias varied as a function of both the ethnicity and sex of the target person. Some targets (White males) were generally rated less favorably when judges were reminded of bias, whereas other targets (Black males, Middle Eastern males and White females) were generally rated more favorably, indicating bidirectional correction. Finally, a normative account of the results was explored. In a pattern consistent with the experimental results, it was considered more important to avoid overrating White men than all other groups, and more important to avoid underrating all other groups than White men. The results are discussed in relation to theories of correction and intergroup bias. PMID:23484343

  17. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Jessica; Jeanguenin, Lisa; Castro, Norma; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Dudley, Jason; Pipkin, Joseph; Walls, Stanley M.; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R.; Harris, Greg L.; Brasser, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total) or were given access only to water (control). Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4)-desaturase (Degs2), an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels achieved by

  18. Translocation t(11;14) in newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma: Is it always favorable?

    PubMed

    Leiba, Merav; Duek, Adrian; Amariglio, Ninette; Avigdor, Abraham; Benyamini, Noam; Hardan, Izhar; Zilbershats, Itay; Ganzel, Chezi; Shevetz, Olga; Novikov, Ilya; Cohen, Yossi; Ishoev, Galina; Rozic, Gabriela; Nagler, Arnon; Trakhtenbrot, Luba

    2016-09-01

    The most common translocation in multiple myeloma (MM) is t(11;14)(q13;q32). According to several studies, this translocation represents a unique subset of patients with relatively favorable outcomes. Using combined analyses of morphology and fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH), we examined the co-occurrence rates of t(11;14) with seven chromosomal aberrations (CAs), del(13q), del(17p), del(1p), gain(1q), multiple gains(1q), del(16q), and del(IGH), and assessed the effect of the different combinations on patient outcomes, with overall survival (OS) as the main outcome measure. Bone marrow samples and clinical data from 212 patients with MM with t(11;14) were analyzed. At least two additional CAs were found in 35% (75/205) of patients and a strong correlation between specific CAs. The occurrence of three CAs [multiple gains of (1q) (HR = 6.94, P = 0.001), del(1p) (HR = 4.47, P = 0.008), and del(IGH) (HR = 2.38, P = 0.002)] exerted a profoundly deleterious effect on median OS when compared with patients with t(11;14) only. Del(17p) and del(13q) have also exerted a deleterious effect albeit to a lesser extent (HR = 2.05, P = 0.07 and HR = 1.81, P = 0.03, respectively). When compared with t(11;14) alone, the addition of certain CAs lead to worse outcomes. These findings may have important clinical and biological implications. Patients with coexisting adverse lesions and t(11;14) may be considered at high risk and managed accordingly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27152944

  19. Drug Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    Most of the time, medicines make our lives better. They reduce aches and pains, fight infections, and control problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes. But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions. One problem is ...

  20. Scintigraphic findings in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Orduña, E; Silva, F

    1995-12-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni is a tropical parasitic disease caused by a blood fluke which inhabits the portal system of humans. Fifteen pediatric patients with the acute disease were evaluated with liver and spleen scintigraphy (LSS). Clinical history, physical examination, and serum chemistries failed to reveal any other underlying systemic disease. Liver and spleen scintigraphies were performed before therapy, 7 months and 9 years after therapy with oxamniquine. LSS initially showed hepatomegaly in 93% of the patients. In the first follow up study a reactive spleen was evident in 78% of the cases, with an unchanged hepatic image. Long term follow up revealed that from the initially enlarged livers, 93% became normal. However, 47% of the spleens were abnormal. The scintigraphic changes observed in the liver over the years were those expected for an acute infection. The findings in the spleen might indicate the persistence of an immunologic reaction with a continuous trigger, probably an antibody. These observations suggest that the LSS can be used in the evaluation and follow-up of these patients. PMID:8637963

  1. Deficient DNA mismatch repair is associated with favorable prognosis in Thai patients with sporadic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Korphaisarn, Krittiya; Pongpaibul, Ananya; Limwongse, Chanin; Roothumnong, Ekkapong; Klaisuban, Wipawi; Nimmannit, Akarin; Jinawath, Artit; Akewanlop, Charuwan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prognostic significance of deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) and BRAF V600E in Thai sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: We studied a total of 211 out of 405 specimens obtained from newly diagnosed CRC patients between October 1, 2006 and December 31, 2007 at Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of CRC tissue samples were analyzed for dMMR by detection of MMR protein expression loss by immunohistochemistry or microsatellite instability using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-DHPLC. BRAF V600E mutational analysis was performed in DNA extracted from the same archival tissues by two-round allele-specific PCR and analyzed by high sensitivity DHPLC. Associations between patient characteristics, MMR and BRAF status with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival plots and log-rank test together with Cox’s proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: dMMR and BRAF V600E mutations were identified in 31 of 208 (14.9%) and 23 of 211 (10.9%) tumors, respectively. dMMR was more commonly found in patients with primary colon tumors rather than rectal cancer (20.4% vs 7.6%, P =0.01), but there was no difference in MMR status between the right-sided and left-sided colon tumors (20.8% vs 34.6%, P = 0.24). dMMR was associated with early-stage rather than metastatic disease (17.3% vs 0%, P = 0.015). No clinicopathological features such primary site or tumor differentiation were associated with the BRAF mutation. Six of 31 (19.3%) samples with dMMR carried the BRAF mutation, while 17 of 177 (9.6%) with proficient MMR (pMMR) harbored the mutation (P = 0.11). Notably, patients with dMMR tumors had significantly superior DFS (HR = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.15-0.77; P = 0.01) and OS (HR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.10-0.84; P = 0.02) compared with patients with pMMR tumors. By contrast, the BRAF V600E mutation had no prognostic impact on DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dMMR and

  2. A Networks Approach to Modeling Enzymatic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Imhof, P

    2016-01-01

    Modeling enzymatic reactions is a demanding task due to the complexity of the system, the many degrees of freedom involved and the complex, chemical, and conformational transitions associated with the reaction. Consequently, enzymatic reactions are not determined by precisely one reaction pathway. Hence, it is beneficial to obtain a comprehensive picture of possible reaction paths and competing mechanisms. By combining individually generated intermediate states and chemical transition steps a network of such pathways can be constructed. Transition networks are a discretized representation of a potential energy landscape consisting of a multitude of reaction pathways connecting the end states of the reaction. The graph structure of the network allows an easy identification of the energetically most favorable pathways as well as a number of alternative routes. PMID:27497170

  3. Probing Hydrothermal Organic Reaction Mechanisms with Hydrothermal Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Gould, I.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    In most hydrothermal organic experiments the emphasis is on reaction product distributions and kinetic measurements, with mechanistic information or the direct evidence of proposed reaction intermediates rare or lacking. We believe that greater mechanistic insight will yield greater predictive power. Previously, we studied the reactions of a model ketone, dibenzylketone (DBK) in aqueous media at 300°C and 700 bars for durations up to several days [1], and found that many of the reaction products arise from coupling of benzyl and related radicals generated through homolytic bond cleavage of DBK. In the present work, we find that in situ photochemical generation of the radicals can provide independent evidence for radical intermediates in the hydrothermal reaction of DBK, yielding valuable insights into the thermal reactions. Hydrothermal photochemical experiments of DBK were conducted in water in sealed fused silica glass tubes at 300°C and 86 bars under UV irradiation for minutes. The short timescale of the experiments allows the primary radical coupling products of DBK to be generated and identified, and their follow-up reactions to be monitored directly. The primary hydrothermal photolysis products include toluene, bibenzyl, a three-benzene-ring product (with isomers), and two four-benzene-ring products (with isomers), which represent a much simpler version of the products obtained through thermal reactions under similar conversions. Most of the observed photolysis products were identical to the ones in the thermal reactions, and those not observed in thermal reactions were found to be the short-lived precursors of the thermal products. As an example, the transformation of one four-ring product to the other was attained and monitored by experiments in which hydrothermal photolysis of DBK was followed by thermolysis at 300°C for a further few hours. The transformation steps included dehydration and isomerization, which were known to be thermodynamically

  4. Sex Differences in Adolescent Reactions Toward Newcomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma; Sones, Gittelle

    Reactions of male and female adolescent pairs to a same sex newcomer were observed as a means of assessing sex differences in indirect aggressive behaviors. Following a problem solving session, the group members rated each other's personality. Adolescent girls made less favorable judgments of the newcomer than did adolescent boys. In addition, on…

  5. Dopamine Receptor D3 Signaling on CD4+ T Cells Favors Th1- and Th17-Mediated Immunity.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Francisco; Prado, Carolina; González, Hugo; Franz, Dafne; Osorio-Barrios, Francisco; Osorio, Fabiola; Ugalde, Valentina; Lopez, Ernesto; Elgueta, Daniela; Figueroa, Alicia; Lladser, Alvaro; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2016-05-15

    Dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) expressed on CD4(+) T cells is required to promote neuroinflammation in a murine model of Parkinson's disease. However, how DRD3 signaling affects T cell-mediated immunity remains unknown. In this study, we report that TCR stimulation on mouse CD4(+) T cells induces DRD3 expression, regardless of the lineage specification. Importantly, functional analyses performed in vivo using adoptive transfer of OVA-specific OT-II cells into wild-type recipients show that DRD3 deficiency in CD4(+) T cells results in attenuated differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells toward the Th1 phenotype, exacerbated generation of Th2 cells, and unaltered Th17 differentiation. The reciprocal regulatory effect of DRD3 signaling in CD4(+) T cells favoring Th1 generation and impairing the acquisition of Th2 phenotype was also reproduced using in vitro approaches. Mechanistic analysis indicates that DRD3 signaling evokes suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 expression, a negative regulator of Th2 development, which indirectly favors acquisition of Th1 phenotype. Accordingly, DRD3 deficiency results in exacerbated eosinophil infiltration into the airways of mice undergoing house dust mite-induced allergic response. Interestingly, our results show that, upon chronic inflammatory colitis induced by transfer of naive CD4(+) T cells into lymphopenic recipients, DRD3 deficiency not only affects Th1 response, but also the frequency of Th17 cells, suggesting that DRD3 signaling also contributes to Th17 expansion under chronic inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, our findings indicate that DRD3-mediated signaling in CD4(+) T cells plays a crucial role in the balance of effector lineages, favoring the inflammatory potential of CD4(+) T cells. PMID:27183640

  6. Validation of favor code linear elastic fracture solutions for finite-length flaw geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, T. L.; Keeney, J. A.; Bryson, J. W.

    1995-02-01

    One of the current tasks within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-funded Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the continuing development of the FAVOR (Fracture, analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) computer code. FAVOR performs structural integrity analyses of embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with stainless steel cladding, to evaluate compliance with the applicable regulatory criteria. Since the initial release of FAVOR, the HSST program has continued to enhance the capabilities of the FAVOR code. ABAQUS, a nuclear quality assurance certified (NQA-1) general multidimensional finite element code with fracture mechanics capabilities, was used to generate a database of stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients (SIFIC's) for a range of axially and circumferentially oriented semieliptical inner-surface flaw geometries applicable to RPV's with an internal radius (Ri) to wall thickness (w) ratio of 10. This database of SIRC's has been incorporated into a development version of FAVOR, providing it with the capability to perform deterministic and probabilistic fracture analyses of RPVs subjected to transients, such as pressurized thermal shock (PTS), for various flaw geometries. This paper discusses the SIFIC database, comparisons with other investigators, and some of the benchmark verification problem specifications and solutions.

  7. The impact of individual ability, favorable team member scores, and student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods.

    PubMed

    Su, Allan Yen-Lun

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the impact of individual ability and favorable team member scores on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods, and examines the moderating effects of student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods. The author also investigates the relationship between student perception of course importance and their responses to social loafing. Results indicate that individual ability on the preference of team-based learning was affected by the three levels of favorable team member scores. For students with a low level of individual ability, the preference for team-based learning was significant among students with each of three levels of favorable team member scores (p < .05). However, the team-based learning and grading methods was not significant (p > .05). The findings also reveal a negative correlation between student perception of course importance and their responses to social loafing (p < .05). Findings note the importance of teachers' grading methods, student perceptions of course importance as well as individual ability and favorable team member scores in the team selection process to promote student attitude toward team-based learning. PMID:18229513

  8. Possibility of the Nonenzymatic Browning (Maillard) Reaction in the ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Shipar, M. Abul Haider

    2008-04-01

    The possibility of the occurrence of the nonenzymatic browning reaction in the gaseous phase in the interstellar medium has been investigated by using Density Functional Theory computations. Mechanisms for the reactions between formaldehyde ( Fald) + glycine ( Gly), Fald + NH 3 and Fald + methylamine ( MeAm) have been proposed, and the possibility of the formation of different compounds in the proposed mechanisms has been evaluated through calculating the Gibb's free energy changes for different steps of the reaction, by following the total mass balance. The Fald + Gly reaction under basic conditions is found as the most favorable for producing 1-methyl-amino methene or 1-methyl-amino methelene ( MAM). The reaction under acidic conditions is found to be the least favorable for producing MAM. The Fald + NH 3 reaction is found to be plausible for the production of MeAm, which can participate by reaction with Fald, resulting in the formation of MAM.

  9. ERAP140/Nbla10993 is a novel favorable prognostic indicator for neuroblastoma induced in response to retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Arai, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Toshinori; Niizuma, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Yohko; Ohira, Miki; Takano, Kunio; Matsumoto, Masahiko; Nakagawara, Akira

    2008-06-01

    In the present study, we identified a gene termed Nbla10993 whose expression levels are higher in favorable neuroblastomas versus unfavorable ones. Structural analysis showed that Nbla10993 is a novel splicing variant of the ER-associated protein of 140 kDa (ERAP140), which lacks the central acidic as well as the COOH-terminal Cys/His-rich domain. Similarly, ERAP140 was preferentially expressed in favorable neuroblastomas relative to unfavorable ones. During the all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma-derived RTBM1 cells, the expression levels of ERAP140/Nbla10993 increased at the mRNA level. Consistent with these observations, the luciferase reporter analysis demonstrated that the ERAP140/Nbla10993 promoter responds to ATRA. In addition, the immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting experiments showed that ERAP140 forms a stable complex with RARalpha but not with RXRalpha in cells, suggesting that ERAP140 is involved in RAR-mediated transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, the quantitative real-time PCR analysis using 109 primary neuroblastoma samples demonstrated that the expression levels of ERAP140/Nbla10993 significantly correlate with a better clinical outcome of neuroblastomas. Taken together, our present findings indicate that ERAP140/Nbla10993 plays an important role in the regulation of ATRA-mediated neuronal differentiation, and is a novel member of prognostic indicators for neuroblastoma. PMID:18497940

  10. Theoretical study of halophilic reactions of stable silylenes with chloro- and bromocarbons.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Der

    2003-02-19

    A theoretical study of the mechanism of the reaction of stable silylenes with halocarbons has been carried out using the B3LYP density functional method. The main findings are as follows: (1) Lewis acid-base complexes formed between silylenes and halocarbons do not play a role in silylene insertion chemistry into halocarbons; therefore, the acid-base complex mechanism proposed by West et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 4186) is not appropriate to describe the disilane formation reaction. (2) The disilane formation reactions follow the energetically favorable general reaction pathway (X = halogen): (i) Y2Si: + HCX3 --> TS1 --> Y2XSi-CHX2. (ii) Y2Si: + Y2XSi-CHX2 --> TS2 --> Y2XSi-SiY2CHX2. (3) The observed preference of stable silylenes to undergo C-X bond insertion rather than C-H bond has been investigated. The theoretical findings suggest that this preference is a result of the thermodynamic factor. (4) Stable silylenes prefer to insert into a C-Br rather than a C-Cl bond because the energy barrier to insertion is lower, and the reaction is more exothermic. PMID:12580593

  11. Drug Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... using any of these products. Some types of food may also cause adverse drug reactions. For example, grapefruit and grapefruit juice, as well as alcohol and caffeine, may affect how drugs work. Every time your doctor ... interactions with any foods or beverages. What about medicines I've used ...

  12. Antibody-mediated cofactor-driven reactions

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions capable of being rate-enhanced by auxiliary species which interact with the reactants but do not become chemically bound to them in the formation of the final product are performed in the presence of antibodies which promote the reactions. The antibodies contain regions within their antigen binding sites which recognize the auxiliary species in a conformation which promotes the reaction. The antigen binding site frequently recognizes a particular transition state complex or other high energy complex along the reaction coordinate, thereby promoting the progress of the reaction along the desired route as opposed to other less favorable routes. Various classes of reaction together with appropriate antigen binding site specificities tailored for each are disclosed.

  13. Anatomy of an Elementary Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Andrew J.; Zare, Richard N.

    1998-09-01

    The alchemists of old sought the knowledge to transform one material to another-for example, base metals into gold-as a path to the elixir of life. As chemists have concerned themselves with the transformation from compound to compound, so they have become involved in trying to uncover the structures of molecules and the pathways that reactions follow. Classically, the study of reaction mechanisms in chemistry encompasses reaction kinetics, the study of velocities or rates of reactions, and reaction dynamics, the study of the nanoscopic motion and rearrangement of atoms during a reactive event. An essential aim of this article is to bring the reader to a favorable vantage point with a brief introduction to reactive dynamics, and from there to describe some examples of recent strategies that have been employed to promote a fundamental understanding of the anatomy of elementary chemical reactions. In the final section we ponder future directions for this rapidly evolving field of research.

  14. Gamma ray line production from cosmic ray spallation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma ray line intensities due to cosmic ray spallation reactions in clouds, the galactic disk and accreting binary pulsars are calculated. With the most favorable plausible assumptions, only a few lines may be detectable to the level of 0.0000001 per sq. cm per sec. The intensities are compared with those generated in nuclear excitation reactions.

  15. Dispersal limitation favors more fecund species in the presence of fitness-equalizing demographic trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shurong; Peng, Zechen; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Demographic equivalence is the central assumption of the neutral theory of species diversity and has attracted much criticism, since species clearly differ from each other in many traits. Two simple answers--that is, dispersal limitation and demographic trade-offs--have been suggested to resolve this problem. Both processes are considered to be capable of making interspecific differences in fitness smaller on their own, thus potentially reconciling neutrality with reality. However, when the two mechanisms operate simultaneously, as they must do in natural communities, we are surprised to find that they interfere with each other in such a way that dispersal limitation favors more fecund species. Fitness equivalence is no longer guaranteed by a perfect trade-off, and contrary to popular belief, dispersal limitation is found to impede rather than facilitate the stochastic coexistence of species. Still, more species can coexist than allowed through demographic equivalence, providing a potentially alternative explanation for biodiversity maintenance in nature. PMID:25905505

  16. Poleward displacement of coastal upwelling-favorable winds in the ocean's eastern boundary currents through the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Dunne, John P.; Sydeman, William J.; García-Reyes, Marisol; Black, Bryan A.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2015-08-01

    Upwelling is critical to the biological production, acidification, and deoxygenation of the ocean's major eastern boundary current ecosystems. A leading conceptual hypothesis projects that the winds that induce coastal upwelling will intensify in response to increased land-sea temperature differences associated with anthropogenic global warming. We examine this hypothesis using an ensemble of coupled, ocean-atmosphere models and find limited evidence for intensification of upwelling-favorable winds or atmospheric pressure gradients in response to increasing land-sea temperature differences. However, our analyses reveal consistent latitudinal and seasonal dependencies of projected changes in wind intensity associated with poleward migration of major atmospheric high-pressure cells. Summertime winds near poleward boundaries of climatological upwelling zones are projected to intensify, while winds near equatorward boundaries are projected to weaken. Developing a better understanding of future changes in upwelling winds is essential to identifying portions of the oceans susceptible to increased hypoxia, ocean acidification, and eutrophication under climate change.

  17. The Changing Format of Reference Collections: Are Research Libraries Favoring Electronic Access over Print?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Sarah; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the holdings of ARL libraries for core reference titles to see if there is a trend towards canceling the print in favor of electronic, and discusses the implications of duplication of titles in both formats. It also looks at the issue within the context of several areas of study including general reference, arts and humanities,…

  18. Secondary Biographies: A Selected List of Recent Biographies for Secondary Students Which Have Been Favorably Reviewed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This annotated bibliography lists 96 recent biographies and autobiographies for secondary students that have been favorably reviewed in the literature. A little more than a quarter of the entries represent books on government or political leaders. Books on writers, sports figures, performers, and historical figures are also well represented. Also…

  19. Predicting Carriers of Ongoing Selective Sweeps without Knowledge of the Favored Allele

    PubMed Central

    Zakov, Shay; Rosenberg, Noah A.; Bafna, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Methods for detecting the genomic signatures of natural selection have been heavily studied, and they have been successful in identifying many selective sweeps. For most of these sweeps, the favored allele remains unknown, making it difficult to distinguish carriers of the sweep from non-carriers. In an ongoing selective sweep, carriers of the favored allele are likely to contain a future most recent common ancestor. Therefore, identifying them may prove useful in predicting the evolutionary trajectory—for example, in contexts involving drug-resistant pathogen strains or cancer subclones. The main contribution of this paper is the development and analysis of a new statistic, the Haplotype Allele Frequency (HAF) score. The HAF score, assigned to individual haplotypes in a sample, naturally captures many of the properties shared by haplotypes carrying a favored allele. We provide a theoretical framework for computing expected HAF scores under different evolutionary scenarios, and we validate the theoretical predictions with simulations. As an application of HAF score computations, we develop an algorithm (PreCIOSS: Predicting Carriers of Ongoing Selective Sweeps) to identify carriers of the favored allele in selective sweeps, and we demonstrate its power on simulations of both hard and soft sweeps, as well as on data from well-known sweeps in human populations. PMID:26402243

  20. Increasing long-term response by selecting for favorable minor alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term response of genomic selection can be improved by considering allele frequencies of selected markers or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A previous formula to weight allele frequency of favorable minor alleles was tested, and 2 new formulas were developed. The previous formula used nonlinear...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  4. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  5. The Art of the Favor: The Connection between Networking and Personal Influence within a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses various strategies for utilizing favors as a means for developing a personal powerbase and influencing individuals within a college setting. Building a personal network of influence centers upon effectively utilizing various strategies including; learning how to control the budget, how to empower others, when to compromise…

  6. 41 CFR 101-39.404 - Claims in favor of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.404 Claims in favor of... Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle is at fault and that party can be reasonably...

  7. Evidence from Biochemical Pathways in Favor of Unfinished Evolution Rather than Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Edward J.; Marzluf, George A.

    2004-01-01

    An argument is made in favor of imperfect or unfinished evolution based on some metabolic pathways in which it seems that intelligent design would have done better. The case studies noted indicate the absence of highly intelligent design and are not intended as comprehensive collection but as a limited sample of inefficient situations in…

  8. Challenging the Courtesy Bias Interpretation of Favorable Clients' Perceptions of Family Planning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Len, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Huapaya, Ana; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Favorable client perceptions of provider's interpersonal behavior in contraceptive delivery, documented in clinic exit questionnaires, appear to contradict results from qualitative evaluations and are attributed to clients' courtesy bias. In this study, trained simulated clients requested services from Ministry of Health providers in three…

  9. Intercultural Attitudes Predict Favorable Study Abroad Expectations of U.S. College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Randi I.; Goldstein, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on identifying intercultural attitudes associated with favorable expectations about participation in study abroad programs. A total of 282 U.S. 1st-year college students completed a questionnaire that included measures of ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, prejudice,…

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 740—License Exception...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS LICENSE EXCEPTIONS Pt. 740, Supp. 3 Supplement No. 3 to Part 740—License Exception...

  12. 49 CFR 805.735-5 - Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees. 805.735-5 Section 805.735-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-5 Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and...

  13. Monetary favors and their influence on neural responses and revealed preference

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ann H.; Kirk, Ulrich; Denfield, George H.; Montague, P. Read

    2010-01-01

    Favors from a sender to a receiver are known to bias decisions made by the recipient, especially when the decision relates to the sender – a feature of social exchange known as reciprocity. Using an art-viewing paradigm possessing no objectively correct answer for preferring one piece of art over another, we show that sponsorship of the experiment by a company endows the company’s logo with the capacity to bias revealed preference for art displayed next to the logo. Merely offering to sponsor the experiment similarly endowed the gesturing company’s logo with the capacity to bias revealed preferences. These effects do not depend upon the size of the displayed art or the proximity of the sponsoring logo to the piece of art. We used fMRI to show that such monetary favors do not modulate a special collection of brain responses, but instead modulate responses in neural networks normally activated by a wide range of preference judgments. The results raise the important possibility that monetary favors bias judgments in domains seemingly unrelated to the favor, but nevertheless act in an implicit way through neural networks that underlie normal, ongoing preference judgments. PMID:20631188

  14. Preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might explain why RNA was favored over its analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wei, Chenyu

    perme-ation, even though it is non-negligibly populated in aqueous solution. The differences in free energy barrier between ribose and arabinose or xylose are due to stronger, highly cooperative, intramolecular interactions between consecutive exocyclic hydroxyl groups, which are stable in non-polar media, but rare in water. Most recently, we extended calculations of permeations to ribonucleosides and their anomers. We determined that, in contrast to sugars, permeation of membranes to these species is nearly identical. This is because sugars of nucleotides exist in the furanose rather than pyranose form. In this form intermolecular interactions between hydroxyl groups are not nearly as efficient for sterical reasons. Our results contribute to the discussion about autotrophic vs. heterotrophic origins of life. Chemical reactions inside protobiological vesicle required supply of organic material from the environment. What was the inventory of organics that must have been delivered to primitive cells is still being debated. According to the autotrophic hypothesis, ancestors of cells pro-duced complex organic molecules from simple substrates. In contrast, the heterotrophic model implies that protocells were able to utilize complex organics delivered from external sources. A possibility of sufficiently efficient uptake of molecules needed to build biopolymers provides an important argument supporting the heterotrophic hypothesis [3]. Viewed in the context of the "RNA world" hypothesis [4], which states that RNA molecules were the first biological poly-mers and acted as both catalysts of biochemical reactions and information storage systems, our results demonstrate that, in the absence of sophisticated mechanisms available to contemporary organisms for achieving selectivity during synthesis and transmembrane transport, preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might have provided a kinetic mechanism that favored its selective incorporation into nucleic acids and

  15. Communication: Enhanced oxygen reduction reaction and its underlying mechanism in Pd-Ir-Co trimetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Hyung Chul; Hwang, Gyeong S.; Manogaran, Dhivya; Lee, Kang Hee; Jin, Seon-ah; You, Dae Jong; Pak, Chanho; Kwon, Kyungjung

    2013-11-28

    Based on a combined density functional theory and experimental study, we present that the electrochemical activity of Pd{sub 3}Co alloy catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can be enhanced by adding a small amount of Ir. While Ir tends to favorably exist in the subsurface layers, the underlying Ir atoms are found to cause a substantial modification in the surface electronic structure. As a consequence, we find that the activation barriers of O/OH hydrogenation reactions are noticeably lowered, which would be mainly responsible for the enhanced ORR activity. Furthermore, our study suggests that the presence of Ir in the near-surface region can suppress Co out-diffusion from the Pd{sub 3}Co substrate, thereby improving the durability of Pd-Ir-Co catalysts. We also discuss the relative roles played by Ir and Co in enhancing the ORR activity relative to monometallic Pd catalysts.

  16. Find a Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can damage neighboring teeth ... find out more. Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can damage neighboring teeth ...

  17. Initiation and Regulation of Complement during Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Stowell, Sean R.; Winkler, Anne M.; Maier, Cheryl L.; Arthur, C. Maridith; Smith, Nicole H.; Girard-Pierce, Kathryn R.; Cummings, Richard D.; Zimring, James C.; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Hemolytic transfusion reactions represent one of the most common causes of transfusion-related mortality. Although many factors influence hemolytic transfusion reactions, complement activation represents one of the most common features associated with fatality. In this paper we will focus on the role of complement in initiating and regulating hemolytic transfusion reactions and will discuss potential strategies aimed at mitigating or favorably modulating complement during incompatible red blood cell transfusions. PMID:23118779

  18. Effective molarity in a nucleic acid-controlled reaction.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Michael J; Price, Nathan E; Gates, Kent S

    2016-06-01

    Positioning of reactive functional groups within a DNA duplex can enable chemical reactions that otherwise would not occur to an appreciable extent. However, few studies have quantitatively defined the extent to which the enforced proximity of reaction partners in duplex DNA can favor chemical processes. Here, we measured substantial effective molarities (as high as 25M) afforded by duplex DNA to a reaction involving interstrand cross-link formation between 2'-deoxyadenosine and a 2-deoxyribose abasic (Ap) site. PMID:27117430

  19. The effects of an intervention to increase liberal arts mathematics and science majors' knowledge of and attitudinal favorability toward the teaching profession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemballa, Carolyn

    In light of the persistent shortage of qualified mathematics and science teachers and the new teacher qualification provisions of the recently passed No Child Left Behind Act, This study tested the impact of an educational intervention designed to enhance interest in public school teaching careers among undergraduate students who were declared/intended majors in mathematics and/or natural science. Besides salary, research reveals content fear as the biggest roadblock to attracting mathematics and science teachers. Because of this, liberal arts majors in mathematics and science are a target pool of individuals to recruit into teaching. The researcher hypothesized that knowledge and attitudinal favorability would both increase after an intervention about teaching careers and that an increase in one variable would be associated with the other. Also, knowledge and attitudinal favorability would have a greater increase after a more intensive intervention than a less intensive intervention or no intervention. The researcher also hypothesized that if undergraduates were less decided in their career, lower classmen, and female, their attitudes toward the teaching profession would increase the most. One hundred eighty-nine college students, 73 males and 116 females, including 85 freshmen, 67 sophomores, 18 juniors and 19 seniors, at University A and University B were randomly assigned to a workshop, reading, or control group. The workshop group attended a workshop about the teaching profession. The reading group read articles with the same information presented in the workshop. The control group read unrelated articles. The findings from this study indicate that an intervention about teaching does significantly increase both knowledge and attitudinal favorability toward teaching (p < .01). A low significant correlation was found between knowledge and attitudinal favorability (p < .05). Findings also suggested that a more intensive intervention yields a higher increase in

  20. Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide: A favorable metal-free catalyst for the N2O reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Sharifi, Fahimeh; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-11-01

    The structural and catalytic properties of Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide (Al-/Si-GO) are studied by means of density functional theory calculations. The relatively large adsorption energy together with the small Alsbnd O or Sisbnd O binding distances indicate that the epoxy groups over the GO surface can strongly stabilize the single Al or Si atom. Hence, Al-GO and Si-GO are stable enough to be utilized in catalytic reduction of N2O by CO molecule. It is found that the adsorption and decomposition of N2O molecule over Si-GO is more favorable than over Al-GO, due to its larger adsorption energy (Eads) and charge transfer (qCT) values. On the other hand, the CO molecule is physically adsorbed over both surfaces, with relatively small Eads and qCT values. Therefore, at the presence of N2O and CO molecules as the reaction gas, the Al or Si atom of the surface should be dominantly covered by N2O molecule. Our results indicate that the N2O decomposition process can take place with a negligible activation energy over Al-/Si-GO surface, where the N2 molecule can be easily released from the surface. Then, the activated oxygen atom (Oads) which remains over the surface reacts with the CO molecule to form the CO2 molecule via the reaction Oads + CO → CO2. Based on the calculated activation energies, it is suggested that both Al-GO and Si-GO can be used as an efficient metal-free catalyst for the reduction of N2O molecule at ambient conditions.

  1. Quantum Chemistry Study of Cycloaddition Pathways for the Reaction of o-Benzyne with Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Functionalization of fullerenes via the [2+2] cycloaddition reaction with o-benzyne has been demonstrated in the laboratory. In contrast, [2+4) cycloaddition products are formed when benzyne reacts with planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations with Becke's hybrid functional and small contracted gaussian basis sets, we are able to reproduce these product preferences. The objective of this work is to explore the functionalization of carbon nanotubes. We have studied o-benzyne cycloaddition products with a [14,0] single-walled nanotube. We find both the [2+2] and [2+4] adducts to be stable, with the latter product being somewhat favored.

  2. Favorable Long-term Prognosis of Cataract Surgery in Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Kulbhushan Prakash; Mahajan, Deepti; Panwar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Scleritis is a rare presentation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, complicated most commonly by iridocyclitis and raised intraocular pressure. These complications can recur in subsequent years, therefore they should be managed well. Case Report: We describe a female patient who developed scleritis, complicated cataract and secondary glaucoma 2 years after being diagnosed by HZO. Secondary glaucoma was managed medically, and the patient underwent extracapsular cataract extraction for the complicated cataract. Final visual acuity was 6/6 and IOP was 22.4 mm Hg. This is a rare report describing favorable long-term (>20 years) prognosis for surgical management of cataract associated with HZO together with scleritis, secondary glaucoma and post-herpetic neuralgia. Conclusion: A favorable outcome may be attained with surgery for complicated cataract associated with HZO if the condition is managed optimally and intraocular inflammation is well controlled. PMID:27413505

  3. Development of Discussion Supporting System Based on the "Value of Favorable Words' Influence"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Tetsuro; Seki, Kazuya; Matsui, Tatsunori; Okamoto, Toshio

    The importance of the WEB chat in discussion has been well known and used effectively in collaborative learning environment. In order to activate discussions, various functions such as identification of participants' roles, motivation to participate, and resolution of depressed discussions are needed. This research proposes the function to calculate the "values of favorable words' influence" on real time, which are estimated by member of participants' words and their transitive structures. In this paper, firstly we define the "values of favorable wards' influence" as an index for the active direction of discussion and the discussion model based on this index, secondly we introduce an architecture of the discussion supporting system based on this model and its performance and finally through some practical experiments we examine the validity and effectiveness of our discussion model.

  4. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    PubMed

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer. PMID:21412442

  5. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeros, William D.; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2016-08-01

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability.

  6. Detecting Two-Spirit erotics: The fiction of Carole laFavor.

    PubMed

    Tatonetti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the life and novels of Carole laFavor, arguing for her importance to and influence in Two-Spirit studies. Along with being a writer, laFavor was a powerful voice for social justice and Indigenous health sovereignty in Minnesota and the nation. Her two novels, Along the Journey River and Evil Dead Center, which both focus on Anishinaabe lesbian detective protagonist Renee LaRoche, are the first lesbian detective fiction published by a Native author. Renee's embrace of a specifically Two-Spirit erotics anchors her to family and brings her tribal community a powerful healing when she employs her skills to protect her people from instances of racism, abuse, and injustice. This article, then, reads these novels as the first of an emerging genre of texts that claim an overtly Two-Spirit erotic as well as vital precursors to the present embrace of sovereign erotics in Indigenous studies. PMID:27254762

  7. Rational selection of structurally diverse natural product scaffolds with favorable ADME properties for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Samiulla, D S; Vaidyanathan, V V; Arun, P C; Balan, G; Blaze, M; Bondre, S; Chandrasekhar, G; Gadakh, A; Kumar, R; Kharvi, G; Kim, H O; Kumar, S; Malikayil, J A; Moger, M; Mone, M K; Nagarjuna, P; Ogbu, C; Pendhalkar, D; Rao, A V S Raja; Rao, G Venkateshwar; Sarma, V K; Shaik, S; Sharma, G V R; Singh, S; Sreedhar, C; Sonawane, R; Timmanna, U; Hardy, L W

    2005-01-01

    Natural product analogs are significant sources for therapeutic agents. To capitalize efficiently on the effective features of naturally occurring substances, a natural product-based library production platform has been devised at Aurigene for drug lead discovery. This approach combines the attractive biological and physicochemical properties of natural product scaffolds, provided by eons of natural selection, with the chemical diversity available from parallel synthetic methods. Virtual property analysis, using computational methods described here, guides the selection of a set of natural product scaffolds that are both structurally diverse and likely to have favorable pharmacokinetic properties. The experimental characterization of several in vitro ADME properties of twenty of these scaffolds, and of a small set of designed congeners based upon one scaffold, is also described. These data confirm that most of the scaffolds and the designed library members have properties favorable to their utilization for creating libraries of lead-like molecules. PMID:15789560

  8. Influences of Mental Illness Stigma on Perceptions of and Responses to Requests for Favors.

    PubMed

    Imai, Tatsuya; Dailey, René

    2016-07-01

    This article examines mental illness stigma effects on a request for a favor from a mentally ill individual. Four hundred and fourteen participants interacted with a hypothetical target on Facebook who was believed to have schizophrenia, depression, or a tooth cavity (i.e., the control group). Participants were asked to rate the favor request in terms of face threat, in addition to writing a response, which was then coded using message design logics. Results indicated that a request by a schizophrenic target threatened participants' positive face more significantly than that of a target with depression or without any mental illness. Participants' responses to the schizophrenic target were more likely to be conventional messages, whereas responses to the depressed target were more likely to be rhetorical messages. Theoretical and practical contributions are considered. PMID:26642875

  9. Domain expertise insulates against judgment bias by monetary favors through a modulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Ulrich; Harvey, Ann; Montague, P. Read

    2011-01-01

    Recent work using an art-viewing paradigm shows that monetary sponsorship of the experiment by a company (a favor) increases the valuation of paintings placed next to the sponsoring corporate logo, an effect that correlates with modulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). We used the same art-viewing paradigm to test a prevailing idea in the domain of conflict-of-interest: that expertise in a domain insulates against judgment bias even in the presence of a monetary favor. Using a cohort of art experts, we show that monetary favors do not bias the experts’ valuation of art, an effect that correlates with a lack of modulation of the VMPFC across sponsorship conditions. The lack of sponsorship effect in the VMPFC suggests the hypothesis that their brains remove the behavioral sponsorship effect by censoring sponsorship-dependent modulation of VMPFC activity. We tested the hypothesis that prefrontal regions play a regulatory role in mediating the sponsorship effect. We show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is recruited in the expert group. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis in nonexpert controls by contrasting brain responses in controls who did not show a sponsorship effect to controls who did. Changes in effective connectivity between the DLPFC and VMPFC were greater in nonexpert controls, with an absence of the sponsorship effect relative to those with a presence of the sponsorship effect. The role of the DLPFC in cognitive control and emotion regulation suggests that it removes the influence of a monetary favor by controlling responses in known valuation regions of the brain including the the VMPFC. PMID:21646526

  10. New Stenting Technique to Achieve Favorable Jailing Configuration on Side Branch Ostium: Bent Stent Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    According to data from stent-enhanced three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, incomplete stent apposition after side branch dilation in coronary bifurcation stenting can be reduced by the free carina type (no links bridged from a carina) and by distal cell rewiring. This is the first report to describe a bent stent technique that was devised to achieve the free carina type (no links bridged from a carina), as a favorable jailing configuration. PMID:27088016

  11. All-Inorganic Colloidal Perovskite Quantum Dots: A New Class of Lasing Materials with Favorable Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Li, Xiaoming; Song, Jizhong; Xiao, Lian; Zeng, Haibo; Sun, Handong

    2015-11-25

    All-inorganic colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots (CsPbX3 , X = Cl, Br, I) are revealed to be a new class of favorable optical-gain materials, which show -combined merits of both colloidal quantum dots and halide perovskites. Low-threshold and -ultrastable stimulated emission is -demonstrated under atmospheric conditions with wavelength tunability across the whole -visible spectrum via either size or composition control. PMID:26448638

  12. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O’Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O’Malley. Overall

  13. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  14. Subdiffusion-reaction processes with A→B reactions versus subdiffusion-reaction processes with A+B→B reactions.

    PubMed

    Kosztołowicz, Tadeusz; Lewandowska, Katarzyna D

    2014-09-01

    We consider the subdiffusion-reaction process with reactions of a type A+B→B (in which particles A are assumed to be mobile, whereas B are assumed to be static) in comparison to the subdiffusion-reaction process with A→B reactions which was studied by Sokolov, Schmidt, and Sagués [Phys. Rev. E 73, 031102 (2006)]. In both processes a rule that reactions can only occur between particles which continue to exist is taken into account. Although in both processes a probability of the vanishing of particle A due to a reaction is independent of both time and space variables (assuming that in the system with the A+B→B reactions, particles B are distributed homogeneously), we show that subdiffusion-reaction equations describing these processes as well as their Green's functions are qualitatively different. The reason for this difference is as follows. In the case of the former reaction, particles A and B have to meet with some probability before the reaction occurs in contradiction with the case of the latter reaction. For the subdiffusion process with the A+B→B reactions we consider three models which differ in some details concerning a description of the reactions. We base the method considered in this paper on a random walk model in a system with both discrete time and discrete space variables. Then the system with discrete variables is transformed into a system with both continuous time and continuous space variables. Such a method seems to be convenient in analyzing subdiffusion-reaction processes with partially absorbing or partially reflecting walls. The reason is that within this method we can determine Green's functions without a necessity of solving a fractional differential subdiffusion-reaction equation with boundary conditions at the walls. As an example, we use the model to find the Green's functions for a subdiffusive reaction system (with the reactions mentioned above), which is bounded by a partially absorbing wall. This example shows how the model

  15. Some features of surface pressure fluctuations in turbulent boundary layers with zero and favorable pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, B. E.; Simpson, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of surface pressure fluctuation spectra, coherence and convective wave speeds from zero and favorable pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers are reported for momentum Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 18,800. The acceleration parameter K is near 2 x 10 to the -7 power for the favorable pressure gradient flow. The outer variables, U sub e, tau sub w and delta sub 1 non-dimensionalize and collapse the spectra for the low to middle range of frequencies for most test cases. The grouping using the inner variable, U sub tau and gamma, collapse the spectra for the middle to high range of frequencies for all test cases. The value of p'/tau sub w was near 3.8 and 2.8 for the smallest values of d+ in the zero and favorable pressure gradient flows, respectively. The coherence exhibits a decay that is not exponential in some cases, but the Corcos similarity parameters omega Delta x/U sub c and omega Delta z/U sub c collapse the data for all test cases. The ratio of U sub c/U sub e increases with omega delta sub 1/U sub e up to omega delta sub 1/U sub e on the order of unity, where U sub c/U sub e becomes nearly constant. This was observed in the present results for both streamwise pressure gradient flows. The experimental results presented show good agreement with previous research.

  16. Development of a new β Ti alloy with low modulus and favorable plasticity for implant material.

    PubMed

    Liang, S X; Feng, X J; Yin, L X; Liu, X Y; Ma, M Z; Liu, R P

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important development directions of the Ti and its alloys is the applications in medical field. Development of new Ti alloys with low elastic modulus and/or favorable biocompatibility plays an important role for promoting its application in medical field. In this work, a new β Ti alloy (Ti-31Nb-6Zr-5Mo, wt.%) was designed for implant material using d-electron alloy design method. Microstructure and tensile properties of the designed alloy after hot rolling (HR) and solution followed by aging treatments (SA) were investigated. Results show that the designed alloy is composed of single β phase. However, microstructural analysis shows that the β phase in the designed alloy separates into Nb-rich and Nb-poor phase regions. The Nb-rich regions in HR specimen are typical elongated fiber texture, but are equiaxed particles with several micrometers in SA specimen. Tensile results show that the designed alloy has low Young's modulus of 44 GPa for HR specimen and 48 GPa for SA specimen which are very close to the extreme of Young's modulus of bulk titanium alloys. At the same time, the designed alloy has favorable plasticity in term of elongation of 26.7% for HR specimen and 20.6% for SA specimen, and appropriate tensile strength over 700 MPa. In short, the designed alloy has low elastic modulus close to that of bone and favorable plasticity and strength which can be a potential candidate for hard tissue replacements. PMID:26838858

  17. Immunohistochemical appearance of corticosteroid contact hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S M; Andrew, S M; Maseruka, H; Beck, M H

    1994-11-01

    We have studied, immunohistochemically, hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids and compared them with allergic contact dermatitis from nickel and appropriate controls. We could find no qualitative differences between nickel and corticosteroid contact reactions, providing further evidence that hypersensitivity to corticosteroids is an immunologically mediated reaction. PMID:7532558

  18. Constrained MSSM favoring new territories: The impact of new LHC limits and a 125 GeV Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowlie, Andrew; Kazana, Malgorzata; Kowalska, Kamila; Munir, Shoaib; Roszkowski, Leszek; Sessolo, Enrico Maria; Trojanowski, Sebastian; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming

    2012-10-01

    We present an updated and extended global analysis of the constrained MSSM (CMSSM) taking into account new limits on supersymmetry from ˜5/fb data sets at the LHC. In particular, in the case of the razor limit obtained by the CMS Collaboration we simulate detector efficiency for the experimental analysis and derive an approximate but accurate likelihood function. We discuss the impact on the global fit of a possible Higgs boson with mass near 125 GeV, as implied by recent data, and of a new improved limit on BR(Bs→μ+μ-). We identify high posterior probability regions of the CMSSM parameters as the stau-coannihilation and the A-funnel region, with the importance of the latter now being much larger due to the combined effect of the above three LHC results and of dark matter relic density. We also find that the focus point region is now disfavored. Ensuing implications for superpartner masses favor even larger values than before, and even lower ranges for dark matter spin-independent cross section, σpSI≲10-9pb. We also find that relatively minor variations in applying experimental constraints can induce a large shift in the location of the best-fit point. This puts into question the robustness of applying the usual χ2 approach to the CMSSM. We discuss the goodness-of-fit and find that, while it is difficult to calculate a p-value, the (g-2)μ constraint makes, nevertheless, the overall fit of the CMSSM poor. We consider a scan without this constraint, and we allow μ to be either positive or negative. We find that the global fit improves enormously for both signs of μ, with a slight preference for μ<0 caused by a better fit to BR(b→sγ) and BR(Bs→μ+μ-).

  19. Reaction pathways of propene pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yena; Su, Kehe; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yan; Zeng, Qingfeng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Litong

    2010-05-01

    The gas-phase reaction pathways in preparing pyrolytic carbon with propene pyrolysis have been investigated in detail with a total number of 110 transition states and 50 intermediates. The structure of the species was determined with density functional theory at B3PW91/6-311G(d,p) level. The transition states and their linked intermediates were confirmed with frequency and the intrinsic reaction coordinates analyses. The elementary reactions were explored in the pathways of both direct and the radical attacking decompositions. The energy barriers and the reaction energies were determined with accurate model chemistry method at G3(MP2) level after an examination of the nondynamic electronic correlations. The heat capacities and entropies were obtained with statistical thermodynamics. The Gibbs free energies at 298.15 K for all the reaction steps were reported. Those at any temperature can be developed with classical thermodynamics by using the fitted (as a function of temperature) heat capacities. It was found that the most favorable paths are mainly in the radical attacking chain reactions. The chain was proposed with 26 reaction steps including two steps of the initialization of the chain to produce H and CH(3) radicals. For a typical temperature (1200 K) adopted in the experiments, the highest energy barriers were found in the production of C(3) to be 203.4 and 193.7 kJ/mol. The highest energy barriers for the production of C(2) and C were found 174.1 and 181.4 kJ/mol, respectively. These results are comparable with the most recent experimental observation of the apparent activation energy 201.9 +/- 0.6 or 137 +/- 25 kJ/mol. PMID:20082392

  20. Global health actors no longer in favor of user fees: a documentary study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the advent of health user fees in low- and middle-income countries in the 1980s, the discourse of global health actors (GHAs) has changed to the disadvantage of this type of healthcare financing mechanism. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the stance of GHAs in the debate on user fees. Methods We conducted documentary research using public documents published by and officially attributed to GHAs from 2005 to 2011. We categorized GHAs into four groups: intergovernmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and working groups and networks. We then classified the GHAs according to their stance relative to the abolition of user fees, and conducted a thematic analysis of their discourse to understand the arguments used by each GHA to justify its stance. Results We identified 56 GHAs, for which we analyzed 140 documents. Among them, 55% were in favor of the abolition of user fees or in favor of free care at the point of delivery. None of the GHAs stated that they were in favor of user fees; however, 30% did not take a stand. Only the World Bank declares that it is both in favor of user fees and in favor of free care at point of service. GHAs generally circumscribe their stance to specific populations (pregnant women, children under 5 years, etc.) or to specific health services (primary, basic, essential). Three types of arguments are used by GHAs to justify their stance: economic, moral and ethical, and pragmatic. Conclusions The principle of “user pays” seems to have fizzled. Production and dissemination of evidence, as well as certain advocacy networks, may have contributed to this change in discourse. However, GHAs should go a step further and translate their words into action, so that free healthcare at the point of delivery becomes a reality in low- and middle-income countries. They should provide technical and financial support to those countries that have chosen to implement user fee

  1. Enhanced Collective Magnetic Properties in 2D Monolayers of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Favored by Local Order and Local 1D Shape Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Toulemon, Delphine; Liu, Yu; Cattoën, Xavier; Leuvrey, Cédric; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Pichon, Benoit P

    2016-02-16

    Magnetic nanoparticle arrays represent a very attractive research field because their collective properties can be efficiently modulated as a function of the structure of the assembly. Nevertheless, understanding the way dipolar interactions influence the intrinsic magnetic properties of nanoparticles still remains a great challenge. In this study, we report on the preparation of 2D assemblies of iron oxide nanoparticles as monolayers deposited onto substrates. Assemblies have been prepared by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and the SAM assisted assembling technique combined to CuAAC "click" reaction. These techniques afford to control the formation of well-defined monolayers of nanoparticles on large areas. The LB technique controls local ordering of nanoparticles, while adjusting the kinetics of CuAAC "click" reaction strongly affects the spatial arrangement of nanoparticles in monolayers. Fast kinetics favor disordered assemblies while slow kinetics favor the formation of chain-like structures. Such anisotropic assemblies are induced by dipolar interactions between nanoparticles as no magnetic field is applied and no solvent evaporation is performed. The collective magnetic properties of monolayers are studied as a function of average interparticle distance, local order and local shape anisotropy. We demonstrate that local control on spatial arrangement of nanoparticles in monolayers significantly strengthens dipolar interactions which enhances collective properties and results in possible super ferromagnetic order. PMID:26807596

  2. [Explosive "Roman find"].

    PubMed

    Stiel, Michael; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2006-01-01

    A case of a 40-year-old hobby archeologist is presented who searched for remains from Roman times. After finding an oblong, cylindrical object, he opened it with a saw to examine it, which triggered an explosion killing the man. The technical investigation of the remains showed that the find was actually a grenade from the 2nd World War. The autopsy findings and the results of the criminological investigation are presented. PMID:16529179

  3. Find a Midwife

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Find a Midwife practice locator is a web-based service that allows you to find midwifery practices in ... practice name, address, phone number, e-mail address, web site and a map of the ... reproductive health services, or gynecologic health, you may leave the birth ...

  4. How to Find the Students' Inner Geek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Marc

    2005-01-01

    As a chemistry professor at a liberal-arts college, the author believes it is his job to find the youthful awe in his students and draw it out so that they will be intrigued once again by science and nature, so that they want to learn about equilibria, pH, and redox reactions. He has to go fishing inside their brains, to find, hook, and reel in…

  5. Description of electromagnetic and favored α transitions in heavy odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, A.; Delion, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    We describe electromagnetic and favored α transitions to rotational bands in odd-mass nuclei built upon a single particle state with angular momentum projection Ω ≠1/2 in the region 88 ≤Z ≤98 . We use the particle coupled to an even-even core approach described by the coherent state model and the coupled channels method to estimate partial α -decay widths. We reproduce the energy levels of the rotational band where favored α transitions occur for 26 nuclei and predict B (" close=")E 2 )">E 2 values for electromagnetic transitions to the band head using a deformation parameter and a Hamiltonian strength parameter for each nucleus, together with an effective collective charge depending linearly on the deformation parameter. Where experimental data are available, the contribution of the single particle effective charge to the total B value is calculated. The Hamiltonian describing the α -nucleus interaction contains two terms, a spherically symmetric potential given by the double-folding of the M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction plus a repulsive core simulating the Pauli principle and a quadrupole-quadrupole (QQ) interaction. The α -decaying state is identified as a narrow outgoing resonance in this potential. The intensity of the transition to the first excited state is reproduced by the QQ coupling strength. It depends linearly both on the nuclear deformation and the square of the reduced width for the decay to the band head, respectively. Predicted intensities for transitions to higher excited states are in a reasonable agreement with experimental data. This formalism offers a unified description of energy levels, electromagnetic and favored α transitions for known heavy odd-mass α emitters.

  6. The development of cambered airfoil sections having favorable lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Donald J

    1949-01-01

    Several groups of new airfoil sections, designated as the NACA 8-series, are derived analytically to have lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers which are favorable in the sense that the abrupt loss of lift, characteristic of the usual airfoil section at Mach numbers above the critical, is avoided. Aerodynamic characteristics determined from two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests at Mach numbers up to approximately 0.9 are presented for each of the derived airfoils. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of these airfoils and the corresponding characteristics of representative NACA 6-series airfoils.

  7. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States.

  8. Favorable outcome of patients affected by rhabdoid tumors due to rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS).

    PubMed

    Kordes, Uwe; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Modena, Piergiorgio; Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Reinhard, Harald; Hasselblatt, Martin; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Frühwald, Michael C

    2014-05-01

    Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome is usually associated with shorter survival in patients with malignant rhabdoid tumors regardless of anatomical origin. Here we present four children harboring truncating heterozygous SMARCB1/INI1 germline mutations with favorable outcome. All four patients received multi-modality treatment, three according to therapeutic recommendations by the EU-RHAB registry, two without radiotherapy, and mean event-free survival accounts for 7 years. In conclusion, intensive treatment with curative intent is justified for children with rhabdoid tumors even if an underlying rhabdoid predisposition syndrome is demonstrated. PMID:24123847

  9. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  10. ReactionMap: an efficient atom-mapping algorithm for chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Fooshee, David; Andronico, Alessio; Baldi, Pierre

    2013-11-25

    Large databases of chemical reactions provide new data-mining opportunities and challenges. Key challenges result from the imperfect quality of the data and the fact that many of these reactions are not properly balanced or atom-mapped. Here, we describe ReactionMap, an efficient atom-mapping algorithm. Our approach uses a combination of maximum common chemical subgraph search and minimization of an assignment cost function derived empirically from training data. We use a set of over 259,000 balanced atom-mapped reactions from the SPRESI commercial database to train the system, and we validate it on random sets of 1000 and 17,996 reactions sampled from this pool. These large test sets represent a broad range of chemical reaction types, and ReactionMap correctly maps about 99% of the atoms and about 96% of the reactions, with a mean time per mapping of 2 s. Most correctly mapped reactions are mapped with high confidence. Mapping accuracy compares favorably with ChemAxon's AutoMapper, versions 5 and 6.1, and the DREAM Web tool. These approaches correctly map 60.7%, 86.5%, and 90.3% of the reactions, respectively, on the same data set. A ReactionMap server is available on the ChemDB Web portal at http://cdb.ics.uci.edu . PMID:24160861

  11. Trimolecular reactions of uranium hexafluoride with water.

    PubMed

    Lind, Maria C; Garrison, Stephen L; Becnel, James M

    2010-04-01

    The hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride (UF(6)) is a key step in the synthesis of uranium dioxide (UO(2)) powder for nuclear fuels. Mechanisms for the hydrolysis reactions are studied here with density functional theory and the Stuttgart small-core scalar relativistic pseudopotential and associated basis set for uranium. The reaction of a single UF(6) molecule with a water molecule in the gas phase has been previously predicted to proceed over a relatively sizable barrier of 78.2 kJ x mol(-1), indicating this reaction is only feasible at elevated temperatures. Given the observed formation of a second morphology for the UO(2) product coupled with the observations of rapid, spontaneous hydrolysis at ambient conditions, an alternate reaction pathway must exist. In the present work, two trimolecular hydrolysis mechanisms are studied with density functional theory: (1) the reaction between two UF(6) molecules and one water molecule, and (2) the reaction of two water molecules with a single UF(6) molecule. The predicted reaction of two UF(6) molecules with one water molecule displays an interesting "fluorine-shuttle" mechanism, a significant energy barrier of 69.0 kJ x mol(-1) to the formation of UF(5)OH, and an enthalpy of reaction (DeltaH(298)) of +17.9 kJ x mol(-1). The reaction of a single UF(6) molecule with two water molecules displays a "proton-shuttle" mechanism, and is more favorable, having a slightly lower computed energy barrier of 58.9 kJ x mol(-1) and an exothermic enthalpy of reaction (DeltaH(298)) of -13.9 kJ x mol(-1). The exothermic nature of the overall UF(6) + 2H(2)O trimolecular reaction and the lowering of the barrier height with respect to the bimolecular reaction are encouraging. PMID:20210345

  12. Atomistic Design of Favored Compositions for Synthesizing the Al-Ni-Y Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Li, J. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, B. X.

    2015-11-01

    For a ternary alloy system promising for obtaining the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the first priority issue is to predict the favored compositions, which could then serve as guidance for the appropriate alloy design. Taking the Al-Ni-Y system as an example, here we show an atomistic approach, which is developed based on a recently constructed and proven realistic interatomic potential of the system. Applying the Al-Ni-Y potential, series simulations not only clarify the glass formation mechanism, but also predict in the composition triangle, a hexagonal region, in which a disordered state, i.e., the glassy phase, is favored energetically. The predicted region is defined as glass formation region (GFR) for the ternary alloy system. Moreover, the approach is able to calculate an amorphization driving force (ADF) for each possible glassy alloy located within the GFR. The calculations predict an optimized sub-region nearby a stoichiometry of Al80Ni5Y15, implying that the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses designed in the sub-region could be the most stable. Interestingly, the atomistic predictions are supported by experimental results observed in the Al-Ni-Y system. In addition, structural origin underlying the stability of the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses is also discussed in terms of a hybrid packing mode in the medium-range scale.

  13. Atomistic Design of Favored Compositions for Synthesizing the Al-Ni-Y Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Li, J. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, B. X.

    2015-01-01

    For a ternary alloy system promising for obtaining the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the first priority issue is to predict the favored compositions, which could then serve as guidance for the appropriate alloy design. Taking the Al-Ni-Y system as an example, here we show an atomistic approach, which is developed based on a recently constructed and proven realistic interatomic potential of the system. Applying the Al-Ni-Y potential, series simulations not only clarify the glass formation mechanism, but also predict in the composition triangle, a hexagonal region, in which a disordered state, i.e., the glassy phase, is favored energetically. The predicted region is defined as glass formation region (GFR) for the ternary alloy system. Moreover, the approach is able to calculate an amorphization driving force (ADF) for each possible glassy alloy located within the GFR. The calculations predict an optimized sub-region nearby a stoichiometry of Al80Ni5Y15, implying that the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses designed in the sub-region could be the most stable. Interestingly, the atomistic predictions are supported by experimental results observed in the Al-Ni-Y system. In addition, structural origin underlying the stability of the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses is also discussed in terms of a hybrid packing mode in the medium-range scale. PMID:26592568

  14. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration.

    PubMed

    Molavian, Hamid R; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  15. Bound on the Slope of Steady Water Waves with Favorable Vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Walter A.; Wheeler, Miles H.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the angle {θ} of inclination (with respect to the horizontal) of the profile of a steady two dimensional inviscid symmetric periodic or solitary water wave subject to gravity. Although {θ} may surpass 30° for some irrotational waves close to the extreme wave, Amick (Arch Ration Mech Anal 99(2):91-114, 1987) proved that for any irrotational wave the angle must be less than 31.15°. Is the situation similar for periodic or solitary waves that are not irrotational? The extreme Gerstner wave has infinite depth, adverse vorticity and vertical cusps (θ = 90°). Moreover, numerical calculations show that even waves of finite depth can overturn if the vorticity is adverse. In this paper, on the other hand, we prove an upper bound of 45° on {θ} for a large class of waves with favorable vorticity and finite depth. In particular, the vorticity can be any constant with the favorable sign. We also prove a series of general inequalities on the pressure within the fluid, including the fact that any overturning wave must have a pressure sink.

  16. CD73 Predicts Favorable Prognosis in Patients with Nonmuscle-Invasive Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wettstein, Marian S.; Buser, Lorenz; Hermanns, Thomas; Roudnicky, Filip; Eberli, Daniel; Baumeister, Philipp; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter; Poyet, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    Aims. CD73 is a membrane associated 5′-ectonucleotidase that has been proposed as prognostic biomarker in various solid tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate CD73 expression in a cohort of patients with primary bladder cancer in regard to its association with clinicopathological features and disease course. Methods. Tissue samples from 174 patients with a primary urothelial carcinoma were immunohistochemically assessed on a tissue microarray. Associations between CD73 expression and retrospectively obtained clinicopathological data were evaluated by contingency analysis. Survival analysis was performed to investigate the predictive value of CD73 within the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors in regard to progression-free survival (PFS). Results. High CD73 expression was found in 46 (26.4%) patients and was significantly associated with lower stage, lower grade, less adjacent carcinoma in situ and with lower Ki-67 proliferation index. High CD73 immunoreactivity in the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors (n = 158) was significantly associated with longer PFS (HR: 0.228; p = 0.047) in univariable Cox regression analysis. Conclusion. High CD73 immunoreactivity was associated with favorable clinicopathological features. Furthermore, it predicts better outcome in the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors and may thus serve as additional tool for the selection of patients with favorable prognosis. PMID:26543299

  17. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, William D; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability. PMID:27497576

  18. Spatial Heterogeneity in Human Activities Favors the Persistence of Wolves in Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mohsen; López-Bao, José Vicente; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As human populations expand, there is increasing demand and pressure for land. Under this scenario, behavioural flexibility and adaptation become important processes leading to the persistence of large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes such as agroecosystems. A growing interest has recently emerged on the outcome of the coexistence between wolves and humans in these systems. It has been suggested that spatial heterogeneity in human activities would be a major environmental factor modulating vulnerability and persistence of this contentious species in agroecosystems. Here, we combined information from 35 den sites detected between 2011 and 2012 in agroecosystems of western Iran (Hamedan province), a set of environmental variables measured at landscape and fine spatial scales, and generalized linear models to identify patterns of den site selection by wolves in a highly-modified agroecosystem. On a landscape level, wolves selected a mixture of rangelands with scattered dry-farms on hillsides (showing a low human use) to locate their dens, avoiding areas with high densities of settlements and primary roads. On a fine spatial scale, wolves primarily excavated dens into the sides of elevated steep-slope hills with availability of water bodies in the vicinity of den sites, and wolves were relegated to dig in places with coarse-soil particles. Our results suggest that vulnerability of wolves in human-dominated landscapes could be compensated by the existence of spatial heterogeneity in human activities. Such heterogeneity would favor wolf persistence in agroecosystems favoring a land sharing model of coexistence between wolves and people. PMID:25251567

  19. Atomistic Design of Favored Compositions for Synthesizing the Al-Ni-Y Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Li, J H; Liu, J B; Liu, B X

    2015-01-01

    For a ternary alloy system promising for obtaining the so-called bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the first priority issue is to predict the favored compositions, which could then serve as guidance for the appropriate alloy design. Taking the Al-Ni-Y system as an example, here we show an atomistic approach, which is developed based on a recently constructed and proven realistic interatomic potential of the system. Applying the Al-Ni-Y potential, series simulations not only clarify the glass formation mechanism, but also predict in the composition triangle, a hexagonal region, in which a disordered state, i.e., the glassy phase, is favored energetically. The predicted region is defined as glass formation region (GFR) for the ternary alloy system. Moreover, the approach is able to calculate an amorphization driving force (ADF) for each possible glassy alloy located within the GFR. The calculations predict an optimized sub-region nearby a stoichiometry of Al80Ni5Y15, implying that the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses designed in the sub-region could be the most stable. Interestingly, the atomistic predictions are supported by experimental results observed in the Al-Ni-Y system. In addition, structural origin underlying the stability of the Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses is also discussed in terms of a hybrid packing mode in the medium-range scale. PMID:26592568

  20. Smooth folds favoring gypsum precipitation in the Messinian Poniente marginal basin (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrera, Antonio; Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Lobo, Francisco J.

    2015-11-01

    The Poniente Basin lies in a folded sector located at the boundary between the eastern Betic Cordillera and the Alborán Sea. We reconstruct its 3D geometry combining depth-migrated 2D seismic reflection sections with borehole and surface structural data. The folds have been interplaying with sedimentation since late Miocene time. Growth strata allow us to reconstruct both the folding history and the average shortening rate. Two isolated antiforms began to grow during the late Tortonian, separated by an antiformal saddle point. A rectilinear fold-linkage sector between initially isolated short segments developed during the Messinian, eventually forming a subcylindrical ENE-WSW-trending antiform that has continued growing symmetrically since the Pleistocene. The antiform formed a barrier that favored Messinian evaporite deposition along the contiguous synform to the north. The vertical breakup between the lower parts of the synform and the barrier anticline culmination ranges from 500 to 700 m. In the last 7.2 Ma, the analyzed folds accommodated a shortening of 52 m/Ma along a 20 km-wide band. At a Mediterranean scale, our study sheds light on the propagation mode of barriers that favor the precipitation of gypsum in peripheral basins by restricting water exchange with the open sea, before the main phase of evaporite deposition occurred in the deep basin.

  1. Messages from the Inside. The Dynamic Environment that Favors Intestinal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Eri, Rajaraman; Chieppa, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    An organism is defined as "an individual living thing capable of responding to stimuli, growing, reproducing, and maintaining homeostasis." Early during evolution multicellular organisms explored the advantages of a symbiotic life. Mammals harbor a complex aggregate of microorganisms (called microbiota) that includes bacteria, fungi, and archaea. Some of these bacteria have already defined beneficial roles for the human host that include the ability to break down nutrients that could not otherwise be digested, preventing the growth of harmful species, as well as the ability to produce vitamins or hormones. It is intuitive that along the evolutionary path several mechanisms favored bacteria that provided advantages to the host which, in return, avoided launching an aggressive immunological response against them. The intestinal immunological response does not ignore the lumenal content, on the contrary, immune surveillance is favored by continuous antigen sampling. Some intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) are crucial during the sampling process, others actively participate in the defense mechanism. In essence the epithelium acts as a traffic light, communicating to the inside world whether conditions are safe or dangerous, and thus influencing immunological response. In this review we will discuss the dynamic factors that act on the intestinal ECs and how they directly or indirectly influence immune cells during states of health and disease. PMID:24130559

  2. Favorable outcome of a total hip arthroplasty with insufficient bone coverage of the roof reinforcement ring

    PubMed Central

    Judas, Fernando M.; Lucas, Francisco M.; Fonseca, Ruben L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Total hip arthroplasty in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip can be a complex procedure due to acetabular and proximal femoral deformities. Presentation of case A 59-year-old male patient underwent a total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of end-stage dysplastic osteoarthritis. A roof reinforcement ring, a cemented polyethylene cup, and a cementless stem were used. A portion of the superior rim of the ring was uncovered by the host bone. Morsellized autogenous femoral-head graft was impacted to fill the space between the superior rim of the ring and the superior part of the dysplastic acetabulum. At the follow-up after 5-years, the patient had no complaints and was very satisfied with the operation result. The hip radiograph revealed no signs of instability of the acetabular component, and no bone graft resorption. Discussion Favorable results were described using metal rings and conical femoral stems for the treatment of the developmental dysplasia of the hip. The superior rim of the metal ring should be against host bone for 60% of its support. Despite the suboptimal implantation of the ring compromising, apparently, mechanical stability of the arthroplasty, the outcome was favorable. Conclusion This result can be supported by the good fixation of the metal ring to the pelvis with screws, the adequate orientation of both components of the total hip arthroplasty, and the bone graft incorporation. PMID:26453941

  3. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Molavian, Hamid R.; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  4. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-04-01

    This report discusses probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis which is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the NRC for evaluation of the integrity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. It is anticipated that there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code which is accepted by the NRC and utilities, as more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) PTS PFM code, which is intended to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as PFM global modeling methodology, the capability to approximate the effects of thermal streaming on circumferential flaws located inside a plume region created by fluid and thermal stratification, a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an adequate range of two and three dimensional inside surface flaws, the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports, and user friendliness.

  5. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis which is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the NRC for evaluation of the integrity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. It is anticipated that there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code which is accepted by the NRC and utilities, as more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) PTS PFM code, which is intended to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as PFM global modeling methodology, the capability to approximate the effects of thermal streaming on circumferential flaws located inside a plume region created by fluid and thermal stratification, a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an adequate range of two and three dimensional inside surface flaws, the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports, and user friendliness.

  6. Messages from the Inside. The Dynamic Environment that Favors Intestinal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Eri, Rajaraman; Chieppa, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    An organism is defined as “an individual living thing capable of responding to stimuli, growing, reproducing, and maintaining homeostasis.” Early during evolution multicellular organisms explored the advantages of a symbiotic life. Mammals harbor a complex aggregate of microorganisms (called microbiota) that includes bacteria, fungi, and archaea. Some of these bacteria have already defined beneficial roles for the human host that include the ability to break down nutrients that could not otherwise be digested, preventing the growth of harmful species, as well as the ability to produce vitamins or hormones. It is intuitive that along the evolutionary path several mechanisms favored bacteria that provided advantages to the host which, in return, avoided launching an aggressive immunological response against them. The intestinal immunological response does not ignore the lumenal content, on the contrary, immune surveillance is favored by continuous antigen sampling. Some intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) are crucial during the sampling process, others actively participate in the defense mechanism. In essence the epithelium acts as a traffic light, communicating to the inside world whether conditions are safe or dangerous, and thus influencing immunological response. In this review we will discuss the dynamic factors that act on the intestinal ECs and how they directly or indirectly influence immune cells during states of health and disease. PMID:24130559

  7. Find a Physical Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and students of physical therapy. Other Popular Resources: - Member Directory - Annual Reports Careers & Education Find Jobs Courses & Conferences About PT/PTA Careers Career Management ...

  8. Find a Cancer Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Status message Locating you... The Find an Oncologist Database is made available by ASCO as an informational resource for patients and caregivers. The database includes the names of physicians and other health ...

  9. Find a Physical Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are numerous benefits to treatment by a physical therapist. Go There » For Patients Choosing Your PT Preparing ... need to know before your appointment with your physical therapist. Go There » Find a PT For Health Professionals ...

  10. Find an ACFAS Physician

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Text Size Print Bookmark Find an ACFAS Physician Acceptance Policy By clicking on the "I Accept" ... Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Dem People's Rep Korea, Rebublic Of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan ...

  11. Find a Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts Find Help News and Research Tips for Soldiers and Veterans Tips for Families and Friends Take ... questions to ask for yourself and for your child . If we can be of further assistance Contact ...

  12. Finding New Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) Initial findings are presented for several new variable stars that have been identified using CCD photometry done with the 0.9-meter telescope located at the BYU West Mountain Observatory.

  13. ASGE: Find a Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join ASGE Event Calendar Cart LOG IN MEMBERS HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS PATIENTS ADVOCACY Advocacy Agenda Legislation Regulation Take Action ... New Members GI-Related Links MEMBERS Find A Doctor About ASGE Members ASGE physicians and surgeons have ...

  14. Finding a Neurosurgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... The first step in getting proper treatment for Chiari is to find the right doctor. While many ... neurologist, given that the only real treatment for Chiari is surgical, Conquer Chiari recommends that patients see ...

  15. Finding Your Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author offers ways on how to find a voice when telling or sharing stories in print or in person. To find a voice, someone must: (1) Trust themselves; (2) Trust their audience whether they know they can trust them or not; (3) Be respectful in their inventions; (4) Listen to and read the stories of others; (5) Make mistakes; (6)…

  16. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attachment to the Constitution; favorable... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... been and continues to be attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States...

  17. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth...

  18. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth...

  19. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth...

  20. 45 CFR 1303.23 - Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of the current or... CURRENT OR PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Current or Prospective Delegate Agencies § 1303.23 Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency. (a) The responsible HHS...

  1. 45 CFR 1303.23 - Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of the current or... CURRENT OR PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Current or Prospective Delegate Agencies § 1303.23 Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency. (a) The responsible HHS...

  2. 45 CFR 1303.23 - Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of the current or... CURRENT OR PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Current or Prospective Delegate Agencies § 1303.23 Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency. (a) The responsible HHS...

  3. 45 CFR 1303.23 - Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of the current or... CURRENT OR PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Current or Prospective Delegate Agencies § 1303.23 Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency. (a) The responsible HHS...

  4. 45 CFR 1303.23 - Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of the current or... CURRENT OR PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Current or Prospective Delegate Agencies § 1303.23 Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency. (a) The responsible HHS...

  5. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth...

  6. Birth Weight, Birth Length, and Gestational Age as Indicators of Favorable Fetal Growth Conditions in a US Sample

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    The “fetal origins” hypothesis suggests that fetal conditions not only affect birth characteristics such as birth weight and gestational age, but also have lifelong health implications. Despite widespread interest in this hypothesis, few methodological advances have been proposed to improve the measurement and modeling of fetal conditions. A Statistics in Medicine paper by Bollen, Noble, and Adair examined favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) as a latent variable. Their study of Filipino children from Cebu provided evidence consistent with treating FFGC as a latent variable that largely mediates the effects of mother’s characteristics on birth weight, birth length, and gestational age. This innovative method may have widespread utility, but only if the model applies equally well across diverse settings. Our study assesses whether the FFGC model of Cebu replicates and generalizes to a very different population of children from North Carolina (N = 705) and Pennsylvania (N = 494). Using a series of structural equation models, we find that key features of the Cebu analysis replicate and generalize while we also highlight differences between these studies. Our results support treating fetal conditions as a latent variable when researchers test the fetal origins hypothesis. In addition to contributing to the substantive literature on measuring fetal conditions, we also discuss the meaning and challenges involved in replicating prior research. PMID:27097023

  7. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages express interleukin-25 and predict a favorable prognosis in patients with gastric cancer after radical resection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinqing; Liao, Yuan; Ding, Tong; Wang, Bo; Yu, Xingjuan; Chu, Yifan; Xu, Jing; Zheng, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-25 (IL-25) is a recently identified member of the proinflammatory IL-17 cytokine family; however, its role in human tumors remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular source and clinical significance of IL-25 in gastric cancer (GC) in situ. The results demonstrated that macrophages (Mφs) were the primary IL-25-expressing cells (IL-25+) in GC in situ. Moreover, IL-25+ cells were highly enriched in the intra-tumoral (IT) region of GC tissues (p < 0.001). The production of IL-25 in Mφs exposed to culture supernatant from gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 in vitro was induced by transforming growth factor-β1, and their density in the IT region was positively associated with those of other effector immune cells, namely, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and CD103+T cells (p < 0.01). This suggested that macrophages might produce IL-25 to create an antitumor micromilieu in GC tissues. The level of IL-25+IT cells was positively associated with histological grade (p < 0.001) and found to be an independent predictor of favorable survival (p = 0.024) in patients with GC after radical resection. These findings suggest that IL-25+IT cells may be a novel therapeutic target in those patients. PMID:26840565

  8. Favorable locations for piezo actuators in plates with good control effectiveness and minimal change in system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuri, K. D.; Seshu, P.

    2007-12-01

    Placement and sizing of piezo actuators is normally based on control effectiveness. However, retrofitting of piezoelectric actuators alters the inherent stiffness/mass properties of the parent structure. In rotating structures, the additional mass due to piezo patches contributes to the centrifugal stiffening force. The parent structure is originally designed to have a certain natural frequency spectrum in relation to the disturbance excitation. In the event of failure of the active system, the dynamics of the structure with piezos (now rendered passive) will therefore become significant. Thus it will be helpful to determine locations for mounting piezo patches based on minimal natural frequency change yet with good control authority. In this study, a finite element based procedure for plate structures is presented. Favorable locations for mounting piezos based on minimal natural frequency changes are iteratively evolved from an initial configuration wherein the whole plate is covered with piezos. A modal controllability approach has been used for finding piezo mounting locations from a good controllability perspective. The procedure is demonstrated for simply supported square, swept-back, circular and rotating rectangular plates considering the first four modes.

  9. Combined phosphate and nitrogen limitation generates a nutrient stress transcriptome favorable for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Laurent; Huguet, Stéphanie; Wipf, Daniel; Pauly, Nicolas; Truong, Hoai-Nam

    2013-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is stimulated by phosphorus (P) limitation and contributes to P and nitrogen (N) acquisition. However, the effects of combined P and N limitation on AM formation are largely unknown. Medicago truncatula plants were cultivated in the presence or absence of Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly Glomus intraradices) in P-limited (LP), N-limited (LN) or combined P- and N-limited (LPN) conditions, and compared with plants grown in sufficient P and N. The highest AM formation was observed in LPN, linked to systemic signaling by the plant nutrient status. Plant free phosphate concentrations were higher in LPN than in LP, as a result of cross-talk between P and N. Transcriptome analyses suggest that LPN induces the activation of NADPH oxidases in roots, concomitant with an altered profile of plant defense genes and a coordinate increase in the expression of genes involved in the methylerythritol phosphate and isoprenoid-derived pathways, including strigolactone synthesis genes. Taken together, these results suggest that low P and N fertilization systemically induces a physiological state of plants favorable for AM symbiosis despite their higher P status. Our findings highlight the importance of the plant nutrient status in controlling plant-fungus interaction. PMID:23506613

  10. Danish Holsteins Favor Bull Offspring: Biased Milk Production as a Function of Fetal Sex, and Calving Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves is a confounding factor for milk production. However, calving weight was not available in the present data set to test this hypothesis. PMID:25874441