Science.gov

Sample records for finder coronagraph simulations

  1. Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph status and enabling technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Virginia G.; Lisman, Douglas; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Ho, Timothy Y.; Kissil, Andrew; Kwack, Eug-Yun; Lowman, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Project Mission is to find life-bearing planets around nearby stars. Two types of instruments are competing for flight in 2015: a visible coronagraph and an infrared interferometer.

  2. The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph dynamics error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Marchen, Luis; Green, Joseph J.; Lay, Oliver P.

    2005-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (TPF-C) demands extreme wave front control and stability to achieve its goal of detecting earth-like planets around nearby stars. We describe the performance models and error budget used to evaluate image plane contrast and derive engineering requirements for this challenging optical system.

  3. High Contrast Imaging Testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowmman, Andrew E.; Trauger, John T.; Gordon, Brian; Green, Joseph J.; Moody, Dwight; Niessner, Albert F.; Shi, Fang

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission is planning to launch a visible coronagraphic space telescope in 2014. To achieve TPF science goals, the coronagraph must have extreme levels of wavefront correction (less than 1 Angstrom rms over controllable spatial frequencies) and stability to get the necessary suppression of diffracted starlight (approximately l0(exp -10)) contrast at an angular separation approximately 4 (lamda)/D). TPF Coronagraph's primary platform for experimentation is the High Contrast Imaging Testbed, which will provide laboratory validation of key technologies as well as demonstration of a flight-traceable approach to implementation. Precision wavefront control in the testbed is provided by a high actuator density deformable mirror. Diffracted light control is achieved through use of occulting or apodizing masks and stops. Contrast measurements will establish the technical feasibility of TPF requirements, while model and error budget validation will demonstrate implementation viability. This paper describes the current testbed design, development approach, and recent experimental results.

  4. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph : technology and mission design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Virginia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) coronagraph study involves exploring the technologies that enable a coronagraph style instrument to image and characterize earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars. Testbeds have been developed to demonstrate the emerging technologies needed for this effort and an architecture study has resulted in designs of a facility that will provide the environment needed for the technology to function in this role. A broad community of participants is involved in this work through studies, analyses, fabrication of components, and participation in the design effort. The scope of activities - both on the technology side and in the architecture study side - will be presented in this paper. The status and the future plans of the activities will be reviewed.

  5. Metrology system for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklin, Stuart; Marchen, Luis; Zhao, Feng; Peters, Robert D.; Ho, Tim; Holmes, Buck

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) employs an aggressive coronagraph designed to obtain better than 1e-10 contrast inside the third Airy ring. Minute changes in low-order aberration content scatter significant light at this position. One implication is the requirement to control low-order aberrations induced by motion of the secondary mirror relative to the primary mirror; sub-nanometer relative positional stability is required. We propose a 6-beam laser truss to monitor the relative positions of the two mirrors. The truss is based on laser metrology developed for the Space Interferometry Mission.

  6. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph overview of technology development & system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjuthapatham; Ford, Virginia; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Hoppe, Daniel; Shaklan, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have discovered over 150 planets orbiting other stars. NASA mission; Find and characterize terrestrial (or rocky) exo-planets that might harbor life (like Earth)liquid water on the planet (habitable zone). An atmosphere that indicates the presence of life water, oxygen, ozone, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll, and methane. Two missions under development: A coronagraph and an interferometer.

  7. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph 2005: Overview of Technology Development and System Design Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Virginia G.

    2005-01-01

    Technology research, design trades, and modeling and analysis guide the definition of a Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph Mission that will search for and characterize earth-like planets around near-by stars. Operating in visible wavebands, this mission will use coronagraphy techniques to suppress starlight to enable capturing and imaging the reflected light from a planet orbiting in the habitable zone of its parent star. The light will be spectrally characterized to determine the presence of life-indicating chemistry in the planet atmosphere.

  8. Passive isolator design for jitter reduction in the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaurock, Carl; Liu, Kuo-Chia; Dewell, Larry; Alexander, James

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is a mission to locate and study extrasolar Earth-like planets. The TPF Coronagraph (TPF-C), planned for launch in the latter half of the next decade, will use a coronagraphic mask and other optics to suppress the light of the nearby star in order to collect visible light from such planets. The required contrast ratio of 5e-11 can only be achieved by maintaining pointing accuracy to 4 milli-arcseconds, and limiting optics jitter to below 5 nm. Numerous mechanical disturbances act to induce jitter. This paper concentrates on passive isolation techniques to minimize the optical degradation introduced by disturbance sources. A passive isolation system, using compliant mounts placed at an energy bottleneck to reduce energy transmission above a certain frequency, is a low risk, flight proven design approach. However, the attenuation is limited, compared to an active system, so the feasibility of the design must be demonstrated by analysis. The paper presents the jitter analysis for the baseline TPF design, using a passive isolation system. The analysis model representing the dynamics of the spacecraft and telescope is described, with emphasis on passive isolator modeling. Pointing and deformation metrics, consistent with the TPF-C error budget, are derived. Jitter prediction methodology and results are presented. Then an analysis of the critical design parameters that drive the TPF-C jitter response is performed.

  9. Linear Thermal Expansion Measurements of Lead Magnesium Niobate (PMN) Electroceramic Material for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlmann, Paul B.; Halverson, Peter G.; Peters, Robert D.; Levine, Marie B.; VanBuren, David; Dudik, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Linear thermal expansion measurements of nine samples of Lead Magnesium Niobate (PMN) electroceramic material were recently performed in support of NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (TPF-C) mission. The TPF-C mission is a visible light coronagraph designed to look at roughly 50 stars pre- selected as good candidates for possessing earth-like planets. Upon detection of an earth-like planet, TPF-C will analyze the visible-light signature of the planet's atmosphere for specific spectroscopic indicators that life may exist there. With this focus, the project's primary interest in PMN material is for use as a solid-state actuator for deformable mirrors or compensating optics. The nine test samples were machined from three distinct boules of PMN ceramic manufactured by Xinetics Inc. Thermal expansion measurements were performed in 2005 at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in their Cryogenic Dilatometer Facility. All measurements were performed in vacuum with sample temperature actively controlled over the range of 270K to 3 10K. Expansion and contraction of the test samples with temperature was measured using a JPL developed interferometric system capable of sub-nanometer accuracy. Presented in this paper is a discussion of the sample configuration, test facilities, test method, data analysis, test results, and future plans.

  10. Development of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph membrane V-grooves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Ho, Timothy; Chen, Gun-Shing; Quijano, Ubaldo

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder mission will study all aaspecs of planets outside our solar system: from their formation and development in disks of dust and gas around newly forming stars to the presence of those planets orbiting the nearest stars; from the numbers at various sizes and places to their suitability as an abode for life.

  11. An integral field spectrograph design concept for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodgate, Bruce; Mentzell, Eric; Hilton, George; Lindler, Don

    2006-06-01

    An integral field spectrograph following the TPF coronagraph can provide the required spectral resolving power R ˜ 70 with spatial resolution at the telescope diffraction limit, and covering the coronagraphic dark hole. This allows spectra to be obtained of all planets around the star simultaneously, spectra of disks, measurement of residual speckles for subtraction, and insensitivity to roll control and alignment. Short spectra and the many spatial elements required are most easily implemented using a microlens array at the entrance to a prism spectrograph. To minimize the size of the special photon-counting CCD detectors required, a high filling factor of detector pixel usage is desired. This can be accomplished by using a crossed cylindrical microlens array to create virtual slits at the focus of each lenslet. The lenslets must be illuminated by a highly asymmetric image scale, for which we use cylindrical mirrors to magnify the image in one direction while de-magnifying in the orthogonal direction.

  12. Advanced computer graphic techniques for laser range finder (LRF) simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedkowski, Janusz; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2008-11-01

    This paper show an advanced computer graphic techniques for laser range finder (LRF) simulation. The LRF is the common sensor for unmanned ground vehicle, autonomous mobile robot and security applications. The cost of the measurement system is extremely high, therefore the simulation tool is designed. The simulation gives an opportunity to execute algorithm such as the obstacle avoidance[1], slam for robot localization[2], detection of vegetation and water obstacles in surroundings of the robot chassis[3], LRF measurement in crowd of people[1]. The Axis Aligned Bounding Box (AABB) and alternative technique based on CUDA (NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture) is presented.

  13. Band-limited image plane masks for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: materials and designs for broadband performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2008-01-01

    Coronagraphs for detection and characterization of exosolar earthlike planets require accurate masks with broadband performance in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Design and fabrication of image plane masks capable of suppressing broadband starlight to 10-10 level contrast presents technical challenges. We discuss basic approaches, material choices, designs, and fabrication options for image plane masks with particular focus on material properties to obtain adequate spectral performance. Based on theoretical analysis, we show that metals such as Pt and Ni, and alloys such as Inconel, may be employed as promising mask materials that can meet broadband performance requirements.

  14. Dynamic simulations for the Terrestrial Planet Finder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Yong; Hamlin, Louise A.; Wirz, Richie; Adams, Douglas; Moore, Greg; Coppolino, Robert; Peng, Chia-Yen; Levine, Marie

    2005-08-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I) mission requires a set of formation-flying collector telescopes that direct the incoming light to a beam combiner where the beams are combined and detected to identify habitable planets. A baseline TPF collector design, using a primary mirror of 4.2 meters in diameter, is used here to conduct a dynamic study. The objective is to investigate the effects of dynamic response of the spacecraft on the system optical performance at the presence of disturbances that arise from the reaction wheel assembly and thruster loading, respectively. Frequency responses where the frequency is associated with the flywheel speed are presented in the paper. The results focus on the surface oscillation of the primary mirror and the point at which the secondary mirror is located. Transient response simulations under the baseline four thruster-assembly configuration were conducted using various duty cycles and thrust levels determined by the TPF formation rotation requirements. This paper will also describe an investigation conducted using new IMOS (Integrated Modeling of Optical Systems), which is an open, multi-disciplinary, and Matlab-based dynamic/optical system simulation code. A pre-processor that is able to generate the sub-structure modal models required by ISYSD (Integrated System Dynamics) was developed in new IMOS. ISYSD is used to develop a high-fidelity system dynamic model by integrating the sub-structure modal models. Finally, the paper will summarize current and future work in order to meet the TPF dynamic requirements.

  15. TPF coronagraph instrument design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, S B.; Balasubramanian, K.; Ceperly, D.; Green, J.; Hoppe, D.; Lay, O. P.; Lisman, P. D.; Mouroulis, P. Z.

    2005-01-01

    For the past 2 years, NASA has invested substantial resources to study the design and performance of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (TPF-C). The work, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with collaboration from Goddard Space Flight Center and several university and commercial entities, encompasses observatory design, performance modeling, materials characterization, primary mirror studies, and a significant technology development effort including a high-contrast imaging testbed that has achieved 1e-9 contrast in a laboratory experiment.

  16. Accurate time delay technology in simulated test for high precision laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Xiao, Wenjian; Wang, Weiming; Xue, Mingxi

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous development of technology, the ranging accuracy of pulsed laser range finder (LRF) is higher and higher, so the maintenance demand of LRF is also rising. According to the dominant ideology of "time analog spatial distance" in simulated test for pulsed range finder, the key of distance simulation precision lies in the adjustable time delay. By analyzing and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of fiber and circuit delay, a method was proposed to improve the accuracy of the circuit delay without increasing the count frequency of the circuit. A high precision controllable delay circuit was designed by combining the internal delay circuit and external delay circuit which could compensate the delay error in real time. And then the circuit delay accuracy could be increased. The accuracy of the novel circuit delay methods proposed in this paper was actually measured by a high sampling rate oscilloscope actual measurement. The measurement result shows that the accuracy of the distance simulated by the circuit delay is increased from +/- 0.75m up to +/- 0.15m. The accuracy of the simulated distance is greatly improved in simulated test for high precision pulsed range finder.

  17. Comparison of Simulated Contrast Performance of Different Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andreas; Shaklan, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    We compare the broadband contrast performances of several Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph configurations through modeling and simulations. The basic optical design of the PIAA coronagraph is the same as NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) setup at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Using a deformable mirror and a broadband wavefront sensing and control algorithm, we create a "dark hole" in the broadband point-spread function (PSF) with an inner working angle (IWA) of 2(f lambda/D)(sub sky). We evaluate two systems in parallel. One is a perfect system having a design PIAA output amplitude and not having any wavefront error at its exit-pupil. The other is a realistic system having a design PIAA output amplitude and the measured residual wavefront error. We also investigate the effect of Lyot stops of various sizes when a postapodizer is and is not present. Our simulations show that the best 7.5%-broadband contrast value achievable with the current PIAA coronagraph is approximately 1.5x10(exp -8).

  18. Simulated contrast performance of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Kern, Brian; Belikov, Ruslan; Kuhnert, Andreas; Shaklan, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    We evaluate the broadband contrast performance of a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph configuration through modeling and simulations. Broadband occulter mask design for PIAA-CMC is at an early stage, and a study of the effects of wavefront control on broadband contrast is needed to determine the level of control the occulting mask must achieve, so that the combination of occulter and wavefront control optimization meets contrast targets. The basic optical design of the PIAA coronagraph is the same as NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) setup at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Using two deformable mirrors and a broadband wavefront sensing and control algorithm, we create a "dark hole" in the broadband point-spread function (PSF) with an inner working angle (IWA) of 2(fλ/D)sky. We evaluate a system using PIAA mirrors to create an apodization but not having any wavefront error at its exit-pupil, and having an obscured pupil and a new, 20-ring PIAACMC occulting mask. We also investigate the effect of Lyot stops of various sizes. For the configuration simulated here with the second-generation PIAA mirrors and early mask designs (which were not yet fully optimized), the best 10% broadband contrast value was ~6.1×10-8. This is a 2x improvement beyond what the coronagraph produces in the absence of wavefront control, which implies that further improvement must come from architecture changes or further mask optimization improvements.

  19. Simulating a Direction-Finder Search for an ELT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bream, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A computer program simulates the operation of direction-finding equipment engaged in a search for an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) aboard an aircraft that has crashed. The simulated equipment is patterned after the equipment used by the Civil Air Patrol to search for missing aircraft. The program is designed to be used for training in radio direction-finding and/or searching for missing aircraft without incurring the expense and risk of using real aircraft and ground search resources. The program places a hidden ELT on a map and enables the user to search for the location of the ELT by moving a 14 NASA Tech Briefs, March 2005 small aircraft image around the map while observing signal-strength and direction readings on a simulated direction- finding locator instrument. As the simulated aircraft is turned and moved on the map, the program updates the readings on the direction-finding instrument to reflect the current position and heading of the aircraft relative to the location of the ELT. The software is distributed in a zip file that contains an installation program. The software runs on the Microsoft Windows 9x, NT, and XP operating systems.

  20. Simulations of Detectability of Extrasolar Planets by a Joint Doppler and WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chontos, Ashley; Macintosh, Bruce; Nielsen, Eric

    2016-03-01

    A long-term goal for the astronomical community is to image and characterize an Earth-like planet. The WFIRST-AFTA space mission will make advancements towards this goal. WFIRST will include a coronagraphic instrument to discover and characterize new exoplanets and to better characterize already known exoplanets. Although the WFIRST coronagraph will be very powerful, mission time to discover new planetary systems is limited. Identifying promising targets in advance could significantly enhance the scientific yield. We present results of simulations using a Doppler survey to find lower mass planets as possible targets for WFIRST. For simulations, simplified completeness estimates (Howard & Fulton 2014) are used to test the sensitivity of a prospective Doppler campaign. We use data from the HARPS spectrograph to determine exposure times needed to achieve 1 m/s uncertainty. Stellar jitter was randomly sampled from a uniform distribution based on spectral type, treating OBA-type, FGK-type, and M-type stars separately. For survey parameters, we use campaign parameters from the WIYN telescope, assuming 10 hours per night at 100 nights per year over 6 years. In any one simulation, we find roughly 45-50 new planets that are potentially observable by WFIRST. By limiting our targets to FGKM type stars within 10 parsecs, we expect one of those planets to be less than 10 Earth masses.

  1. Path Finder

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-01-07

    PathFinder is a graph search program, traversing a directed cyclic graph to find pathways between labeled nodes. Searches for paths through ordered sequences of labels are termed signatures. Determining the presence of signatures within one or more graphs is the primary function of Path Finder. Path Finder can work in either batch mode or interactively with an analyst. Results are limited to Path Finder whether or not a given signature is present in the graph(s).

  2. Simulation-Based Verification of Autonomous Controllers via Livingstone PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, A. E.; Pecheur, Charles

    2004-01-01

    AI software is often used as a means for providing greater autonomy to automated systems, capable of coping with harsh and unpredictable environments. Due in part to the enormous space of possible situations that they aim to addrs, autonomous systems pose a serious challenge to traditional test-based verification approaches. Efficient verification approaches need to be perfected before these systems can reliably control critical applications. This publication describes Livingstone PathFinder (LPF), a verification tool for autonomous control software. LPF applies state space exploration algorithms to an instrumented testbed, consisting of the controller embedded in a simulated operating environment. Although LPF has focused on NASA s Livingstone model-based diagnosis system applications, the architecture is modular and adaptable to other systems. This article presents different facets of LPF and experimental results from applying the software to a Livingstone model of the main propulsion feed subsystem for a prototype space vehicle.

  3. NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has decided to move forward with two complementary Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) missions, a visible coronagraph and an infrared formation flying interferometer. These missions are major missions in the NASA Office of Space Science Origins Theme. The primary science objectives of the TPF missions are to search for, detect, and characterize planets and planetary systems beyond our own Solar System, including specifically Earth-like planets.

  4. Low-order aberration sensitivity of eighth-order coronagraph masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Green, Joseph J.

    2005-01-01

    In a recent paper, Kuchner, Crepp, and Ge describe new image-plane coronagraph mask designs that reject to eighth order the leakage of starlight caused by image motion at the mask, resulting in a substantial relaxation of image centroiding requirements compared to previous fourth-order and second-order masks. They also suggest that the new masks are effective at rejecting leakage caused by low-order aberrations (e.g., focus, coma, and astigmatism). In this paper, we derive the sensitivity of eighth-order masks to aberrations of any order and provide simulations of coronagraph behavior in the presence of optical aberrations.We find that the masks leak light as the fourth power of focus, astigmatism, coma, and trefoil. This has tremendous performance advantages for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph.

  5. Low-Order Aberration Sensitivity of Eighth-Order Coronagraph Masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Green, Joseph J.

    2005-07-01

    In a recent paper, Kuchner, Crepp, and Ge describe new image-plane coronagraph mask designs that reject to eighth order the leakage of starlight caused by image motion at the mask, resulting in a substantial relaxation of image centroiding requirements compared to previous fourth-order and second-order masks. They also suggest that the new masks are effective at rejecting leakage caused by low-order aberrations (e.g., focus, coma, and astigmatism). In this paper, we derive the sensitivity of eighth-order masks to aberrations of any order and provide simulations of coronagraph behavior in the presence of optical aberrations. We find that the masks leak light as the fourth power of focus, astigmatism, coma, and trefoil. This has tremendous performance advantages for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph.

  6. Simulations of Detectability of Extrasolar Planets by a Joint Doppler and WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chontos, Ashley; Macintosh, Bruce; Nielsen, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    A long-term goal for the astronomical community is to image and characterize an Earth-like planet. The WFIRST-AFTA space mission will make advancements towards this goal. WFIRST will include a coronagraphic instrument to discover and characterize new exoplanets and to better characterize already known exoplanets. We present results of simulations using a Doppler survey to find lower mass planets as possible targets for WFIRST. For simulations, simplified completeness estimates (Howard & Fulton 2014) are used to test the sensitivity of a prospective Doppler campaign. We use data from the HARPS spectrograph to determine exposure times needed to achieve 1 m/s uncertainty. Stellar jitter was randomly sampled from a uniform distribution based on spectral type, treating OBA-type, FGK-type, and M-type stars separately. For survey parameters, we use campaign parameters from the WIYN telescope, assuming 10 hours per night at 100 nights per year over 6 years. In any one simulation, we find roughly 45-50 new planets that are potentially observable by WFIRST. By limiting our targets to FGKM type stars within 10 parsecs, we expect one of those planets to be less than 10 ME.

  7. Fault finder

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  8. Planet Detection Algorithms for the Terrestrial Planet Finder-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Braems, I.

    2005-12-01

    Critical to mission planning for the terrestrial planet finder coronagraph (TPF-C) is the ability to estimate integration times for planet detection. This detection is complicated by the presence of background noise due to local and exo-zodiacal dust, by residual speckle due optical errors, and by the dependence of the PSF shape on the specific coronagraph. In this paper we examine in detail the use of PSF fitting (matched filtering) for planet detection, derive probabilistic bounds for the signal-to-noise ratio by balancing missed detection and false alarm rates, and demonstrate that this is close to the optimal linear detection technique. We then compare to a Bayesian detection approach and show that for very low background the Bayesian method offers integration time improvements, but rapidly approaches the PSF fitting result for reasonable levels of background noise. We confirm via monte-carlo simulations. This work was supported under a grant from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and by a fellowship from the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (INRIA).

  9. Study of Coronagraphic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, V.; Aziz, M.; Gonsalves, R.; Korzennik, S.; Labeyrie, A.; Lyon, R.; Melnick, G.; Somerstein, S.; Vasudevan, G.; Woodruff, R.

    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets is important for determining the properties of individual planets, for studying multi-planet systems, and for observing the spatial structure of debris disks. Obtaining spectra of extra-solar planets enables us to constrain the composition of planetary atmospheres and surfaces, their climates, and their rotation periods. The techniques required to isolate and detect an extra-solar planet next to its host star are quite challenging and require significant improvement. SAO has set up a testbed to study coronagraphic techniques, starting with Labeyrie's multi-step speckle reduction technique. The testbed consists of a classical coronagraph with high precision optics. A telescope is simulated by a 2 inch spherical mirror with lambda/1000 surface quality. The focal length (1 meter) of this mirror was chosen that spherical aberration can be neglected. A spatially-filtered laser simulates the host star and an optional attenuated second laser simulates the planet. As an additional option, we can incorporate apodizing masks to further improve the performance of the coronagraph. The output signal of the coronagraph is fed into a single Labeyrie correction stage. It consists of a mirror to relay the light onto a 140-element MEMS deformable mirror (DM) for the phase correction. The reflected light is then focused onto a second occulter to block most of the speckle light and finally imaged onto a CCD. The phase correction function and, thus, the drive signal for the DM, is derived from images taken in and slightly out of the focal plane using phase diversity. The expected performance improvement is about one order of magnitude. An advanced concept utilizing phase and amplitude correction promises an even higher degree of speckle light suppression. In addition, we are using the testbed to characterize occulter masks developed in collaboration with Harvard University and Lockheed Martin Corp. At Harvard University we are developing a method

  10. Data processing and algorithm development for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph: reduction of noise free simulated images, analysis and spectrum extraction with reference star differential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ygouf, Marie; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall D.; van der Marel, Roeland; Macintosh, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Direct detection and characterization of mature giant or sub-Neptunes exoplanets in the visible require space-based instruments optimized for high-contrast imaging with contrasts of 10-9. In this context, the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope - Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) will reach raw contrasts of about 8×10-9 to 10-9 using state-of-the-art starlight suppression and wavefront control techniques. A ten-fold contrast improvement is therefore expected using post-processing techniques to reduce the speckle noise level to a factor of at least 10 lower in order to distinguish 10-9 planets from speckles. Point spread function (PSF) subtractions have been successfully applied to ground-based and space-based data with contrasts up to 10-6 but performance has yet to be demonstrated at higher contrast levels. We use both a classical PSF subtraction and the Karunhen-Loéve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm to reduce noise free WFIRST-AFTA-like simulated images in the context of reference star differential imaging (RDI). The two WFIRST-AFTA baseline coronagraphs are considered for this study: the hybrid lyot coronagraph (HLC) for the imaging channel and the shaped-pupil coronagraph (SPC) for the integral field spectrograph channel (IFS). The two reduction methods are compared with respect to the amount and stability of the aberrations for detection in the imaging channel and preliminary spectra extractions are performed for characterization in the IFS channel.

  11. An Update on Simulating Imaging, Spectroscopic, and Coronagraphic PSFs for JWST (and WFIRST too!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Long, Joseph D.; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Van Gorkom, Kyle

    2016-06-01

    Simulated point spread functions (PSFs) are an essential tool in preparing for future space telescopes, supporting pre-launch science simulations, observation planning, and analysis software development. The open-source Python package WebbPSF provides simulated PSFs for all of JWST's instruments and observing modes. We present the latest updates to WebbPSF based on both updated models ofthe assembled telescope optics and recent cryo-test data for the science instruments. Outputs from this latest version of WebbPSF will support the JWST Exposure Time Calculator and the first calls for proposals in the year ahead, among many other uses by the community. Furthermore, the same toolkit also now provides support for simulating PSFs for both the WFI and CGI instruments planned for WFIRST.

  12. Optimizing WFIRST Coronagraph Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce

    We propose an in-depth scientific investigation that will define how the WFIRST coronagraphic instrument will discover and characterize nearby planetary systems and how it will use observations of planets and disks to probe the diversity of their compositions, dynamics, and formation. Given the enormous diversity of known planetary systems it is not enough to optimize a coronagraph mission plan for the characterization of solar system analogs. Instead, we must design a mission to characterize a wide variety of planets, from gas and ice giant planets at a range of separations to mid-sized planets with no analogs in our solar system. We must consider updated planet distributions based on the results of the Kepler mission, long-term radial velocity (RV) surveys and updated luminosity distributions of exo-zodiacal dust from interferometric thermal infrared surveys of nearby stars. The properties of all these objects must be informed by our best models of planets and disks, and the process of using WFIRST observations to measure fundamental planetary properties such as composition must derive from rigorous methods. Our team brings a great depth of expertise to inform and accomplish these and all of the other tasks enumerated in the SIT proposal call. We will perform end-to-end modeling that starts with model spectra of planets and images of disks, simulates WFIRST data using these models, accounts for geometries of specific star / planet / disk systems, and incorporates detailed instrument performance models. We will develop and implement data analysis techniques to extract well-calibrated astrophysical signals from complex data, and propose observing plans that maximize the mission's scientific yield. We will work with the community to build observing programs and target lists, inform them of WFIRSTs capabilities, and supply simulated scientific observations for data challenges. Our work will be informed by the experience we have gained from building and observing with

  13. Terrestrial Planet Finder: science overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Beichman, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) seeks to revolutionize our understanding of humanity's place in the universe - by searching for Earth-like planets using reflected light, or thermal emission in the mid-infrared. Direct detection implies that TPF must separate planet light from glare of the nearby star, a technical challenge which has only in recent years been recognized as surmountable. TPF will obtain a low-resolution spectra of each planets it detects, providing some of its basic physical characteristics and its main atmospheric constituents, thereby allowing us to assess the likelihood that habitable conditions exist there. NASA has decided the scientific importance of this research is so high that TPF will be pursued as two complementary space observatories: a visible-light coronagraph and a mid-infrared formation flying interferometer. The combination of spectra from both wavebands is much more valuable than either taken separately, and it will allow a much fuller understanding of the wide diversity of planetary atmospheres that may be expected to exist. Measurements across a broad wavelength range will yield not only physical properties such as size and albedo, but will also serve as the foundations of a reliable and robust assessment of habitability and the presence of life.

  14. Terrestrial Planet Finder: Technology Development Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindensmith, Chris

    2004-01-01

    One of humanity's oldest questions is whether life exists elsewhere in the universe. The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission will survey stars in our stellar neighborhood to search for planets and perform spectroscopic measurements to identify potential biomarkers in their atmospheres. In response to the recently published President's Plan for Space Exploration, TPF has plans to launch a visible-light coronagraph in 2014, and a separated-spacecraft infrared interferometer in 2016. Substantial funding has been committed to the development of the key technologies that are required to meet these goals for launch in the next decade. Efforts underway through industry and university contracts and at JPL include a number of system and subsystem testbeds, as well as components and numerical modeling capabilities. The science, technology, and design efforts are closely coupled to ensure that requirements and capabilities will be consistent and meet the science goals.

  15. Holographic Vortex Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palacios, David

    2010-01-01

    A holographic vortex coronagraph (HVC) has been proposed as an improvement over conventional coronagraphs for use in high-contrast astronomical imaging for detecting planets, dust disks, and other broadband light scatterers in the vicinities of stars other than the Sun. Because such light scatterers are so faint relative to their parent stars, in order to be able to detect them, it is necessary to effect ultra-high-contrast (typically by a factor of the order of 1010) suppression of broadband light from the stars. Unfortunately, the performances of conventional coronagraphs are limited by low throughput, dispersion, and difficulty of satisfying challenging manufacturing requirements. The HVC concept offers the potential to overcome these limitations.

  16. The Lyman alpha coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Reeves, E. M.; Kirkham, B.

    1977-01-01

    The rocket-borne Lyman alpha coronagraph (RLAC) is to be used in the absence of a natural solar eclipse to determine coronal temperatures from measurements of the line width of Lyman-alpha and to determine neutral hydrogen densities of coronal material from the absolute intensity. The coronagraph consists of a 75-cm Fastie-Ebert scanning spectrometer with an AMR 641 photoelectric detection system, an off-axis parabolic primary mirror, and an occulting system. A special optical arrangement achieves rejection of radiation from the solar disk.

  17. Study of High-Performance Coronagraphic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, Volker; Aziz, M. J.; Gonsalves, R. A.; Korzennik, S. G.; Labeyrie, A.; Lyon, R. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Somerstein, S.; Vasudevan, G.; Woodruff, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    We will provide a progress report about our study of high-performance coronagraphic techniques. At SAO we have set up a testbed to test coronagraphic masks and to demonstrate Labeyrie's multi-step speckle reduction technique. This technique expands the general concept of a coronagraph by incorporating a speckle corrector (phase or amplitude) and second occulter for speckle light suppression. The testbed consists of a coronagraph with high precision optics (2 inch spherical mirrors with lambda/1000 surface quality), lasers simulating the host star and the planet, and a single Labeyrie correction stage with a MEMS deformable mirror (DM) for the phase correction. The correction function is derived from images taken in- and slightly out-of-focus using phase diversity. The testbed is operational awaiting coronagraphic masks. The testbed control software for operating the CCD camera, the translation stage that moves the camera in- and out-of-focus, the wavefront recovery (phase diversity) module, and DM control is under development. We are also developing coronagraphic masks in collaboration with Harvard University and Lockheed Martin Corp. (LMCO). The development at Harvard utilizes a focused ion beam system to mill masks out of absorber material and the LMCO approach uses patterns of dots to achieve the desired mask performance. We will present results of both investigations including test results from the first generation of LMCO masks obtained with our high-precision mask scanner. This work was supported by NASA through grant NNG04GC57G, through SAO IR&D funding, and by Harvard University through the Research Experience for Undergraduate Program of Harvard's Materials Science and Engineering Center. Central facilities were provided by Harvard's Center for Nanoscale Systems.

  18. Pointing Control System Design and Performance Evaluation for TPF Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Kuo-Chia; Blaurock, Carl; Mosier, Gary

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) program aims to detect and characterize extra-solar Earth-like planets. The coronagraph telescope is one of the four mission concepts being studied. In order to reject the star flux and detect the planet flux in the visible light range, the coronagraph telescope must achieve a rejection ratio on the order of a billion to one. Dynamic jitter, introduced by environmental and on-board mechanical disturbances, degrades the optical performance, as characterized primarily by contrast ratio. The feasibility of using passive vibration isolation combined with active attitude and line-of- sight control systems to stabilize the spacecraft and the optical components to the requisite level is being studied. The telescope is also required to slew between targets. The slew mode control law must be designed to balance the need for efficient large-angle maneuvers while simultaneously avoiding the excitation of flexible modes in order to minimize settling time.

  19. Friend Finder (Game)

    MedlinePlus

    ... form Search Español Vea esta página en español Video and Media Friend Finder (Game) Email Embed Grab ... Might Also Like 1:02 The Protection Connection (Video) Teaches kids how to protect themselves online with ...

  20. DAVINCI a Dilute Aperture Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for DAVINCI was originally to make use of the technology developed for space interferometers like SIM to build a coronagraph from four 1.1m telescopes that was dramatically lower in cost than a 4 5m filled aperture offaxis coronagraph. Our initial studies through team X have shown this cost savings to be real. But a more careful analysis showed that DAVINCI would have an inner working angle of 35mas a factor of 2 smaller than a 2 lambda/D 4 meter coronagraph or 70m external occulter, resulting in a 10X increase in the number of potential Earth-Clone targets. DAVINCI uses a nulling interferometer as a coronagraph, a nulling interferometer is one the few coronagraph architectures that are compatible with segmented and dilute aperture telescopes. Combined with a post coronagraph wavefront sensor several ultra-demanding tolerances of conventional coronagraphs can be relaxed by factors of 100. The post coronagraph wavefront sensor is also much less affected by local and exozodi background than wavefront sensors that use the science camera as the wavefront sensor. The post coronagraph interferometer is also used on ground based extreme AO coronagraphs, GPI, and P1640.

  1. Stellar Double Coronagraph: A Multistage Coronagraphic Platform at Palomar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottom, Michael; Shelton, J. Chris; Wallace, James K.; Bartos, Randall; Kuhn, Jonas; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Burruss, Rick; Serabyn, Eugene

    2016-07-01

    We present a new instrument, the “Stellar Double Coronagraph,” a flexible coronagraphic platform. Designed for Palomar Observatory's 200″ Hale telescope, its two focal and pupil planes allow for a number of different observing configurations, including multiple vortex coronagraphs in series for improved contrast at small angles. We describe the motivation, design, observing modes, wavefront control approaches, data reduction pipeline, and early science results. We also discuss future directions for the instrument.

  2. High-contrast coronagraph performance in the presence of DM actuator defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Shaklan, Stuart; Cady, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Deformable Mirrors (DMs) are critical elements in high contrast coronagraphs, requiring precision and stability measured in picometers to enable detection of Earth-like exoplanets. Occasionally DM actuators or their associated cables or electronics fail, requiring a wavefront control algorithm to compensate for actuators that may be displaced from their neighbors by hundreds of nanometers. We have carried out experiments on our High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) to study the impact of failed actuators in partial fulfilment of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph optical model validation milestone. We show that the wavefront control algorithm adapts to several broken actuators and maintains dark-hole contrast in broadband light.

  3. Study of coronagraphic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, Volker; Aziz, Michael; Gonsalves, Robert A.; Korzennik, Sylvain; Labeyrie, Antoine; Lyon, Richard; Melnick, Gary; Schlitz, Ruth; Somerstein, Steve; Vasudevan, Gopal; Woodruff, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) has set up a program to study coronagraphic techniques. The program consists of the development of new fabrication methods of occulter masks, characterization of the manufactured masks, and application of the masks to study speckle reduction technique. Our occulter mask fabrication development utilizes a focused ion beam system to directly shape mask profiles from absorber material. Initial milling trials show that we can shape nearly Gaussian-shaped mask profiles. Part of this development is the characterization of absorber materials, poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with light-stable chromophores. For the characterization of the masks we have built a mask scanner enabling us to scan the transmission function of occulter masks. The real mask transmission profile is retrieved applying the maximum entropy method to deconvolve the mask transmission function from the beam profile of the test laser. Finally, our test bed for studying coronagraphic techniques is nearing completion. The optical setup is currently configured as a classical coronagraph and can easily be re-configured for studying speckle reduction techniques. The development of the test bed control software is under way. This paper we will give an update of the status of the individual program elements.

  4. Apodized Phase Mask Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Among the optical instruments proposed to detect and characterize exoplanets, phase masks coronagraphs offer very small inner working angles. Designed for off-axis telescopes, their performance is greatly reduced when used with centrally obstructed apertures such as those of the Palomar telescope, the very large telescope, or the James Webb space telescope. However, a clear circular aperture is not the only pupil shape for which a phase mask coronagraph can work properly. In fact, for a given centrally obstructed aperture, we show that it is possible to compute optimal apodizers that help achieve stellar extinction levels similar to those obtained in the ideal case of an off-axis telescope. Trade-offs exist between these levels, the transmission of the apodizer, and the area covered by the Lyot stop. We detail the Fourier optics formalism that makes these optimizations possible, as well as a few examples of shaped pupils. Some are designed for a four-quadrants phase mask, and some others for a vortex phase mask. We also offer a comparison with a coronagraph solely composed of a shaped pupil.

  5. Planning and Developing JWST Coronagraphs Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Soummer, Remi; Pueyo, Laurent; Hines, Dean C.; Blair, William; Stansberry, John; Perrin, Marshall; Golimovski, David; Nelan, Ed; The JWST Coronagraphs Working Group

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will carry multiple coronagraphs in order to enable high-contrast imaging of exoplanets, circumstellar disks, and active galactic nuclei environments. NIRCam and MIRI will each allow observers to design coronagraphic observations using a diversity of filters and focal plane masks at different wavelengths, thus allowing for the characterization of faint objects close to their bright host. The JWST Coronagraphs Working Group (CWG), which is comprised of partners from the instruments teams, STScI, NExSci, IPAC, GSFC, and JPL, has been leading the effort to optimize the operations of the JWST coronagraphs, both in terms of efficiency and performance. It is detailing the operations of various sub-systems such as templates for the Astronomer’s Proposal Tool (APT), Exposure Time Calculator (ETC), pipeline, target acquisition, and calibration sequences. The JWST CWG uses various numerical simulations with the latest predicted observatory and instrument characteristics to determine optimal operational procedures and expected performance. Here, we describe the current state of the JWST CWG effort and discuss the planned implementation of these operations concepts as part of the JWST Science & Operations Center ground systems components. In particular, we discuss target acquisition efficiency strategies, astrometric/photometric calibration, and improved contrast performance using small-grid dithers.

  6. Study of High Performance Coronagraphic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Phil (Technical Monitor); Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Study of High Performance Coronagraphic Techniques project (called CoronaTech) is: 1) to verify the Labeyrie multi-step speckle reduction method and 2) to develop new techniques to manufacture soft-edge occulter masks preferably with Gaussian absorption profile. In a coronagraph, the light from a bright host star which is centered on the optical axis in the image plane is blocked by an occulter centered on the optical axis while the light from a planet passes the occulter (the planet has a certain minimal distance from the optical axis). Unfortunately, stray light originating in the telescope and subsequent optical elements is not completely blocked causing a so-called speckle pattern in the image plane of the coronagraph limiting the sensitivity of the system. The sensitivity can be increased significantly by reducing the amount of speckle light. The Labeyrie multi-step speckle reduction method implements one (or more) phase correction steps to suppress the unwanted speckle light. In each step, the stray light is rephased and then blocked with an additional occulter which affects the planet light (or other companion) only slightly. Since the suppression is still not complete, a series of steps is required in order to achieve significant suppression. The second part of the project is the development of soft-edge occulters. Simulations have shown that soft-edge occulters show better performance in coronagraphs than hard-edge occulters. In order to utilize the performance gain of soft-edge occulters. fabrication methods have to be developed to manufacture these occulters according to the specification set forth by the sensitivity requirements of the coronagraph.

  7. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  8. The SPARTAN Ultraviolet Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, L. D.; Esser, R.; Habbal, S. R.; Hassler, D. M.; Raymond, J. C.; Strachan, L.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Kohl, J. L.; Fineschi, S.

    1992-05-01

    An ultraviolet coronagraph (UVC) is being prepared for a series of orbital flights on NASA's Spartan 201 which is deployed and retrieved by Shuttle. The Spartan 201 payload consists of the UVC and a white light coronagraph developed by the High Altitude Observatory. Spartan is expected to provide 26 orbits of solar observations per flight. The first flight is scheduled for May 1993 and subsequent flights are planned to occur at each polar passage of Ulysses (1994 and 1995). The UVC measures the intensity and spectral line profile of resonantly scattered H I Ly-alpha and the intensities of O VI lambda 1032 and lambda 1037 at heliocentric heights between 1.3 and 3.5 solar radii. A description of the UVC instrument, its characteristics, and the observing program for the first flight will be presented. The initial scientific objective is to determine the random velocity distribution and bulk outflow velocity of coronal protons and the density and outflow velocity of O(5+) in polar coronal holes and adjoining high latitude streamers. This work is supported by NASA under Grant No. NAG5-613 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  9. WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph science yield modeling with EXOSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savransky, Dmitry; Garrett, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present and discuss the design details of an extensible, modular, open-source software framework called EXOSIMS (Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Mission Simulator), which creates end-to-end simulations of space-based exoplanet imaging missions. We motivate the development and baseline implementation of the component parts of this software with models of the wide-field infrared survey telescope-astrophysics focused telescope assets (WFIRST-AFTA) coronagraph and present initial results of mission simulations for various iterations of the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph design. We present and discuss two sets of simulations. The first compares the science yield of completely different instruments in the form of early competing coronagraph designs for WFIRST-AFTA. The second set of simulations evaluates the effects of different operating assumptions, specifically the assumed postprocessing capabilities and telescope vibration levels. We discuss how these results can guide further instrument development and the expected evolution of science yields.

  10. FACTOR FINDER CD-ROM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Factor Finder CD-ROM is a user-friendly, searchable tool used to locate exposure factors and sociodemographic data for user-defined populations. Factor Finder improves the exposure assessors and risk assessors (etc.) ability to efficiently locate exposure-related informatio...

  11. SPECKLE NOISE SUBTRACTION AND SUPPRESSION WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS CORONAGRAPHIC IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Deqing; Dou Jiangpei; Zhang Xi; Zhu Yongtian

    2012-07-10

    Future ground-based direct imaging of exoplanets depends critically on high-contrast coronagraph and wave-front manipulation. A coronagraph is designed to remove most of the unaberrated starlight. Because of the wave-front error, which is inherit from the atmospheric turbulence from ground observations, a coronagraph cannot deliver its theoretical performance, and speckle noise will limit the high-contrast imaging performance. Recently, extreme adaptive optics, which can deliver an extremely high Strehl ratio, is being developed for such a challenging mission. In this publication, we show that barely taking a long-exposure image does not provide much gain for coronagraphic imaging with adaptive optics. We further discuss a speckle subtraction and suppression technique that fully takes advantage of the high contrast provided by the coronagraph, as well as the wave front corrected by the adaptive optics. This technique works well for coronagraphic imaging with conventional adaptive optics with a moderate Strehl ratio, as well as for extreme adaptive optics with a high Strehl ratio. We show how to substrate and suppress speckle noise efficiently up to the third order, which is critical for future ground-based high-contrast imaging. Numerical simulations are conducted to fully demonstrate this technique.

  12. Science Yield Modeling for the WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savrensky, Dmitry

    points in terms of detection band and permissible false positive rates and how do these affect the required integration times? 4) All of these investigations will be performed in collaboration with the WSO, the SDT, and the coronagraph design team to ensure that the most up to date instrument and observatory models are used in our simulations. The result of the proposed work will be an ensemble of detailed simulations of the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph mission portion; lists of the best available targets for imaging known exoplanets and finding new ones; the required integration time at each target; tools for dynamically scheduling coronagraph observations and followups; and recommendations for coronagraph operating parameters. A byproduct of this work will be the release of a mature, robust suite of tools for the modeling and simulation of space-based exoplanet imaging missions to the wider community as free and open source code. These tools can be easily adapted to create optimized observing schedules for WFIRST-AFTA operations, and for use with future mission concepts and as iterative design tools for coronagraphic instruments. This work directly addresses topic 5 (Exoplanet Coronagraphy) of the WFIRST Preparatory science call with subject matter related to modeling and simulation. Successful completion of the proposed work will build confidence in the ability of the coronagraph to fulfill the science goals set by the SDT and will produce a suite of tools of general use to the exoplanet community and for planning of the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph operations. This work is also directly relevant to the goals of the Cosmic Origins programs as it will aide in the detection and characterization of exoplanets, improving our understanding of exoplanets at all scales of mass and semi-major axis, which is a necessary step in developing a complete understanding of planetary formation and evolution mechanisms.

  13. MHF: MLAPM Halo Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Stuart P. D.; Knebe, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    MHF is a Dark Matter halo finder that is based on the refinement grids of MLAPM. The grid structure of MLAPM adaptively refines around high-density regions with an automated refinement algorithm, thus naturally "surrounding" the Dark Matter halos, as they are simply manifestations of over-densities within (and exterior) to the underlying host halo. Using this grid structure, MHF restructures the hierarchy of nested isolated MLAPM grids into a "grid tree". The densest cell in the end of a tree branch marks center of a prospective Dark Matter halo. All gravitationally bound particles about this center are collected to obtain the final halo catalog. MHF automatically finds halos within halos within halos.

  14. Stability Error Budget for an Aggressive Coronagraph on a 3.8 m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Marchen, Luis; Krist, John; Rud, Mayer

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate in detail the stability requirements for a band-limited coronagraph with an inner working angle as small as 2 lambda/D coupled to an off-axis, 3.8-m diameter telescope. We have updated our methodologies since presenting a stability error budget for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph mission that worked at 4 lambda/D and employed an 8th-order mask to reduce aberration sensitives. In the previous work, we determined the tolerances relative to the total light leaking through the coronagraph. Now, we separate the light into a radial component, which is readily separable from a planet signal, and an azimuthal component, which is easily confused with a planet signal. In the current study, throughput considerations require a 4th-order coronagraph. This, combined with the more aggressive working angle, places extraordinarily tight requirements on wavefront stability and opto-mechanical stability. We find that the requirements are driven mainly by coma that leaks around the coronagraph mask and mimics the localized signal of a planet, and pointing errors that scatter light into the background, decreasing SNR. We also show how the requirements would be relaxed if a low-order aberration detection system could be employed.

  15. Coronagraph Focal-Plane Phase Masks Based on Photonic Crystal Technology: Recent Progress and Observational Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Naoshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Ise, Akitoshi; Oka, Kazuhiko; Baba, Naoshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Tamura, Motohide; Traub, Wesley A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Moody, Dwight C.; Kern, Brian D.; Trauger, John T.; Serabyn, Eugene; Hamaguchi, Shoki; Oshiyama, Fumika

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal, an artificial periodic nanostructure of refractive indices, is one of the attractive technologies for coronagraph focal-plane masks aiming at direct imaging and characterization of terrestrial extrasolar planets. We manufactured the eight-octant phase mask (8OPM) and the vector vortex mask (VVM) very precisely using the photonic crystal technology. Fully achromatic phase-mask coronagraphs can be realized by applying appropriate polarization filters to the masks. We carried out laboratory experiments of the polarization-filtered 8OPM coronagraph using the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), a state-of-the-art coronagraph simulator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). We report the experimental results of 10-8-level contrast across several wavelengths over 10% bandwidth around 800nm. In addition, we present future prospects and observational strategy for the photonic-crystal mask coronagraphs combined with differential imaging techniques to reach higher contrast. We proposed to apply a polarization-differential imaging (PDI) technique to the VVM coronagraph, in which we built a two-channel coronagraph using polarizing beam splitters to avoid a loss of intensity due to the polarization filters. We also proposed to apply an angular-differential imaging (ADI) technique to the 8OPM coronagraph. The 8OPM/ADI mode avoids an intensity loss due to a phase transition of the mask and provides a full field of view around central stars. We present results of preliminary laboratory demonstrations of the PDI and ADI observational modes with the phase-mask coronagraphs.

  16. The Achromatic Interfero Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbia, Yves; Gay, Jean; Rivet, Jean-Pierre

    2007-04-01

    We report on the Achromatic Interfero Coronagraph, a focal imaging device which aims at rejecting the energy contribution of a point-like source set on-axis, so as to make detectable its angularly-close environment (applicable to stellar environment: circumstellar matter, faint companions, planetary systems, but also conceivably to Active Galactic Nucleii and multiple asteroïds). With AIC, starlight rejection is based on destructive interference, which allows exploration of the star's neighbourhood at an angular resolution better than the diffraction limit of the hosting telescope. Thanks to the focus crossing property of light, rejection is achromatic thus yielding a large spectral bandwidth of work. Descriptions and comments are given regarding the principle, the device itself, the constraints and limitations, and the theoretical performance. Results are presented which demonstrate the close-sensing capability and which show images of a companion obtained in laboratory and ‘on the sky’ as well. A short pictorial description of the alternative AIC concepts, CIAXE and Open-Air CIAXE, currently under study, is given. To cite this article: Y. Rabbia et al., C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  17. The VORTEX coronagraphic test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, A.; Piron, P.; Huby, E.; Absil, O.; Delacroix, C.; Mawet, D.; Surdej, J.; Habraken, S.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we present the infrared coronagraphic test bench of the University of Liège named VODCA (Vortex Optical Demonstrator for Coronagraphic Applications). The goal of the bench is to assess the performances of the Annular Groove Phase Masks (AGPMs) at near- to mid-infrared wavelengths. The AGPM is a subwavelength grating vortex coronagraph of charge two (SGVC2) made out of diamond. The bench is designed to be completely achromatic and will be composed of a super continuum laser source emitting in the near to mid-infrared, several parabolas, diaphragms and an infrared camera. This way, we will be able to test the different AGPMs in the M, L, K and H bands. Eventually, the bench will also allow the computation of the incident wavefront aberrations on the coronagraph. A reflective Lyot stop will send most of the stellar light to a second camera to perform low-order wavefront sensing. This second system coupled with a deformable mirror will allow the correction of the wavefront aberrations. We also aim to test other pre- and/or post-coronagraphic concepts such as optimal apodization.

  18. Diffraction Analysis of Solar Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Douglas M.; gong, qian

    2016-05-01

    The design of a solar coronagraph is predicated on controlling diffracted and scattered light using principles dating back to Bernard Lyot in the 1930’s. The existence of many successful ground- and space-based coronagraphs testifies to our ability to apply these principles in specific cases, but it is difficult to explore a significant range of design parameters because the calculations are tricky and time-consuming. Indeed, scattered light is so design-specific that ad hoc analysis is unavoidable once guidelines from experience are used to create a first-guess system of baffles and low-scatter surfaces. Here we describe a combination of analytic and computational approaches that has the potential to explore coronagraph design space somewhat more systematically with respect to diffracted light.

  19. A reflective Gaussian coronagraph for ExAO: laboratory performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ryeojin; Close, Laird M.; Siegler, Nick; Nielsen, Eric L.; Stalcup, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    We report laboratory results of a coronagraphic testbed to assess the intensity reduction differences between a "Gaussian" tapered focal plane coronagraphic mask and a classical hard-edged "Top Hat" function mask at Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) Strehl ratios of ~94%. However, unlike a traditional coronagraph design, we insert a reflective focal plane mask at 45 ° to the optical axis and used a "spot of Arago blocker" (axicon stop) before a final image in order to block additional mask edge-diffracted light. The testbed simulates the optical train of ground-based telescopes (in particular the 8.1m Gemini North telescope) and includes one spider vane and different mask radii (r= 1.9λ/D, 3.7λ/D, 7.4λ/D) and two types of reflective focal plane masks (hard-edged "Top Hat" and "Gaussian" tapered profiles). In order to investigate the performance of these competing coronagraphic designs with regard to extra-solar planet detection sensitivity, we utilize the simulation of realistic extra-solar planet populations (Nielsen et al. 2006). With an appropriate translation of our laboratory results to expected telescope performance, a "Gaussian" tapered mask radius of 3.7λ/D with an axicon stop performs best (highest planet detection sensitivity). For a full survey with this optimal design, the simulation predicts ~30% more planets detected compared to a similar sized "Top Hat" function mask with an axicon stop. Using the best design, the "point contrast ratio" between the stellar PSF peak and the coronagraphic PSF at 10λ/D (0.4" in H band if D = 8.1m) is 1.4 x 10 6. This is ~10 times higher than a classical Lyot "Top Hat" coronagraph.

  20. Designs and Materials for Better Coronagraph Occulting Masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2010-01-01

    New designs, and materials appropriate for such designs, are under investigation in an effort to develop coronagraph occulting masks having broad-band spectral characteristics superior to those currently employed. These designs and materials are applicable to all coronagraphs, both ground-based and spaceborne. This effort also offers potential benefits for the development of other optical masks and filters that are required (1) for precisely tailored spatial transmission profiles, (2) to be characterized by optical-density neutrality and phase neutrality (that is, to be characterized by constant optical density and constant phase over broad wavelength ranges), and/or (3) not to exhibit optical- density-dependent phase shifts. The need for this effort arises for the following reasons: Coronagraph occulting masks are required to impose, on beams of light transmitted through them, extremely precise control of amplitude and phase according to carefully designed transmission profiles. In the original application that gave rise to this effort, the concern has been to develop broad-band occulting masks for NASA s Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph. Until now, experimental samples of these masks have been made from high-energy-beam-sensitive (HEBS) glass, which becomes locally dark where irradiated with a high-energy electron beam, the amount of darkening depending on the electron-beam energy and dose. Precise mask profiles have been written on HEBS glass blanks by use of electron beams, and the masks have performed satisfactorily in monochromatic light. However, the optical-density and phase profiles of the HEBS masks vary significantly with wavelength; consequently, the HEBS masks perform unsatisfactorily in broad-band light. The key properties of materials to be used in coronagraph occulting masks are their extinction coefficients, their indices of refraction, and the variations of these parameters with wavelength. The effort thus far has included theoretical

  1. Propagation of aberrations through phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Laurent; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Shaklan, Stuart

    2011-02-01

    The specification of polishing requirements for the optics in coronagraphs dedicated to exoplanet detection requires careful and accurate optical modeling. Numerical representations of propagated aberrations through the system as well as simulations of the broadband wavefront compensation system using multiple DMs are critical when one devises an error budget for such a class of instruments. In this communication, we introduce an analytical tool that serves this purpose for phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs. We first start by deriving the analytical form of the propagation of a harmonic ripple through a PIAA unit. Using this result, we derive the chromaticity of the field at any plane in the optical train of a telescope equipped with such a coronagraph. Finally, we study the chromatic response of a two-sequential-DM wavefront actuator correcting such a corrugated field and thus quantify the requirements on the manufacturing of PIAA mirrors. PMID:21293522

  2. Numerical modeling of the proposed WFIRST-AFTA coronagraphs and their predicted performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, John; Nemati, Bijan; Mennesson, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA 2.37 m telescope will provide the opportunity to host a coronagraph for the imaging and spectroscopy of planets and disks in the next decade. The telescope, however, is not ideal, given its obscured aperture. Only recently have coronagraph designs been thoroughly investigated that can efficiently work with this configuration. Three coronagraph designs, the hybrid Lyot, shaped pupil, and phase-induced amplitude apodization complex mask coronagraph have been selected for further development by the Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset project. Real-world testbed demonstrations of these have just begun, so for now, the most reliable means of evaluating their potential performance comes from numerical modeling incorporating diffraction propagation, realistic system models, and simulated wavefront sensing and control. Here, we present the methods of performance evaluation and results for the current coronagraph designs.

  3. Precursor Science for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, P. R. (Editor); Unwin, S. C. (Editor); Beichman, C. A. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This document outlines a path for the development of the field of extrasolar planet research, with a particular emphasis on the goals of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF). Over the past decade, a new field of research has developed, the study of extrasolar planetary systems, driven by the discovery of massive planets around nearby stars. The planet count now stands at over 130. Are there Earth-like planets around nearby stars? Might any of those planets be conducive to the formation and maintenance of life? These arc the questions that TPF seeks to answer. TPF will be implemented as a suite of two space observatories, a 6-m class optical coronagraph, to be launched around 20 14, and a formation flying mid-infrared interferometer, to be launched sometime prior to 2020. These facilities will survey up to 165 or more nearby stars and detect planets like Earth should they be present in the 'habitable zone' around each star. With observations over a broad wavelength range, TPF will provide a robust determination of the atmospheric composition of planets to assess habitability and the presence of life. At this early stage of TPF's development, precursor observational and theoretical programs are essential to help define the mission, to aid our understanding of the planets that TPF could discover, and to characterize the stars that TPF will eventually study. This document is necessarily broad in scope because the significance of individual discoveries is greatly enhanced when viewed in thc context of the field as a whole. This document has the ambitious goal of taking us from our limited knowledge today, in 2004, to the era of TPF observations in the middle of the next decade. We must use the intervening years wisely. This document will be reviewed annually and updated as needed. The most recent edition is available online at http://tpf.jpl.nasa.gov/ or by email request to lawson@hucy.jpl.nasa.gov

  4. NICMOS Optimum Coronagraphic Focus Determinaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn

    1997-07-01

    This test will ascertain the optimum position of the PAM for maximizing the local contrast ratios in coronagraphic images. Because of the forward motion of the NICMOS optical bench and dewar, the nominal operational position for the PAM is set {for each camera} to achieve diffraction limited focus at the image plane formed at the detector. As a result of the forward motion of the camera 2 detector, hard images are no longer formed coincidentally at the field divider mirror surface {where the coronagraphic hole is located} and at the detector. This will lead to an increase in the diffracted energy in the wings of a PSF from a target placed inside of the coronagraphic hole as the image plane will fall behind the surface of the FDA mirror. The contrast in a coronagraphic image might be enhanced by placing the focus to form an image at either image planes {FDA or detector} or at a place in-between. This is highly dependent on scattering and must be ascertained by direct measurement.

  5. Rockstar: Phase-space halo finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter; Wechsler, Risa; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2012-10-01

    Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement) identifies dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure. Our method is massively parallel (up to 10^5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10^10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). Rockstar offers significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to several other halo finders.

  6. Target & Propagation Models for the FINDER Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, Vaughn; Lux, James; Haque, Salmon

    2013-01-01

    Finding persons still alive in piles of rubble following an earthquake, a severe storm, or other disaster is a difficult problem. JPL is currently developing a victim detection radar called FINDER (Finding Individuals in Emergency and Response). The subject of this paper is directed toward development of propagation & target models needed for simulation & testing of such a system. These models are both physical (real rubble piles) and numerical. Early results from the numerical modeling phase show spatial and temporal spreading characteristics when signals are passed through a randomly mixed rubble pile.

  7. Data-Parallel Halo Finder Operator in PISTON

    SciTech Connect

    Widanagamaachchi, W. N.

    2012-08-01

    PISTON is a portable framework which supports the development of visualization and analysis operators using a platform-independent, data-parallel programming model. Operators such as isosurface, cut-surface and threshold have been implemented in this framework, with the exact same operator code achieving good parallel performance on different architectures. An important analysis operator in cosmology is the halo finder. A halo is a cluster of particles and is considered a common feature of interest found in cosmology data. As the number of cosmological simulations carried out in the recent past has increased, the resultant data of these simulations and the required analysis tasks have increased as well. As a consequence, there is a need to develop scalable and efficient tools to carry out the needed analysis. Therefore, we are currently implementing a halo finder operator using PISTON. Researchers have developed a wide variety of techniques to identify halos in raw particle data. The most basic algorithm is the friend-of-friends (FOF) halo finder, where the particles are clustered based on two parameters: linking length and halo size. In a FOF halo finder, all particles which lie within the linking length are considered as one halo and the halos are filtered based on the halo size parameter. A naive implementation of a FOF halo finder compares each and every particle pair, requiring O(n{sup 2}) operations. Our data-parallel halo finder operator uses a balanced k-d tree to reduce this number of operations in the average case, and implements the algorithm using only the data-parallel primitives in order to achieve portability and performance.

  8. A Reflective Gaussian Coronagraph for Extreme Adaptive Optics: Laboratory Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ryeojin; Close, Laird M.; Siegler, Nick; Nielsen, Eric L.; Stalcup, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    We report laboratory results of a coronagraphic test bench to assess the intensity reduction differences between a ``Gaussian'' tapered focal plane coronagraphic mask and a classical hard-edged ``top hat'' function mask at extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) Strehl ratios of ~94%. However, unlike a traditional coronagraph design, we insert a reflective focal plane mask at 45° to the optical axis. We also use an intermediate secondary mask (mask 2) before a final image in order to block additional mask-edge-diffracted light. The test bench simulates the optical train of ground-based telescopes (in particular, the 8.1 m Gemini North Telescope). It includes one spider vane, different mask radii (r = 1.9λ/D, 3.7λ/D, and 7.4λ/D), and two types of reflective focal plane masks (hard-edged top-hat and Gaussian tapered profiles). In order to investigate the relative performance of these competing coronagraphic designs with regard to extrasolar planet detection sensitivity, we utilize the simulation of realistic extrasolar planet populations (Nielsen et al.). With an appropriate translation of our laboratory results to expected telescope performance, a Gaussian tapered mask radius of 3.7λ/D with an additional mask (mask 2) performs best (highest planet detection sensitivity). For a full survey with this optimal design, the simulation predicts that ~30% more planets would be detected than with a top-hat function mask of similar size with mask 2. Using the best design, the point contrast ratio between the stellar point-spread function (PSF) peak and the coronagraphic PSF at 10λ/D (0.4" in the H band if D = 8.1 m) is ~10 times higher than a classical Lyot top-hat coronagraph. Hence, we find that a Gaussian apodized mask with an additional blocking mask is superior (~10 times higher contrast) to the use of a classical Lyot coronagraph for ExAO-like Strehl ratios.

  9. The COSMO K-Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkepile, Joan; deWijn, Alfred; Tomczyk, Steve; Sewell, Scott; Gallagher, Dennis; Sutherland, Lee; Card, Greg; Lecinski, Alice; Larson, Brandon; Nelson, Pete; Huang, Pei; Kolinski, Don; Sitongia, Leonard; Stueben, Allen; Berkey, Ben

    2013-04-01

    The COronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) is a proposed facility dedicated to studying coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields and their role in driving solar activity such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). COSMO is comprised of 3 instruments: 1) a 1.5 m coronagraph dedicated to the study of coronal magnetic fields (see Tomczyk et al. poster); 2) a chromospheric and prominence magnetometer (see deWijn et al.); and 3) a K-coronagraph. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) has provided full funding for the COSMO K-coronagraph, which will be deployed to the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) in the summer of 2013. It will measure the polarization brightness (pB) of the K-corona formed by Thomson scattering of photospheric light by coronal free electrons. With a field-of-view of 1.05 to 3.0 solar radii and an image cadence of 15 seconds, it is ideally suited for studying the formation and propagation of CMEs which are the primary driver of space weather at Earth. It will replace the aging MLSO K-coronameter (currently known as Mk4) which has been in operation since 1980.

  10. Improving JWST Coronagraphic Performance with Accurate Image Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorkom, Kyle; Pueyo, Laurent; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; JWST Coronagraphs Working Group

    2016-06-01

    The coronagraphs on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable high-contrast observations of faint objects at small separations from bright hosts, such as circumstellar disks, exoplanets, and quasar disks. Despite attenuation by the coronagraphic mask, bright speckles in the host’s point spread function (PSF) remain, effectively washing out the signal from the faint companion. Suppression of these bright speckles is typically accomplished by repeating the observation with a star that lacks a faint companion, creating a reference PSF that can be subtracted from the science image to reveal any faint objects. Before this reference PSF can be subtracted, however, the science and reference images must be aligned precisely, typically to 1/20 of a pixel. Here, we present several such algorithms for performing image registration on JWST coronagraphic images. Using both simulated and pre-flight test data (taken in cryovacuum), we assess (1) the accuracy of each algorithm at recovering misaligned scenes and (2) the impact of image registration on achievable contrast. Proper image registration, combined with post-processing techniques such as KLIP or LOCI, will greatly improve the performance of the JWST coronagraphs.

  11. The Four-Quadrant Phase-Mask Coronagraph. I. Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouan, D.; Riaud, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Clénet, Y.; Labeyrie, A.

    2000-11-01

    We describe a new type of coronagraph, based on the principle of a phase mask as proposed by Roddier and Roddier a few years ago but using an original mask design found by one of us (D. R.), a four-quadrant binary phase mask (0, π) covering the full field of view at the focal plane. The mutually destructive interferences of the coherent light from the main source produce a very efficient nulling. The computed rejection rate of this coronagraph appears to be very high since, when perfectly aligned and phase-error free, it could in principle reduce the total amount of light from the bright source by a factor of 108, corresponding to a gain of 20 mag in brightness at the location of the first Airy ring, relative to the Airy peak. In the real world the gain is of course reduced by a strong factor, but nulling is still performing quite well, provided that the perturbation of the phase, for instance, due to the Earth's atmosphere, is efficiently corrected by adaptive optics. We show from simulations that a detection at a contrast of 10 mag between a star and a faint companion is achievable in excellent conditions, while 8 mag appears routinely feasible. This coronagraph appears less sensitive to atmospheric turbulence and has a larger dynamic range than other recently proposed nulling techniques: the phase-mask coronagraph (by Roddier and Roddier) or the Achromatic Interfero-Coronagraph (by Gay and Rabbia). We present the principle of the four-quadrant coronagraph and results of a first series of simulations. We compare those results with theoretical performances of other devices. We briefly analyze the different limitations in space or ground-based observations, as well as the issue of manufacturing the device. We also discuss several ways to improve the detection of a faint companion around a bright object. We conclude that, with respect to previous techniques, an instrument equipped with this coronagraph should have better performance and even enable the imaging of

  12. Small-Grid Dithering Strategy for Improved Coronagraphic Performance with JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Soummer, Remi; Pueyo, Laurent; Hines, Dean C.; Nelan, Edmund P.; JWST Coronagraphs Working Group

    2015-01-01

    Contrast performances for most coronagraph designs typically depend rather strongly on the accuracy of target acquisition. For JWST, target acquisition away from the center of the coronagraphs will allow for centroid measurement, which will in turn be used to command a small-angle maneuver (SAM) to accurately place the star behind the coronagraphic mask. With this approach, the SAM accuracy inherently limits the contrast performance of the coronagraphs, especially given that a reference star (or self-reference after telescope roll) might also be required. For such differential measurements, the reproducibility of the TA is therefore a very important factor. Here, we propose a novel coronagraphic observation concept whereby the reference PSF is first acquired using a standard TA, followed by coronagraphic observations on a small grid of dithered positions. Sub-pixel dithers (5-10mas each) provide a small reference PSF library that sample the possible variations in the PSF shape due to imperfect TAs. This small library can then be used for example with principal component analysis for PSF subtraction (e.g; LOCI or KLIP algorithms). Such very small dithers can be achieved with the JWST attitude control system without overhead and with higher accuracy than a SAM since they take advantage of the fine steering mirror under closed-loop fine guidance. We discuss and evaluate the performance gains from this observation scenario compared to the standard TA for MIRI Four-Quadrant Phase Mask coronagraphs and provide numerical simulations for a some astrophysical targets of interest.

  13. ACHROMATIC EIGHT-OCTANT PHASE-MASK CORONAGRAPH USING PHOTONIC CRYSTAL

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Naoshi; Baba, Naoshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Yokochi, Kaito; Tamura, Motohide; Abe, Lyu

    2010-05-01

    We designed and manufactured a photonic-crystal mask which can be used for an achromatic eight-octant phase-mask (EOPM) coronagraph for direct detection of extrasolar planets. Laboratory experiments of the EOPM coronagraph were carried out using two laser light sources as a simulated star (wavelengths of 532 and 633 nm). As a result, we attained high extinction of the simulated starlight in both the wavelengths. Halo intensity levels of about 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} were achieved at an angular distance of 3 and 13{lambda}/D, respectively. We also discuss several issues, such as an effect of phase aberration on the coronagraphic performance, a transmittance of the proposed EOPM, and a novel two-channel coronagraphic configuration to improve system throughput.

  14. X-ray beam finder

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  15. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph: Visible Nulling Coronagraph Testbed Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F stars, observed the inner spatial structure and colors of inner Spitzer selected debris disks. EPIC would be launched to heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 3-year mission lifetime ( 5 year goal) and will revisit planets at least three times at intervals of 9 months. The starlight suppression approach consists of a visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) that enables high order starlight suppression in broadband light. To demonstrate the VNC approach and advance it's technology readiness the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Lockheed-Martin have developed a laboratory VNC and have demonstrated white light nulling. We will discuss our ongoing VNC work and show the latest results from the VNC testbed,

  16. Gemini Planet Imager coronagraph testbed results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Mey, Jacob L.; Brenner, Doug; Mandeville, Charles W.; Zimmerman, Neil; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Graham, James R.; Saddlemyer, Les; Bauman, Brian; Carlotti, Alexis; Pueyo, Laurent; Tuthill, Peter G.; Dorrer, Christophe; Roberts, Robin; Greenbaum, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an extreme AO coronagraphic integral field unit YJHK spectrograph destined for first light on the 8m Gemini South telescope in 2011. GPI fields a 1500 channel AO system feeding an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph, and a nIR non-common-path slow wavefront sensor. It targets detection and characterizion of relatively young (<2GYr), self luminous planets up to 10 million times as faint as their primary star. We present the coronagraph subsystem's in-lab performance, and describe the studies required to specify and fabricate the coronagraph. Coronagraphic pupil apodization is implemented with metallic half-tone screens on glass, and the focal plane occulters are deep reactive ion etched holes in optically polished silicon mirrors. Our JH testbed achieves H-band contrast below a million at separations above 5 resolution elements, without using an AO system. We present an overview of the coronagraphic masks and our testbed coronagraphic data. We also demonstrate the performance of an astrometric and photometric grid that enables coronagraphic astrometry relative to the primary star in every exposure, a proven technique that has yielded on-sky precision of the order of a milliarsecond.

  17. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    EPIC is a NASA mission being studied to detect and characterize Jovian and superEarth planets, and, the dust/debris disks surrounding the parent star. It will be launched into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit and operate for 5 years. EPIC would operate over the wavelength range of 480 - 960 nm with spectral resolutions of R < 50 and employs a visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) to suppress the starlight, yielding contrast ratios of greater than 9 orders of magnitude. We will discuss the science mission, and its role in the search for habitable planets.

  18. Final A&T stages of the Gemini Planet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Markus; Macintosh, Bruce; Poyneer, Lisa; Savransky, Dimitri; Gavel, Donald; Palmer, Dave; Thomas, Sandrine; Dillon, Daren; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Ingraham, Patrick; Sadakuni, Naru; Wallace, Kent; Perrin, Marshall; Marois, Christian; Maire, Jerome; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Hibon, Pascale; Saddlemyer, Les; Goodsell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Finder (GPI) is currently in its final Acceptance & Testing stages at the University of Santa Cruz, California. GPI is an XAO system based on a tweeter & woofer architecture (43 & 9 actuators across the pupil), with the tweeter being a Boston Michromachines 64^2 MEMS device. The XAO AO system is tightly integrated with a Lyot apodizing coronagraph. Acceptance has started in February 2013. After the conclusive acceptance review shipment is scheduled mid 2013 to ensure readiness for commissioning at the Gemini South telescope on Cerro Pachon, Chile, end of 2013, matching the summer window of the southern hemisphere. According to current estimates the 3 year (~800 allocated hours) planet finding campaign might discover, image, and spectroscopically analyze 20 to 40 new exo-planets.Final acceptance testing of the integrated instrument can always emerge a number of unforeseen challenges as we are eventually using cold chamber and flexure rig installations. The latest developments will be reported. Also, we will give an overview of GPI's lab performance, the interplay between subsystems such as the calibration unit (CAL) with the AO bench. (The CAL principal purpose is to maintain a clean and centered XAO PSF on the coronagraph.) We report on-going optimizations on the AO controler loop to filter vibrations and last but not least achieved contrast performance applying speckle nulling. Furthermore, we will give an outlook of possible but challenging future upgrades as the implementation of a predictive controler or exchanging the conventional 48x48 SH WFS with a pyramid. With the ELT area arising, GPI will proof as a versatile and path-finding testbed for AO technologies on the next generation of ground-based telescopes.

  19. Technology Plan for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R. (Editor); Dooley, Jennifer A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The technology plan for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I) describes the breadth of technology development currently envisaged to enable TPF-I to search for habitable worlds around nearby stars. TPF-I is currently in Pre-Phase A (the Advanced Study Phase) of its development. For planning purposes, it is expected to enter into Phase A in 2010 and be launched sometime before 2020. TPF-I is being developed concurrently with the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (TPF-C), whose launch is anticipated in 201 6. The missions are being designed with the capability to detect Earth-like planets should they exist in the habitable zones of Sun-like (F,G, and K) stars out to a distance of about 60 light-years. Each mission will have the starlight-suppression and spectroscopic capability to enable the characterization of extrasolar planetary atmospheres, identifying biomarkers and signs of life. TPF-C is designed as a visible-light coronagraph; TPF-I is designed as a mid-infrared formation-flying interferometer. The two missions, working together, promise to yield unambiguous detections and characterizations of Earth-like planets. The challenges of planet detections with mid-infrared formation-flying interferometry are described within this technology plan. The approach to developing the technology is described through roadmaps that lead from our current state of the art through the different phases of mission development to launch. Technology metrics and milestones are given to measure progress. The emphasis of the plan is development and acquisition of technology during pre-Phase A to establish feasibility of the mission to enter Phase A sometime around 2010. Plans beyond 2010 are outlined. The plan contains descriptions of the development of new component technology as well as testbeds that demonstrate the viability of new techniques and technology required for the mission. Starlight-suppression (nulling) and formation-flying technology are highlighted

  20. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Exoplanet Probe mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature and architecture of a variety of planets in other solar systems. Initially, it will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses and characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques. It will also observe the inner spatial structure of exozodiacal disks. EPIC has a heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 5 year mission lifetime. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument. The instrument achieves a contrast ratio of 10^9 over a 5 arcsecond field-of-view with an unprecedented inner working angle of 0.13 arcseconds over the spectral range of 440-880 nm. The telescope is a 1.65 meter off-axis Cassegrain with an OTA wavefront error of lambda/9, which when coupled to the VNC greatly reduces the requirements on the large scale optics.

  1. Visible Nulling Coronagraph Testbed Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Melnick, Gary; Tolls, Volker; Woodruff, Robert; Vasudevan, Gopal; Rizzo, Maxime; Thompson, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept study and a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC would provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F stars, observed the inner spatial structure and colors of inner Spitzer selected debris disks. EPIC would be launched to heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 5-year mission lifetime. The starlight suppression approach consists of a visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) that enables starlight suppression in broadband light from 480-960 nm. To demonstrate the VNC approach and advance it's technology readiness we have developed a laboratory VNC and have demonstrated white light nulling. We will discuss our ongoing VNC work and show the latest results from the VNC testbed.

  2. Coronagraphic Observations of Lunar Sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.; Sprague, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    This grant supported an investigation of lunar sodium by our coronagraph and spectrograph on nearby Mount Lemmon. We report successful operation and data analysis during International Lunar Atmosphere Week, September 15 - 22, 1995, and submittal of a paper to Icarus. The core of the proposed work was to observe the lunar sodium atmosphere with our classical Lyot coronagraph and specially-built grating spectrograph on Mount Lemmon, a 9400-foot peak about an hour's drive from Tucson. It is optimized for low scattered light and for observing from the Moon's limb to an altitude of approx.1 lunar radius. The grating has 600 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 49 deg., and is used with a somewhat wide slit at a resolving power of about 5000. It is called DARRK for the initials of the people who designed it. The rejection of stray light from the Moon's disk is spectacularly good: when the sky is clear this light is absent right up to a few arcsec from the limb. We use an excellent 1024 by 1024 pixel CCD camera, operated at -100 C; the exposures are 10 to 30 min. Data reduction is done with IRAF running on a Sun Sparcstation.

  3. OPSys: optical payload systems facility for testing space coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineschi, S.; Crescenzio, G.; Massone, G.; Capobianco, G.; Zangrilli, L.; Antonucci, E.; Anselmi, F.

    2011-10-01

    The Turin Astronomical Observatory, Italy, has implemented in ALTEC, Turin, a new Optical Payload Systems (OPSys) facility for testing of contamination sensitive optical space flight instrumentation. The facility is specially tailored for tests on solar instruments like coronagraphs. OPSys comprises an ISO 7 clean room for instrument assembly and a relatively large (4.4 m3) optical test and calibration vacuum chamber: the Space Optics Calibration Chamber (SPOCC). SPOCC consists of a test section with a vacuum-compatible motorized optical bench, and of a pipeline section with a sun simulator at the opposite end of the optical bench hosting the instrumentation under tests. The solar simulator is an off-axis parabolic mirror collimating the light from the source with the solar angular divergence. After vacuum conditioning, the chamber will operate at an ultimate pressure of 10-6 mbar. This work describes the SPOCC's vacuum system and optical design, and the post-flight stray-light tests to be carried out on the Sounding-rocket Experiment (SCORE). This sub-orbital solar coronagraph is the prototype of the METIS coronagraph for the ESA Solar Orbital mission whose closest perihelion is one-third of the Sun-Earth distance. The plans are outlined for testing METIS in the SPOCC simulating the observing conditions from the Solar Orbiter perihelion.

  4. STAR cluster-finder ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Botlo, M.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.

    1997-12-31

    The STAR experiment reads out a TPC and an SVT (silicon vertex tracker), both of which require in-line pedestal subtraction, compression of ADC values from 10-bit to 8-bit, and location of time sequences representing responses to charged-particle tracks. The STAR cluster finder ASIC responds to all of these needs. Pedestal subtraction and compression are performed using lookup tables in attached RAM. We describe its design and implementation, as well as testing methodology and results of tests performed on foundry prototypes.

  5. Sensing Phase Aberrations behind Lyot Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Direct detection of young extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars can be accomplished from the ground with extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphy in the near-infrared, as long as this combination can provide an image with a dynamic range of 107 after the data are processed. Slowly varying speckles due to residual phase aberrations that are not measured by the primary wave-front sensor are the primary obstacle to achieving such a dynamic range. In particular, non-common optical path aberrations occurring between the wave-front sensor and the coronagraphic occulting spot degrade performance the most. We analyze the passage of both low and high spatial frequency phase ripples, as well as low-order Zernike aberrations, through an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph in order to demonstrate the way coronagraphic filtering affects various aberrations. We derive the coronagraphically induced cutoff frequency of the filtering and estimate coronagraphic contrast losses due to low-order Zernike aberrations: tilt, astigmatism, defocus, coma, and spherical aberration. Such slowly varying path errors can be measured behind a coronagraph and corrected by a slowly updated optical path delay precompensation or offset asserted on the wave front by the adaptive optics (AO) system. We suggest ways of measuring and correcting all but the lowest spatial frequency aberrations using Lyot plane wave-front data, in spite of the complex interaction between the coronagraph and those mid-spatial frequency aberrations that cause image plane speckles near the coronagraphic focal plane mask occulter's edge. This investigation provides guidance for next-generation coronagraphic instruments currently under construction.

  6. Lyman alpha coronagraph research sounding rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Kohl, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The ultraviolet light coronagraph was developed and successfully flown on three rocket flights on 13 April 1979, 16 February 1980 and 20 July 1982. During each of these flights, the Ultraviolet Light Coronagraph was flown jointly with the White Light Coronagraph provided by the High Altitude Observatory. Ultraviolet diagnostic techniques and instrumentation for determining the basic plasma parameters of solar wind acceleration regions in the extended corona were developed and verified and the understanding of the physics of the corona through the performance, analysis and interpretation of solar observations advanced. Valuable UV diagnostics can be performed in the absence of a natural solar eclipse.

  7. Coronagraphic Observations of Lunar Sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.; Sprague, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    The core of the proposed work was to observe the lunar sodium atmosphere with our classical Lyot coronagraph and specially-built grating spectrograph on Mount Lemmon, a 9400-foot peak about an hour's drive from Tucson. It is optimized for low scattered light and for observing from the Moon's limb to an altitude of approx. 1 lunar radius. The grating has 600 lines/mm and a blaze angle of 49 deg, and is used with a somewhat wide slit at a resolving power of about 5000. It is called DARRK for the initials of the people who designed it. The rejection of stray light from the Moon's disk is spectacularly good: when the sky is clear this light is absent right up to a few arcsec from the limb. We use an excellent 1024 by 1024 pixel CCD camera, operated at -100 C; the exposures are 10 to 30 min. Data reduction is done with ERAF running on a Sun Sparcstation.

  8. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Melnick, Gary; Lyon, Richard; Kenyon, Scott; Sasselov, Dimitar; Tolls, Volker; Ford, Holland; Golimowski, David; Petro, Larry; Hartig, George; Sparks, William; Illingworth, Garth; Lin, Doug; Seager, Sara; Weinberger, Alycia; Harwit, Martin; Marley, Mark; Schneider, Jean; Shao, Michael; Levine, Marty; Ge, Jian; Woodruff, Robert

    2006-06-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques, and observe the inner spatial structure and colors of debris disks. EPIC has a proposed launch date of 2012 to heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 3 year mission lifetime (5 year goal), and will revisit planets at least three times at intervals of 9 months. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument. The instrument achieves a contrast ratio of 109 over a 4.84 arcsecond field-of-view with an unprecedented inner working angle of 0.14 arcseconds over the spectral range of 440-880 nm, with spectral resolutions from 10 - 150. The telescope is a 1.5 meter offaxis Cassegrain with an OTA wavefront error of λ/9, which when coupled to the VNC greatly reduces the requirements on the large scale optics, compressing them to stability requirements within the relatively compact VNC optical chain. The VNC features two integrated modular nullers, a spatial filter array (SFA), and an E2V-L3 photon counting CCD. Direct null control is accomplished from the science focal mitigating against complex wavefront and amplitude sensing and control strategies.

  9. Artemis: A Stratospheric Planet Finder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, H. C.; Petro, L. D.; Burrows, C.; Ftaclas, C.; Roggemann, M. C.; Trauger, J. T.

    2003-01-01

    The near-space environment of the stratosphere is far superior to terrestrial sites for optical and infrared observations. New balloon technologies will enable flights and safe recovery of 2-ton payloads at altitudes of 35 km for 100 days and longer. The combination of long flights and superb observing conditions make it possible to undertake science programs that otherwise could only be done from orbit. We propose to fly an "Ultra-Hubble" Stratospheric Telescope (UHST) equipped with a coronagraphic camera and active optics at 35 km to search for planets around 200 of the nearest stars. This ULDB mission will establish the frequency of solar-type planetary systems, and provide targets to search for earth-like planets.

  10. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.

    2011-01-01

    Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

  11. Extra Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph and Science Requirements for the James Webb Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2004-01-01

    1) Extra solar planetary imaging coronagraph. Direct detection and characterization of Jovian planets, and other gas giants, in orbit around nearby stars is a necessary precursor to Terrestrial Planet Finder 0 in order to estimate the probability of Terrestrial planets in our stellar neighborhood. Ground based indirect methods are biased towards large close in Jovian planets in solar systems unlikely io harbor Earthlike planets. Thus to estimate the relative abundances of terrestrial planets and to determine optimal observing strategies for TPF a pathfinder mission would be desired. The Extra-Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is such a pathfinder mission. Upto 83 stellar systems are accessible with a 1.5 meter unobscured telescope and coronagraph combination located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Incorporating radiometric and angular resolution considerations show that Jovians could be directly detected (5 sigma) in the 0.5 - 1.0 micron band outside of an inner working distance of 5/D with integration times of -10 - 100 hours per observation. The primary considerations for a planet imager are optical wavefront quality due to manufacturing, alignment, structural and thermal considerations. pointing stability and control, and manufacturability of coronagraphic masks and stops to increase the planetary-to- stellar contrast and mitigate against straylight. Previously proposed coronagraphic concepts are driven to extreme tolerances. however. we have developed and studied a mission, telescope and coronagraphic detection concept, which is achievable in the time frame of a Discovery class NASA mission. 2) Science requirements for the James Webb Space Telescope observatory. The James Webb Space Observatory (JWST) is an infrared observatory, which will be launched in 201 1 to an orbit at L2. JWST is a segmented, 18 mirror segment telescope with a diameter of 6.5 meters, and a clear aperture of 25 mA2. The telescope is designed to conduct imaging and spectroscopic

  12. 47 CFR 80.291 - Installation of direction finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of direction finder. 80.291... Installation of direction finder. (a) The direction finder must be located to minimize interference from noise. (b) The direction finder antenna system must be erected so that the determination of bearings...

  13. 47 CFR 80.291 - Installation of direction finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Installation of direction finder. 80.291... Installation of direction finder. (a) The direction finder must be located to minimize interference from noise. (b) The direction finder antenna system must be erected so that the determination of bearings...

  14. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ero, J.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Guiducci, L.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.; Wulz, C.

    2016-03-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016.

  15. New Mauna Loa coronagraph systems.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R R; Lee, R H; Macqueen, R M; Poland, A I

    1981-03-15

    A new set of instruments, consisting of two coronagraph systems, has been installed and is operating at the Mauna Loa Observing Station, Hawaii, operated by the High Altitude Observatory of Boulder, Colorado. The instruments are the 23-cm objective Mark III K-coronameter (K-III) system, a photoelectric instrument used to observe the inner solar corona from 1.2 R(0) to 2.2 R(0) and the 12.5-cm objective Prominence Monitor system used for the detection of H(alpha) limb activity. New features of the K-coronameter system include the use of achromatic wave plates for wide bandpass operation and linear diode array detectors. Raster scans of the coronal image are obtained in 1.5 min for a critical sampling scheme of 20-sec of arc resolution (10 x 10-sec of arc pixels) in the coronal p(B) image. This represents a 350 information gain factor for each detection channel when compared with the previous Mauna Loa K-coronameters. PMID:20309264

  16. AMA Physician Select: Online Doctor Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Membership | JAMA Network | AMA Store DoctorFinder This online physician Locator helps you find a perfect match for ... with basic professional information on virtually every licensed physician in the United States. This includes more than ...

  17. Achieving Sub-Design Level Contrast for Coronagraphs with Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Groff, T. D.; Carlotti, A.; Kasdin, N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Coronagraphs for space-based detection of earth-like exoplanets are normally designed assuming perfect optics. One or more deformable mirrors (DMs) are then utilized to correct for these aberrations and recover the lost contrast. We demonstrate a new, unified approach in which the coronagraph needs a design contrast only on the order of the errors in the optics. The DMs can then be used to achieve higher contrast by treating small areas of the coronagraph as amplitude errors in the system. This approach eases design and manufacturing constraints on coronagraphs and yields higher throughput designs. Our initial simulations show that a single DM conjugate to a shaped pupil coronagraph can achieve a single-sided dark hole higher in contrast than the shaped pupil is designed for. Future work will focus on simulating double-sided dark holes with two DMs non-conjugate to the pupil plane. This will enable experiments performed in the Princeton High Contrast Imaging (HCIL) Lab with our two Boston Micromachines Corp. kilo-DMs. Symmetric dark holes have already been generated at the HCIL using the Stroke Minimization algorithm and a high contrast shaped pupil in monochromatic and broadband light. Experiments with the unified shaped pupil-DM system will utilize the Kalman filter estimator recently developed in the HCIL for focal plane wavefront correction.

  18. Wide-band six-region phase mask coronagraph.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fanzhen; Cao, Qing; Zhu, Minning; Ma, Ourui

    2014-01-27

    An achromatic six-region phase mask coronagraph, used for the detection of exoplanets, is proposed. The mask has six regions in angular direction and could work in wideband. Furthermore, a six-level phase mask, as an example of the six-region phase mask, is theoretically investigated. According to numerical simulations, this specific mask has a deep elimination of starlight, good performance of achromatism and small inner working angle. As a single phase mask, the ratio of the remaining starlight of the six-level phase mask to the total incident starlight is less than 0.001 when the wavelength is between 500 nm and 600 nm. PMID:24515197

  19. A broad-band scalar vortex coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errmann, R.; Minardi, S.; Pertsch, T.

    2013-10-01

    Broad-band coronagraphy with deep nulling and small inner working angle has the potential of delivering images and spectra of exoplanets and other faint objects. In recent years, many coronagraphic schemes have been proposed, the most promising being the optical vortex phase mask coronagraphs. In this paper, a new scheme of broad-band optical scalar vortex coronagraph is proposed and characterized experimentally in the laboratory. Our setup employs a pair of computer-generated phase gratings (one of them containing a singularity) to control the chromatic dispersion of phase plates and achieves a constant peak-to-peak attenuation below 1 × 10-3 over a bandwidth of 120 nm centred at 700 nm. An inner working angle of ˜λ/D is demonstrated along with a raw contrast of 11.5 mag at 2λ/D.

  20. A broadband scalar optical vortex coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errmann, Ronnie; Minardi, Stefano; Pertsch, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, new coronagraphic schemes have been proposed, the most promising being the optical vortex phase mask coronagraphs. In our work, a new scheme of broadband optical scalar vortex coronagraph is proposed and characterized experimentally in the laboratory. Our setup employs a pair of computer generated phase gratings (one of them containing a singularity) to control the chromatic dispersion of phase plates and achieves a constant peak-to-peak attenuation below 1:1000 over a bandwidth of 120 nm centered at 700 nm. An inner working angle of λ/D is demonstrated along with a raw contrast of 11.5magnitudes at 2λ/D. A more compact setup achieves a peak-to-peak attenuation below 1:1000 over a bandwidth of 60 nm with the other results remaining the same.

  1. Effect of DM actuator errors on the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph contrast performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Shi, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST/AFTA 2.4 m space telescope currently under study includes a stellar coronagraph for the imaging and the spectral characterization of extrasolar planets. The coronagraph employs two sequential deformable mirrors (DMs) to compensate for phase and amplitude errors in creating dark holes. DMs are critical elements in high contrast coronagraphs, requiring precision and stability measured in picometers to enable detection of Earth-like exoplanets. Working with a low-order wavefront-sensor the DM that is conjugate to a pupil can also be used to correct low-order wavefront drift during a scientific observation. However, not all actuators in a DM have the same gain. When using such a DM in low-order wavefront sensing and control subsystem, the actuator gain calibration errors introduce highspatial frequency errors to the DM surface and thus worsen the contrast performance of the coronagraph. We have investigated the effects of actuator gain calibration errors and the actuator command digitization errors on the contrast performance of the coronagraph through modeling and simulations, and will present our results in this paper.

  2. Internal polarization limits coronagraph contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, James Bernard; Lam, Wai Sze T.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-08-01

    The performance of exoplanet imaging coronagraphs is limited by internal polarization. The point spread function (PSF) of these systems is determined by the details of the opto-mechanical layout selected to package the system and by the highly reflective metal thin films needed to maintain high optical system transmittance. To obtain the high contrast levels needed for terrestrial exoplanet science requires a comprehensive understanding of the vector electromagnetic wave from the source through the system. The literature contains many studies of polarization transmissivity of telescopes and instruments for the purpose of photo-polarimetry. Here we report for the first time the effects of polarization on high-performance image quality.We modeled a typical 2.4-meter Cassegrain telescope system with one 90-degree fold mirror and analyzed the system for polarization aberrations.We find: 1. The image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images: One for each of the two orthogonal polarizations and one for each of two cross-product polarization terms. 2. The PSF image is brighter by 9% for one polarization component compared to its orthogonal state. 3. The image of the PSF for orthogonal components are shifted across the focal plane with respect to each other, causing the PSF image for astronomical sources (polarized or unpolarized) to become slightly elongated (elliptical) with a centroid separation of about 0.6 masec. 4. The orthogonally polarized components of unpolarized sources contain different wavefront aberrations, which are separated by approximately 32 milliwaves. This implies that a wavefront correction system cannot optimally correct the aberrations for all polarizations simultaneously. 5. The polarization aberrations couple small parts (~1E-5) of each polarization component of the light into the orthogonal polarization to create highly distorted secondary, or “ghost” PSF image.. The radius of the spatial extent of the 90

  3. Modern Concepts for a Terrestrial Planet Finder Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, James

    2012-01-01

    Astronomers have now found over 500 exoplanets from radial velocity measurements and another 1200 or more "planet candidates” using the transit method from Kepler. Some of these planets are small enough to be rocky, like Earth, and orbit within the liquid water habitable zone of their parent star. We know next to nothing about conditions on these planets, though, because we have not yet developed the tools needed to study them. Even JWST, if it flies, will likely be unable to characterize the atmosphere of an Earth-analogue exoplanet. What we need for this task is a direct imaging mission that combines a large optical/near-IR telescope with a device that can block out the light from the star and retain the light from a nearby exoplanet. Both internal coronagraphs and external occulters (starshades) are being studied for this purpose. In principle, a thermal-IR telescope operating as an interferometer could accomplish the same task, but this would require formation flying of multiple cooled telescopes and is thought to be a more expensive option. The size of the optical telescope that would be needed to find and characterize an Earth depends on the frequency of Earth-like planet, Earth, and the brightness of the average exozodiacal background. The first parameter will hopefully be determined by Kepler, and the second may be measured by the Large Binary Telescope Interferometer, LBTI. Once this information is in hand, and if sufficient money can be found--currently, a big `if'--there should be little reason to hold back on designing and launching such a Terrestrial Planet Finder telescope.

  4. Apodized phase mask coronagraphs for arbitrary apertures. II. Comprehensive review of solutions for the vortex coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, A.; Pueyo, L.; Mawet, D.

    2014-06-01

    Context. With a clear circular aperture, the vortex coronagraph perfectly cancels an on-axis point source and offers a 0.9 or 1.75λ/D inner working angle for topological charge 2 or 4, respectively. Current and near-future large telescopes are on-axis, however, and the diffraction effects of the central obscuration, and the secondary supports are strong enough to prevent the detection of companions 10-3-10-5 as bright as, or fainter than, their host star. Aims: Recent advances show that a ring apodizer can restore the performance of this coronagraph by compensating for the diffraction effects of a circular central obscuration in a 1D modeling of the pupil. Our aim is to extend this work and design optimal apodizers for arbitrary apertures in 2D in order to tackle the diffraction effects of the spiders and other noncircular artifacts in the pupil. Methods: We fold this analytical result into a numerical optimization scheme that yields hybrid coronagraph designs that combine the advantages of the vortex coronagraph (small in IWA) and of shaped pupils coronagraphs (robustness to central obscuration and pupil asymmetric structures). The transmission of the apodizer is maximized, while constraints are set on the extremum values of the electric field that is computed in chosen regions of the Lyot plane through closed form expressions derived even for topological charges. Optimal apodizers are computed for topological charges 2 and 4 vortex coronagraphs and for telescope apertures with 10-30% central obscurations and 0%, 0.5%, and 1% thick spiders. Results: We put the results of our numerical optimizations in perspective with the analytical solutions and show that our apodizations converge to the ring apodizations. We then characterize the impacts of the obscuration ratio and the thickness of the spiders on the throughput and the IWA. For the apodized charge-2 vortex coronagraph the throughputs are slightly below those of the ring apodized vortex coronagraph, and the

  5. Characterizing Exoplanets with 2-meter Class Space-based Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, T. D.; Marley, M. S.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Several concepts now exist for small, space-based missions to directly characterize exoplanets in reflected light. In this presentation, we explore how instrumental and astrophysical parameters will affect the ability of such missions to obtain spectral and photometric observations that are useful for characterizing their planetary targets. We discuss the development of an instrument noise model suitable for studying the spectral characterization potential of a coronagraph-equipped, space-based telescope. To be consistent with near-future missions and technologies, we assume a baseline set of telescope and instrument parameters that include a 2 meter diameter primary aperture, an operational wavelength range of 0.4-1.0 μm, and an instrument spectral resolution of λ/Δλ=70. We present applications of our baseline noise simulator to a variety of spectral models of different planet types, emphasizing Earth-like planets. With our exoplanet spectral models, we explore wavelength-dependent planet-star flux ratios for main sequence stars of various effective temperatures, and discuss how coronagraph inner and outer working angle constraints will influence the potential to study different types of planets. For planets most favorable to spectroscopic characterization—including nearby Earth twins and super-Earths—we study the integration times required to achieve moderate signal-to-noise ratio spectra. We also explore the sensitivity of the integration times required to detect the base of key absorption bands (for water vapor and molecular oxygen) to coronagraph raw contrast performance, exozodiacal light levels, and the distance to the planetary system. We will also discuss prospects for detecting ocean glint, a habitability signature, from nearby Earth-like planets, as well as the extension of our models to a more distant future Large UV-Optical-InfraRed (LUVOIR) mission.

  6. Coronagraphic Imaging with HST and STIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Proffitt, C.; Malumuth, E.; Woodgate, B. E.; Gull, T. R.; Bowers, C. W.; Heap, S. R.; Kimble, R. A.; Lindler, D.; Plait, P.

    2002-01-01

    Revealing faint circumstellar nebulosity and faint stellar or substellar companions to bright stars typically requires use of techniques for rejecting the direct, scattered, and diffracted light of the star. One such technique is Lyot coronagraphy. We summarize the performance of the white-light coronagraphic capability of the Space Telescope Imaging spectrograph, on board the Hubble Space Telescope.

  7. A Nulling Coronagraph for TPF-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Levine, Bruce Martin; Wallace, James Kent; Orton, Glenn S.; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Lane, Benjamin F.; Seager, Sara; Tolls, Volker; Lyon, Richard G.; Samuele, Rocco; Tenerelli, Domenick J.; Woodruff, Robert; Ge, Jian

    2006-01-01

    The nulling coronagraph is one of 5 instrument concepts selected by NASA for study for potential use in the TPF-C mission. This concept for extreme starlight suppression has two major components, a nulling interferometer to suppress the starlight to 10(sup -10) per airy spot within 2 (lamda)/D of the star, and a calibration interferometer to measure the residual scattered starlight. The ability to work at 2 (lamda)/D dramatically improves the science throughput of a space based coronagraph like TPF-C. The calibration interferometer is an equally important part of the starlight suppression system. It measures the measures the wavefront of the scattered starlight with very high SNR, to 0.05nm in less than 5 minutes on a 5mag star. In addition, the post coronagraph wavefront sensor will be used to measure the residual scattered light after the coronagraph and subtract it in post processing to 12x10(sup -11) to enable detection of an Earthlike planet with a SNR of 510.

  8. SPICA Coronagraph for the Direct Observation of Exo-Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enya, K.; S. W. Group

    2011-12-01

    We present a mid-infrared coronagraph which targets the direct observation of exo-planets for the Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA). Study and experiment are ongoing for an coronagraph for SPICA, and this coronagraph is currently regarded as an option of the focal plane instruments. The primary target of the SPICA coronagraph is the direct imaging and spectroscopy of exo-planets in infrared. The SPICA mission gives us a unique opportunity for high-contrast observations, because of its large telescope aperture (3.5 m), the clean point-spread function provided by the monolithic telescope mirrors, and the capability for infrared observations from space. Laboratory experiments were performed with a visible laser to demonstrate the principles of the coronagraph. In an experiment using a binary-shaped pupil coronagraph, it was demonstrated that the contrast exceeded the requirement of SPICA, 10×10-6. A coronagraph obtained using a binary-shaped pupil mask is a baseline solution for SPICA because of its feasibility and robustness, while the use of a phase-induced amplitude apodization/binary-mask hybrid coronagraph is also considered as an option. Further developments are ongoing in order to realize a mid-infrared coronagraph for SPICA. Considering SPICA to be an essential platform for coronagraphic studies, and taking into account the progress of key technologies, we propose to develop a mid-infrared coronagraph instrument for SPICA and to perform the direct observation of exo-planets by using it.

  9. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features thatmore » includes associated information about the detected features.« less

  10. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features that includes associated information about the detected features.

  11. 12 CFR 7.1002 - National bank acting as finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National bank acting as finder. 7.1002 Section... OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1002 National bank acting as finder. (a) General. It is part of the business of banking under 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) for a national bank to act as a finder, bringing together...

  12. 12 CFR 7.1002 - National bank acting as finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National bank acting as finder. 7.1002 Section... OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1002 National bank acting as finder. (a) General. It is part of the business of banking under 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) for a national bank to act as a finder, bringing together...

  13. 12 CFR 7.1002 - National bank acting as finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false National bank acting as finder. 7.1002 Section... OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1002 National bank acting as finder. (a) General. It is part of the business of banking under 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) for a national bank to act as a finder, bringing together...

  14. Low-cost metaphase finder system.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akira; Minamihisamatsu, Masako; Hayata, Isamu

    2010-02-01

    In counting chromosome aberrations at low-dose radiation exposure in biological dosimetry, an automation technique has been required to process a large number of sample preparations. The metaphase finder is an automated optical microscope system, which automatically scans and finds metaphase cells on the slide glass in low magnification and relocates metaphase cells to the center of the field of view of the microscope to observe chromosomes in high magnification. The authors have constructed a cost-effective metaphase finder system by assembling commercially-available components, such as microscopes, motorized sample stages, personal computers and general-purpose image analysis software, instead of purchasing one dedicated system. The new system has high cost-effectiveness and high flexibility in adapting to the new staining methods. Mathematical morphology-based image processing to the algorithm was used to find metaphase cells. In particular, the morphology for the gray-image was used for the newest version. The performance of this metaphase finder system was tested. The new machines were distributed to six institutes of the Chromosome Network for Biodosimetry in Japan for testing the new algorithm for practical use. The scanning speed was 14.5 to 18.1 min cm2. The system was slower than several commercial metaphase finders, but there were few false positives. This system is economical and satisfactory for practical use. PMID:20065693

  15. Western Michigan University Libraries' "Electronic Journal Finder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedeon, Randle; Boston, George

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development of the "Electronic Journal Finder," a TDNet installation for the University Libraries of Western Michigan University. Topics covered include: rationale for subscription project timeline, content, product customization, set-up, maintenance issues, reporting functions, directing URL links, searching utility,…

  16. Planet detectability by an adaptive optics stellar coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.

    1994-04-01

    We show the possibilities for imaging Jupiter-like planets around nearby bright stars, assuming the availability of stellar coronagraphs coupled with modest adaptive optics mounted on large ground-based telescopes. The adaptive optics sharpens the point-spread function (PSF) of the planet, permits the use of an occulting disk smaller than the seeing disk, reduces the PSF envelope of the bright star, and therefore enhances the contrast between the planet and background. We have generated the PSF of the planet and the PSF envelope of the main star, using Monte Carlo simulations based on the Kolmogorov theory of turbulence. We calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of a model planet as a function of the angular separation based on photon statistics and realistic assumptions on the system performance. We have derived a criterion for optimizing the combination of the degree of adaptive compensation and the telescope diameter. It is found that a stellar coronagraph with modest adaptive optics mounted on a large ground-based telescope will be capable of detecting Jupiter-like planets around nearby bright stars such as alpha Cen, Sirius, and Procyon at wavelengths between 0.7 and 2.2 micrometers. Near-infrared observations are preferred because usable telescopes and isoplanatic angles are larger at infrared wavelengths than optical wavelengths for a given adaptive optics system. We have also found seven other target stars around which planets will be above the detection limit.

  17. The use of laser range finder on a robotic platform for pipe inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Krys, Dennis

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of a laser range finder on a robotic platform for buried water pipe inspection. A robotic platform carrying and manipulating multiple nondestructive inspection sensors may require accurately locating robot's body in the pipe. The laser range finder provides an accurate distance measurement, which can generate a profile of the pipe inner surface. This profile, on one hand, can be used to identify the location of the laser source and thus the robot's body. Such information can further help the navigation of the robot. On the other hand, the anomalies presented in the profile can be detected and characterized in terms of the range measurement. The simulated and real data tests presented in this paper demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating the laser range finder into a robotic platform for the underground pipe inspection.

  18. Vector scattering analysis of TPF coronagraph pupil masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, Daniel P.; Neureuther, Andrew R.; Lieber, Michael D.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Shih, Ta-Ming

    2004-10-01

    Rigorous finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic simulation is used to simulate the scattering from proto-typical pupil mask cross-section geometries and to quantify the differences from the normally assumed ideal on-off behavior. Shaped pupil plane masks are a promising technology for the TPF coronagraph mission. However the stringent requirements placed on the optics require that the detailed behavior of the edge-effects of these masks be examined carefully. End-to-end optical system simulation is essential and an important aspect is the polarization and cross-section dependent edge-effects which are the subject of this paper. Pupil plane masks are similar in many respects to photomasks used in the integrated circuit industry. Simulation capabilities such as the FDTD simulator, TEMPEST, developed for analyzing polarization and intensity imbalance effects in nonplanar phase-shifting photomasks, offer a leg-up in analyzing coronagraph masks. However, the accuracy in magnitude and phase required for modeling a chronograph system is extremely demanding and previously inconsequential errors may be of the same order of magnitude as the physical phenomena under study. In this paper, effects of thick masks, finite conductivity metals, and various cross-section geometries on the transmission of pupil-plane masks are illustrated. Undercutting the edge shape of Cr masks improves the effective opening width to within λ/5 of the actual opening but TE and TM polarizations require opposite compensations. The deviation from ideal is examined at the reference plane of the mask opening. Numerical errors in TEMPEST, such as numerical dispersion, perfectly matched layer reflections, and source haze are also discussed along with techniques for mitigating their impacts.

  19. General Tool for Evaluating High-Contrast Coronagraphic Telescope Performance Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchen, Luis F.

    2011-01-01

    computations. Other than this, the process is fully automated. The third process was developed based on the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph Error Budget Tool, but was fully automated by using VBA code, form, and ActiveX controls.

  20. The JWST/NIRCam coronagraph flight occulters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, John E.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Muller, Richard E.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Beichman, Charles A.; Serabyn, Eugene; Mao, Yalan; Echternach, Pierre M.; Trauger, John T.; Liewer, Kurt M.

    2010-07-01

    The NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope will have a Lyot coronagraph for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks at λ=2 - 5 μm. Half-tone patterns are used to create graded-transmission image plane masks. These are generated using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching of a metal layer on an antireflection coated sapphire substrate. We report here on the manufacture and evaluation of the flight occulters.

  1. The JWST/NIRCam Coronagraph Flight Occulters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, John E.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Muller, Richard E.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Beichman, Charles A.; Serabyn, Eugene; Mao, Yalan; Echternach, Pierre M.; Trauger, John T.; Liewer, Kurt M.

    2010-01-01

    The NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope will have a Lyot coronagraph for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks at lambda = 2 - 5 micrometers. Half-tone patterns are used to create graded-transmission image plane masks. These are generated using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching of a metal layer on an antireflection coated sapphire substrate. We report here on the manufacture and evaluation of the flight occulters.

  2. Optical design of the COSMO large coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Dennis; Tomczyk, Steven; Zhang, Haiying; Nelson, Peter G.

    2012-09-01

    The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) is a facility dedicated to measuring magnetic fields in the corona and chromosphere of the Sun. It will be located on a mountaintop in the Hawaiian Islands and will replace the current Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO). COSMO will employ a suite of instruments to determine the magnetic field and plasma conditions in the solar atmosphere and will enhance the value of data collected by other observatories on the ground (SOLIS, ATST, FASR) and in space (SDO, Hinode, SOHO, GOES, STEREO, DSCOVR, Solar Probe+, Solar Orbiter). The dynamics and energy flow in the corona are dominated by magnetic fields. To understand the formation of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), their relation to other forms of solar activity, and their progression out into the solar wind requires measurements of coronal magnetic fields. The COSMO suite includes the Large Coronagraph (LC), the Chromosphere and Prominence Magnetometer (ChroMag) and the K-Coronagraph. The Large Coronagraph will employ a 1.5 meter fuse silica singlet lens and birefringent filters to measure magnetic fields out to two solar radii. It will observe over a wide range of wavelengths from 500 to 1100 nm providing the capability of observing a number of coronal, chromospheric, and photospheric emission lines. Of particular importance to measuring coronal magnetic fields are the forbidden emission lines of Fe XIII at 1074.7 nm and 1079.8 nm. These lines are faint and require the very large aperture. NCAR and NSF have provided funding to bring the COSMO Large Coronagraph to a preliminary design review (PDR) state by the end of 2013.

  3. White Light Coronagraph - Skylab Experiment S052

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 photograph shows the flight unit for Skylab's White Light Coronagraph, an Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) facility that photographed the solar corona in the visible light spectrum. A TV camera in the instrument provided real-time pictures of the occulted Sun to the astronauts at the control console and also transmitted the images to the ground. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  4. Coronagraphic Wavefront Control for the ATLAST-9.2m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, RIchard G.; Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Dean, Bruce H.; Mosier, Gary E.; Postman, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology for Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) concept was assessed as one of the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concepts (ASMC) studies. Herein we discuss the 9.2-meter diameter segmented aperture version and its wavefront sensing and control (WFSC) with regards to coronagraphic detection and spectroscopic characterization of exoplanets. The WFSC would consist of at least two levels of sensing and control: (i) an outer coarser level of sensing and control to phase and control the segments and secondary mirror in a manner similar to the James Webb Space Telescope but operating at higher temporal bandwidth, and (ii) an inner, coronagraphic instrument based, fine level of sensing and control for both amplitude and wavefront errors operating at higher temporal bandwidths. The outer loop would control rigid-body actuators on the primary and secondary mirrors while the inner loop would control one or more segmented deformable mirror to suppress the starlight within the coronagraphic field-of view. Herein we discuss the visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) and the requirements it levies on wavefront sensing and control and show the results of closed-loop simulations to assess performance and evaluate the trade space of system level stability versus control bandwidth.

  5. Laboratory performance of the shaped pupil coronagraphic architecture for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Eric; Mejia Prada, Camilo; An, Xin; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Diaz, Rosemary; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andreas; Nemati, Bijan; Patterson, Keith; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Ryan, Daniel; Zhou, Hanying; Zimmer, Robert; Zimmerman, Neil T.

    2015-09-01

    One of the two primary architectures being tested for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument is the shaped pupil coronagraph, which uses a binary aperture in a pupil plane to create localized regions of high contrast in a subsequent focal plane. The aperture shapes are determined by optimization, and can be designed to work in the presence of secondary obscurations and spiders - an important consideration for coronagraphy with WFIRST-AFTA. We present the current performance of the shaped pupil testbed, including the results of AFTA Milestone 2, in which ≍ 6 × 10-9 contrast was achieved in three independent runs starting from a neutral setting.

  6. A photon conversion finder at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi-Rui; He, Kang-Lin

    2012-08-01

    A photon conversion finder (PCF) based on track information from the main drift chamber (MDC) of the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII) at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) is developed. The validation of the PCF is done by reconstructing π0 and measuring the branching fraction of J/ψ → γη'. Using the developed PCF tool, we mapped the materials from the interaction point through the BEPCII beam pipe up to the inner wall of the MDC.

  7. Interferometer Designs for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Dumont, P. J.; Colavita, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is a space-based infrared interferometer that will combine high sensitivity and spatial resolution to detect and characterize planetary systems within 15 pc of our sun. TPF is a key element in NASA's Origins Program and is currently un- der study in its Pre-Project Phase. We review some of the interferometer designs that have been considered for starlight nulling, with particular attention to the architecture and subsystems of the central beam-combiner.

  8. Interferometer Designs for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Dumont, P. J.; Colavita, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is a space-based infrared interferometer that will combine high sensitivity and spatial resolution to detect and characterize planetary systems within 15 pc of our sun. TPF is a key element in NASA's Origins Program and is currently under study in its Pre-Project Phase. We review some of the interferometer designs that have been considered for starlight nulling, with particular attention to the architecture and subsystems of the central beam-combiner.

  9. Laboratory Testing of a Phased Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Give'on, Amir; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We present high-contrast images from laboratory testing of a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph at NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT). Using a deformable mirror and wavefront estimation and control algorithms, we create a 'dark hole' in the monochromatic point-spread function with an inner working angle of (2.05 f lambda/D), with a mean intensity 3.5x10(exp -8). We discuss the contributions to this floor, and the techniques being developed to improve it. We also present simulations that investigate the effect of Lyot stops of various sizes, and conclude that a Lyot stop is necessary for 10(exp -9) performance but that an annular postapodizer is not necessary.

  10. Coronagraphic Notch Filter for Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, David; Stirbl, Robert

    2004-01-01

    A modified coronagraph has been proposed as a prototype of improved notch filters in Raman spectrometers. Coronagraphic notch filters could offer alternatives to both (1) the large and expensive double or triple monochromators in older Raman spectrometers and (2) holographic notch filters, which are less expensive but are subject to environmental degradation as well as to limitations of geometry and spectral range. Measurement of a Raman spectrum is an exercise in measuring and resolving faint spectral lines close to a bright peak: In Raman spectroscopy, a monochromatic beam of light (the pump beam) excites a sample of material that one seeks to analyze. The pump beam generates a small flux of scattered light at wavelengths slightly greater than that of the pump beam. The shift in wavelength of the scattered light from the pump wavelength is known in the art as the Stokes shift. Typically, the flux of scattered light is of the order of 10 7 that of the pump beam and the Stokes shift lies in the wave-number range of 100 to 3,000 cm 1. A notch filter can be used to suppress the pump-beam spectral peak while passing the nearby faint Raman spectral lines. The basic principles of design and operation of a coronagraph offer an opportunity for engineering the spectral transmittance of the optics in a Raman spectrometer. A classical coronagraph may be understood as two imaging systems placed end to end, such that the first system forms an intermediate real image of a nominally infinitely distant object and the second system forms a final real image of the intermediate real image. If the light incident on the first telescope is collimated, then the intermediate image is a point-spread function (PSF). If an appropriately tailored occulting spot (e.g., a Gaussian-apodized spot with maximum absorption on axis) is placed on the intermediate image plane, then the instrument inhibits transmission of light from an on-axis source. However, the PSFs of off-axis light sources are

  11. ANALYTICAL COMPUTATION OF THE LYOT CORONAGRAPH RESPONSE TO AN EXTENDED SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, Andre; Aime, Claude

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives analytical expressions of the intensity in a Lyot coronagraph when the object is a resolved uniform disk. Intensities are given inside the Lyot stop and in the final plane. The derivation relies on the decomposition of the impinging waves on Zernike functions which allows the computation of the expansion of the intensities on infinite series. The expression in the final plane assumes that the sizes of the Lyot stop and the pupil are the same. An analysis of the truncation error is provided. These expressions are validated by computer simulations which makes it possible to recover known results such as the so-called diffraction ring observed by solar astronomers inside the Lyot stop. These analytical results and simulations bring deeper insight into the understanding of a Lyot coronagraph, for example, the fact that although the geometrical image of the source is behind the mask, a ghost image of the source can still be observed in the final plane.

  12. Emitter location independent of systematic errors in direction finders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, P. R.

    1980-11-01

    A scheme is suggested for the passive location of radio emitter position by using a mobile direction finder. The vehicle carrying the direction finder is made to maneuver such that the apparent direction of arrival is held constant. The resulting trajectory of the vehicle is a logarithmic spiral. The true direction of arrival can be obtained by monitoring the parameters of the spiral trajectory without using the value of the direction finder reading. Two specific algorithms to eliminate direction finder bias are presented and their sensitivity to random errors in measurement assessed.

  13. Coronagraph Architecture Selection for the WFIRST-AFTA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwood, G.

    2014-04-01

    This talk describes the selection process and results of the WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph architectures designed to detect and characterize exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. Multiple coronagraph mask technologies are available for high contrast imaging, and the WFIRST-AFTA project required a prioritization in order to focus design and technology investments. A community working group of all stakeholders met over six months to develop a scientific- and technically-motivated evaluation process to determine the strongest options based on science yield, technical readiness, accommodation of telescope interfaces, cost and schedule. Risks and opportunities were considered. The paper describes the evaluation of the architectures against these technical metrics and expected exoplanet science yield and describes the selection of the Occulting Mask Coronagraph and the Phase-Induced Apodized Aperture Complex Mask Coronagraph as the respective primary and backup coronagraph architectures. A description of the group trade process leading to consensus is described.

  14. Principle of a coaxial Achromatic Interfero Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, J.; Fressin, F.; Rivet, J.-P.

    We describe here the principle of a new type of coronagraph, based on the incident flux division with pupil reversal and phase shift on one beam, then recombination with destructive interferences at the center orf the field. This concept of nulling has already been used in the Interferometrical Achromatic Interfero-Coronagraph (AIC, Gay & Rabbia [CITE]), which lies on a Michelson interferometer interferomùetry which does not allow an easy insertion in the focal facility of a telescope. The variant under consideration has a completely coaxial design with an original and very compact optical combination. It is based upon two coaxial thick lenses in the same medium, stuck one to each other with a very narrow gap in between and a proper coating of the interfaces. The very geometry of the device ensures moreover the permanent and rigorous cophasing of the interferometer. The optical combination which fulfills this problem is unique and presents a range of properties which ease its insertion in the focal instrumentation of existing telescopes or next generation ones.

  15. The STAR cluster-finder ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Botlo, M.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.; Schulz, M.W.; Short, P.; Woods, J.; Crosetto, D.

    1997-12-01

    STAR is a large TPC-based experiment at RHIC, the relativistic heavy ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The STAR experiment reads out a TPC and an SVT (silicon vertex tracker), both of which require in-line pedestal subtraction, compression of ADC values from 10-bit to 8-bit, and location of time sequences representing responses to charged-particle tracks. The STAR cluster finder ASIC responds to all of these needs. Pedestal subtraction and compression are performed using lookup tables in attached RAM. The authors describe its design and implementation, as well as testing methodology and results of tests performed on foundry prototypes.

  16. End-to-end Coronagraphic Modeling Including a Low-order Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, John E.; Trauger, John T.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Traub, Wesley A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate space-based coronagraphic techniques, end-to-end modeling is necessary to simulate realistic fields containing speckles caused by wavefront errors. Real systems will suffer from pointing errors and thermal and motioninduced mechanical stresses that introduce time-variable wavefront aberrations that can reduce the field contrast. A loworder wavefront sensor (LOWFS) is needed to measure these changes at a sufficiently high rate to maintain the contrast level during observations. We implement here a LOWFS and corresponding low-order wavefront control subsystem (LOWFCS) in end-to-end models of a space-based coronagraph. Our goal is to be able to accurately duplicate the effect of the LOWFS+LOWFCS without explicitly evaluating the end-to-end model at numerous time steps.

  17. Hybrid Lyot coronagraph for WFIRST-AFTA: coronagraph design and performance metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Krist, John; Gordon, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of extreme high-contrast astronomical imaging from space has inspired developments of new coronagraph methods for exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy. However, the requisite imaging contrast, at levels of 1 billion to one or better for the direct imaging of cool mature exoplanets in reflected visible starlight, leads to challenging new requirements on the stability and control of the optical wavefront, at levels currently beyond the reach of ground-based telescopes. We review the design, performance, and science prospects for the hybrid Lyot coronagraph (HLC) on the WFIRST-AFTA telescope. Together with a pair of deformable mirrors for active wavefront control, the HLC creates a full 360-deg high-contrast dark field of view at 10-9 contrast levels or better, extending to within angular separations of 3 λ0/D from the central star, over spectral bandwidths of 10% or more.

  18. Comparison of Potential ASKAP HI Survey Source Finders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popping, A.; Jurek, R.; Westmeier, T.; Serra, P.; Flöer, L.; Meyer, M.; Koribalski, B.

    2012-02-01

    The large size of the ASKAP HI surveys DINGO and WALLABY necessitates automated 3D source finding. A performance difference of a few percent corresponds to a significant number of galaxies being detected or undetected. As such, the performance of the automated source finding is of paramount importance to both of these surveys. We have analysed the performance of various source finders to determine which will allow us to meet our survey goals during the DINGO and WALLABY design studies. Here we present a comparison of the performance of five different methods of automated source finding. These source finders are duchamp, gamma-finder, a CNHI finder, a 2d-1d wavelet reconstruction finder and a sigma clipping method (s+c finder). Each source finder was applied to the same three-dimensional data cubes containing (a) point sources with a Gaussian velocity profile and (b) spatially extended model-galaxies with inclinations and rotation profiles. We focus on the completeness and reliability of each algorithm when comparing the performance of the different source finders.

  19. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  20. 47 CFR 80.289 - Requirements for radio direction finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for radio direction finder. 80.289 Section 80.289 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for radio direction finder. (a) The radio direction finding apparatus must: (1) Be capable...

  1. 47 CFR 80.289 - Requirements for radio direction finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for radio direction finder. 80.289 Section 80.289 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for radio direction finder. (a) The radio direction finding apparatus must: (1) Be capable...

  2. 47 CFR 80.289 - Requirements for radio direction finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for radio direction finder. 80.289 Section 80.289 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for radio direction finder. (a) The radio direction finding apparatus must: (1) Be capable...

  3. 47 CFR 80.289 - Requirements for radio direction finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for radio direction finder. 80.289 Section 80.289 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for radio direction finder. (a) The radio direction finding apparatus must: (1) Be capable...

  4. 47 CFR 80.289 - Requirements for radio direction finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for radio direction finder. 80.289 Section 80.289 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Requirements for radio direction finder. (a) The radio direction finding apparatus must: (1) Be capable...

  5. CellFinder: a cell data repository

    PubMed Central

    Stachelscheid, Harald; Seltmann, Stefanie; Lekschas, Fritz; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Mah, Nancy; Neves, Mariana; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Leser, Ulf; Kurtz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue types from RNA-seq and microarrays and 553 905 protein expressions for 535 cells/tissues. Text mining of a corpus of >2000 publications followed by manual curation confirmed expression information on ∼900 proteins and genes. CellFinder’s data model is capable to seamlessly represent entities from single cells to the organ level, to incorporate mappings between homologous entities in different species and to describe processes of cell development and differentiation. Its ontological backbone currently consists of 204 741 ontology terms incorporated from 10 different ontologies unified under the novel CELDA ontology. CellFinder’s web portal allows searching, browsing and comparing the stored data, interactive construction of developmental trees and navigating the partonomic hierarchy of cells and tissues through a unique body browser designed for life scientists and clinicians. PMID:24304896

  6. Analytical expression of long-exposure adaptive-optics-corrected coronagraphic image. First application to exoplanet detection.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, J-F; Mugnier, L M; Rousset, G; Fusco, T

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we derive an analytical model of a long-exposure star image for an adaptive-optics(AO)-corrected coronagraphic imaging system. This expression accounts for static aberrations upstream and downstream of the coronagraphic mask as well as turbulence residuals. It is based on the perfect coronagraph model. The analytical model is validated by means of simulations using the design and parameters of the SPHERE instrument. The analytical model is also compared to a simulated four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph. Then, its sensitivity to a miscalibration of structure function and upstream static aberrations is studied, and the impact on exoplanet detectability is quantified. Last, a first inversion method is presented for a simulation case using a single monochromatic image with no reference. The obtained result shows a planet detectability increase by two orders of magnitude with respect to the raw image. This analytical model presents numerous potential applications in coronographic imaging, such as exoplanet direct detection, and circumstellar disk observation. PMID:21045877

  7. Recent white-light coronagraphs at the Naval Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Howard, Russell A

    2015-11-01

    A white-light externally occulted coronagraph is a telescope designed to view the very faint emission of the solar corona in the region close to the sun. It uses the Lyot principle to mitigate the effects of diffraction. The first such telescope flew on a spacecraft in 1971 and showed the dynamic nature of the corona. Since that mission, six other such coronagraphic telescopes have been flown, whose designs evolved to meet the requirements of the mission. This article describes the latest two coronagraphs and compares their capabilities and their designs. PMID:26560618

  8. Laboratory validation of the dual-zone phase mask coronagraph in broadband light at the high-contrast imaging THD testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, J. R.; N'Diaye, M.; Galicher, R.; Dohlen, K.; Baudoz, P.; Caillat, A.; Rousset, G.; Soummer, R.; Dupuis, O.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Specific high-contrast imaging instruments are mandatory to characterize circumstellar disks and exoplanets around nearby stars. Coronagraphs are commonly used in these facilities to reject the diffracted light of an observed star and enable direct imaging and spectroscopy of its circumstellar environment. One important property of the coronagraph is to be able to work in broadband light. Aims: Among several proposed coronagraphs, the dual-zone phase mask coronagraph is a promising solution for starlight rejection in broadband light. In this paper, we perform the first validation of this concept in laboratory. Methods: First, we consider the principle of the dual-zone phase mask coronagraph. Then, we describe the high-contrast imaging THD testbed, the manufacturing of the components, and the quality control procedures. Finally, we study the sensitivity of our coronagraph to low-order aberrations (inner working angle and defocus) and estimate its contrast performance. Our experimental broadband light results are compared with numerical simulations to check agreement with the performance predictions. Results: With the manufactured prototype and using a dark hole technique based on the self-coherent camera, we obtain contrast levels down to 2 × 10-8 between 5 and 17λ0/D in monochromatic light (640 nm). We also reach contrast levels of 4 × 10-8 between 7 and 17λ0/D in broadband (λ0 = 675 nm, Δλ = 250 and Δλ/λ0 = 40%), which demonstrates the excellent chromatic performance of the dual-zone phase mask coronagraph. Conclusions: The performance reached by the dual-zone phase mask coronagraph is promising for future high-contrast imaging instruments that aim to detect and spectrally characterize old or light gaseous planets.

  9. Automatic CME Detection from Coronagraph Image Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, P. C.; Dejong, E. M.; Hall, J. R.; Lorre, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a technique for the automatic detection of coronal mass ejections using two sequential coronagraph images. The technique is based on tracking arc-like features from one image to the next; the feature's velocity is also determined. The method has been developed and tested using LASCO C2 and C3 data. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic CME detection algorithm that can be used on board the STEREO spacecraft to preferentially downlink data containing CMEs from an onboard "rotating" data buffer. Results for this detection technique compare very favorably with CMEs identified in the LASCO CME catalog (http://cdaw.gsfc.nasa.gov/CME_list/). For the periods when results were compared, no time periods with significant CMEs were missed using the automatic technique.

  10. Technology Advancement of the Visible Nulling Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Thompson, Patrick; Bolcar, Matt; Madison, Timothy; Woodruff, Robert; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The critical high contrast imaging technology for the Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) mission concept is the visible nulling coronagraph (VNC). EPIC would be capable of imaging jovian planets, dust/debris disks, and potentially super-Earths and contribute to answering how bright the debris disks are for candidate stars. The contrast requirement for EPIC is 10(exp 9) contrast at 125 milli-arseconds inner working angle. To advance the VNC technology NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, in collaboration with Lockheed-Martin, previously developed a vacuum VNC testbed, and achieved narrowband and broadband suppression of the core of the Airy disk. Recently our group was awarded a NASA Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions to achieve two milestones: (i) 10(exp 8) contrast in narrowband light, and, (ii) 10(ecp 9) contrast in broader band light; one milestone per year, and both at 2 Lambda/D inner working angle. These will be achieved with our 2nd generation testbed known as the visible nulling testbed (VNT). It contains a MEMS based hex-packed segmented deformable mirror known as the multiple mirror array (MMA) and coherent fiber bundle, i.e. a spatial filter array (SFA). The MMA is in one interferometric arm and works to set the wavefront differences between the arms to zero. Each of the MMA segments is optically mapped to a single mode fiber of the SFA, and the SFA passively cleans the sub-aperture wavefront error leaving only piston, tip and tilt error to be controlled. The piston degree of freedom on each segment is used to correct the wavefront errors, while the tip/tilt is used to simultaneously correct the amplitude errors. Thus the VNT controls both amplitude and wavefront errors with a single MMA in closed-loop in a vacuum tank at approx.20 Hz. Herein we will discuss our ongoing progress with the VNT.

  11. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinache, Frantz; Guyon, O.; Lozi, J.; Tamura, M.; Hodapp, K.; Suzuki, R.; Hayano, Y.; McElwain, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    While the existence of large numbers of extrasolar planets around solar type stars has been unambiguously demonstrated by radial velocity, transit and microlensing surveys, attempts at direct imaging with AO-equipped large telescopes remain unsuccessful. Because they supposedly offer more favorable contrast ratios, young systems consitute prime targets for imaging. Such observations will provide key insights on the formation and early evolution of planets and disks. Current surveys are limited by modest AO performance which limits inner working angle to 0.2", and only reach maximum sensitivity outside 1". This translates into orbital distances greater than 10 AU even on most nearby systems, while only 5 % of the known exoplanets have a semimajor axis greater than 10 AU. This calls for a major change of approach in the techniques used for direct imaging of the direct vicinity of stars. A sensible way to do the job is to combine coronagraphy and Extreme AO. Only accurate and fast control of the wavefront will permit the detection of high contrast planetary companions within 10 AU. The SCExAO system, currently under assembly, is an upgrade of the HiCIAO coronagraphic differential imaging camera, mounted behind the 188-actuator curvature AO system on Subaru Telescope. This platform includes a 1000-actuator MEMS deformable mirror for high accuracy wavefront correction and a PIAA coronagraph which delivers high contrast at 0.05" from the star (5 AU at 100 pc). Key technologies have been validated in the laboratory: high performance wavefront sensing schemes, spider vanes and central obstruction removal, and lossless beam apodization. The project is designed to be highly flexible to continuously integrate new technologies with high scientific payoff. Planned upgrades include an integral field unit for spectral characterization of planets/disks and a non-redundant aperture mask to push the performance of the system toward separations less than lambda/D.

  12. White-light optical vortex coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanburapa, Prachyathit

    An optical vortex is characterized by a dark core of destructive interference in a light beam. One of the methods commonly employed to create an optical vortex is by using a computer-generated hologram. A vortex hologram pattern is computed from the interference pattern between a reference plane wave and a vortex wave, resulting in a forked grating pattern. In astronomy, an optical vortex coronagraph is one of the most promising high contrast imaging techniques for the direct imaging of extra-solar planets. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets is a challenging task since the brightness of the parent star is extremely high compared to its orbiting planets. The on-axis light from the parent star gets diffracted in the coronagraph, forming a "ring of fire" pattern, whereas the slightly off-axis light from the planet remains intact. Lyot stop can then be used to block the ring of fire pattern, thus allowing only the planetary light to get through to the imaging camera. Contrast enhancements of 106 or more are possible, provided the vortex lens (spiral phase plate) has exceptional optical quality. By using a vortex hologram with a 4 microm pitch, and an f/300 focusing lens, we were able to demonstrate the creation of a "ring of fire" using a white light emitting diode as a source. A dispersion compensating linear diffraction grating of 4 microm pitch was used to bring the rings together to form a single white light ring of fire. To our knowledge, this is the first time a vortex hologram based OVC has been demonstrated, resulting in a well-formed white light ring of fire. Experimental results show measured power contrast of 1/515 when HeNe laser source was used as a light source and 1/77 when using a white light emitting diode.

  13. NICMOS Coronagraphic Observations of 55 Cancri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Smith, B. A.; Weinberger, A. J.; Silverstone, M.; Hines, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    We present new near-infrared (1.1 μm) observations of the circumstellar environment of the planet-bearing star 55 Cancri. With these Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images we are unable to confirm the observation of bright scattered radiation at longer NIR wavelengths previously reported by Trilling and coworkers. NICMOS coronagraphic images with detection sensitivities to ~100 μJy arcsec-2 at 1.1 μm in the region 28-60 AU from the star fail to reveal any significant excess flux in point-spread function (PSF) subtracted images taken in two HST orbits. These new observations place flux densities in the 19-28 AU zone at a factor of 10 or more below the reported ground-based observations. Applying a suite of a dozen well-matched coronagraphic reference PSFs, including one obtained in the same orbits as the observations of 55 Cnc, yielded consistently null results in detecting a disk. We also searched for and failed to find a suggested flux-excess anisotropy in the ratio of ~1.7:1 in the circumstellar background along and orthogonal to the plane of the putative disk. We suggest that, if such a disk does exist, then the total 1.1 μm spectral flux density in an annular zone 28-42 AU from the star must be no more than ~0.4 mJy, at least 10 times smaller than suggested by Trilling and Brown, upon which their very large estimate for the total dust mass (0.4 M⊕) was based. Based on the far-infrared and submillimeter flux of this system and observations of scattered light and thermal emission from other debris disks, we also expect the intensity of the scattered light to be at least an order of magnitude below our upper limits.

  14. Captain Cook, the Terrestrial Planet Finder and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles A.

    2004-06-01

    Over two hundred years ago Capt. James Cook sailed up Whitsunday Passage, just a few miles from where we now sit, on a voyage of astronomical observation and discovery that remains an inspiration to us all. Since the prospects of our visiting planets beyond our solar system are slim, we will have to content ourselves with searching for life using remote sensing, not sailing ships. Fortunately, a recently completed NASA study has concluded that a Terrestrial Planet Finder could be launched within a decade to detect terrestrial planets around nearby stars. A visible light coronagraph using an 8-10 m telescope, or an infrared nulling interferometer, operated on either a sim40 m structure or separated spacecraft, could survey over 150 stars, looking for habitable planets and signs of primitive life. Such a mission, complemented by projects (Kepler and Eddington) that will provide statistical information on the frequency of Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone, will determine key terms in the ``Drake equation'' that describes the number of intelligent civilizations in the Galaxy.

  15. The JWST/NIRCam coronagraph: mask design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, John E.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Beichman, Charles A.; Echternach, Pierre M.; Green, Joseph J.; Liewer, Kurt M.; Muller, Richard E.; Serabyn, Eugene; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Trauger, John T.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Horner, Scott D.; Mao, Yalan; Somerstein, Stephen F.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Kelly, Douglas M.; Rieke, Marcia J.

    2009-08-01

    The NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope will provide coronagraphic imaging from λ =1-5 μm of high contrast sources such as extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks. A Lyot coronagraph with a variety of circular and wedge-shaped occulting masks and matching Lyot pupil stops will be implemented. The occulters approximate grayscale transmission profiles using halftone binary patterns comprising wavelength-sized metal dots on anti-reflection coated sapphire substrates. The mask patterns are being created in the Micro Devices Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory using electron beam lithography. Samples of these occulters have been successfully evaluated in a coronagraphic testbed. In a separate process, the complex apertures that form the Lyot stops will be deposited onto optical wedges. The NIRCam coronagraph flight components are expected to be completed this year.

  16. The JWST/NIRCam Coronagraph: Mask Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krista, John E.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Beichman, Charles A.; Echternach, Pierre M.; Green, Joseph J.; Liewer, Kurt M.; Muller, Richard E.; Serabyn, Eugene; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Trauger, John T.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Horner, Scott D.; Mao, Yalan; Somerstein, Stephen F.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Kelly, Douglas M.; Rieke, Marcia J.

    2009-01-01

    The NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope will provide coronagraphic imaging from lambda =1-5 microns of high contrast sources such as extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks. A Lyot coronagraph with a variety of circular and wedge-shaped occulting masks and matching Lyot pupil stops will be implemented. The occulters approximate grayscale transmission profiles using halftone binary patterns comprising wavelength-sized metal dots on anti-reflection coated sapphire substrates. The mask patterns are being created in the Micro Devices Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory using electron beam lithography. Samples of these occulters have been successfully evaluated in a coronagraphic testbed. In a separate process, the complex apertures that form the Lyot stops will be deposited onto optical wedges. The NIRCam coronagraph flight components are expected to be completed this year.

  17. Contamination from Skylab as determined from the solar coronagraph data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The white light solar coronagraph was one of the scientific telescopes flown on Skylab to study the sun. It studied the sun's atmosphere located from 0.5 to 5.0 solar radii above the sun's limb. Such a telescope is so sensitive to contamination around the spacecraft that it caused a major contamination abatement program to be initiated at the conception of Skylab. The coronagraph's data is analyzed showing the successfulness of that abatement program.

  18. Ames Coronagraph Experiment: Enabling Missions to Directly Image Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Technology to find biomarkers and life on other worlds is rapidly maturing. If there is a habitable planet around the nearest star, we may be able to detect it this decade with a small satellite mission. In the 2030 decade, we will likely know if there is life in our Galactic neighborhood (1000 nearest stars). The Ames Coronagraph Experiment is developing coronagraphic technologies to enable such missions.

  19. Statechart Analysis with Symbolic PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here on our on-going work that addresses the automated analysis and test case generation for software systems modeled using multiple Statechart formalisms. The work is motivated by large programs such as NASA Exploration, that involve multiple systems that interact via safety-critical protocols and are designed with different Statechart variants. To verify these safety-critical systems, we have developed Polyglot, a framework for modeling and analysis of model-based software written using different Statechart formalisms. Polyglot uses a common intermediate representation with customizable Statechart semantics and leverages the analysis and test generation capabilities of the Symbolic PathFinder tool. Polyglot is used as follows: First, the structure of the Statechart model (expressed in Matlab Stateflow or Rational Rhapsody) is translated into a common intermediate representation (IR). The IR is then translated into Java code that represents the structure of the model. The semantics are provided as "pluggable" modules.

  20. Coronagraph-integrated wavefront sensing with a sparse aperture mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Hari; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Cavanagh, Kathleen; Riggs, A. J. Eldorado

    2015-07-01

    Stellar coronagraph performance is highly sensitive to optical aberrations. In order to effectively suppress starlight for exoplanet imaging applications, low-order wavefront aberrations entering a coronagraph, such as tip-tilt, defocus, and coma, must be determined and compensated. Previous authors have established the utility of pupil-plane masks (both nonredundant/sparse-aperture and generally asymmetric aperture masks) for wavefront sensing (WFS). Here, we show how a sparse aperture mask (SAM) can be integrated with a coronagraph to measure low-order differential phase aberrations. Starlight rejected by the coronagraph's focal plane stop is collimated to a relay pupil, where the mask forms an interference fringe pattern on a subsequent detector. Our numerical Fourier propagation models show that the information encoded in the fringe intensity distortions is sufficient to accurately discriminate and estimate Zernike phase modes extending from tip-tilt up to radial degree n=5, with amplitude up to λ/20 RMS. The SAM sensor can be integrated with both Lyot and shaped pupil coronagraphs at no detriment to the science beam quality. We characterize the reconstruction accuracy and the performance under low flux/short exposure time conditions, and place it in context of other coronagraph WFS schemes.

  1. Harnessing the Power of the WFIRST-Coronagraph: A Coordinated Plan for Exoplanet and Disk Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Margaret

    We propose to form a WFIRST Coronagraph Science Investigation Team (WFIRST-C SIT) for the purpose of defining the coronagraph scientific performance requirements, designing an exoplanet and debris disk observing program, and developing data analysis techniques including faint source detection and spectral retrieval. Our team will accomplish these tasks by: 1. Providing detailed characterization of the candidate target stars in terms of stellar/substeller companions, circumstellar debris, and astrophysical background in order to inform the final target selection by the community. As part of this effort, we will make a plan for coordination between WFIRST and Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) target selection, to obtain both scattered light and thermal emission observations of exozodiacal dust in the same systems. This will be important precursor science for future exoEarth direct imaging missions. 2. Creating simulated spatial-spectral data cubes representative of what the WFIRST coronagraph may see around the candidate targets, including known and hypothetical exoplanets, dynamically consistent interplanetary dust distributions, and astrophysical background contamination. The code framework to make the high-fidelity input models exists within our team, and we currently have a complete spectral data cube that allows us to generate images at any wavelength between 0.3 microns and 2.5 microns. To generate the simulated datasets for WFIRST, we will make use of instrument simulation tools provided by the coronagraph design team, spanning the range of expected coronagraph performance characteristics. We will also add functionality to these tools, or build our own, as required. 3. Designing and conducting a â€oeblind retrieval challenge― study to distribute these data amongst source detection and spectral modeling teams in the exoplanet and wider astrophysics community. Given the variety of sources expected in each planet-finding field, we expect

  2. PSF subtraction for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ygouf, Marie; Pueyo, Laurent; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Soummer, Remi; Perrin, Marshall D.; Mennesson, Bertrand; Krist, John E.; Vasisht, Gautam; Nemati, Bijan; Macintosh, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Direct detection and characterization of mature giant or sub-Neptunes exoplanets in the visible require space-based instruments optimized for high-contrast imaging with contrasts of 1e-9. In this context, the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope - Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) will reach raw contrasts of about 1e-9 to 8e-9 using state-of-the-art starlight suppression and wavefront control techniques. A ten-fold contrast improvement is therefore expected using post-processing techniques to reduce the speckle noise level to a factor of at least 10 lower in order to distinguish 1e-9 planets from speckles. Point spread function (PSF) subtractions on both ground-based and space-based instruments have not yet been demonstrated at such high-contrast levels and we explore new ways of implementing these techniques on AFTA-like simulated images in the presence of deformable mirrors, coronagraph and integral field spectrograph (IFS). In this communication, we cover both the problems of planet detection (investigating new metrics such as the False Positive Probability), and planet characterization (demonstrating accurate spectrum extraction even in the presence of speckles).

  3. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  4. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  5. Coronagraph instrument for WFIRST-AFTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noecker, M. Charley; Zhao, Feng; Demers, Rick; Trauger, John; Guyon, Olivier; Jeremy Kasdin, N.

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA observatory concept, now in phase A study, which is designed to perform wide-field imaging and slitless spectroscopic surveys for dark energy research and other astrophysical studies. It will also perform microlensing surveys to look for distant exoplanets in our galaxy, and direct imaging studies of some of the very nearest exoplanets. The current astrophysics focused telescope assets (AFTA) design of the mission makes use of an existing 2.4-m telescope, which yields enhanced sensitivity and imaging performance in all these science programs. AFTA also enables the addition of a coronagraph instrument (CGI) for direct imaging and spectroscopy of nearby giant exoplanets (including some that were discovered by radial velocity and other methods), and also for observing debris disks around the candidate host stars. This paper outlines the context for the other papers in this special volume on the WFIRST-AFTA CGI, covering the science, design, engineering, and technology development of the observatory and its CGI.

  6. 12 CFR 7.1002 - National bank acting as finder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false National bank acting as finder. 7.1002 Section 7.1002 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1002 National bank acting as finder. (a) General. It is part of the business of banking under 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) for...

  7. Introduction to Searching with SciFinder Scholar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Damon D.

    2001-04-01

    With SciFinder Scholar now one of the preferred access routes to information in the sciences, many college information retrieval courses that dealt with online networks need to be redesigned. Although one of the basic assumptions within the design of SciFinder Scholar is that staff and students may retrieve valuable answers with little training, nevertheless, with a little instruction improved search results may be obtained. We present here our basic teaching program for senior undergraduate and postgraduate classes.

  8. The automated planet finder at Lick Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovan, Matt V.; Lanclos, Kyle; Holden, Bradford P.; Kibrick, Robert I.; Allen, S. L.; Deich, William T. S.; Rivera, Eugenio; Burt, Jennifer; Fulton, Benjamin; Butler, Paul; Vogt, Steven S.

    2014-07-01

    By July 2014, the Automated Planet Finder (APF) at Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton will have completed its first year of operation. This facility combines a modern 2.4m computer-controlled telescope with a flexible development environment that enables efficient use of the Levy Spectrometer for high cadence observations. The Levy provides both sub-meter per second radial velocity precision and high efficiency, with a peak total system throughput of 24%. The modern telescope combined with efficient spectrometer routinely yields over 100 observations of 40 stars in a single night, each of which has velocity errors of 0.7 to 1.4 meters per second, all with typical seeing of < 1 arc second full-width-half-maximum (FWHM). The whole observing process is automated using a common application programming interface (API) for inter-process communication which allows scripting to be done in a variety of languages (Python, Tcl, bash, csh, etc.) The flexibility and ease-of-use of the common API allowed the science teams to be directly involved in the automation of the observing process, ensuring that the facility met their requirements. Since November 2013, the APF has been routinely conducting autonomous observations without human intervention.

  9. The Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer for SOHO (UVCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Noci, G.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) is to provide information about the behavior, in the extended corona, of the primary particles (protons and electrons) and several minor ions (O(5+) , Mg(9+) , Si(11+) , and Fe(11+) ). Spectroscopic diagnostic techniques will be used to determine random velocity distributions, densities, and bulk outflow velocities for these particles. The resulting empirical description of the extended corona can be used to address a broad range of scientific questions regarding the nature of the solar corona and the generation of the solar wind. The instrument consists of an externally and internally occulted telescope assembly and a spectrometer assembly. It has three channels whose purposes are the following: 1) VUV spectroscopy and absolute radiometry in the 1130 to 1361 Angstroms wavelength range with spectral resolution up to 9800 and spatial resolution elements of 7" or larger, 2) EUV spectroscopy and absolute radiometry in the 937 to 1127 Angstroms (first order) and 469 to 655 Angstroms (second order) wavelength ranges with spectral resolution up to 12000 and the same spatial resolution as the VUV channel, and 3) White light polarimetry with a wavelength band pass of 4500 -- 6000 Angstroms and a single 14" by 14" spatial resolution element. MAMA detectors provide simultaneous ultraviolet observations of a 40' long strip (parallel to a limb tangent) of the corona. Mirror and instrument motions allow this instantaneous field-of-view to scan out to heliocentric heights of 10 Rsun and onto the solar disk. This work is supported by NASA under contract NAS5-31250 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  10. The Spacelab Lyman alpha and white light coronagraphs program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Withbroe, G. L.; Weiser, H.; Macqueen, R. M.; Munro, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the High Altitude Observatory have defined a joint coronagraphs experiment for a future Spacelab mission. The instrumentation package would include an ultraviolet light coronagraph to measure the intensity and profiles of spectral lines formed between 1.2 and 8 solar radii from sun center and a white light coronagraph to measure the intensity and polarization of visible light. The overall goals of the joint program are to use new coronal plasma diagnostic techniques to understand the physical processes and mechanisms operating in the solar corona, to understand the acceleration of high-speed and low-speed solar wind streams and to extrapolate this knowledge to other stars in order to help understand the physics of stellar coronae and stellar mass loss.

  11. Spacelab Lyman Alpha-White Light Coronagraph Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Spacelab Lyman Alpha Coronagraph (SLAC) of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the White Light Coronagraph (WLC) to be provided by the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) are two separate coronagraphs which would be operated in a joint fashion during Spacelab missions to be flown by the Space Shuttle. The two instruments would be used to perform joint observations of solar coronal structures from 1.2 to 8.0 solar radii from sun-center in vacuum ultraviolet and visible radiations. Temperatures, densities, and flow velocities throughout the solar wing acceleration region of the inner solar corona were measured. The Phase I Definition activity resulted in the successful definition and preliminary design of the experiment/instrumentation subsystem and associated software, ground support equipment and interfaces to the extended required to accurately estimate the scope of the investigation and prepare an Investigational Development Plan; the performance of the necessary functional, operations, and safety analyses necessary to complete the Experiment Requirements document.

  12. SDC: a multistage coronagraphic platform at Palomar observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottom, Michael; Serabyn, Eugene; Shelton, Chris; Wallace, J. Kent; Bartos, Randall D.; Kuhn, Jonas; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Burruss, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Direct imaging of planets is challenging for two main reasons: first, stars are brighter than their planets by many orders of magnitude (requiring high contrast), and second, planets and their host stars are close to each other (require a low inner working angle instrument). Many exciting new technologies are attempting to address these challenges to enable imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets. To this end, we present a new instrument, the "Stellar Double Coronagraph" (SDC), a flexible coronagraphic platform. Situated at Palomar Observatory's 200" Hale telescope, it supports a number of interchangeable observing configurations. These include multiple vortex coronagraphs in series, hybrid pupil/phase masks, and novel focal-plane wavefront sensing and control schemes for improved contrast and inner working angles. We describe the motivation, design, observing modes, wavefront control strategies, and data reduction pipeline. We also present early science results, demonstrating the capabilities and potential of these approaches.

  13. Managing the wavefront for exoplanet imaging with a space coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight; Krist, John; Gordon, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We update the designs, demonstrations, and science prospects for the direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of exoplanetary systems with the hybrid Lyot coronagraph. We compare model predictions for exoplanet science performance with the flagship AFTA/WFIRST mission and dedicated smaller-class space observatories. Together with a pair of deformable mirrors for optical wavefront control, the hybrid Lyot coronagraph creates high contrast dark fields of view extending to within angular separations of 2.5 lambda/D from the central star at visible wavelengths. Performance metrics and design trades are presented, including image contrast, spectral bandwidth, overall efficiency and throughput, and model-validating laboratory demonstrations.

  14. Analysis of Random Segment Errors on Coronagraph Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    At 2015 SPIE O&P we presented "Preliminary Analysis of Random Segment Errors on Coronagraph Performance" Key Findings: Contrast Leakage for 4thorder Sinc2(X) coronagraph is 10X more sensitive to random segment piston than random tip/tilt, Fewer segments (i.e. 1 ring) or very many segments (> 16 rings) has less contrast leakage as a function of piston or tip/tilt than an aperture with 2 to 4 rings of segments. Revised Findings: Piston is only 2.5X more sensitive than Tip/Tilt

  15. PIAA coronagraph design for the Exo-C Mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Krist, John; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2015-09-01

    The Exoplanet Coronagraph (Exo-C) mission concept consists of a 1.4m space telescope equipped with a high performance coronagraph to directly image exoplanets and disks around many nearby stars. One of the coronagraphs under consideration to be used for this mission is the highly efficient Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. This paper presents and describes: (a) the PIAA design for Exo-C; (b) an end-to-end performance analysis including sensitivity to jitter, and (c) the expected science yield of Exo-C with PIAA. The design is a "classic" PIAA, which is made possible by the unobstructed aperture. It consists of a pair of forward and inverse PIAA optics and a simple hard-edge focal plane mask. A mild binary pre-apodizer relaxes the radius of curvature on the PIAA mirrors to be easier than typical PIAA mirrors manufactured to date. This design has been optimized for high performance while being relatively insensitive to low order aberrations. The throughput is 90% relative to telescope PSF, while the inner working angle is 2.1 l/D and the contrast is ~1e-9 in a full 360-degree field of view (after wavefront control with two DMs), all for a 20% spectral band centered around 550nm. The design also has good tolerance to jitter: contrast at 1.6mas jitter is still within a factor of a few of 1e-9.

  16. The COR1 Inner Coronagraph for STEREO-SECCHI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William T.; Davila, Joseph M.; Fisher, Richard R.; Orwig, Larry E.; Mentzell, John E.; Hetherington, Samuel E.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Ferderline, Robert E.; Clark, David C.; Chen, Philip T.

    2004-01-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is a pair of identical satellites that will orbit the Sun so as to drift ahead of and behind Earth respectively, to give a stereo view of the Sun. STEREO is currently scheduled for launch in November 2005. One of the instrument packages that will be own on each of the STEREO spacecrafts is the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI), which consists of an extreme ultraviolet imager, two coronagraphs, and two side-viewing heliospheric imagers to observe solar coronal mass ejections all the way from the Sun to Earth. We report here on the inner coronagraph, labeled COR1. COR1 is a classic Lyot internally occulting refractive coronagraph, adapted for the first time to be used in space. The field of view is from 1.3 to 4 solar radii. A linear polarizer is used to suppress scattered light, and to extract the polarized brightness signal from the solar corona. The optical scattering performance of the coronagraph was first modeled using both the ASAP and APART numerical modeling codes, and then tested at the Vacuum Tunnel Facility at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. In this report, we will focus on the COR1 optical design, the predicted optical performance, and the observed performance in the lab. We will also discuss the mechanical and thermal design, and the cleanliness requirements needed to achieve the optical performance.

  17. Common-Path Wavefront Sensing for Advanced Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Serabyn, Eugene; Mawet, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    Imaging of faint companions around nearby stars is not limited by either intrinsic resolution of a coronagraph/telescope system, nor is it strictly photon limited. Typically, it is both the magnitude and temporal variation of small phase and amplitude errors imparted to the electric field by elements in the optical system which will limit ultimate performance. Adaptive optics systems, particularly those with multiple deformable mirrors, can remove these errors, but they need to be sensed in the final image plane. If the sensing system is before the final image plane, which is typical for most systems, then the non-common path optics between the wavefront sensor and science image plane will lead to un-sensed errors. However, a new generation of high-performance coronagraphs naturally lend themselves to wavefront sensing in the final image plane. These coronagraphs and the wavefront sensing will be discussed, as well as plans for demonstrating this with a high-contrast system on the ground. Such a system will be a key system-level proof for a future space-based coronagraph mission, which will also be discussed.

  18. MiniCOR: A miniature coronagraph for an interplanetary CUBESAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, A.; Korendyke, C.; Liewer, P. C.; Cutler, J.; Howard, R.; Plunkett, S. P.; Thernisien, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Coronagraphs occupy a unique place in Heliophysics, critical to both NAA and NOAA programs. They are the primary means for the study of the extended solar coorna and its short/long term activity. In addition coronagraphs are the only instrument that can image coronal mass ejections (CMEs) leaving the Sun and provide ciritical information for space weather forecasting. We descirbe a low cost miniaturzied CubeSat coronagraph, MiniCOR, designed to operate in deep space which will returndata with higher cadence and sensitivity than that from the SOHO/LASCO coronagraphs. MiniCOR is a six unit (6U) science craft with a tightly integrated, single instrument interplanetary flight system optiized for science. MiniCOR fully exploits recent technology advance in CubeSat technology and active pixel sensors. With a factor of 2.9 improvement in light gathering power over SOHO and quasi-continuous data collection, MiniCOR can observe the slow solar wind, CMEs and shocks with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to open new windows on our understanding of the inner Heliosphere. An operating Minic'OR would prvide coornagraphic observations in support of the upcoming Solar Probe Plus (SPP) and Solar Orbiter (SO) missions.

  19. Imaging exoplanets with the WFIRST Coronagraph: A background check of high priority targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangwei; Turnbull, Margaret C.; Gallagher, John S.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Merrelli, Aronne; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Hu, Renyu

    2016-01-01

    The WFIRST coronagraph is envisioned to achieve a limiting contrast for exoplanet detection of 10e-9. This revolutionary mission will enable the direct detection of known and newly discovered exoplanets amongst the nearest stars, from super-Earths to giants. However, at this contrast the coronagraph will essentially see a Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) in every image. For targets near the Galactic Plane on the sky, distant stars with varying levels of extinction and reddening will dominate the background. Away from the plane, we then expect extragalactic sources to dominate. What impact will these background sources have on the WFIRST exoplanet imaging program? How can we efficiently distinguish background sources from exoplanet targets in a single image? To have a comprehensive understanding of the distribution of background sources across the sky, we have used the HUDF to model extragalactic faint sources, and "Trilegal" simulations to model galactic background sources. Through some preliminary color and point source analysis, we offer a statistical estimation of expected background contamination and the probability of false positive background sources. In this poster we show plots relating number of extragalactic sources versus magnitude in HUDF and "Trilegal" simulation. We present a table of high priority WFIRST exoplanet imaging targets, with an assessment of the "background threat" due to background stars, galaxies, and binary companions.

  20. ACCESS - A Science and Engineering Assessment of Space Coronagraph Concepts for the Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, John

    2008-01-01

    Topics include and overview, science objectives, study objectives, coronagraph types, metrics, ACCESS observatory, laboratory validations, and summary. Individual slides examine ACCESS engineering approach, ACCESS gamut of coronagraph types, coronagraph metrics, ACCESS Discovery Space, coronagraph optical layout, wavefront control on the "level playing field", deformable mirror development for HCIT, laboratory testbed demonstrations, high contract imaging with the HCIT, laboratory coronagraph contrast and stability, model validation and performance predictions, HCIT coronagraph optical layout, Lyot coronagraph on the HCIT, pupil mapping (PIAA), shaped pupils, and vortex phase mask experiments on the HCIT.

  1. FilFinder: Filamentary structure in molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Eric W.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2016-08-01

    FilFinder extracts and analyzes filamentary structure in molecular clouds. In particular, it is capable of uniformly extracting structure over a large dynamical range in intensity. It returns the main filament properties: local amplitude and background, width, length, orientation and curvature. FilFinder offers additional tools to, for example, create a filament-only image based on the properties of the radial fits. The resulting mask and skeletons may be saved in FITS format, and property tables may be saved as a CSV, FITS or LaTeX table.

  2. Terrestrial Planet Finder, Planet Detection Test-Bed: Latest Results of Planet Light Detection in the Presence of Starlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Stefan R.; Booth, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder, Planet Detection Test-bed is a lab based simulation of the optics and control systems for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer mission. The test-bed supports starlight nulling at 10um infrared wavelengths, with fringe tracking at 2um wavelengths and angle and shear tracking at visible wavelengths. It further allows injection of simulated planet light in the presence of the nulled star light, to allow testing of planet detection methods. We will describe the detailed construction and operation of the test-bed from an optical and control system perspective. We will also report the latest results for narrow band nulls, and the detection of broad band planet light in the presence of nulled starlight.

  3. 47 CFR 80.292 - Contingent acceptance of direction finder calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingent acceptance of direction finder....292 Contingent acceptance of direction finder calibration. When the required calibration can not be made before departure from a harbor or port for a voyage in the open sea, the direction finder may...

  4. 47 CFR 80.292 - Contingent acceptance of direction finder calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contingent acceptance of direction finder....292 Contingent acceptance of direction finder calibration. When the required calibration can not be made before departure from a harbor or port for a voyage in the open sea, the direction finder may...

  5. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  6. Optimization of the occulter for the Solar Orbiter/METIS coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landini, Federico; Vivès, Sébastien; Romoli, Marco; Guillon, Christophe; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Escolle, Clement; Focardi, Mauro; Antonucci, Ester; Fineschi, Silvano; Naletto, Giampiero; Nicolini, Gianalfredo; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Spadaro, Daniele

    2012-09-01

    METIS (Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy investigation), selected to fly aboard the Solar Orbiter ESA/NASA mission, is conceived to perform imaging (in visible, UV and EUV) and spectroscopy (in EUV) of the solar corona, by means of an integrated instrument suite located on a single optical bench and sharing the same aperture on the satellite heat shield. As every coronagraph, METIS is highly demanding in terms of stray light suppression. Coronagraphs history teaches that a particular attention must be dedicated to the occulter optimization. The METIS occulting system is of particular interest due to its innovative concept. In order to meet the strict thermal requirements of Solar Orbiter, METIS optical design has been optimized by moving the entrance pupil at the level of the external occulter on the S/C thermal shield, thus reducing the size of the external aperture. The scheme is based on an inverted external-occulter (IEO). The IEO consists of a circular aperture on the Solar Orbiter thermal shield. A spherical mirror rejects back the disk-light through the IEO. A breadboard of the occulting assembly (BOA) has been manufactured in order to perform stray light tests in front of two solar simulators (in Marseille, France and in Torino, Italy). A first measurement campaign has been carried on at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. In this paper we describe the BOA design, the laboratory set-up and the preliminary results.

  7. Demonstration of Broadband Contrast at 1.2 Lambda/D for the EXCEDE Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirbu, Dan; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Belikov, Ruslan; Lozi, Julien; Bendek, Eduardo; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Lynch, Dana H.; Hix, Troy; Zell, Peter; Schneider, Glenn; Guyon, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The proposed coronagraph instrument on the EXCEDE (EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer) mission study uses a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph architecture to enable high-contrast imaging of circumstellar debris disks and giant planets at angular separations as close in as the habitable zone of nearby host stars. We report on the experimental results obtained in the vacuum chamber at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in 10 percent broadband light centered about 650 nanometers, with a median contrast of 1 x 10 (sup -5) between 1.2 and 2.0 lambda /D simultaneously with 3 x 10 (sup -7) contrast between 2 and 11 =D between 2 and 11 lambda/D for a single-sided dark hole using a deformable mirror (DM) upstream of the PIAA coronagraph. The results are stable and repeatable as demonstrated by three measurements runs with DM settings set from scratch and maintained on the best 90 percent out of the 1000 collected frames. We compare the reduced experimental data with simulation results from modeling observed experimental limits; performance is consistent with uncorrected low-order modes not estimated by the Low Order Wavefront Sensor (LOWFS). Modeled sensitivity to bandwidth and residual tip/tilt modes is well-matched to the experiment.

  8. Ortholog-Finder: A Tool for Constructing an Ortholog Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Horiike, Tokumasa; Minai, Ryoichi; Miyata, Daisuke; Nakamura, Yoji; Tateno, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Orthologs are widely used for phylogenetic analysis of species; however, identifying genuine orthologs among distantly related species is challenging, because genes obtained through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and out-paralogs derived from gene duplication before speciation are often present among the predicted orthologs. We developed a program, “Ortholog-Finder,” to obtain ortholog data sets for performing phylogenetic analysis by using all open-reading frame data of species. The program includes five processes for minimizing the effects of HGT and out-paralogs in phylogeny construction: 1) HGT filtering: Genes derived from HGT could be detected and deleted from the initial sequence data set by examining their base compositions. 2) Out-paralog filtering: Out-paralogs are detected and deleted from the data set based on sequence similarity. 3) Classification of phylogenetic trees: Phylogenetic trees generated for ortholog candidates are classified as monophyletic or polyphyletic trees. 4) Tree splitting: Polyphyletic trees are bisected to obtain monophyletic trees and remove HGT genes and out-paralogs. 5) Threshold changing: Out-paralogs are further excluded from the data set based on the difference in the similarity scores of genuine orthologs and out-paralogs. We examined how out-paralogs and HGTs affected phylogenetic trees constructed for species based on ortholog data sets obtained by Ortholog-Finder with the use of simulation data, and we determined the effects of confounding factors. We then used Ortholog-Finder in phylogeny construction for 12 Gram-positive bacteria from two phyla and validated each node of the constructed tree by comparison with individually constructed ortholog trees. PMID:26782935

  9. Control design for momentum-compensated fast steering mirror for WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Keith; Shields, Joel; Wang, Xu; Tang, Hong; Azizi, Ali; Brugarolas, Paul; Mandic, Milan; Shi, Fang

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents results of the feedback control design for JPL's Fast Steering Mirror (FSM) for the WFIRST- AFTA coronagraph instrument. The objective of this controller is to cancel jitter disturbances in the beam from the spacecraft to a pointing stability of 0.4 masec over the duration of the observation using a momentum- compensated FSM. The plant model for the FSM was characterized experimentally, and the sensor model is based on simulated modeling. The control approach is divided between feedback compensation of low frequency attitude control system (ACS) drift, and feedforward cancellation of high frequency tonal disturbances originating from reaction wheel excitation of the telescope structure. This paper will present various aspects of the controller design, plant characterization, sensor modeling, disturbance estimation, performance simulation, and preliminary experimental testing results.

  10. PROBA-3: a Formation Flying Solar Coronagraph Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next project in the PROBA line of technology demonstration missions of ESA. PROBA-3, to be launched in 2019, is a mission dedicated to the in-flight demonstration of precise formation flying techniques and technologies. The PROBA-3 mission will place two spacecraft in a highly elliptical orbit around the Earth. The two spacecraft will fly in a precise formation, producing a very long baseline solar coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). One spacecraft will carry the optical telescope, and the second spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. The inter-satellite distance of around 150 m will allow observing the corona close to the solar limb with very low straylight. The PROBA-3/ASPIICS design will be described, and technical challenges of a formation flying mission will be discussed.

  11. Pinhole X-ray/coronagraph optical systems concept definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehnpfenning, T. F.; Rappaport, S.; Wattson, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The Pinhole X-ray/Coronagraph Concept utilizes the long baselines possible in Earth orbit with the space transportation system (shuttle) to produce observations of solar X-ray emission features at extremely high spatial resolution (up to 0.1 arc second) and high energy (up to 100 keV), and also white light and UV observations of the inner and outer corona at high spatial and/or spectral resolution. An examination of various aspects of a preliminary version of the X-ray Pinhole/Coronagraph Concept is presented. For this preliminary version, the instrument package will be carried in the shuttle bay on a mounting platform, and will be connected to the occulter with a deployable boom such as an Astromast. Generally, the spatial resolution, stray light levels, and minimum limb observing angles improve as the boom length increases. However, the associated engineering problems also become more serious with greater boom lengths.

  12. Design and laboratory demonstration of an achromatic vector vortex coronagraph.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Naoshi; Hamaguchi, Shoki; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Fukumoto, Ryohei; Ise, Akitoshi; Oka, Kazuhiko; Baba, Naoshi; Tamura, Motohide

    2013-03-25

    A vector vortex coronagraph (VVC) is one of promising means for imaging extremely faint objects around bright stars such as exoplanets. We present a design of an achromatic VVC, in which an axially-symmetric half-wave plate (AHP) is placed between crossed polarization filters (circular polarizer and analyzer). The circular polarizer and the analyzer are both composed of a polarizer and a quarter-wave plate (QWP). We demonstrate, via Jones calculus and Fourier analysis, that the achromatic stellar elimination can theoretically be realized by optimal polarization filters, even when chromatic AHP and QWPs are used. We carried out laboratory demonstrations of the designed VVC using a photonic-crystal AHP. As a result, we observed achromatic coronagraphic performance, a light suppression level of 7 × 10(-5), over a wavelength from 543 nm to 633 nm. PMID:23546123

  13. Common-path achromatic rotational-shearing coronagraph.

    PubMed

    Tavrov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ksanfomaliti, Leonid; Rodin, Alexander; Frolov, Pavel; Nishikwa, Jun; Tamura, Motohide; Kurokawa, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2011-06-01

    To suppress starlight for direct exoplanet observation, we propose a common-path achromatic rotational-shearing coronagraph (CP-ARC), which is an interferocoronagraph with an angular-adjustable field rotator. The CP-ARC aims to maintain unwanted detection of stellar light, which can be suppressed incompletely by interference because of the finite diameter of the star. Compared to the previous interferocoronagraph, which had a nonadjustable 180° field rotation, the proposed CP-ARC can improve the coronagraphic contrast by several orders if the CP-ARC is combined with medium or large telescopes where the companion-star separation is optically resolved by more than a few Airy radii. The CP-ARC is made robust against mechanical disturbances due to the common-path interferometer principle. PMID:21633419

  14. Respective capabilities of affordable Coronagraphs and Interferometers searching for Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Alain M.

    2015-12-01

    We describe an analytic model to estimate the capabilities of space missions dedicated to the search for biosignatures in the atmosphere of rocky planets located in the Habitable Zone of nearby stars. Relations between performance and parameters such as mirror diameter, distance to target, stellar properties, are obtained.Two types of instruments are considered: Coronagraphs observing in the visible, and Nulling Interferometers observing in the thermal infrared. Missions considered as affordable are single-pupil coronagraphs with a 2.4 m primary mirror, and formation flying interferometers with 4 x 0.75 m collecting mirrors with baselines ranging from a few decameters to a few hectometers.The numbers of accessible planets are calculated as a function of ηearth, the mean number of Earth analogues and super-Earths in stellar Habitable Zones.Based on current estimates, ηearth=10% around FGK stars and 20% around M stars, the built-in coronagraph and starshade could study only ~2.0 relevant planets, and the interferometer ~14. These numbers are obtained under the major assumption that the exozodiacal light around the target stars is not an issue for any of these instruments.For the coronagraphs, our estimates are in agreement with the values recently published by Stark et al. (2014), but these authors did not consider the case of interferometers.For the long-term future, building both types of spectroscopic instruments, and using them on the same targets, will be the optimal solution because they provide complementary information. But as a first affordable space mission, the interferometer looks the more promising in term of biosignature harvest.

  15. Sungrazing comets observed by the Solar Maximum Mission coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, R. M.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    1991-03-01

    The 10 sun-grazing comets (all members of the Kreutz group) detected by the white-light coronagraph of the SMM satellite during its 6-year operational lifetime are described. Numerical data are summarized in tables, and images are provided. Consideration is given to the question of detectability, apparent motions and orbits, coma brightness variations, tail behavior, and occurrence rates. The data are shown to confirm the episodic nature of sun-grazing events, as suggested by Marsden (1967).

  16. Coronagraph particulate measurements. Skylab flight experiment T025

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. M.; Schuerman, D. W.; Giovane, F.; Wang, R. T.; Hardy, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Major results of the Skylab T025 Coronagraph experiment designed to monitor the particulate contamination about the spacecraft and to study the earth's atmospheric aerosol distribution are presented. A model for comet outbursts based on the properties of amorphous ice and ground based narrow-band and white light photography of comet Kohoutek ten days to perihelion are included. The effect of atmospheric refraction on the analysis of the T025 atmospheric data was also investigated.

  17. Automatic analysis of double coronal mass ejections from coronagraph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Matthew; Chang, Lin-Ching; Pulkkinen, Antti; Romano, Michelangelo

    2015-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can have major impacts on man-made technology and humans, both in space and on Earth. These impacts have created a high interest in the study of CMEs in an effort to detect and track events and forecast the CME arrival time to provide time for proper mitigation. A robust automatic real-time CME processing pipeline is greatly desired to avoid laborious and subjective manual processing. Automatic methods have been proposed to segment CMEs from coronagraph images and estimate CME parameters such as their heliocentric location and velocity. However, existing methods suffered from several shortcomings such as the use of hard thresholding and an inability to handle two or more CMEs occurring within the same coronagraph image. Double-CME analysis is a necessity for forecasting the many CME events that occur within short time frames. Robust forecasts for all CME events are required to fully understand space weather impacts. This paper presents a new method to segment CME masses and pattern recognition approaches to differentiate two CMEs in a single coronagraph image. The proposed method is validated on a data set of 30 halo CMEs, with results showing comparable ability in transient arrival time prediction accuracy and the new ability to automatically predict the arrival time of a double-CME event. The proposed method is the first automatic method to successfully calculate CME parameters from double-CME events, making this automatic method applicable to a wider range of CME events.

  18. Direct Imaging Searches with the Apodizing Phase Plate Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenworthy, M.; Meshkat, T.; Otten, , G.; Codona, J.

    2014-03-01

    The sensitivity of direct imaging searches for extrasolar planets is limited by the presence of diffraction rings from the primary star. Coronagraphs are angular filters that minimise these diffraction structures whilst allowing light from faint companions to shine through. The Apodizing Phase Plate (APP; Kenworthy 2007) coronagraph is a simple pupil plane optic that suppresses diffraction over a 180 degree region around each star simultaneously, providing easy beam switching observations and requiring no time consuming optical alignment at the telescope. We will present our results on using the APP at the Very Large Telescope in surveys for extrasolar planets around A/F and debris disk hosting stars in the L' band (3.8 microns) in the Southern Hemisphere, where we reach a contrast of 12 magnitudes at 0.5 arcseconds (Meshkat 2013). In Leiden, we are also developing the next generation of broadband achromatic coronagraphs that can simultaneously image both sides of the star using Vector APPs (Snik 2012, Otten 2012). Recent laboratory results showing the potential of this technology for future ELTs will also be presented.

  19. CME dynamics using coronagraph and interplanetary ejecta observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, Alisson; Demítrio Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter; da Silva, Marlos; de Lucas, Aline; Braga, Carlos Roberto; Ramos Vieira, Lucas

    One of the key issues of Space Weather is the dynamics of coronal mass ejections, from their release from the Sun, their propagation throughout the interplanetary space, eventually im-pacting the earth and other planets. These impacts of CMEs are the most important drivers of space weather phenomena. A number of empirical and analytical studies have addressed this point so far, using observations from coronagraphs and interplanetary monitors, in order to correlate CMEs observed near the Sun and in situ (e.g. earth vincity). However, results are far from conclusive. Error bars in CME travel time predictions from the Sun to earth, are of the order of 1 day, which is considerably big for the typical time scale of 1 to 3 days of their travel time. After many years of intensive investigations of CMEs observed with the Large An-gle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO), abord the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), we found that the subset of interplanetary counterparts of CMEs, the ICMEs, with a well defined ejecta structure are those with best predictable behaviour. The prediction of these interplanetary ejecta travel time to earth, using coronagraph observations is the one with lowest error bar among other sets of events, such as interplanetary shock. We present a statistic study of all the CME-ejecta events observed by SOHO and by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite since 1997.

  20. Laboratory Demonstration of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph with Better than 10(exp -9) Contrast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert; Martinache, Frantz; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    We present coronagraphic images from the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph on NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab, showing contrasts of 5x10(exp -1) averaged from 2-4 lambda/D, in monochromatic light at 808 nm. In parallel with the coronagraph and its deformable mirror and coronagraphic wavefront control, we also demonstrate a low-order wavefront control system, giving 100 x rms suppression of introduced tip/tilt disturbances down to residual levels of 10(exp -3) lambda/D. Current limitations, as well as broadband (10% fractional bandpass) preliminary results are discussed.

  1. MinFinder v2.0: An improved version of MinFinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2008-10-01

    A new version of the "MinFinder" program is presented that offers an augmented linking procedure for Fortran-77 subprograms, two additional stopping rules and a new start-point rejection mechanism that saves a significant portion of gradient and function evaluations. The method is applied on a set of standard test functions and the results are reported. New version program summaryProgram title: MinFinder v2.0 Catalogue identifier: ADWU_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWU_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC Licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 150 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 218 144 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language used: GNU C++, GNU FORTRAN, GNU C Computer: The program is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Operating system: Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD RAM: 200 000 bytes Classification: 4.9 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWU_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Computer Physics Communications 174 (2006) 166-179 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be trapped in any local minimum. Global optimization is then the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions, i.e. they are far from zero. Solution method: Using a uniform pdf, points are sampled from a rectangular domain. A clustering technique, based on a typical distance

  2. Curved track segment finding using Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    We describe the applications of a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves the grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint forming of a track segment. The TTF was originally developed solving straight track segment finding problem, however, it is also suitable in many curved track segment finding problems. The examples discussed in this document are among popular detector layouts in high-energy/nuclear physics experiments. Although it is not practical to find a universal recipe for arbitrary detector layouts, the method of the TTF application is illustrated via the discussion of the examples. Generally speaking, whenever the data item to be found in a pattern recognition problem contains two free parameters, and if the constraint connecting the measurements and the two free parameters has an approximate shift invariant property, the Tiny Triplet Finder can be used.

  3. Three dimensional map construction using a scanning laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a three-dimensional environment reconstruction system using a laser range finder. The original design of URG-04LX laser range finder, provided by Hokuyo Inc., is efficient in providing two-dimensional distance information. To enhance the capability of the device, we developed a rotation mechanism to provide it a sweep motion for stereo data collection. Geometric equations are derived that includes parameters of misalignment that are unavoidable in manufacturing and assembling. The parameters are calibrated according to practical data measurement of three relatively-perpendicular planes. The calibration is formulated as an optimization problem solved using the Nelder- Mead simplex algorithm. Validity of the calibration scheme is demonstrated by the reconstruction of several real-world scenes.

  4. Detectability of active triangulation range finder: a solar irradiance approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huizhe; Gao, Jason; Bui, Viet Phuong; Liu, Zhengtong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Peh, Li-Shiuan; Png, Ching Eng

    2016-06-27

    Active triangulation range finders are widely used in a variety of applications such as robotics and assistive technologies. The power of the laser source should be carefully selected in order to satisfy detectability and still remain eye-safe. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to assess the detectability of an active triangulation range finder in an outdoor environment. For the first time, we accurately quantify the background noise of a laser system due to solar irradiance by coupling the Perez all-weather sky model and ray tracing techniques. The model is validated with measurements with a modeling error of less than 14.0%. Being highly generic and sufficiently flexible, the proposed model serves as a guide to define a laser system for any geographical location and microclimate. PMID:27410637

  5. Adaptive Nulling for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Robert D.; Lay, Oliver P.; Jeganathan, Muthu; Hirai, Akiko

    2006-01-01

    A description of adaptive nulling for Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPFI) is presented. The topics include: 1) Nulling in TPF-I; 2) Why Do Adaptive Nulling; 3) Parallel High-Order Compensator Design; 4) Phase and Amplitude Control; 5) Development Activates; 6) Requirements; 7) Simplified Experimental Setup; 8) Intensity Correction; and 9) Intensity Dispersion Stability. A short summary is also given on adaptive nulling for the TPFI.

  6. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 Progress and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Lay, O. P.; Martin, S. R.; Peters, R. D.; Gappinger, R. O.; Ksendzov, A.; Scharf, D. P.; Booth, A. J.; Beichman, C. A.; Serabyn, E.; Johnston, K. J.; Danchi, W. C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of technology development for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I). TPF-I is a mid-infrared space interferometer being designed with the capability of detecting Earth-like planets in the habitable zones around nearby stars. The overall technology roadmap is presented and progress with each of the testbeds is summarized. The current interferometer architecture, design trades, and the viability of possible reduced-scope mission concepts are also presented.

  7. Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Aceituno, Javier; Acosta, Leopoldo; Arnay, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle. PMID:22368469

  8. Fusion of a variable baseline system and a range finder.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aceituno, Javier; Acosta, Leopoldo; Arnay, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle. PMID:22368469

  9. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: Architecture, Mission Design, and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Curt

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation represents an overview progress report about the system design and technology development of two interferometer concepts studied for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project. The two concepts are a structurally-connected interferometer (SCI) intended to fulfill minimum TPF science goals and a formation-flying interferometer (FFI) intended to fulfill full science goals. Described are major trades, analyses, and technology experiments completed. Near term plans are also described. This paper covers progress since August 2003

  10. Utilization of SciFinder Scholar at an Undergraduate Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Stacy A.; Wilson, Anne M.; Howes, Barbara

    2002-04-01

    The use of tools to search chemical information databases continues to be important to science educators. The ability to perform online searches of Chemical Abstracts Service can have a significant impact on teaching and research. The implementation of SciFinder Scholar at Butler University has resulted in significant changes in teaching, student-based research, and faculty development in the Chemistry Department. Details of these changes in courses, student research projects and proposals, and the professional growth of the faculty are discussed.

  11. The Voronoi Tessellation Cluster Finder in 2 1 Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Soares-Santos, Marcelle; de Carvalho, Reinaldo R.; Annis, James; Gal, Roy R.; La Barbera, Francesco; Lopes, Paulo A.A.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael T.; Gerke, Brian F.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-06-23

    We present a detailed description of the Voronoi Tessellation (VT) cluster finder algorithm in 2+1 dimensions, which improves on past implementations of this technique. The need for cluster finder algorithms able to produce reliable cluster catalogs up to redshift 1 or beyond and down to 10{sup 13.5} solar masses is paramount especially in light of upcoming surveys aiming at cosmological constraints from galaxy cluster number counts. We build the VT in photometric redshift shells and use the two-point correlation function of the galaxies in the field to both determine the density threshold for detection of cluster candidates and to establish their significance. This allows us to detect clusters in a self-consistent way without any assumptions about their astrophysical properties. We apply the VT to mock catalogs which extend to redshift 1.4 reproducing the ?CDM cosmology and the clustering properties observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. An objective estimate of the cluster selection function in terms of the completeness and purity as a function of mass and redshift is as important as having a reliable cluster finder. We measure these quantities by matching the VT cluster catalog with the mock truth table. We show that the VT can produce a cluster catalog with completeness and purity >80% for the redshift range up to {approx}1 and mass range down to {approx}10{sup 13.5} solar masses.

  12. Performance characterization of a broadband vector Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraph.

    PubMed

    Otten, Gilles P P L; Snik, Frans; Kenworthy, Matthew A; Miskiewicz, Matthew N; Escuti, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    One of the main challenges for the direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is the suppression of the diffracted halo from the primary star. Coronagraphs are angular filters that suppress this diffracted halo. The Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraph modifies the pupil-plane phase with an anti-symmetric pattern to suppress diffraction over a 180 degree region from 2 to 7 λ/D and achieves a mean raw contrast of 10(-4) in this area, independent of the tip-tilt stability of the system. Current APP coronagraphs implemented using classical phase techniques are limited in bandwidth and suppression region geometry (i.e. only on one side of the star). In this paper, we introduce the vector-APP (vAPP) whose phase pattern is implemented through the vector phase imposed by the orientation of patterned liquid crystals. Beam-splitting according to circular polarization states produces two, complementary PSFs with dark holes on either side. We have developed a prototype vAPP that consists of a stack of three twisting liquid crystal layers to yield a bandwidth of 500 to 900 nm. We characterize the properties of this device using reconstructions of the pupil-plane pattern, and of the ensuing PSF structures. By imaging the pupil between crossed and parallel polarizers we reconstruct the fast axis pattern, transmission, and retardance of the vAPP, and use this as input for a PSF model. This model includes aberrations of the laboratory set-up, and matches the measured PSF, which shows a raw contrast of 10(-3.8) between 2 and 7 λ/D in a 135 degree wedge. The vAPP coronagraph is relatively easy to manufacture and can be implemented together with a broadband quarter-wave plate and Wollaston prism in a pupil wheel in high-contrast imaging instruments. The liquid crystal patterning technique permits the application of extreme phase patterns with deeper contrasts inside the dark holes, and the multilayer liquid crystal achromatization technique enables unprecedented spectral bandwidths

  13. A Shaped Pupil Lyot Coronagraph for WFIRST-AFTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Neil; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Carlotti, Alexis; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The baseline WFIRST-AFTA mission concept includes a shaped pupil coronagraph for imaging and spectroscopy of gas giants in nearby planetary systems. Our newest designs optimize over a three-stage Fourier propagation (shaped pupil apodizer, hard-edged focal plane mask, and Lyot stop) to generate small inner working angle (2.5 lambda/D), broadband (20%), high-contrast (< 10^-8) solutions. Here we describe our methods and performance predictions, in anticipation of testbed verification within the coming year.

  14. The COronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) Large Aperture Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Steve; Gallagher, Dennis; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Haiying; Nelson, Pete; Burkepile, Joan; Kolinksi, Don; Sutherland, Lee

    2013-04-01

    The COSMO is a facility dedicated to observing coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields. It will be located on a mountaintop in the Hawaiian Islands and will replace the current Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO). COSMO will provide unique observations of the global coronal magnetic fields and its environment to enhance the value of data collected by other observatories on the ground (e.g. SOLIS, BBO NST, Gregor, ATST, EST, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, NLST, FASR) and in space (e.g. SDO, Hinode, SOHO, GOES, STEREO, Solar-C, Solar Probe+, Solar Orbiter). COSMO will employ a fleet of instruments to cover many aspects of measuring magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. The dynamics and energy flow in the corona are dominated by magnetic fields. To understand the formation of CMEs, their relation to other forms of solar activity, and their progression out into the solar wind requires measurements of coronal magnetic fields. The large aperture coronagraph, the Chromospheric and Prominence Magnetometer and the K-Coronagraph form the COSMO instrument suite to measure magnetic fields and the polarization brightness of the low corona used to infer electron density. The large aperture coronagraph will employ a 1.5 meter fuse silica singlet lens, birefringent filters, and a spectropolarimeter to cover fields of view of up to 1 degree. It will observe the corona over a wide range of emission lines from 530.3 nm through 1083.0 nm allowing for magnetic field measurements over a wide range of coronal temperatures (e.g. FeXIV at 530.3 nm, Fe X at 637.4 nm, Fe XIII at 1074.7 and 1079.8 nm. These lines are faint and require the very large aperture. NCAR and NSF have provided funding to bring the large aperture coronagraph to a preliminary design review state by the end of 2013. As with all data from Mauna Loa, the data products from COSMO will be available to the community via the Mauna Loa website: http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu

  15. Numerically designed phase-mask for stellar coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Naoshi; Murakami, Naoshi; Miura, Noriaki; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-09-01

    Phase-mask coronagraph holds the ability to detect exoplanets very close to their parent star. We report a new kind of phase mask that performs the contrast ratio of more than the tenth power of 10 for a circular aperture with shades of a secondary mirror and spiders. The phase distribution of the phase mask is numerically obtained by making the leaked light distribute outside the transparent part of the pupil. We applied the hybrid input-output algorithm, one of phase retrieval methods, to find the phase distribution of the phase mask. We show the characteristics of thus obtained phase mask.

  16. Possibilities of phase curve observation with stellar coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Pavel; Ksanfomality, Leonid; Tavrov, Alexander; Ananyeva, Vladislava

    Since the discovery and confirmation of the first exoplanet orbiting main-sequence star in 1995 the number of known objects continues to increase. Most of them have been detected by indirect methods (radial velocity, transit method, microlensing, etc.). These methods provide a little information about planets, which is dependable on the method model. Obtained information (mass, radius, temperature) is not enough to explain the exoplanet origin and diversity. Radial velocity and transit methods are sensitive to giant planets close to stars and are not effective in detection of low mass Earth-like exoplanets which are of interest for a possible habitability. It is necessary to know the chemical composition of planets and atmospheres as we do it for Solar System planets. Pursuing the goal to examine planetary spectra and having no direct images of exoplanets orbital phase curves are powerful method of investigation. Both the direct imaging and phase curve observation of Earth-like exoplanets remain a real challenge. The reason is the critical combination of huge brightness contrast between the star and the planet (106 in the mid-IR and 109 in the visible) and the small angular separation between sources (typically 0.1…0.5 arcsec or less). To observe phase curves and to perform a spectroscopic analysis it is proposed to use an achromatic interferometric coronagraph capable of reducing high star-to-planet contrast in a wide spectral range. CP-AIC (Common-Path Achromatic Interferometric Coronagraph) and CP-ARC (Common-Path Achromatic Rotational-Shearing Coronagraph) schemes are studied. 1-meter aperture and CP-AIC operating at IWA = 0.38λ/D reduce star-to-planet contrast by up to 6 orders; 1-meter aperture and CP-ARC operating at IWA = 1…5λ/D reduce contrast by up to 9 orders (in case of CP-ARC larger apertures are preferred for bigger advantage in contrast versus CP-AIC). We show possibility to diminish observable star-to-planet flux ratio and discuss prospect to

  17. Algorithm based on symmetry for locating the finder pattern of the QR code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Donghong; Chen, Xinmeng; Yu, Dan; Liu, Weina; Mei, Bin

    2006-10-01

    The symbology of the QR Code and the traditional techniques for recognizing the finder pattern of the QR Code were introduced and the disadvantages of these techniques were analyzed. Based on the symmetry of the finder pattern of the QR Code, an algorithm for locating the center of the finder pattern was proposed. By this algorithm, the center of the finder pattern of the QR Code can be located accurately even though one module of the QR Code image occupies only 2.8 pixels or the image is skewed seriously or the image is illuminated not uniformly.

  18. Stray-light analyses of the METIS coronagraph on Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineschi, S.; Sandri, P.; Landini, F.; Romoli, M.; DaDeppo, V.; Frassetto, F.; Verroi, E.; Naletto, G.; Morea, D.; Antonucci, E.; Spadaro, D.; Andretta, V.

    2015-09-01

    The METIS coronagraph on board the Solar Orbiter mission will have the unique opportunity of observing the solar outer atmosphere as close to the Sun as 0.28 A.U., and from up to 35° out-of-ecliptic. The telescope design of the METIS coronagraph includes two optical paths: i) broad-band imaging of the full corona in linearly polarized visible-light (VL: 580-640 nm), ii) narrow-band imaging of the full corona in the ultraviolet (UV) Lyman α (121.6 nm). This paper describes the stray-light analyses performed on the UV and VL channels of the METIS Telescope with the nonsequential modality of Zemax OpticStudio. A detailed opto-mechanical model of the METIS Telescope is simulated by placing the CAD parts of all the sub-assemblies at the nominal position. Each surface, mechanical and optical, is provided with a modelled coating and BSDF reproducing the optical and the diffusing properties. The geometric model allows for the verification of the correct functioning of the blocking elements inside the telescope and for an evaluation of the stray-light level due to surface roughness. The diffraction off the inner edge of the IEO on the plane of the IO is modelled separately from the contributor of the surface micro-roughness. The contributors due to particle contamination and cosmetic defects are also analysed. The results obtained are merged together and compared to the requirements of stray-light. The results of this analysis together with those from two different analyses based on a Montecarlo ray-trace and a semi-analytical model are consistent with each other and indicate that the METIS design meets the stray-light level requirements

  19. Stellar Coronagraphy: Study and Test of a Hybrid Interfero-Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudoz, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Rabbia, Y.; Gay, J.

    2005-09-01

    We present a device for high dynamic range imaging of faint structures in the close angular vicinity of stars. An advantage of this device is the capacity to explore the field of view both uniformly and as close (or near) to the parent star as allowed by the diffraction limit of the telescope. The design is adapted from the Achromatic Interfero-Coronagraph (AIC), which suppresses the light scattered by diffraction from an on-axis unresolved source, but yields two twin images of the stellar environment, displayed symmetrically in the focal plane (Gay & Rabbia 1996; Baudoz et al. 2000a). Our Hybrid Interfero-Coronagraph (HIC) avoids the 180° ambiguity and is therefore well suited for the study of extended objects distributed all around the star. Like the AIC, the on-axis extinction with HIC is based on destructive interference after amplitude division of the incident field from a single telescope. An achromatic π-dephasing and a spatial filtering of the wave front are performed on one arm of the interferometer. The interferometric process occurs between the wave front from the star and a spatially filtered wave front. Because of this spatial filtering, the destructive process no longer remains achromatic. However, the residual chromaticity is compatible with astrophysical applications on ground-based telescopes. Numerical simulations show that HIC performance does not suffer from telescope central obscuration. An appropriate size of the spatial filtering mask and a suitable apodization allow the nulling of an on-axis unresolved star at the level of 10-6, with a spectral resolution R=λ0/Δλ=15 and in the absence of wave-front phase or intensity errors. Preliminary laboratory tests with a HIC prototype are reported, and as a first step, an extinction of the source by a factor of 200 was obtained, with a resolution R=6 in the visible, using a simple setup.

  20. An innovative concept for the AsteroidFinder/SSB focal plane assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karsten; Tschentscher, Matthias; Koncz, Alexander; Solbrig, Michael; Michaelis, Harald

    2012-06-01

    This paper gives a summary on the system concept and design of the focal plane assembly of AsteroidFinder/SSB, a small satellite mission which is currently under development at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). An athermal design concept has been developed in accordance to the requirements of the instrument and spacecraft. Key aspects leading to this approach have been a trade-off study of the mechanical telescope interface, the definition of electrical and thermal interfaces and a material selection which minimizes thermally induced stresses. As a novelty, the structure will be manufactured from a machinable AlN-BN composite ceramic. To enable rapid design iterations and development, an integrated modeling approach has been used to conduct a thermo-mechanical analysis of the proposed concept in order to proof its feasibility. The steady-state temperature distribution for various load cases and the resulting stress and strain within the assembly have both been computed using a finite element simulation.

  1. Testing the Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph on the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sandrine J.; Soummer, Rémi; Dillon, Daren; Macintosh, Bruce; Gavel, Donald; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2011-10-01

    We present testbed results of the Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics (LAO). These results are part of the validation and tests of the coronagraph and of the Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). The apodizer component is manufactured with a halftone technique using black chrome microdots on glass. Testing this APLC (like any other coronagraph) requires extremely good wavefront correction, which is obtained to the 1 nm rms level using the microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) technology, on the ExAO visible testbed of the LAO at the University of Santa Cruz. We used an APLC coronagraph without central obstruction, both with a reference super-polished flat mirror and with the MEMS to obtain one of the first images of a dark zone in a coronagraphic image with classical adaptive optics using a MEMS deformable mirror (without involving dark hole algorithms). This was done as a complementary test to the GPI coronagraph testbed at American Museum of Natural History, which studied the coronagraph itself without wavefront correction. Because we needed a full aperture, the coronagraph design is very different from the GPI design. We also tested a coronagraph with central obstruction similar to that of GPI. We investigated the performance of the APLC coronagraph and more particularly the effect of the apodizer profile accuracy on the contrast. Finally, we compared the resulting contrast to predictions made with a wavefront propagation model of the testbed to understand the effects of phase and amplitude errors on the final contrast.

  2. First Year of WFIRST/AFTA Coronagraph Technology Development: Testbed Progress Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Zhao, Feng; An, Xin; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Belikov, Rus; Cady, Eric; Diaz, Rosemary; Gordon, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andreas; Moody, Dwight; Muller, Richard; Nemati, Bijan; Patterson, Keith; Riggs, A. J.; Ryan, Daniel; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Sidick, Erkin; Shi, Fang; Tang, Hong; Trauger, John; Wallace, Kent; Wang, Xu; Wilson, Daniel; White, Victor; Yee, Karl; Zhou, Hanying; Zimmerman, Neil

    2015-01-01

    NASA's WFIRST/AFTA mission study includes the first high-contrast stellar coronagraph in space. This coronagraph will be capable of imaging and spectrally characterizing giant exoplanets similar to Neptune and Jupiter and possibly super-Earths, as well as circumstellar disks. After a transparent and rigorous downselect process, NASA chose in December of 2013 a primary design called an Occulting Mask Coronagraph (OMC) that combines two technical approaches, Shaped Pupil and Hybrid Lyot, in one instrument. The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph was selected as the backup design.The OMC coronagraph technologies were assessed to have the highest likelihood of passing the WFIRST/AFTA flight readiness gates and the ability to produce compelling science by working with the existing 2.4-meter telescope 'as is,' including its central obscuration, expected thermal drift, and the observatory pointing jitter. NASA set us the objective of maturing the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5 by October 1, 2016. A set of technical milestones was agreed upon to track the progress toward achieving TRL 5.Substantial advances in WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph technology have been made during 2014, and the OMC progress is currently running ahead of the schedule laid out by the milestones. Our poster will present some of these key recent results to the community, including:(1) Fabrication and characterization of WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph pupil plane and focal plane masks designed to work with the existing 2.4 telescope.(2) Experimental results demonstrating high contrast achieved on a coronagraph testbed in narrowband and broadband light - first such results obtained with an obscured pupil.(3) Progress in the development of the low-order wavefront sensing and control subsystem that will use rejected starlight to sense and correct both high frequency pointing jitter and slow varying low order aberrations. This subsystem will be integrated with the

  3. TESTING THE APODIZED PUPIL LYOT CORONAGRAPH ON THE LABORATORY FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS EXTREME ADAPTIVE OPTICS TESTBED

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sandrine J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Macintosh, Bruce; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand E-mail: dillon@ucolick.org E-mail: soummer@stsci.edu E-mail: anand@amnh.org

    2011-10-15

    We present testbed results of the Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics (LAO). These results are part of the validation and tests of the coronagraph and of the Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). The apodizer component is manufactured with a halftone technique using black chrome microdots on glass. Testing this APLC (like any other coronagraph) requires extremely good wavefront correction, which is obtained to the 1 nm rms level using the microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) technology, on the ExAO visible testbed of the LAO at the University of Santa Cruz. We used an APLC coronagraph without central obstruction, both with a reference super-polished flat mirror and with the MEMS to obtain one of the first images of a dark zone in a coronagraphic image with classical adaptive optics using a MEMS deformable mirror (without involving dark hole algorithms). This was done as a complementary test to the GPI coronagraph testbed at American Museum of Natural History, which studied the coronagraph itself without wavefront correction. Because we needed a full aperture, the coronagraph design is very different from the GPI design. We also tested a coronagraph with central obstruction similar to that of GPI. We investigated the performance of the APLC coronagraph and more particularly the effect of the apodizer profile accuracy on the contrast. Finally, we compared the resulting contrast to predictions made with a wavefront propagation model of the testbed to understand the effects of phase and amplitude errors on the final contrast.

  4. Experimental Progress and Results of a Visible Nulling Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuele, Rocco; Wallace, J. Kent; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Shao, Mike; Levine, B. Martin; Fregoso, Santos

    2007-01-01

    The crux of visible exoplanet detection is overcoming significant star-planet contrast ratios on the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -10)-at very small angular separations. We are developing an interferometric nulling coronagraph designed to achieve a 10(exp -6) contrast ratio at a working science bandpass of 20% visible light. Achieving large, broadband suppression requires a pseudo-achromatic phase flip, while maintaining a strict error budget. Recent results from our nulling interferometer testbed yield contrast ratios at the 1.05x10(exp -6) level, with a 15% visible bandpass. This result is at 65% of our final bandpass requirement, although limitations of our current configuration make major hardware changes essential to broadening the bandpass. We make the argument that broadening the bandpass should not necessarily adversely affect the null depth until beyond the 20% visible light level. Using the same setup we are able to reach monochromatic null depths of 1.11x10(exp -7) (?= 638 nm)averaged over three seconds. This paper will describe our experimental approach for achieving deep broadband nulls, as well as error considerations and limitations, and the most recent results for our nulling coronagraph testbed.

  5. CIAXE: co-axial achromatic interferential coronagraph: first laboratory results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, Fatmé; Gay, Jean; Rabbia, Yves; Assus, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    In 1996, Jean Gay and Yves Rabbia presented their Achromatic Interferential Coronagraph (AIC) for detecting and imaging faint companions (ultimately exoplanets) in the neighboring of a star. As presented then, the Michleson-like Interferometer configuration of the AIC hardens its insertion into an existing (coaxial) optical train, the output beam of the AIC being delivered at right angle from the input beam. To overcome this, they reconfigured the AIC into a compact and fully axial coronagraph, the CIAXE, which main feature consists of using two thick lenses machined in the same optical material. For the CIAXE to deliver the output beam along the same axis as the input beam, the two lenses are coaxially disposed on the optical axis and are separated, at their common spherical contact surface by a thin air gap acting like a beam splitter. We have set up a laboratory experiment aiming at validating the principle of the concept. Our first step was to equalize the thicknesses of the two lenses, so as to make zero the optical path difference between both arms. For this, the (residual) value of the OPD has been evaluated and then the lenses have been re-machined so as to decrease as far as technologically possible, the thicknesses mismatch. As a second step, a micro-controlled rotation around the common curvature center of the spherical surfaces of the lenses is applied. This allows a fine tuning of the residual OPD at the required accuracy level. Are presented here test bench, steps and results.

  6. High Contrast Imaging with the JWST NIRCAM Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Joseph J.; Beichman, Charles; Basinger, Scott A.; Horner, Scott; Meyer, Michael; Redding, David C.; Rieke, Marcia; Trauger, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Relative to ground-based telescopes, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will have a substantial sensitivity advantage in the 2.2-5pm wavelength range where brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters are thought to have significant brightness enhancements. To facilitate high contrast imaging within this band, the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCAM) will employ a Lyot coronagraph with an array of band-limited image-plane occulting spots. In this paper, we provide the science motivation for high contrast imaging with NIRCAM, comparing its expected performance to that of the Keck, Gemini and 30 m (TMT) telescopes equipped with Adaptive Optics systems of different capabilities. We then describe our design for the NIRCAM coronagraph that enables imaging over the entire sensitivity range of the instrument while providing significant operational flexibility. We describe the various design tradeoffs that were made in consideration of alignment and aberration sensitivities and present contrast performance in the presence of JWST's expected optical aberrations. Finally we show an example of a that can provide 10-5 companion sensitivity at sub-arcsecond separations.

  7. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO Project: Progress and Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Martinache, F.; Guyon, O.; Clergeon, C.; Garrel, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 λ/D. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss two exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks.

  8. Science with EPICS, the E-ELT planet finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Raffaele; Kasper, Markus; Vérinaud, Christophe; Bonavita, Mariangela; Schmid, Hans M.

    2011-11-01

    EPICS is the proposed planet finder for the European Extremely Large Telescope. EPICS is a high contrast imager based on a high performing extreme adaptive optics system, a diffraction suppression module, and two scientific instruments: an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) for the near infrared (0.95-1.65 μm), and a differential polarization imager (E-POL). Both these instruments should allow imaging and characterization of planets shining in reflected light, possibly down to Earth-size. A few high interesting science cases are presented.

  9. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer Technology Status and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Perter R.; Ahmed, A.; Gappinger, R. O.; Ksendzov, A.; Lay, O. P.; Martin, S. R.; Peters, R. D.; Scharf, D. P.; Wallace, J. K.; Ware, B.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the technology status and plans for Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer is shown. The topics include: 1) The Navigator Program; 2) TPF-I Project Overview; 3) Project Organization; 4) Technology Plan for TPF-I; 5) TPF-I Testbeds; 6) Nulling Error Budget; 7) Nulling Testbeds; 8) Nulling Requirements; 9) Achromatic Nulling Testbed; 10) Single Mode Spatial Filter Technology; 11) Adaptive Nuller Testbed; 12) TPF-I: Planet Detection Testbed (PDT); 13) Planet Detection Testbed Phase Modulation Experiment; and 14) Formation Control Testbed.

  10. Status of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, Charles; Lawson, Peter; Lay, Oliver; Ahmed, Asif; Unwin, Steve; Johnston, K.

    2006-01-01

    The interferometric version of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF-I) has the potential to find and characterize earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of over 250 nearby stars and to search for life using biomarkers in the atmospheres of any planets found. The scientific case for such a mission continues to be strengthened by on-going progress in the detection of planets via indirect means. This paper summarizes the status of TPF-I, illustrative scientific requirements for the mission, and its enabling technologies.

  11. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: Architecture, Mission Design and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Curt; Lay, Oliver; Aung, MiMi; Gunter, Steven M.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Blackwood, Gary

    2004-01-01

    This overview paper is a progress report about the system design and technology development of two interferometer concepts studied for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project. The two concepts are a structurally-connected interferometer (SCI) intended to fulfill minimum TPF science goals and a formation-flying interferometer (FFI) intended to fulfill full science goals. Described are major trades, analyses, and technology experiments completed. Near term plans are also described. This paper covers progress since August 2003 and serves as an update to a paper presented at that month's SPIE conference, 'Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets.

  12. Introduction to Structure Searching with SciFinder Scholar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Damon D.

    2001-04-01

    CAS Registry Numbers provide a key to searching for chemical substances in CAS databases, and the challenge is to obtain the Registry Numbers for all the substances required. When the substances can be represented by structures, then one option is to find the Registry Numbers through structure searches. With SciFinder Scholar, the process of drawing and searching structures is intuitive; however, there are underlying issues and opportunities that need some explanation in courses on chemical information retrieval.We describe here our introductory course, which addresses the major ones.

  13. Multi-color coronagraph experiments with binary-shaped pupil masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haze, Kanae; Enya, Keigo; Kotani, Takayuki; Abe, Lyu; Nakagawa, Takao; Higuchi, Shin; Sato, Toshimichi; Wakayama, Takayuki; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    We present results of our laboratory experiment on a binary-shaped pupil mask coronagraph for the direct observation of exoplanets. One of the methods to improve the enormous contrast between the central star and the planet is a stellar coronagraph. The coronagraph can change the PSF and reduce the gap of luminosity between an extra-solar planet and its central star. We focused on binary shaped pupil coronagraph that is planned to be installed in next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA. We are now conducting demonstration experiments to verify the effectiveness of the coronagraph. A contrast of 7.8 × 10-9 was achieved by the PSF sub-traction as the results of our laboratory experiments using He-Ne laser on the coronagraph which was implemented inside a vacuum chamber in order to achieve higher thermal stability and to avoid air turbulence. Furthermore, we carried out multi-color experiment using a Super luminescent Light Emitting Diode (SLED), with wavelengths of 650nm, 750nm, 800nm and 850nm. Additionally, we undertake development of the low-temperature vacuum chamber for the laboratory coronagraph experiment with mid-infrared range.

  14. Requirements and design reference mission for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Charley; Neville, Timothy; Pham, Hung; Rud, Mike; Tang, Hong; Villalvazo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument takes advantage of AFTAs 2.4-meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes: Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, Lyot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architectures. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predicts the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  15. DataFinder: Using Ontologies and Reasoning to Enhance Metadata Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, T. A.; Chalupsky, H.

    2005-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center's Community Modeling Environment uses computer codes for simulation and hazard analysis computations. The process of running workflows using several computational models produces numerous intermediate and final data files. These files have descriptive metadata stored as pairs of attribute names and values. Depending on which software was used to prepare the files, different attribute names and different organizational schemes are used for the metadata. Previous search tools for this metadata repository rely on the user knowing the structure and names of the metadata attributes in order to find stored information. Matters are made even harder because sometimes the type of information in a data file must be inferred. For example, seismic hazard maps are described simply as ``JPEGFile'', with the domain content of the file inferable only by looking at the workflow that produced the file. This greatly limits the ability to actually find data of interest. DataFinder uses ontologies to provide a semantic overlay for the metadata attributes that are used to index data files. A domain ontology is combined with a metadata attribute ontology to link geophysical and seismic hazard domain concepts with the metadata attributes that describe the computational products. DataFinder uses a domain ontology and additional rules expressed in first-order logic to provide this semantic enhancement. The domain and metadata attribute ontology is represented in the PowerLoom representation language. DataFinder is implemented using a hybrid reasoning approach based on combining the strengths of the PowerLoom logical reasoning engine with the database technology underlying the metadata repository to provide scalability. The PowerLoom reasoning engine allows to add semantic enhancements by overlaying the raw metadata with a hierarchy of concepts, providing more abstract views of the data collection. For example, a velocity mesh is one of the

  16. LinkFinder: An expert system that constructs phylogenic trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inglehart, James; Nelson, Peter C.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) that automates the process of constructing DNA sequence based phylogenies (trees or lineages) that indicate evolutionary relationships. LinkFinder takes as input homologous DNA sequences from distinct individual organisms. It measures variations between the sequences, selects appropriate proportionality constants, and estimates the time that has passed since each pair of organisms diverged from a common ancestor. It then designs and outputs a phylogenic map summarizing these results. LinkFinder can find genetic relationships between different species, and between individuals of the same species, including humans. It was designed to take advantage of the vast amount of sequence data being produced by the Genome Project, and should be of value to evolution theorists who wish to utilize this data, but who have no formal training in molecular genetics. Evolutionary theory holds that distinct organisms carrying a common gene inherited that gene from a common ancestor. Homologous genes vary from individual to individual and species to species, and the amount of variation is now believed to be directly proportional to the time that has passed since divergence from a common ancestor. The proportionality constant must be determined experimentally; it varies considerably with the types of organisms and DNA molecules under study. Given an appropriate constant, and the variation between two DNA sequences, a simple linear equation gives the divergence time.

  17. Knickpoint finder: A software tool that improves neotectonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, G. L.; Salamuni, E.; Nascimento, E. R.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents a new software tool for morphometric analysis of drainage networks based on the methods of Hack (1973) and Etchebehere et al. (2004). This tool is applicable to studies of morphotectonics and neotectonics. The software used a digital elevation model (DEM) to identify the relief breakpoints along drainage profiles (knickpoints). The program was coded in Python for use on the ArcGIS platform and is called Knickpoint Finder. A study area was selected to test and evaluate the software's ability to analyze and identify neotectonic morphostructures based on the morphology of the terrain. For an assessment of its validity, we chose an area of the James River basin, which covers most of the Piedmont area of Virginia (USA), which is an area of constant intraplate seismicity and non-orogenic active tectonics and exhibits a relatively homogeneous geodesic surface currently being altered by the seismogenic features of the region. After using the tool in the chosen area, we found that the knickpoint locations are associated with the geologic structures, epicenters of recent earthquakes, and drainages with rectilinear anomalies. The regional analysis demanded the use of a spatial representation of the data after processing using Knickpoint Finder. The results were satisfactory in terms of the correlation of dense areas of knickpoints with active lineaments and the rapidity of the identification of deformed areas. Therefore, this software tool may be considered useful in neotectonic analyses of large areas and may be applied to any area where there is DEM coverage.

  18. Laser Range and Bearing Finder for Autonomous Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granade, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has recently re-confirmed their interest in autonomous systems as an enabling technology for future missions. In order for autonomous missions to be possible, highly-capable relative sensor systems are needed to determine an object's distance, direction, and orientation. This is true whether the mission is autonomous in-space assembly, rendezvous and docking, or rover surface navigation. Advanced Optical Systems, Inc. has developed a wide-angle laser range and bearing finder (RBF) for autonomous space missions. The laser RBF has a number of features that make it well-suited for autonomous missions. It has an operating range of 10 m to 5 km, with a 5 deg field of view. Its wide field of view removes the need for scanning systems such as gimbals, eliminating moving parts and making the sensor simpler and space qualification easier. Its range accuracy is 1% or better. It is designed to operate either as a stand-alone sensor or in tandem with a sensor that returns range, bearing, and orientation at close ranges, such as NASA's Advanced Video Guidance Sensor. We have assembled the initial prototype and are currently testing it. We will discuss the laser RBF's design and specifications. Keywords: laser range and bearing finder, autonomous rendezvous and docking, space sensors, on-orbit sensors, advanced video guidance sensor

  19. Using an eyesafe military laser range finder for atmospheric sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Persson, Rolf; Berglund, Folke; Gustafsson, Ove K. S.; Gustafsson, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Laser Rangefinders are well established components in various electro-optical fire control systems. Recent range finders are often operating at eye safe wavelengths around 1.5 μm which extend their utility. One such extension is the use of the sensor for atmospheric sensing based on the measured backscatter signal. The present paper investigates the use of an eye-safe laser rangefinder at 1.5 μm to obtain information on atmospheric attenuation at various paths in the atmosphere. This knowledge can in turn be used in combination with atmospheric and target/background models to estimate the performance of other EO sensors like TV and thermal imagers beside the laser range finder itself. Such information can be of great value both for estimating own sensor capabilities at a given moment as well as estimating the threat capability. One obvious example is ship defense where it is difficult to obtain visibility along a variable atmosphere especially in darkness. The paper will describe the experimental equipment and the results from measurements of atmospheric backscatter along various atmospheric paths. The backscatter curve is used to evaluate the extinction. This extinction values are compared with those deduced from a point visibility meter and from echo measurements against two similar nets positioned at 2 ranges from the sensor. The results indicated a good correspondence between these results. Finally the results are illustrated in a system perspective by estimating the performance for thermal IR and other EO sensors.

  20. The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals

    SciTech Connect

    Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C.

    1996-12-31

    ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

  1. CONSTRUCTION OF A SMALL AUTOMATED CORONAGRAPH FOR OBSERVATIONS OF THE LUNAR Na EXOSPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Roy; Morgan, T. H.; Killen, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the final optical and mechanical design and the construction and initial testing of a small coronagraph at the Winer Observatory, near Sonoita, Arizona. The coronagraph includes a narrow band filter and low-light level camera to observe lunar exospheric sodium in the resonance lines of that element near 590 nm. Without the use of a coronagraph, the signal from sodium would be lost against light scattered by the Earth’s atmosphere and scattered light in the telescope. The design uses Commercial Off the Shelf Technology (COTS), and our goal is to obtain observations while the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is still in orbit.

  2. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John L.; Gurman, Joseph B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) is to obtain detailed empirical descriptions of the extended solar corona as it evolves through the solar activity cycle and to use those descriptions to identify and understand the physical processes responsible for coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and the phenomena that establish the plasma properties of the solar wind as measured by 'in situ' solar wind instruments. The UVCS on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) has made major advances in identifying the physical processes responsible for solar wind acceleration, and it has made the first high resolution ultraviolet spectroscopic measurements of CMEs. The UVCS has resulted in over 220 scientific publications.

  3. Polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph for high-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Naoshi; Yokochi, Kaito; Nishikawa, Jun; Tamura, Motohide; Kurokawa, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuo; Baba, Naoshi

    2010-06-01

    We propose a novel, high-contrast imager called a polarization interferometric nulling coronagraph (PINC) for direct detection of extrasolar planets. The PINC uses achromatic half-wave plates (HWPs) installed in a fully symmetric beam combiner based on polarizing beam splitters. Jones calculus suggests that a stellar halo suppression level of 10(-10) can be achieved at 5 lambda/D for a broad wavelength range from 1.6 to 2.2 microm by using Fresnel-rhomb HWPs made of BK7. Laboratory experiments on the PINC used two laser light sources (wavelengths of lambda=532 and 671 nm), and we obtained a halo suppression level of approximately 10(-6) at 5 lambda/D for both wavelengths. PMID:20517351

  4. The Visible Nulling Coronagraph--Architecture Definition and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Levine, B. Martin; Wallace, J. Kent; Liu, Duncan T.; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Serabyn, Eugene; Mennesson, Bertrand; Green, Joseph J.; Aguayo, Francisco; Fregoso, S. Felipe; Lane, Benjamin F.; Samuele, Rocco; Tuttle, Carl

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of visible direct detection and spectroscopy of Earth-like extrasolar planets using a nulling coronagraph instrument behind a moderately sized single aperture space telescope. Our concept synthesizes a nulling interferometer by shearing the telescope pupil, with the resultant producing a deep null. We describe nulling configurations that also include methods to mitigate stellar leakage, such as spatial filtering by a coherent array of single mode fibers, and post-starlight suppression wavefront sensing and control. With diffraction limited telescope optics and similar quality components in the optical train (lambda/20), suppression of the starlight to 1e-10 is readily achievable. We describe key features of the architecture and analysis, present latest results of laboratory measurements demonstrating achievable null depth and component development, and discuss future key technical milestones.

  5. Dilute Aperture Visible Nulling Coronagraph Imaging (DAViNCI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Levine, B. M.; Vasisht, G.; Lane, B. F.; Woodruff, R.; Vasudevan, G.; Samuele R.; Harvey, K.; Clampin, M.; Lyon, R.; Guyon, O.; Tolls, V.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation focuses on instrument and mission overview, science case, Team X study, and technology status. Topics include DAViNCI study milestones, number of targets versus inner working angle, planet orbit and IWA, combiner/nuller instrument, DAViNCI Team X costs, technology status and near future plans, and deep laser null 1.23 x 10(exp -7) suppression. Summary points are: dilute aperture concept advantages, lower cost than a comparable 7-8m coronagraph working at 2 lambda/D, technology progress prior to 2008 was seriously limited by available funding but showed 1e-y suppression (2006) of laser light needed for 1e-9 to approximately 1e-10 contrast, and current technology effort is off to a fast date with a demonstration of less than 100pm wavefront measurement in Nov 08.

  6. CORONAGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS OF FOMALHAUT AT SOLAR SYSTEM SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Meshkat, Tiffany; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Girard, Julien H.; Kasper, Markus

    2013-02-10

    We report on a search for low mass companions within 10 AU of the star Fomalhaut, using narrowband observations at 4.05 {mu}m obtained with the Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraph on the VLT/NaCo. Our observations place a model-dependent upper mass limit of 12-20 M {sub jup} from 4 to 10 AU, covering the semimajor axis search space between interferometric imaging measurements and other direct imaging non-detections. These observations rule out models where the large semimajor axis for the putative candidate companion Fomalhaut b is explained by dynamical scattering from a more massive companion in the inner stellar system, where such giant planets are thought to form.

  7. Observables and Goals for Coronagraphic Characterization of Earth Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapelfelt, Karl R.

    2012-01-01

    On a suitably large and stable telescope, direct coronagraphic imaging can make numerous important measurements of terrestrial exoplanets. Astrometric time-series observations will be of primary importance: Only when the planet orbital elements are known can 1) the effects of the planet's illumination phase and asterocentric distance be accounted for in the observed planetary fluxes, and 2) the planet's location relative to the habitable zone be established. Planetary colors and spectra will allow characterization of the planet's atmosphere and possibly even its surface, while time-variable fluxes may indicate surface contrast features or seasonal changes. Imaging will also reveal the context of other planets and dust belts in the system, both of which can affect habitability. Requirements on astrometric precision, number of visits, and telescope aperture will be discussed.

  8. Recent Contrast Measurements Made Using the PICTURE Visible Nulling Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Christopher Bernard; Douglas, Ewan S.; Finn, Susanna C.; Hicks, Brian; Martel, Jason; Cook, Timothy; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2014-06-01

    The PICTURE-B (Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment - B) sounding rocket mission will use a visible nulling coronagraph to directly image the exozodiacal dust disk of Epsilon Eridani (K2V, 3.22 pc) in reflected visible light down to an inner radius of 1.5 AU (1.7 λ/D). This mission will demonstrate a number of key technologies for future space-based direct exoplanet imaging missions. These include: wavefront sensing and control using deformable mirrors in space, a lightweight SiC 0.5 meter primary mirror and a milliarcsecond-class fine pointing system. The mission is scheduled for launch in October, 2014. We present laboratory contrast measurements made using the PICTURE-B instrument and model predictions of exozodiacal dust detection limits based on these measurements.

  9. A coronagraphic search for brown dwarfs around nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, T.; Durrance, S. T.; Golimowski, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Brown dwarf companions have been searched for around stars within 10 pc of the Sun using the Johns-Hopkins University Adaptive Optics Coronagraph (AOC), a stellar coronagraph with an image stabilizer. The AOC covers the field around the target star with a minimum search radius of 1 sec .5 and a field of view of 1 arcmin sq. We have reached an unprecedented dynamic range of Delta m = 13 in our search for faint companions at I band. Comparison of our survey with other brown dwarf searches shows that the AOC technique is unique in its dynamic range while at the same time just as sensitive to brown dwarfs as the recent brown dwarf surveys. The present survey covered 24 target stars selected from the Gliese catalog. A total of 94 stars were detected in 16 fields. The low-latitude fields are completely dominated by background star contamination. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were carried out for a sample restricted to high latitudes and a sample with small angular separations. The high-latitude sample (b greater than or equal to 44 deg) appears to show spatial concentration toward target stars. The small separation sample (Delta Theta less than 20 sec) shows weaker dependence on Galactic coordinates than field stars. These statistical tests suggest that both the high-latitude sample and the small separation sample can include a substantial fraction of true companions. However, the nature of these putative companions is mysterious. They are too faint to be white dwarfs and too blue for brown dwarfs. Ignoring the signif icance of the statistical tests, we can reconcile most of the detections with distant main-sequence stars or white dwarfs except for a candidate next to GL 475. Given the small size of our sample, we conclude that considerably more targets need to be surveyed before a firm conclusion on the possibility of a new class of companions can be made.

  10. Fabrication of Soft-Edged Occulting Masks for Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, Volker; Aziz, M. J.; Raja, S.

    2009-01-01

    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets is important for determining the properties of individual planets and to study multi-planet systems. Obtaining spectra of extra-solar planets enables us to constrain the composition of planetary atmospheres and surfaces, their climates, their evolution, and their rotation periods. The Lyot coronagraph is one of the important techniques to acquire these spectra. In its simplest design it consists of a telescope, an occulter mask in the first focal plane, a Lyot stop in the following pupil plane, and the detector in the final focal plane. The goal of ongoing research is to achieve the best possible performance from a Lyot coronagraph. Among the study objects is the occulter mask. We are studying a new manufacturing method to overcome the main problems of occulter masks: undesired chromatic effects and intolerable phase distortions. Our method utilizes substrates covered with highly absorbing dye mixtures (optical density of 1 per micron) and focused ion beam (FIB) milling of the mask profiles into these dyes. By combining several dyes with pre-determined mixing ratios, we are able to control the chromaticity of the mask from decreasing to flat to increasing absorptivity with wavelengths. Phase effects occur in these masks only at the transition from the dye to its surrounding medium. The idea is to control these phase effects by embedding the masks in clear, phase-matching glass. This poster will present the progress we made in finding and characterizing suitable materials and the results of first optical tests of FIB machined mask-like structures in dye-doped PMMA. This work was supported by NASA through grant NNG04GC57G and NSF through grant AST-0750222, through SAO IR&D funding and by Harvard University. Central facilities were provided by Harvard's Center for Nanoscale Systems.

  11. Vector wavefront propagation modeling for the TPF coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Michael D.; Neureuther, Andrew R.; Ceperley, Dan; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay

    2004-10-01

    The TPF mission to search for exo-solar planets is extremely challenging both technically and from a performance modeling perspective. For the visible light coronagraph approach, the requirements for 1e10 rejection of star light to planet signal has not yet been achieved in laboratory testing and full-scale testing on the ground has many more obstacles and may not be possible. Therefore, end-to-end performance modeling will be relied upon to fully predict performance. One of the key technologies developed for achieving the rejection ratios uses shaped pupil masks to selectively cancel starlight in planet search regions by taking advantage of diffraction. Modeling results published to date have been based upon scalar wavefront propagation theory to compute the residual star and planet images. This ignores the 3D structure of the mask and the interaction of light with matter. In this paper we discuss previous work with a system model of the TPF coronagraph and propose an approach for coupling in a vector propagation model using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. This method, implemented in a software package called TEMPEST, allows us to propagate wavefronts through a mask structure to an integrated system model to explore the vector propagation aspects of the problem. We can then do rigorous mask scatter modeling to understand the effects of real physical mask structures on the magnitude, phase, polarization, and wavelength dependence of the transmitted light near edges. Shaped mask technology is reviewed, and computational aspects and interface issues to a TPF integrated system model are also discussed.

  12. WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph shaped pupil masks: design, fabrication, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; White, Victor; Yee, Karl; Echternach, Pierre; Muller, Richard; Dickie, Matthew; Cady, Eric; Prada, Camilo Mejia; Ryan, Daniel; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Kern, Brian; Zhou, Hanying; Krist, John; Nemati, Bijan; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    NASA WFIRST-AFTA mission study includes a coronagraph instrument to find and characterize exoplanets. Various types of masks could be employed to suppress the host starlight to about 10-9 level contrast over a broad spectrum to enable the coronagraph mission objectives. Such masks for high-contrast internal coronagraphic imaging require various fabrication technologies to meet a wide range of specifications, including precise shapes, micron scale island features, ultralow reflectivity regions, uniformity, wave front quality, and achromaticity. We present the approaches employed at JPL to produce pupil plane and image plane coronagraph masks by combining electron beam, deep reactive ion etching, and black silicon technologies with illustrative examples of each, highlighting milestone accomplishments from the High Contrast Imaging Testbed at JPL and from the High Contrast Imaging Lab at Princeton University.

  13. Managing the optical wavefront for high contrast exoplanet imaging with the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauger, John T.; Krist, John E.; Moody, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of extreme high contrast astronomical imaging from space has inspired developments of new coronagraph methods for exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy. However, the requisite contrast, at levels of a billion to one or better for the direct imaging of cool mature exoplanets in reflected visible starlight, leads to challenging new requirements on the stability and control of the optical wavefront at levels currently beyond the reach of ground based telescopes. We briefly review the designs, laboratory validations, and science prospects for direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of exoplanet systems with an actively corrected Lyot coronagraph. We review exoplanet science performance predicted for NASA's WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph. Together with a pair of deformable mirrors for optical wavefront control, the Lyot coronagraph creates high contrast dark fields of view extending to angular separations within 0.1 arcsec from the central star at visible wavelengths. Performance metrics are presented, including image contrast and spectral bandwidth, and laboratory validation experience.

  14. A New Method to Determine Temperature of CMES Using a Coronagraph Filter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kyuhyoun; Chae, Jongchul; Lim, Eun-kyung; Cho, Kyung-suk; Bong, Su-Chan; Yang, Heesu

    2016-02-01

    The coronagraph is an instrument enables the investigation of faint features in the vicinity of the Sun, particularly coronal mass ejections (CMEs). So far coronagraphic observations have been mainly used to determine the geometric and kinematic parameters of CMEs. Here, we introduce a new method for the determination of CME temperature using a two filter (4025 Å and 3934 Å) coronagraph system. The thermal motion of free electrons in CMEs broadens the absorption lines in the optical spectra that are produced by the Thomson scattering of visible light originating in the photosphere, which affects the intensity ratio at two different wavelengths. Thus the CME temperature can be inferred from the intensity ratio measured by the two filter coronagraph system. We demonstrate the method by invoking the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model for the 3 dimensional CME density distribution and discuss its significance.

  15. Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) for WFIRST/AFTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; McElwain, Michael; Greeley, Bradford; Grammer, Bryan; Marx, Catherine; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Hilton, George; Perrin, Marshall; Sayson, Llop; Domingo, Jorge; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) is a prototype lenslet array based integral field spectrometer (IFS) designed for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets. PISCES will be used to advance the technology readiness of the high contrast IFS baselined on the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey TelescopeAstrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRSTAFTA) coronagraph instrument. PISCES will be integrated into the high contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and will work with both the Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) and the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC). We will present the PISCES optical design, including the similarities and differences of lenslet based IFSs to normal spectrometers, the trade-off between a refractive design and reflective design, as well as the compatibility to upgrade from the current 1k x 1k detector array to 4k x 4k detector array. The optical analysis, alignment plan, and mechanical design of the instrument will be discussed.

  16. Improved high-contrast imaging with on-axis telescopes using a multistage vortex coronagraph.

    PubMed

    Mawet, Dimitri; Serabyn, Eugene; Wallace, J Kent; Pueyo, Laurent

    2011-04-15

    The vortex coronagraph is one of the most promising coronagraphs for high-contrast imaging because of its simplicity, small inner working angle, high throughput, and clear off-axis discovery space. However, as with most coronagraphs, centrally obscured on-axis telescopes degrade contrast. Based on the remarkable ability of vortex coronagraphs to move light between the interior and exterior of pupils, we propose a method based on multiple vortices, that without sacrificing throughput, reduces the residual light leakage to (a/A)(n), with n ≥ 4, and a and A being the radii of the central obscuration and primary mirror, respectively. This method thus enables high contrasts to be reached even with an on-axis telescope. PMID:21499405

  17. Polarization compensating protective coatings for TPF-Coronagraph optics to control contrast degrading cross polarization leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis Z.; Marchen, Luis F.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2005-01-01

    We describe here the design approaches and performance analysis of the OTA in the wavelength band of interest. Coronagraph performance at 600nm wavelength based on a particular coating and occulting focal plane mask is also presented.

  18. Demonstration of high contrast with an obscured aperture with the WFIRST-AFTA shaped pupil coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Eric; Prada, Camilo Mejia; An, Xin; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Diaz, Rosemary; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andreas; Nemati, Bijan; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Zimmer, Robert; Zimmerman, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraph instrument on the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics-Focused Telescope Asset (WFIRST-AFTA) mission study has two coronagraphic architectures, shaped pupil and hybrid Lyot, which may be interchanged for use in different observing scenarios. Each architecture relies on newly developed mask components to function in the presence of the AFTA aperture, and so both must be matured to a high technology readiness level in advance of the mission. A series of milestones were set to track the development of the technologies required for the instrument; we report on completion of WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph milestone 2-a narrowband 10-8 contrast test with static aberrations for the shaped pupil-and the plans for the upcoming broadband coronagraph milestone 5.

  19. Continuous tracking of CME's using MICA and LASCO -C2 and -C3 coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmaceda, L.; dal Lago, A.; Stenborg, G.; Francile, C.; Gonzalez, W.; Schwenn, R.

    In this work we have tracked coronal mass ejections observed with the ground based Mirror Coronagraph for Argentina (MICA) and the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 and C3 on board of Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). MICA telescope is located at El Leoncito, (San Juan, Argentina) since 1997 as part of a bilateral scientific project between Germany and Argentina and SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. Together these instruments are able to observe the solar corona ranging from 1.05 to 32 solar radii. MICA images the Fe XIV emission-line corona while LASCO coronagraphs observe the Thomsonscattered white light. We have selected events for which there are observations from the three coronagraphs in order to determine the outflow characteristics such as velocity, acceleration or deceleration. Using this composite data we were able to obtain height-time diagrams for coronal moving features.

  20. Lyot-based low order wavefront sensor: implementation on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics System and its laboratory performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Garima; Guyon, Olivier; Baudoz, Pierre; Jovanovich, Nemanja; Martinache, Frantz; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Serabyn, Eugene; Kuhn, Jonas G.

    2014-08-01

    High throughput, low inner working angle (IWA) phase masks coronagraphs are essential to directly image and characterize (via spectroscopy) earth-like planets. However, the performance of low-IWA coronagraphs is limited by residual pointing errors and other low-order modes. The extent to which wavefront aberrations upstream of the coronagraph are corrected and calibrated drives coronagraphic performance. Addressing this issue is essential for preventing coronagraphic leaks, thus we have developed a Lyot-based low order wave front sensor (LLOWFS) to control the wavefront aberrations in a coronagraph. The LLOWFS monitors the starlight rejected by the coronagraphic mask using a reflective Lyot stop in the downstream pupil plane. The early implementation of LLOWFS at LESIA, Observatoire de Paris demonstrated an open loop measurement accuracy of 0.01 λ/D for tip-tilt at 638 nm when used in conjunction with a four quadrant phase mask (FQPM) in the laboratory. To further demonstrate our concept, we have installed the reflective Lyot stops on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system at the Subaru Telescope and modified the system to support small IWA phase mask coronagraphs (< 1λ/D) on-sky such as FQPM, eight octant phase mask, vector vortex coronagraph and the phase induced amplitude apodization complex phase mask coronagraph with a goal of obtaining milli arc-second pointing accuracy. Laboratory results have shown the measurement of tip, tilt, focus, oblique and right astigmatism at 1.55 μm for the vector vortex coronagraph. Our initial on-sky result demonstrate the closed loop accuracy of < 7 x 10-3 λ/D at 1.6 μm for tip, tilt and focus aberrations with the vector vortex coronagraph.

  1. Echo tracker/range finder for radars and sonars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, N. J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An echo tracker/range finder or altimeter is described. The pulse repetition frequency (PFR) of a predetermined plurality of transmitted pulses is adjusted so that echo pulses received from a reflecting object are positioned between transmitted pulses and divided their interpulse time interval into two time intervals having a predetermined ratio with respect to each other. The invention described provides a means whereby the arrival time of a plurality of echo pulses is defined as the time at which a composite echo pulse formed of a sum of the individual echo pulses has the highest amplitude. The invention is applicable to radar systems, sonar systems, or any other kind of system in which pulses are transmitted and echoes received therefrom.

  2. Buckling failure of the automated planet finder spectrometer determinate spaceframe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovan, Matthew V.; Cabak, Gerald F.

    2012-09-01

    The Ken and Gloria Levy Spectrometer is now operational at a new 2.4 meter telescope on Mt. Hamilton. Together the spectrometer and telescope comprise the Automated Planet Finder (APF), a radial velocity instrument. A catastrophic failure occurred during transit as the instrument was being shipped to the observatory. Several struts buckled in the space frame that supported the echelle grating. This event has caused UCO/Lick to re-evaluate design methodology and how engineering safety factors apply to this type of structure. This paper describes the shipping container design, events during shipment, the failure mechanism, testing and analysis of a remedy, and its implementation. We also suggest design changes to prevent similar failures in the future.

  3. Terrestrial Planet Finder: Coda to 10 Years of Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) was proposed as a mission concept to the 2000 Decadal Survey, and received a very high ranking amongst the major initiatives that were then reviewed. As proposed, it was a formation flying array of four 3-m class mid-infrared telescopes, linked together as an interferometer. Its science goal was to survey 150 nearby stars for the presence of Earth-like planets, to detect signs of life or habitability, and to enable revolutionary advances in high angular resolution astrophysics. The Decadal Survey Committee recommended that $200M be invested to advance TPF technology development in the Decade of 2000-2010. This paper presents the results of NASA's investment.

  4. Design for a source-agile automatic direction finder (ADF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myler, Harley

    2015-05-01

    The design is intended for aircraft although any vehicle or even a man-mobile system could use the concept. An automatically reconfigurable antenna using MEMS RF switches is driven to seek signals consistent with the current location of the system. The antenna feeds a Software Defined Radio (SDR) that scans for signals and when a signal is found, it is identified and then the azimuth to the signal is used, along with a signal strength parameter, to confirm the location of the system. This is an extension of the now obsolete Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) aircraft navigation tool that used AM broadcast non-directional beacons (NDB), many of which are still in service. The current system can access any radio signal within the limits of the reconfigurable antenna and the SDR.

  5. Small image laser range finder for planetary rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Honda, Masahisa; Adachi, Tadashi; Iijima, Takahiko

    1994-10-01

    A variety of technical subjects need to be solved before planetary rover navigation could be a part of future missions. The sensors which will perceive terrain environment around the rover will require critical development efforts. The image laser range finder (ILRF) discussed here is one of the candidate sensors because of its advantage in providing range data required for its navigation. The authors developed a new compact-sized ILRF which is a quarter of the size of conventional ones. Instead of the current two directional scanning system which is comprised of nodding and polygon mirrors, the new ILRF is equipped with the new concept of a direct polygon mirror driving system, which successfully made its size compact to accommodate the design requirements. The paper reports on the design concept and preliminary technical specifications established in the current development phase.

  6. The ROCKSTAR Phase-space Temporal Halo Finder and the Velocity Offsets of Cluster Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 105 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>1010 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s-1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.

  7. THE ROCKSTAR PHASE-SPACE TEMPORAL HALO FINDER AND THE VELOCITY OFFSETS OF CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-01-10

    We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 10{sup 5} CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10{sup 10} particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s{sup -1} at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.

  8. The nature of voids - I. Watershed void finders and their connection with theoretical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadathur, S.; Hotchkiss, S.

    2015-12-01

    The statistical study of voids in the matter distribution promises to be an important tool for precision cosmology, but there are known discrepancies between theoretical models of voids and the voids actually found in large simulations or galaxy surveys. The empirical properties of observed voids are also not well understood. In this paper, we study voids in an N-body simulation, using the ZOBOV watershed algorithm. As in other studies, we use sets of subsampled dark matter particles as tracers to identify voids, but we use the full-resolution simulation output to measure dark matter densities at the identified locations. Voids span a wide range of sizes and densities, but there is a clear trend towards larger voids containing deeper density minima, a trend which is expected for all watershed void finders. We also find that the tracer density at void locations is usually smaller than the true density, and that this relationship depends on the sampling density of tracers. We show that fits given in the literature fail to match the observed density profiles of voids. The average enclosed density contrast within watershed voids varies widely with both the size of the void and the minimum density within it, but is always far from the shell-crossing threshold expected from theoretical models. Voids with deeper density minima also show much broader density profiles. We discuss the implications of these results for the excursion set approach to modelling such voids.

  9. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer Science Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R. (Editor); Lay, Oliver P. (Editor); Johnston, Kenneth J. (Editor); Beichman, Charles A. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two years, the focus of the project for the interferometric version of the Terrestrial Planet Finder(TPF-I) has been on the development of the scientific rational for the mission, the assessment of TPF-I architectures, the laboratory demonstration of key technologies, and the development of a detailed technology roadmap. The Science Working Group (SWG), in conjunction with European colleagues working on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) Darwin project, has reaffirmed the goals of TPF-I as part of a broad vision for the detection and characterization of Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and for the search for life on those planets. The SWG also helped to assess the performance of different interferometric configurations for TPF-I/Darwin. Building on earlier SWG reports, this document restates the scientific case for TPF-I, assesses suitable target stars and relevant wavelengths for observation, discusses dramatic new capabilities for general astrophysical observations, and summarizes how Spitzer has improved our knowledge of the incidence of zodiacal emission on the search for planets. This document discusses in some detail on laboratory advances in interferometric nulling and formation flying. Laboratory experiments have now achieved stable narrow- and broad-band nulling the levels of 10-6 and 2.0x10-5, respectively. A testbed has demonstrated formation flying using two realistic spacecraft mockups. With a suitably funded program of technology development, as summarized herein and described in more detail in the Technology Plan for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (2005), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and ESA would be able to start within the coming decade a full-scale TPF-I/Darwin mission capable of finding Earths orbiting more than 150 nearby stars, or a scaled back interferometer capable of studying more than 30 stars. Finding evidence for life on just one of those planets would revolutionize our

  10. Super-Gaussian apodization in ground based telescopes for high contrast coronagraph imaging.

    PubMed

    Cagigas, Miguel A; Valle, Pedro J; Cagigal, Manuel P

    2013-05-20

    We introduce the use of Super-Gaussian apodizing functions in the telescope pupil plane and/or the coronagraph Lyot plane to improve the imaging contrast in ground-based coronagraphs. We describe the properties of the Super-Gaussian function, we estimate its second-order moment in the pupil and Fourier planes and we check it as an apodizing function. We then use Super-Gaussian function to apodize the telescope pupil, the coronagraph Lyot plane or both of them. The result is that a proper apodizing masks combination can reduce the exoplanet detection distance up to a 45% with respect to the classic Lyot coronagraph, for moderately aberrated wavefronts. Compared to the prolate spheroidal function the Super-Gaussian apodizing function allows the planet light up to 3 times brighter. An extra help to increase the extinction rate is to perform a frame selection (Lucky Imaging technique). We show that a selection of the 10% best frames will reduce up to a 20% the detection angular distance when using the classic Lyot coronagraph but that the reduction is only around the 5% when using an apodized coronagraph. PMID:23736492

  11. Prophage Finder: a prophage loci prediction tool for prokaryotic genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Bose, M; Barber, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Prophage loci often remain under-annotated or even unrecognized in prokaryotic genome sequencing projects. A PHP application, Prophage Finder, has been developed and implemented to predict prophage loci, based upon clusters of phage-related gene products encoded within DNA sequences. This application provides results detailing several facets of these clusters to facilitate rapid prediction and analysis of prophage sequences. Prophage Finder was tested using previously annotated prokaryotic genomic sequences with manually curated prophage loci as benchmarks. Additional analyses from Prophage Finder searches of several draft prokaryotic genome sequences are available through the Web site (http://bioinformatics.uwp.edu/~phage/DOEResults.php) to illustrate the potential of this application. PMID:16922685

  12. An Overview of the Formation and Attitude Control System for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Formation Flying Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Rahman, Zahidul H.; Shields, Joel F.; Singh, Gurkipal; Wette, Matthew R.

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder formation flying Interferometer (TPF-I) will be a five-spacecraft, precision formation operating near the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. As part of technology development for TPF-I, a formation and attitude control system (FACS) is being developed that achieves the precision and functionality needed for the TPF-I formation and that will be demonstrated in a distributed, real-time simulation environment. In this paper we present an overview of FACS and discuss in detail its formation estimation, guidance and control architectures and algorithms. Since FACS is currently being integrated into a high-fidelity simulation environment, component simulations demonstrating algorithm performance are presented.

  13. An Overview of the Formation and Attitude Control System for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Formation Flying Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Rahman, Zahidul H.; Shields, Joel F.; Singh, Gurkipal

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder formation flying Interferometer (TPF-I) will be a five-spacecraft, precision formation operating near a Sun-Earth Lagrange point. As part of technology development for TPF-I, a formation and attitude control system (FACS) is being developed that achieves the precision and functionality associated with the TPF-I formation. This FACS will be demonstrated in a distributed, real-time simulation environment. In this paper we present an overview of the FACS and discuss in detail its constituent formation estimation, guidance and control architectures and algorithms. Since the FACS is currently being integrated into a high-fidelity simulation environment, component simulations demonstrating algorithm performance are presented.

  14. Wavefront correction with Kalman filtering for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler D.

    2015-09-01

    The only way to characterize most exoplanets spectrally is via direct imaging. For example, the Coronagraph Instrument (CGI) on the proposed Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission plans to image and characterize several cool gas giants around nearby stars. The integration time on these faint exoplanets will be many hours to days. A crucial assumption for mission planning is that the time required to dig a dark hole (a region of high star-to-planet contrast) with deformable mirrors is small compared to science integration time. The science camera must be used as the wavefront sensor to avoid non-common path aberrations, but this approach can be quite time intensive. Several estimation images are required to build an estimate of the starlight electric field before it can be partially corrected, and this process is repeated iteratively until high contrast is reached. Here we present simulated results of batch process and recursive wavefront estimation schemes. In particular, we test a Kalman filter and an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to reduce the total exposure time and improve the robustness of wavefront correction for the WFIRST-AFTA CGI. An IEKF or other nonlinear filter also allows recursive, real-time estimation of sources incoherent with the star, such as exoplanets and disks, and may therefore reduce detection uncertainty.

  15. Debris Disk Science Enabled by a Probe-scale Space Coronagraph Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Trauger, J. T.; Krist, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Debris disks are the signposts of planetary systems: collisions between rocky/icy parent bodies maintain debris dust around main sequence stars against losses to radiation pressure and P-R drag. Debris disk structures show the location of asteroid/Kuiper belts around nearby stars, and reflect dynamical interactions with local extrasolar planets. Only 17 debris disks with high optical depth have been spatially resolved to date in scattered light images made with the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based adaptive optics. Hundreds more with lower optical depth have been identified among nearby stars through far-IR photometry with the Spitzer Space Telescope, and more should follow in the next few years from Herschel. The most capable means for imaging this larger disk population is a next-generation coronagraphic instrument on a 1.5m class optical space telescope. Utilizing high-contrasat imaging simulations validated by laboratory demonstrations on the JPL High Contrast Imaging Testbed, we show that such a mission will be capable of imaging Kuiper disk structures down to the 10 zodi level, and exozodiacal dust down to the 1 zodi level, around a major sample of nearby stars. This performance goes well beyond what is about to be achieved with upcoming extreme adaptive optics systems or the ALMA array, and thus provides the best path for imaging exploration of planetary systems in the solar neighborhood.

  16. Post-processing images from the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Neil T.; Ygouf, Marie; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; Perrin, Marshall D.; Mennesson, Bertrand; Cady, Eric; Mejia Prada, Camilo

    2016-01-01

    The concept for the exoplanet imaging instrument on WFIRST-AFTA relies on the development of mission-specific data processing tools to reduce the speckle noise floor. No instruments have yet functioned on the sky in the planet-to-star contrast regime of the proposed coronagraph (1E-8). Therefore, starlight subtraction algorithms must be tested on a combination of simulated and laboratory data sets to give confidence that the scientific goals can be reached. The High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at Jet Propulsion Lab has carried out several technology demonstrations for the instrument concept, demonstrating 1E-8 raw (absolute) contrast. Here, we have applied a mock reference differential imaging strategy to HCIT data sets, treating one subset of images as a reference star observation and another subset as a science target observation. We show that algorithms like KLIP (Karhunen-Loève Image Projection), by suppressing residual speckles, enable the recovery of exoplanet signals at contrast of order 2E-9.

  17. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Coronagraphic Observations of β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don J.; Lanz, Thierry M.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hubeny, Ivan; Maran, S. P.; Woodgate, Bruce

    2000-08-01

    We present new coronagraphic images of β Pictoris obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in 1997 September. The high-resolution images (0.1") clearly detect the circumstellar disk as close to the star as 0.75", corresponding to a projected radius of 15 AU. The images define the warp in the disk with greater precision and at closer radii to β Pic than do previous observations. They show that the warp can be modeled by the projection of two components: the main disk and a fainter component, which is inclined to the main component by 4°-5° and extends only as far as ~4" from the star. We interpret the main component as arising primarily in the outer disk and the tilted component as defining the inner region of the disk. The observed properties of the warped inner disk are inconsistent with a driving force from stellar radiation. However, warping induced by the gravitational potential of one or more planets is consistent with the data. Using models of planet-warped disks constructed by Larwood & Papaloizou, we derive possible masses of the perturbing object. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  18. ACS Coronagraphic Observations of the HD141569 Circumstellar Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, M.; Krist, J. E.; Golimowski, D. A.; Ardila, D. R.; Bartko, F.; Benítez, N.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Bouwens, R.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C.; Cheng, E.; Cross, N.; Feldman, P. D.; Ford, H. C.; Franx, M.; Gronwall, C.; Hartig, G.; Illingworth, G. D.; Infante, L.; Kimble, R. A.; Lesser, M.; Martel, A. R.; Menanteau, F.; Meurer, G. R.; Miley, G.; Postman, M.; Rosati, P.; Sirianni, M.; Sparks, W. B.; Tran, H. D.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

    2002-12-01

    We report on the ACS Early Release Observations of the HD 141569A circumstellar disk. Images were obtained in B, V, and I equivalent filters using the ACS coronagraph. The images resolve the multizonal structures previously seen by NICMOS and STIS into thin, nested spirals. Two open spiral arms are seen to extend away from the outer region of the disk, and one appears to connect with the nearby binary system HD 141569BC. HD 141569A is also offset by 25 AU from the geometric center of the disk. We conclude that tidal interaction with the binary is a more likely cause for the disk structure than interaction with planets within the disk. The optically thin disk is redder than the star and has colors similar to the disk around HR 4796. No color gradients are seen within the disk itself. ACS was developed under NASA contract NAS 5-32865, and this research is supported by NASA grant NAG5-7697. We are grateful for an equipment grant from the Sun Microsystems, Inc.

  19. Recognition of three dimensional obstacles by an edge detection scheme. [for Mars roving vehicle using laser range finder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The need for an obstacle detection system on the Mars roving vehicle was assumed, and a practical scheme was investigated and simulated. The principal sensing device on this vehicle was taken to be a laser range finder. Both existing and original algorithms, ending with thresholding operations, were used to obtain the outlines of obstacles from the raw data of this laser scan. A theoretical analysis was carried out to show how proper value of threshold may be chosen. Computer simulations considered various mid-range boulders, for which the scheme was quite successful. The extension to other types of obstacles, such as craters, was considered. The special problems of bottom edge detection and scanning procedure are discussed.

  20. Multi-Color Coronagraph Experiment in a Vacuum Testbed with a Binary Shaped Pupil Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haze, Kanae; Enya, Keigo; Abe, Lyu; Kotani, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Takao; Sato, Toshimichi; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2011-08-01

    We conducted a number of multi-color/broadband coronagraph experiments using a vacuum chamber and a binary-shaped pupil mask, which in principle should work at all wavelengths, in the context of the research and development of a stellar coronagraph to observe extra-solar planets (exoplanets) directly. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that subtraction of the Point Spread Function (PSF) and multi-color/broadband experiments using a binary-shaped pupil mask coronagraph would help to improve the contrast in observations of exoplanets. A checkerboard mask, a kind of binary-shaped pupil mask, was used. We improved the temperature stability by installing the coronagraph optics in a vacuum chamber, while controlling the temperature of the optical bench, and covering the vacuum chamber with thermal insulation layers. Active wavefront control was not applied in this work. We evaluated how much the PSF subtraction contributed to the high-contrast observation by subtracting images obtained through the coronagraph. We also carried out multi-color/broadband experiments in order to demonstrate a more realistic observation using Super luminescent Light Emitting Diodes (SLEDs) with center wavelengths of 650 nm, 750 nm, 800 nm, and 850 nm. A contrast of 2.3 × 10-7 was obtained for the raw coronagraphic image and a contrast of 1.3 × 10-9 was achieved after PSF subtraction with a He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm wavelength. Thus, the contrast was improved by around two orders of magnitude from the raw contrast by subtracting the PSF. We achieved contrasts of 3.1 × 10-7, 1.1 × 10-6, 1.6 × 10-6, and 2.5 × 10-6 at the bands of 650 nm, 750 nm, 800 nm, and 850 nm, respectively, in multi-color/broadband experiments. The results show that the contrast within each of the wavelength bands was significantly improved compared with the non-coronagraphic optics. We demonstrated that PSF subtraction is potentially beneficial for improving the contrast of a binary-shaped pupil mask coronagraph

  1. The habitable-zone planet finder calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, Samuel; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence; Terrien, Ryan; Roy, Arpita; Schwab, Christian; Bender, Chad; Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Osterman, Steve; Ycas, Gabe; Diddams, Scott

    2014-08-01

    We present the design concept of the wavelength calibration system for the Habitable-zone Planet Finder instrument (HPF), a precision radial velocity (RV) spectrograph designed to detect terrestrial-mass planets around M-dwarfs. HPF is a stabilized, fiber-fed, R~50,000 spectrograph operating in the near-infrared (NIR) z/Y/J bands from 0.84 to 1.3 microns. For HPF to achieve 1 m s-1 or better measurement precision, a unique calibration system, stable to several times better precision, will be needed to accurately remove instrumental effects at an unprecedented level in the NIR. The primary wavelength calibration source is a laser frequency comb (LFC), currently in development at NIST Boulder, discussed separately in these proceedings. The LFC will be supplemented by a stabilized single-mode fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer reference source and Uranium-Neon lamp. The HPF calibration system will combine several other new technologies developed by the Penn State Optical-Infrared instrumentation group to improve RV measurement precision including a dynamic optical coupling system that significantly reduces modal noise effects. Each component has been thoroughly tested in the laboratory and has demonstrated significant performance gains over previous NIR calibration systems.

  2. APF—The Lick Observatory Automated Planet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Steven S.; Radovan, Matthew; Kibrick, Robert; Butler, R. Paul; Alcott, Barry; Allen, Steve; Arriagada, Pamela; Bolte, Mike; Burt, Jennifer; Cabak, Jerry; Chloros, Kostas; Cowley, David; Deich, William; Dupraw, Brian; Earthman, Wayne; Epps, Harland; Faber, Sandra; Fischer, Debra; Gates, Elinor; Hilyard, David; Holden, Brad; Johnston, Ken; Keiser, Sandy; Kanto, Dick; Katsuki, Myra; Laiterman, Lee; Lanclos, Kyle; Laughlin, Greg; Lewis, Jeff; Lockwood, Chris; Lynam, Paul; Marcy, Geoffrey; McLean, Maureen; Miller, Joe; Misch, Tony; Peck, Michael; Pfister, Terry; Phillips, Andrew; Rivera, Eugenio; Sandford, Dale; Saylor, Mike; Stover, Richard; Thompson, Matthew; Walp, Bernie; Ward, James; Wareham, John; Wei, Mingzhi; Wright, Chris

    2014-04-01

    The Automated Planet Finder (APF) is a facility purpose-built for the discovery and characterization of extrasolar planets through high-cadence Doppler velocimetry of the reflex barycentric accelerations of their host stars. Located atop Mount Hamilton, the APF facility consists of a 2.4 m telescope and its Levy spectrometer, an optical echelle spectrometer optimized for precision Doppler velocimetry. APF features a fixed-format spectral range from 374-970 nm, and delivers a "throughput" (resolution × slit width product) of 114,000'', with spectral resolutions up to 150,000. Overall system efficiency (fraction of photons incident on the primary mirror that are detected by the science CCD) on blaze at 560 nm in planet-hunting mode is 15%. First-light tests on the radial-velocity (RV) standard stars HD 185144 and HD 9407 demonstrate sub-meter-per-second precision (rms per observation) held over a 3 month period. This paper reviews the basic features of the telescope, dome, and spectrometer, and gives a brief summary of first-light performance.

  3. The Vector Vortex Coronagraph: Sensitivity to Low-Order Aberrations, Central Obscuration, Chromaticism, and Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mawet, Dimitri; Pueyo, Laurent; Moody, Dwight; Krist, John; Serabyn, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The Vector Vortex Coronagraph is a phase-based coronagraph, one of the most efficient in terms of inner working angle, throughput, discovery space, contrast, and simplicity. Using liquid-crystal polymer technology, this new coronagraph has recently been the subject of lab demonstrations in the near-infrared, visible and was also used on sky at the Palomar observatory in the H and K bands (1.65 and 2.2 micrometers, respectively) to image the brown dwarf companion to HR 7672, and the three extasolar planets around HR 8799. However, despite these recent successes, the Vector Vortex Coronagraph is, as are most coronagraphs, sensitive to the central obscuration and secondary support structures, low-order aberrations (tip-tilt, focus, etc), bandwidth (chromaticism), and polarization when image-plane wavefront sensing is performed. Here, we consider in detail these sensitivities as a function of the topological charge of the vortex and design properties inherent to the manufacturing technology, and show that in practice all of them can be mitigated to meet specific needs.

  4. RING-APODIZED VORTEX CORONAGRAPHS FOR OBSCURED TELESCOPES. I. TRANSMISSIVE RING APODIZERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mawet, D.; Pueyo, L.; Carlotti, A.; Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Wallace, J. K.

    2013-11-01

    The vortex coronagraph (VC) is a new generation small inner working angle (IWA) coronagraph currently offered on various 8 m class ground-based telescopes. On these observing platforms, the current level of performance is not limited by the intrinsic properties of actual vortex devices, but by wavefront control residuals and incoherent background (e.g., thermal emission of the sky), or the light diffracted by the imprint of the secondary mirror and support structures on the telescope pupil. In the particular case of unfriendly apertures (mainly large central obscuration) when very high contrast is needed (e.g., direct imaging of older exoplanets with extremely large telescopes or space-based coronagraphs), a simple VC, like most coronagraphs, cannot deliver its nominal performance because of the contamination due to the diffraction from the obscured part of the pupil. Here, we propose a novel yet simple concept that circumvents this problem. We combine a vortex phase mask in the image plane of a high-contrast instrument with a single pupil-based amplitude ring apodizer, tailor-made to exploit the unique convolution properties of the VC at the Lyot-stop plane. We show that such a ring-apodized vortex coronagraph (RAVC) restores the perfect attenuation property of the VC regardless of the size of the central obscuration, and for any (even) topological charge of the vortex. More importantly, the RAVC maintains the IWA and conserves a fairly high throughput, which are signature properties of the VC.

  5. Shaped pupil Lyot coronagraphs: high-contrast solutions for restricted focal planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Neil T.; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Jeremy Kasdin, N.; Carlotti, Alexis; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Coronagraphs of the apodized pupil and shaped pupil varieties use the Fraunhofer diffraction properties of amplitude masks to create regions of high contrast in the vicinity of a target star. Here we present a hybrid coronagraph architecture in which a binary, hard-edged shaped pupil mask replaces the gray, smooth apodizer of the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC). For any contrast and bandwidth goal in this configuration, as long as the prescribed region of contrast is restricted to a finite area in the image, a shaped pupil is the apodizer with the highest transmission. We relate the starlight cancellation mechanism to that of the conventional APLC. We introduce a new class of solutions in which the amplitude profile of the Lyot stop, instead of being fixed as a padded replica of the telescope aperture, is jointly optimized with the apodizer. Finally, we describe shaped pupil Lyot coronagraph (SPLC) designs for the baseline architecture of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) coronagraph. These SPLCs help to enable two scientific objectives of the WFIRST-AFTA mission: (1) broadband spectroscopy to characterize exoplanet atmospheres in reflected starlight and (2) debris disk imaging.

  6. The Vector Vortex Coronagraph: sensitivity to central obscuration, low-order aberrations, chromaticism, and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, Dimitri; Pueyo, Laurent; Moody, Dwight; Krist, John; Serabyn, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Vector Vortex Coronagraph is a phase-based coronagraph, one of the most efficient in terms of inner working angle, throughput, discovery space, contrast, and simplicity. Using liquid-crystal polymer technology, this new coronagraph has recently been the subject of lab demonstrations in the near-infrared, visible and was also used on sky at the Palomar observatory in the H and K bands (1.65 and 2.2 μm, respectively) to image the brown dwarf companion to HR 7672, and the three extra-solar planets around HR 8799. However, despite these recent successes, the Vector Vortex Coronagraph is, as are most coronagraphs, sensitive to the central obscuration and secondary support structures, low-order aberrations (tip-tilt, focus, etc), bandwidth (chromaticism), and polarization when image-plane wavefront sensing is performed. Here, we consider in detail these sensitivities as a function of the topological charge of the vortex and design features inherent to the manufacturing technology, and show that in practice all of them can be mitigated to meet specific needs.

  7. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  8. Development of a subwavelength grating vortex coronagraph of topological charge 4 (SGVC4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacroix, Christian; Absil, Olivier; Carlomagno, Brunella; Piron, Pierre; Forsberg, Pontus; Karlsson, Mikael; Mawet, Dimitri; Habraken, Serge; Surdej, Jean

    2014-08-01

    One possible solution to achieve high contrast direct imaging at a small inner working angle (IWA) is to use a vector vortex coronagraph (VVC), which provides a continuous helical phase ramp in the focal plane of the telescope with a phase singularity in its center. Such an optical vortex is characterized by its topological charge, i.e., the number of times the phase accumulates 2π radians along a closed path surrounding the singularity. Over the past few years, we have been developing a charge-2 VVC induced by rotationally symmetric subwavelength gratings (SGVC2), also known as the Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM). Since 2013, several SGVC2s (or AGPMs) were manufactured using synthetic diamond substrate, then validated on dedicated optical benches, and installed on 10-m class telescopes. Increasing the topological charge seems however mandatory for cancelling the light of bright stars which will be partially resolved by future Extremely Large Telescopes in the near-infrared. In this paper, we first detail our motivations for developing an SGVC4 (charge 4) dedicated to the near-infrared domain. The challenge lies in the design of the pattern which is unrealistic in the theoretically perfect case, due to state-of-the-art manufacturing limitations. Hence, we propose a new realistic design of SGVC4 with minimized discontinuities and optimized phase ramp, showing conclusive improvements over previous works in this field. A preliminary validation of our concept is given based on RCWA simulations, while full 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations (and eventually laboratory tests) will be required for a final validation.

  9. Science yield estimate with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Breckinridge, James; Greene, Thomas P.; Guyon, Olivier; Jeremy Kasdin, N.; Macintosh, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraph instrument (CGI) on the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope will directly image and spectrally characterize planets and circumstellar disks around nearby stars. Here we estimate the expected science yield of the CGI for known radial-velocity (RV) planets and potential circumstellar disks. The science return is estimated for three types of coronagraphs: the hybrid Lyot and shaped pupil are the currently planned designs, and the phase-induced amplitude apodizing complex mask coronagraph is the backup design. We compare the potential performance of each type for imaging as well as spectroscopy. We find that the RV targets can be imaged in sufficient numbers to produce substantial advances in the science of nearby exoplanets. To illustrate the potential for circumstellar disk detections, we estimate the brightness of zodiacal-type disks, which could be detected simultaneously during RV planet observations.

  10. Method for reducing sidelobe impact of low order aberration in a coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ftaclas, Christ (Inventor); Crout, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for reducing a sidelobe impact of low order aberrations using a coronagraph (2) having an apodized occulting mask (10), comprising the steps of: (a) providing in the coronagraph (2) the apodized occulting disk (10) having a transmission profile which graduates from opaque to transparent along its radius and the negative of whose amplitude transmission is a Gaussian profile; (b) determining a predicted sidelobe impact of the aberrations from a particular mix of low order aberration measured in a system as described by the Zernike polynomials; (c) applying the coronagraph to a system point spread function using a given rms width for the Gaussian profile describing the apodized occulting mask (10) and determining an attenuation level of the aberration sidelobes; (d) scaling the Gaussian occulting mask (10) profile to a wider rms width if the sidelobe attenuation level is too low; and (e) repeating the steps (b) through (d) until the attenuation level is acceptable.

  11. Assessing the Performance Limits of Internal Coronagraphs Through End-to-End Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, John E.; Belikov, Ruslan; Pueyo, Laurent; Mawet, Dimitri P.; Moody, Dwight; Trauger, John T.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the NASA ROSES Technology Demonstrations for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program, we conducted a numerical modeling study of three internal coronagraphs (PIAA, vector vortex, hybrid bandlimited) to understand their behaviors in realistically-aberrated systems with wavefront control (deformable mirrors). This investigation consisted of two milestones: (1) develop wavefront propagation codes appropriate for each coronagraph that are accurate to 1% or better (compared to a reference algorithm) but are also time and memory efficient, and (2) use these codes to determine the wavefront control limits of each architecture. We discuss here how the milestones were met and identify some of the behaviors particular to each coronagraph. The codes developed in this study are being made available for community use. We discuss here results for the HBLC and VVC systems, with PIAA having been discussed in a previous proceeding.

  12. HST/NICMOS Coronagraphy: Prospects for Cycle 13 and Beyond - A Choice of Coronagraphic Imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, G.; Silverstone, M.; Hines, D.

    2003-12-01

    HST provides a unique resource for high contrast imaging with its panchromatic complement of coronagraphically augmented imagers: NICMOS (near-IR), STIS (broad band optical), and ACS (UV/Optical). With the advent of the NICMOS Cooling System (NCS), coronagraphy with NICMOS camera 2 (76 mas/pixel) was re-enabled at higher quantum efficiency (compared to Cycle 7) through the HST Cycle 11 SMOV program and fully recalibrated in Cycle 12. In preparation for HST cycle 13, we discuss the performance levels of NCS-era NICMOS coronagraphy in terms of background (scattered and diffracted) background light rejection from coronagraphically occulted stars, coronagraphic optical artifacts, instrumental sensitivity and detectability of point sources and low surface brightness circumstellar dust. We comment on the efficacy of astrometric and photometric measures in very high contrast coronagraphic fields. We compare the attributes of the three HST coronagraphic imagers as they have been applied to studies of circumstellar debris disks, in particular to HD 141569A and HR 4796A for which ground-based observations have also been attempted, and in consideration of future HST imaging programs. We discuss direct imaging of low mass, (L & T) dwarf companions and hot giant planets in``close'' (> 0.3 arcsec) proximity to their host stars and explore this in light of the companion detection performance capabilities demonstrated with the Keck AO system. We present the status of the calibration of a new NICMOS observing mode -- coronagraphic polarimetry -- which is now under study. This work was supported by NASA grants NAG5-3042 and 10843 to the NICMOS Instrument Definition and Guaranteed Time Observing Teams.

  13. Photographic coronagraph, Skylab particulate experiment T025. [earth atmospheric pollution and Kohoutek Comet monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovane, F.; Schuerman, D. W.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A photographic coronagraph, built to monitor Skylab's extravehicular contamination, is described. This versatile instrument was used to observe the earth's vertical aerosol distribution and Comet Kohoutek (1973f) near perihelion. Although originally designed for deployment from the solar airlock, the instrument was modified for EVA operation when the airlock was rendered unusable. The results of the observations made in four EVA's were almost completely ruined by the failure of a Skylab operational camera used with the coronagraph. Nevertheless, an aerosol layer at 48 km was discovered in the southern hemisphere from the few useful photographs.

  14. The Automated Planet Finder's automation & first two years of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer; Laughlin, Greg; Vogt, Steven S.; Holden, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    The Automated Planet Finder (APF) is the newest facility at Lick Observatory, comprised of a 2.4m telescope coupled with the high-resolution Levy echelle spectrograph. Purpose built for exoplanet detection and characterization, 80% of the telescope's observing time is dedicated to these science goals. The APF has demonstrated 1 m/s radial velocity precision on bright, RV standard stars and performs with the same speed-on-sky as Keck/HIRES when observing M-dwarfs.The telesope is fully automated for RV operations, using a dynamic scheduler that makes informed decisions on which targets to observe based on scientific interest, desired cadence, required precision levels and current observing conditions, all on a minute-to-minute basis. This ensures that time is not wasted chasing non-optimal targets on nights with poor conditions and enables rapid changes to the overall science observing strategy.The APF has contributed to the detection of four planetary systems in its first two years of scientific operations. Our most recent detection is that of a 6-planet system around the bright (V=5.5), nearby (d=6.5pc), K3V star HD 219134. The planets in this system have masses ranging from 3.5 to108 MEarth, with orbital periods from 3 to 2247 days. An independent detection of the inner 4 planets in this system by the HARPS-N team has shown that the 3d planet transits the star, making this system ideal for follow-up observations.I will discuss the design and implementation of the APF's dynamic scheduler, the telescope's planet detections to date, overall performance results of the telescope and our future observing strategy.

  15. IsoFinder: computational prediction of isochores in genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Oliver, José L; Carpena, Pedro; Hackenberg, Michael; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro

    2004-07-01

    Isochores are long genome segments homogeneous in G+C. Here, we describe an algorithm (IsoFinder) running on the web (http://bioinfo2.ugr.es/IsoF/isofinder.html) able to predict isochores at the sequence level. We move a sliding pointer from left to right along the DNA sequence. At each position of the pointer, we compute the mean G+C values to the left and to the right of the pointer. We then determine the position of the pointer for which the difference between left and right mean values (as measured by the t-statistic) reaches its maximum. Next, we determine the statistical significance of this potential cutting point, after filtering out short-scale heterogeneities below 3 kb by applying a coarse-graining technique. Finally, the program checks whether this significance exceeds a probability threshold. If so, the sequence is cut at this point into two subsequences; otherwise, the sequence remains undivided. The procedure continues recursively for each of the two resulting subsequences created by each cut. This leads to the decomposition of a chromosome sequence into long homogeneous genome regions (LHGRs) with well-defined mean G+C contents, each significantly different from the G+C contents of the adjacent LHGRs. Most LHGRs can be identified with Bernardi's isochores, given their correlation with biological features such as gene density, SINE and LINE (short, long interspersed repetitive elements) densities, recombination rate or single nucleotide polymorphism variability. The resulting isochore maps are available at our web site (http://bioinfo2.ugr.es/isochores/), and also at the UCSC Genome Browser (http://genome.cse.ucsc.edu/). PMID:15215396

  16. Eye safe short range standoff aerosol cloud finder.

    SciTech Connect

    Bambha, Ray P.; Schroder, Kevin L.; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2005-02-01

    Because many solid objects, both stationary and mobile, will be present in an indoor environment, the design of an indoor aerosol cloud finding lidar (light detection and ranging) instrument presents a number of challenges. The cloud finder must be able to discriminate between these solid objects and aerosol clouds as small as 1-meter in depth in order to probe suspect clouds. While a near IR ({approx}1.5-{micro}m) laser is desirable for eye-safety, aerosol scattering cross sections are significantly lower in the near-IR than at visible or W wavelengths. The receiver must deal with a large dynamic range since the backscatter from solid object will be orders of magnitude larger than for aerosol clouds. Fast electronics with significant noise contributions will be required to obtain the necessary temporal resolution. We have developed a laboratory instrument to detect aerosol clouds in the presence of solid objects. In parallel, we have developed a lidar performance model for performing trade studies. Careful attention was paid to component details so that results obtained in this study could be applied towards the development of a practical instrument. The amplitude and temporal shape of the signal return are analyzed for discrimination of aerosol clouds in an indoor environment. We have assessed the feasibility and performance of candidate approaches for a fieldable instrument. With the near-IR PMT and a 1.5-{micro}m laser source providing 20-{micro}J pulses, we estimate a bio-aerosol detection limit of 3000 particles/l.

  17. What Spectroscopic Capabilities Does A Terrestrial Planet Finder Need?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippel, T. v.; Levine, N.; Dunphy, J.; Meadows, V.

    2014-03-01

    We employ artificial neural networks (ANNs) to develop a new, holistic approach to determining the trade-offs among the instrument parameters for nominal visible and infrared Terrestrial Planet Finder missions. Our results are aimed at demonstrating the technique rather than making precise instrument comparisons because any quantitative results will need to be refined based both on more realistic model instruments and more finely tuned mission requirements for distinguishing among planetary types. Nonetheless, in our preliminary study we find that an Earth-like planet with atmospheric oxygen is distinguishable by either a visible or infrared mission. For example, using ANNs trained to differentiate among Earth models with and without oxygen, as well as Mars-like, Venus-like, and Jovian planet models, we find that a spectral resolution of R=40 and signal-to-noise=10-20 is sufficient for at least 95% certainty in classifying these planetary atmospheres in the visible. The same problem requires R=15 and S/N=10-20 in the infrared. For the more demanding case where the ANNs must also distinguish among Earth-like models ranging from 0.01% to 100% of the Earth's current O2 abundances, we find that a visible-light TPF would require S/N > 85 at R=30 or S/N = 25-55 at R=200. The comparable problem in the infrared requires S/N=10-40 at R=20. These determinations can be refined based on different statistical thresholds of certainty, specific planet types of interest, and more developed instrument concepts.

  18. Enceladus Life Finder: Search for Life in a Habitable Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Spilker, L. J.; Postberg, F.; Cable, M. L.; Srama, R.; Clark, K.; Lee, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    A thousand times smaller in mass than Ganymede, Enceladus was known from Voyager data to be extremely bright and a dearth of craters on some parts of its surface suggested geologic activity. Cassini discovered the presence and composition of a plume erupting from the south polar terrain of Enceladus, approximately 100 narrow, distinct "geysers" or "jets" that feed it, and anomalous thermal signatures along fractures from which the geysers erupt. Cassini discovered organic and nitrogen-bearing molecules in the plume vapor, and detected salts in the plume icy grains, arguing strongly for ocean water being in contact with a rocky core. As much as Cassini has done, it cannot tell us whether the ocean of Enceladus hosts an active biota today. Enceladus Life Finder (ELF) is a Discovery-class solar-powered Saturn orbiter designed to fly multiple times through the plume of Enceladus. It carries two state-of-the-art mass spectrometers designed to analyze the gas and grains in the plume. The goals of the mission are derived directly from the most recent decadal survey: first, to determine primordial sources of organics and sites of organic synthesis today, second, to determine if there are modern habitats in the solar system beyond Earth where the conditions for life exist today and third, if life exists there now. ELF conducts three tests for life. The first test looks for a non-abiotic distribution of amino acids, the second determines whether the carbon number distribution in fatty acids or isoprenoids is biased toward a particular rule, and the third measures carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios, together with the abundance of methane relative to other alkanes, to assess whether the values fall in the range for biological processes. The ELF mission spacecraft conducts ten science plume fly-throughs; the baseline science is completed in the first five plume passages.

  19. CT-Finder: A Web Service for CRISPR Optimal Target Prediction and Visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Houxiang; Misel, Lauren; Graham, Mitchell; Robinson, Michael L; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR system holds much promise for successful genome engineering, but therapeutic, industrial, and research applications will place high demand on improving the specificity and efficiency of this tool. CT-Finder (http://bioinfolab.miamioh.edu/ct-finder) is a web service to help users design guide RNAs (gRNAs) optimized for specificity. CT-Finder accommodates the original single-gRNA Cas9 system and two specificity-enhancing paired-gRNA systems: Cas9 D10A nickases (Cas9n) and dimeric RNA-guided FokI nucleases (RFNs). Optimal target candidates can be chosen based on the minimization of predicted off-target effects. Graphical visualization of on-target and off-target sites in the genome is provided for target validation. Major model organisms are covered by this web service. PMID:27210050

  20. CT-Finder: A Web Service for CRISPR Optimal Target Prediction and Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Houxiang; Misel, Lauren; Graham, Mitchell; Robinson, Michael L.; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR system holds much promise for successful genome engineering, but therapeutic, industrial, and research applications will place high demand on improving the specificity and efficiency of this tool. CT-Finder (http://bioinfolab.miamioh.edu/ct-finder) is a web service to help users design guide RNAs (gRNAs) optimized for specificity. CT-Finder accommodates the original single-gRNA Cas9 system and two specificity-enhancing paired-gRNA systems: Cas9 D10A nickases (Cas9n) and dimeric RNA-guided FokI nucleases (RFNs). Optimal target candidates can be chosen based on the minimization of predicted off-target effects. Graphical visualization of on-target and off-target sites in the genome is provided for target validation. Major model organisms are covered by this web service. PMID:27210050

  1. Lyot-plane phase masks for improved high-contrast imaging with a vortex coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, G. J.; Huby, E.; Absil, O.; Mawet, D.; Delacroix, C.; Carlomagno, B.; Swartzlander, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The vortex coronagraph is an optical instrument that precisely removes on-axis starlight allowing for high contrast imaging at small angular separation from the star, a crucial capability for direct detection and characterization of exoplanets and circumstellar disks. Telescopes with aperture obstructions, such as secondary mirrors and spider support structures, require advanced coronagraph designs to provide adequate starlight suppression. Aims: We introduce a phase-only Lyot-plane optic to the vortex coronagraph, which offers improved contrast performance on telescopes with complicated apertures. Potential solutions for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) are described. Methods: Adding a Lyot-plane phase mask relocates residual starlight away from a region of the image plane, thereby reducing stellar noise and improving sensitivity to off-axis companions. The phase mask is calculated using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Results: Numerically, we achieve a contrast on the order of 10-6 for a companion with angular displacement as small as 4λ/D with an E-ELT type aperture. Even in the presence of aberrations, improved performance is expected compared to either a conventional vortex coronagraph or an optimized pupil plane phase element alone.

  2. Path Length Control in a Nulling Coronagraph with a MEMS Deformable Mirror and a Calibration Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti R.; Wallacea, J. Kent; Samuele, Rocco; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul; Lane, Benjamin; Levine, B. Martin; Mendillo, Chris; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Shao, Mike; Stewart, Jason B.

    2008-01-01

    We report progress on a nulling coronagraph intended for direct imaging of extrasolar planets. White light is suppressed in an interferometer, and phase errors are measured by a second interferometer. A 1020-pixel MEMS deformable mirror in the first interferometer adjusts the path length across the pupil. A feedback control system reduces deflections of the deformable mirror to order of 1 nm rms.

  3. A coronagraph based on two spatial light modulators for active amplitude apodizing and phase corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhao, Gang; Wu, Zhen; Chen, Rui; Liu, Chengchao; Yang, Feng; Yang, Chao

    2014-08-01

    Almost all high-contrast imaging coronagraphs proposed until now are based on passive coronagraph optical components. Recently, Ren and Zhu proposed for the first time a coronagraph that integrates a liquid crystal array (LCA) for the active pupil apodizing and a deformable mirror (DM) for the phase corrections. Here, for demonstration purpose, we present the initial test result of a coronagraphic system that is based on two liquid crystal spatial light modulators (SLM). In the system, one SLM is served as active pupil apodizing and amplitude correction to suppress the diffraction light; another SLM is used to correct the speckle noise that is caused by the wave-front distortions. In this way, both amplitude and phase error can be actively and efficiently compensated. In the test, we use the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to control two SLMs, which is based on the point spread function (PSF) sensing and evaluation and optimized for a maximum contrast in the discovery area. Finally, it has demonstrated a contrast of 10-6 at an inner working angular distance of ~6.2 λ/D, which is a promising technique to be used for the direct imaging of young exoplanets on ground-based telescopes.

  4. Scaled-model guidelines for formation-flying solar coronagraph missions.

    PubMed

    Landini, Federico; Romoli, Marco; Baccani, Cristian; Focardi, Mauro; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Galano, Damien; Kirschner, Volker

    2016-02-15

    Stray light suppression is the main concern in designing a solar coronagraph. The main contribution to the stray light for an externally occulted space-borne solar coronagraph is the light diffracted by the occulter and scattered by the optics. It is mandatory to carefully evaluate the diffraction generated by an external occulter and the impact that it has on the stray light signal on the focal plane. The scientific need for observations to cover a large portion of the heliosphere with an inner field of view as close as possible to the photospheric limb supports the ambition of launching formation-flying giant solar coronagraphs. Their dimension prevents the possibility of replicating the flight geometry in a clean laboratory environment, and the strong need for a scaled model is thus envisaged. The problem of scaling a coronagraph has already been faced for exoplanets, for a single point source on axis at infinity. We face the problem here by adopting an original approach and by introducing the scaling of the solar disk as an extended source. PMID:26872181

  5. Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) for WFIRST/AFTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Mcelwain, Michael; Greeley, Bradford; Grammer, Bryan; Marx, Catherine; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Hilton, George; Sayson, Jorge Llop; Perrin, Marshall; Demer, Richard; Tang, Hong; Kern, Brian; Ferdosi, Janan

    2015-01-01

    Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrometer (IFS) designed for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets. PISCES will be used to advance the technology readiness of the high contrast IFS baselined on the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope/Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST/AFTA) coronagraph instrument. PISCES will be integrated into the high contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and will work with both the Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) and the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) cofigurations. We discuss why the lenslet array based IFS is selected for PISCES. We present the PISCES optical design, including the similarities and differences of lenslet based IFSs to normal spectrometers, the trade-off between a refractive design and reflective design, as well as the specific function of our pinhole mask on the back surface of the lenslet array to further suppress star light introduced speckles. The optical analysis, alignment plan, and mechanical design of the instrument will be discussed.

  6. Reconstructing the open-field magnetic geometry of solar corona using coronagraph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Jones, Shaela; Burkepile, Joan

    2015-04-01

    The upcoming Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter missions will provide an new insight into the inner heliosphere magnetically connected with the topologically complex and eruptive solar corona. Physical interpretation of these observations will be dependent on the accurate reconstruction of the large-scale coronal magnetic field. We argue that such reconstruction can be performed using photospheric extrapolation codes constrained by white-light coronagraph images. The field extrapolation component of this project is featured in a related presentation by S. Jones et al. Here, we focus on our image-processing algorithms conducting an automated segmentation of coronal loop structures. In contrast to the previously proposed segmentation codes designed for detecting small-scale closed loops in the vicinity of active regions, our technique focuses on the large-scale geometry of the open-field coronal features observed at significant radial distances from the solar surface. Coronagraph images are transformed into a polar coordinate system and undergo radial detrending and initial noise reduction followed by an adaptive angular differentiation. An adjustable threshold is applied to identify candidate coronagraph features associated with the large-scale coronal field. A blob detection algorithm is used to identify valid features against a noisy background. The extracted coronal features are used to derive empirical directional constraints for magnetic field extrapolation procedures based on photospheric magnetograms. Two versions of the method optimized for processing ground-based (Mauna Loa Solar Observatory) and satellite-based (STEREO Cor1 and Cor2) coronagraph images are being developed.

  7. Design and fabrication of the All-Reflecting H-Lyman-alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Johnson, R. B.; Fineschi, Silvano; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Baker, Phillip C.; Zukic, Muamer; Kim, Jongmin

    1993-01-01

    We have designed, analyzed, and are now fabricating an All-Reflecting H-Lyman-alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter for solar research. This new instrument operates in a narrow bandpass centered at 215.7 A - the neutral hydrogen Ly-alpha line. It is shorter and faster than the telescope which produced solar Ly-alpha images as a part of the MSSTA payload that was launched on May 13, 1991. The Ly-alpha line is produced and linearly polarized in the solar corona by resonance scattering, and the presence of a magnetic field modifies this polarization according to the Hanle effect. The Lyman-alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter instrument has been designed to measure coronal magnetic fields by interpreting, via the Hanle effect, the measured linear polarization of the coronal Ly-alpha line. Ultrasmooth mirrors, polarizers, and filters are being flow-polished for this instrument from CVD silicon carbide substrates. These optical components will be coated using advanced induced transmission and absorption thin film multilayer coatings to optimize the reflectivity and polarization properties at 1215.7 A. We describe some of the solar imaging results obtained with the MSSTA Lyman-alpha coronagraph. We also discuss the optical design parameters and fabrication plans for the All-Reflecting H-Lyman-alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter.

  8. Design and Fabrication of the All-Reflecting H-Lyman alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Johnson, R. Barry; Fineschi, Silvano; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Baker, Phillip C.; Zukic , Muamer; Kim, Jongmin

    1993-01-01

    We have designed, analyzed, and are now fabricating an All-Reflecting H-Lyman alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter for solar research. This new instrument operates in a narrow bandpass centered at lambda 1215.7 A-the neutral hydrogen Lyman alpha (Ly-alpha) line. It is shorter and faster than the telescope which produced solar Ly-alpha images as a part of the MSSTA payload that was launched on May 13, 1991. The Ly-alpha line is produced and linearly polarized in the solar corona by resonance scattering, and the presence of a magnetic field modifies this polarization according to the Hanle effect. The Lyman alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter instrument has been designed to measure coronal magnetic fields by interpreting, via the Hanle effect, the measured linear polarization of the coronal Ly-alpha line. Ultrasmooth mirrors, polarizers, and filters are being flow-polished for this instrument from CVD silicon carbide substrates. These optical components will be coated using advanced induced transmission and absorption thin film multilayer coatings, to optimize the reflectivity and polarization properties at 1215.7 A. We describe some of the solar imaging results obtained with the MSSTA Lyman alpha coronagraph. We also discuss the optical design parameters and fabrication plans for the All-Reflecting H-Lyman alpha Coronagraph/Polarimeter.

  9. Continuous tracking of CMEs using MICA, and LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmaceda, L.; Dal Lago, A.; Stenborg, G.; Francile, C.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Schwenn, R.

    In this work we have tracked coronal mass ejections observed with the ground based Mirror Coronagraph for Argentina (MICA) and the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 and C3 on board of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The MICA telescope is located at El Leoncito (31.8 S, 69.3 W), San Juan (Argentina), since 1997 as part of a bilateral scientific project between Germany and Argentina. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. Together these instruments are able to observe the solar corona ranging from 1.05 to 32 solar radii. MICA images the Fe XIV emission line corona and LASCO coronagraphs observe the Thomson scattered white light corona. We have selected events for which there are observations from the three coronagraphs. Using the composite data we were able to obtain height-time diagrams for the corresponding dynamical coronal features traveling outwards in order to determine some of their kinematical properties, i.e., plane of sky velocity and acceleration.

  10. Laboratory experiment of a coronagraph based on step-transmission filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Zhu, Yongtian; Ren, Deqing; Zhang, Xi

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the first results of a step-transmission-filter based coronagraph in the visible wavelengths. The primary goal of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of the coronagraph that employs step-transmission filters, with a required contrast in the order of better than 10-5 at an angular distance larger than 4λ/D. Two 13-step-transmission filters were manufactured with 5% transmission accuracy. The precision of the transmitted wave distortion and the coating surface quality were not strictly controlled at this time. Although in perfect case the coronagraph can achieve theoretical contrast of 10-10, it only delivers 10-5 contrast because of the transmission error, poor surface quality and wave-front aberration stated above, which is in our estimation. Based on current techniques, step-transmission filters with better coating surface quality and high-precision transmission can be made. As a follow-up effort, high-quality step-transmission filters are being manufactured, which should deliver better performance. The step-transmission-filter based coronagraph has the potential applications for future high-contrast direct imaging of earth-like planets.

  11. Laboratory experiment of a high-contrast imaging coronagraph with new step-transmission filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi

    2009-08-01

    We present the latest results of our laboratory experiment of the coronagraph with step-transmission filters. The primary goal of this work is to test the stability of the coronagraph and identify the main factors that limit its performance. At present, a series of step-transmission filters has been designed. These filters were manufactured with Cr film on a glass substrate with a high surface quality. During the process of the experiment of each filter, we have identified several contrast limiting factors, which includes the non-symmetry of the coating film, transmission error, scattered light and the optical aberration caused by the thickness difference of coating film. To eliminate these factors, we developed a procedure for the correct test of the coronagraph and finally it delivered a contrast in the order of 10-6~10-7 at an angular distance of 4λD, which is well consistent with theoretical design. As a follow-up effort, a deformable mirror has been manufactured to correct the wave-front error of the optical system, which should deliver better performance with an extra contrast improvement in the order of 10-2~10-3. It is shown that the step-transmission filter based coronagraph is promising for the high-contrast imaging of earth-like planets.

  12. Prototype imaging spectrograph for coronagraphic exoplanet studies (PISCES) for WFIRST/AFTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Qian; McElwain, Michael; Greeley, Bradford; Grammer, Bryan; Marx, Catherine; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Hilton, George; Llop Sayson, Jorge; Perrin, Marshall; Demers, Richard; Tang, Hong; Kern, Brian; Ferdosi, Janan

    2015-09-01

    Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrometer (IFS) designed for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets. PISCES will be used to advance the technology readiness of the high contrast IFS baselined on the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope/Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) coronagraph instrument. PISCES will be integrated into the high contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and will work with both the Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) and the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) configurations. We discuss why the lenslet array based IFS was selected for PISCES. We present the PISCES optical design, including the similarities and differences of lenslet based IFSs to normal spectrometers, the trade-off between a refractive design and reflective design, as well as the specific function of our pinhole mask on the back surface of the lenslet array to reduce the diffraction from the edge of the lenslets. The optical analysis, alignment plan, and mechanical design of the instrument will be discussed.

  13. Evaluating high-throughput ab initio gene finders to discover proteins encoded in eukaryotic pathogen genomes missed by laboratory techniques.

    PubMed

    Goodswen, Stephen J; Kennedy, Paul J; Ellis, John T

    2012-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technology is advancing genome sequencing at an unprecedented level. By unravelling the code within a pathogen's genome, every possible protein (prior to post-translational modifications) can theoretically be discovered, irrespective of life cycle stages and environmental stimuli. Now more than ever there is a great need for high-throughput ab initio gene finding. Ab initio gene finders use statistical models to predict genes and their exon-intron structures from the genome sequence alone. This paper evaluates whether existing ab initio gene finders can effectively predict genes to deduce proteins that have presently missed capture by laboratory techniques. An aim here is to identify possible patterns of prediction inaccuracies for gene finders as a whole irrespective of the target pathogen. All currently available ab initio gene finders are considered in the evaluation but only four fulfil high-throughput capability: AUGUSTUS, GeneMark_hmm, GlimmerHMM, and SNAP. These gene finders require training data specific to a target pathogen and consequently the evaluation results are inextricably linked to the availability and quality of the data. The pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, is used to illustrate the evaluation methods. The results support current opinion that predicted exons by ab initio gene finders are inaccurate in the absence of experimental evidence. However, the results reveal some patterns of inaccuracy that are common to all gene finders and these inaccuracies may provide a focus area for future gene finder developers. PMID:23226328

  14. GLS-Finder: An Automated Data-Mining System for Fast Profiling Glucosinolates and its Application in Brassica Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid computer-aided program for profiling glucosinolates, “GLS-Finder", was developed. GLS-Finder is a Matlab script based expert system that is capable for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of glucosinolates in samples using data generated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph...

  15. Design status of ASPIICS, an externally occulted coronagraph for PROBA-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renotte, Etienne; Alia, Andres; Bemporad, Alessandro; Bernier, Joseph; Bramanti, Cristina; Buckley, Steve; Capobianco, Gerardo; Cernica, Ileana; Dániel, Vladimir; Darakchiev, Radoslav; Darmetko, Marcin; Debaize, Arnaud; Denis, François; Desselle, Richard; de Vos, Lieve; Dinescu, Adrian; Fineschi, Silvano; Fleury-Frenette, Karl; Focardi, Mauro; Fumel, Aurélie; Galano, Damien; Galy, Camille; Gillis, Jean-Marie; Górski, Tomasz; Graas, Estelle; Graczyk, Rafał; Grochowski, Konrad; Halain, Jean-Philippe A.; Hermans, Aline; Howard, Russ; Jackson, Carl; Janssen, Emmanuel; Kasprzyk, Hubert; Kosiec, Jacek; Koutchmy, Serge; Kovačičinová, Jana; Kranitis, Nektarios; Kurowski, Michał; Ładno, Michał; Lamy, Philippe; Landini, Federico; Lapáček, Radek; Lédl, Vít.; Liebecq, Sylvie; Loreggia, Davide; McGarvey, Brian; Massone, Giuseppe; Melich, Radek; Mestreau-Garreau, Agnes; Mollet, Dominique; Mosdorf, Łukasz; Mosdorf, Michał; Mroczkowski, Mateusz; Muller, Raluca; Nicolini, Gianalfredo; Nicula, Bogdan; O'Neill, Kevin; Orleański, Piotr; Palau, Marie-Catherine; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Paschalis, Antonios; Patočka, Karel; Peresty, Radek; Popescu, Irina; Psota, Pavel; Rataj, Miroslaw; Rautakoski, Jan; Romoli, Marco; Rybecký, Roman; Salvador, Lucas; Servaye, Jean-Sébastien; Solomon, Cornel; Stockman, Yvan; Swat, Arkadiusz; Thizy, Cédric; Thomé, Michel; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Van der Meulen, Jim; Van Vooren, Nico; Vit, Tomáš; Walczak, Tomasz; Zarzycka, Alicja; Zender, Joe; Zhukov, Andrei

    2015-09-01

    The "sonic region" of the Sun corona remains extremely difficult to observe with spatial resolution and sensitivity sufficient to understand the fine scale phenomena that govern the quiescent solar corona, as well as phenomena that lead to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which influence space weather. Improvement on this front requires eclipse-like conditions over long observation times. The space-borne coronagraphs flown so far provided a continuous coverage of the external parts of the corona but their over-occulting system did not permit to analyse the part of the white-light corona where the main coronal mass is concentrated. The proposed PROBA-3 Coronagraph System, also known as ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun), with its novel design, will be the first space coronagraph to cover the range of radial distances between ~1.08 and 3 solar radii where the magnetic field plays a crucial role in the coronal dynamics, thus providing continuous observational conditions very close to those during a total solar eclipse. PROBA-3 is first a mission devoted to the in-orbit demonstration of precise formation flying techniques and technologies for future European missions, which will fly ASPIICS as primary payload. The instrument is distributed over two satellites flying in formation (approx. 150m apart) to form a giant coronagraph capable of producing a nearly perfect eclipse allowing observing the sun corona closer to the rim than ever before. The coronagraph instrument is developed by a large European consortium including about 20 partners from 7 countries under the auspices of the European Space Agency. This paper is reviewing the recent improvements and design updates of the ASPIICS instrument as it is stepping into the detailed design phase.

  16. STS-56 MS1 Foale uses laser range finder on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Michael Foale, positioned at overhead window W8, uses a laser range finder on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, during Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy 201 (SPARTAN-201) rendezvous operations. Partially visible outside W8 is the deployed remote manipulator system (RMS) and its closed circuit television (CCTV) camera.

  17. General Astrophysics and Comparative Planetology with the Terrestrial Planet Finder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) for general astrophysics beyond its base mission, focusing on science obtainable with no or minimal modifications to the mission design, but also exploring possible modifications of TPF with high scientific merit and no impact on the basic search for extrasolar Earth analogs.

  18. Microlithography and resist technology information at your fingertips via SciFinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konuk, Rengin; Macko, John R.; Staggenborg, Lisa

    1997-07-01

    Finding and retrieving the information you need about microlithography and resist technology in a timely fashion can make or break your competitive edge in today's business environment. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) provides the most complete and comprehensive database of the chemical literature in the CAplus, REGISTRY, and CASREACT files including 13 million document references, 15 million substance records and over 1.2 million reactions. This includes comprehensive coverage of positive and negative resist formulations and processing, photoacid generation, silylation, single and multilayer resist systems, photomasks, dry and wet etching, photolithography, electron-beam, ion-beam and x-ray lithography technologies and process control, optical tools, exposure systems, radiation sources and steppers. Journal articles, conference proceedings and patents related to microlithography and resist technology are analyzed and indexed by scientific information analysts with strong technical background in these areas. The full CAS database, which is updated weekly with new information, is now available at your desktop, via a convenient, user-friendly tool called 'SciFinder.' Author, subject and chemical substance searching is simplified by SciFinder's smart search features. Chemical substances can be searched by chemical structure, chemical name, CAS registry number or molecular formula. Drawing chemical structures in SciFinder is easy and does not require compliance with CA conventions. Built-in intelligence of SciFinder enables users to retrieve substances with multiple components, tautomeric forms and salts.

  19. The Relationship between Kolb's Learning Styles and StrengthsFinder's Talent Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Adonna B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if there were relationships between college students' talent themes as defined by the Clifton StrengthsFinder(TM) Instrument and their learning style as defined by Kolb Learning Styles Inventory. Logistical regression methodology was utilized to assess the relationship between learning styles and talent…

  20. Teenage Pregnancy: An Intensive and Critical Problem in Search of a Solution. Student Fact Finder Leaflet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover-Smith, Alma

    This document presents materials from a course designed to teach adolescents about teenage pregnancy and parenting. The materials are organized into nine modules, each of which contains instructions on how to use the module; a pre- and post-test on the information presented in the module; a fact finder leaflet of information; and relevant…

  1. An embedded route finder and tracing system for a stepped robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangjun; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Xinling

    2003-09-01

    The paper presents a new embedded sensor method of non-contact automatic route-finding and route-tracing for stepped robot. The final system is designed and integrated into a single hardware PCB with size of 30x30x15 mm3. A line scanning charge couple device (CCD) with 1024 pixels is used to obtain the plane scene of route, and a pair of infrared LED is employed to provide the illumination of the route-finder. Moreover, this route-finder still includes a micro lens, CCD driver, instrumentation pre-amplifier, edge extracting circuit, FPGA circuit for position measure and logic control, direction and state display of the route-finder by LED, moving direction control pins output and power manage circuits. The router-finder for stepped robot has the advantages of simple and fast operation, easy assembly with robot, small volume, high sensitivity and precision for route-finding and tracing. The paper outlines in detail the principle of the route-finding and tracing by edge extraction and edge position measure using a CCD image sensor with a micro lens assisted by infrared illumination and a FPGA circuit. Some relational edge extraction and measure algorithms suitable for embedded system with FPGA are introduced in the paper too. Finally, the actual experiment results are given.

  2. Flood Finder: Mobile-based automated water level estimation and mapping during floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongsiriyaporn, B.; Jariyavajee, C.; Laoharawee, N.; Narkthong, N.; Pitichat, T.; Goldin, S. E.

    2014-02-01

    Every year, Southeast Asia faces numerous flooding disasters, resulting in very high human and economic loss. Responding to a sudden flood is difficult due to the lack of accurate and up-to- date information about the incoming water status. We have developed a mobile application called Flood Finder to solve this problem. Flood Finder allows smartphone users to measure, share and search for water level information at specified locations. The application uses image processing to compute the water level from a photo taken by users. The photo must be of a known reference object with a standard size. These water levels are more reliable and consistent than human estimates since they are derived from an algorithmic measuring function. Flood Finder uploads water level readings to the server, where they can be searched and mapped by other users via the mobile phone app or standard browsers. Given the widespread availability of smartphones in Asia, Flood Finder can provide more accurate and up-to-date information for better preparation for a flood disaster as well as life safety and property protection.

  3. Applications of the Integrated High-Performance CMOS Image Sensor to Range Finders — from Optical Triangulation to the Automotive Field

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Pen, Cheng-Chung; Jiang, Joe-Air

    2008-01-01

    With their significant features, the applications of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors covers a very extensive range, from industrial automation to traffic applications such as aiming systems, blind guidance, active/passive range finders, etc. In this paper CMOS image sensor-based active and passive range finders are presented. The measurement scheme of the proposed active/passive range finders is based on a simple triangulation method. The designed range finders chiefly consist of a CMOS image sensor and some light sources such as lasers or LEDs. The implementation cost of our range finders is quite low. Image processing software to adjust the exposure time (ET) of the CMOS image sensor to enhance the performance of triangulation-based range finders was also developed. An extensive series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the designed range finders. From the experimental results, the distance measurement resolutions achieved by the active range finder and the passive range finder can be better than 0.6% and 0.25% within the measurement ranges of 1 to 8 m and 5 to 45 m, respectively. Feasibility tests on applications of the developed CMOS image sensor-based range finders to the automotive field were also conducted. The experimental results demonstrated that our range finders are well-suited for distance measurements in this field.

  4. Coronal streamers as detected with the SPARTAN 201-01 white light coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Richard; Guhathakurta, Madhulika

    1994-01-01

    The preliminary results concerning the fine scale structure analysis of the streamers on the east limb and the region between these streamers, as well as their morphological and physical characteristics are presented. The results were obtained using white light polarized brightness data. The solar corona was observed with an externally occulted white light coronagraph carried on the SPARTAN 201-01 spacecraft for a 47 h period beginning on DOY 101, 1993. At this phase of the solar magnetic activity cycle there were well developed coronal helmet streamers located over both the east and west limbs of the sun. The photometric properties of one streamer found near the south east limb of the sun are similar to those measured of helmet streamers at the time of the 1973 total eclipse by both the ground based white light coronal camera and the Skylab externally occulted coronagraph.

  5. L'-band AGPM vector vortex coronagraph's first light on LBTI/LMIRCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defrère, D.; Absil, O.; Hinz, P.; Kuhn, J.; Mawet, D.; Mennesson, B.; Skemer, A.; Wallace, K.; Bailey, V.; Downey, E.; Delacroix, C.; Durney, O.; Forsberg, P.; Gomez, C.; Habraken, S.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Karlsson, M.; Kenworthy, M.; Leisenring, J.; Montoya, M.; Pueyo, L.; Skrutskie, M.; Surdej, J.,

    2014-07-01

    We present the first observations obtained with the L'-band AGPM vortex coronagraph recently installed on LBTI/LMIRCam. The AGPM (Annular Groove Phase Mask) is a vector vortex coronagraph made from diamond subwavelength gratings. It is designed to improve the sensitivity and dynamic range of high-resolution imaging at very small inner working angles, down to 0.09 arcseconds in the case of LBTI/LMIRCam in the L' band. During the first hours on sky, we observed the young A5V star HR8799 with the goal to demonstrate the AGPM performance and assess its relevance for the ongoing LBTI planet survey (LEECH). Preliminary analyses of the data reveal the four known planets clearly at high SNR and provide unprecedented sensitivity limits in the inner planetary system (down to the diffraction limit of 0.09 arcseconds).

  6. Coronagraphic Upgrades at the VLT/NaCo: 4-Micron APP Enhanced Spectroscopy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Julien H. V.; Janson, Markus; Quanz, Sascha P.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Meyer, Michael R.; Kasper, Markus; Lenzen, Rainer; Wehmeier, Udo

    2010-10-01

    We present coronagraphic upgrades that took place in the past months on NaCo, the versatile high contrast imager/spectrograph currently operated at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). A review of the current high contrast techniques available on NACO is presented as well as potential upgrades. As strong emphasis is made on the advantage of using the 3-5 μm domain for achieving outstanding detectability and characterization of hot jupiters. The new Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraph successfully commissioned earlier in 2010 is introduced. Preliminary tests on APP enhanced spectroscopy are shown. This unique capability could allow to reach unprecedented science goals: directly detect molecular features (CH4, CO, etc.) of the atmosphere of gaseous exoplanets at relatively low inner working angles (0.2 to 0.8").

  7. High Contrast Internal and External Coronagraph Masks Produced by Various Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Wilson, Daniel; White, Victor; Muller, Richard; Dickie, Matthew; Yee, Karl; Ruiz, Ronald; Shaklan, Stuart; Cady, Eric; Kern, Brian; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Masks for high contrast internal and external coronagraphic imaging require a variety of masks depending on different architectures to suppress star light. Various fabrication technologies are required to address a wide range of needs including gradient amplitude transmission, tunable phase profiles, ultra-low reflectivity, precise small scale features, and low-chromaticity. We present the approaches employed at JPL to produce pupil plane and image plane coronagraph masks, and lab-scale external occulter type masks by various techniques including electron beam, ion beam, deep reactive ion etching, and black silicon technologies with illustrative examples of each. Further development is in progress to produce circular masks of various kinds for obscured aperture telescopes.

  8. Laboratory demonstration of a mid-infrared AGPM vector vortex coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacroix, C.; Absil, O.; Forsberg, P.; Mawet, D.; Christiaens, V.; Karlsson, M.; Boccaletti, A.; Baudoz, P.; Kuittinen, M.; Vartiainen, I.; Surdej, J.; Habraken, S.

    2013-05-01

    Context. Coronagraphy is a powerful technique to achieve high contrast imaging, hence to image faint companions around bright targets. Various concepts have been used in the visible and near-infrared regimes, while coronagraphic applications in the mid-infrared nowadays remain largely unexplored. Vector vortex phase masks based on concentric subwavelength gratings show great promise for such applications. Aims: We aim at producing and validating the first high-performance broadband focal plane phase mask coronagraphs for applications in the mid-infrared regime, and in particular the L band with a fractional bandwidth of ~16% (3.5-4.1 μm). Methods: Based on rigorous coupled wave analysis, we designed an annular groove phase mask (AGPM) producing a vortex effect in the L band, and etched it onto a series of diamond substrates. The grating parameters were measured by means of scanning electron microscopy. The resulting components were then tested on a mid-infrared coronagraphic test bench. Results: A broadband raw null depth of 2 × 10-3 was obtained for our best L-band AGPM after only a few iterations between design and manufacturing. This corresponds to a raw contrast of about 6 × 10-5 (10.5 mag) at 2λ/D. This result is fully in line with our projections based on rigorous coupled wave analysis modelling, using the measured grating parameters. The sensitivity to tilt and focus has also been evaluated. Conclusions: After years of technological developments, mid-infrared vector vortex coronagraphs have finally become a reality and live up to our expectations. Based on their measured performance, our L-band AGPMs are now ready to open a new parameter space in exoplanet imaging at major ground-based observatories.

  9. A systems approach to mechanisms for a white light coronagraph X-ray XUV telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastronardi, R.; Cabral, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A combined instrument package containing nine mechanisms was designed and developed for the international solar polar mission (ISPM). This complement of instruments, commonly called the CXX, is the only imaging system on either the NASA or ESA spacecraft and consists of a white light coronagraph mounted parallel to a combined X-ray and extreme ultra-violet (XUV) telescope. Requirements for and implementation of mechanisms in the CXX instrument are discussed.

  10. Design of a mirror pointing and occulting mechanism for the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highman, Clifton O.; Woolaway, Scott M.; Belmont, Kenneth L.

    1992-01-01

    The Mirror and Occulter Mechanism (MOM), a lightweight stable optical assembly which is a critical component to the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer to be flown on the European SOHO spacecraft, is discussed. The MOM combines the functions of precision mirror pointing and occultation of stray light into a single package. The mirror mechanism and occulter mechanism designs are described and development testing and life testing activities are discussed.

  11. AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND TRACKING OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. MULTISCALE FILTERING OF CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Jason P.; Morgan, Huw; Habbal, Shadia R.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2012-06-20

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and future coronagraph missions also makes manual cataloging of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloging packages such as CACTus, SEEDS, and ARTEMIS. Here, we present the development of a new CORIMP (coronal image processing) CME detection and tracking technique that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogs. It works by first employing the dynamic CME separation technique outlined in a companion paper, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane of sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. The algorithms described in this article are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI data sets, and a catalog of results will soon be available to the public.

  12. Automatic Detection and Tracking of Coronal Mass Ejections. II. Multiscale Filtering of Coronagraph Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jason P.; Morgan, Huw; Habbal, Shadia R.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2012-06-01

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and future coronagraph missions also makes manual cataloging of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloging packages such as CACTus, SEEDS, and ARTEMIS. Here, we present the development of a new CORIMP (coronal image processing) CME detection and tracking technique that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogs. It works by first employing the dynamic CME separation technique outlined in a companion paper, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane of sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. The algorithms described in this article are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI data sets, and a catalog of results will soon be available to the public.

  13. L'-band AGPM vector vortex coronagraph's first light on LBTI/LMIRCAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defrère, D.; Absil, O.; Hinz, P.; Mawet, D.; Kuhn, J.; Mawet, D.; Mennesson, B.; Skemer, A.; Wallace, K.; Bailey, V.; Downey, E.; Delacroix, C.; Durney, O.; Forsberg, P.; Gomez, C.; Habraken, S.; Karlsson, M.; Kenworthy, M.; Leisenring, J.; Montoya, M.; Pueyo, L.; Skrutskie, M.; Surdej, J.

    2014-03-01

    We present the first science observations obtained with the L'-band AGPM coronagraph recently installed on LBTI/LMIRCAM. The AGPM (Annular Groove Phase Mask) is a vector vortex coronagraph made from diamond sub-wavelength gratings tuned to the L'-band. It is designed to improve the sensitivity and dynamic range of high-resolution imaging at very small inner working angles, down to 0.09 arcseconds in the case of LBTI/LMIRCAM in the L'- band. During the first hours on sky, we observed the young A5V star HR8799 with the goal to obtain the best sensitivity/contrast ever in the inner region (<1") of the planetary system. Preliminary analyses of the data reveal the four known planets clearly at high SNR. The performance of the instrument in this mode will be presented and compared to straight imaging (without coronagraph) which is used for the ongoing LBTI planet survey (LEECH, see abstract by A. Skemer).

  14. Subaru Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Images of LkHalpha 234

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Eri; Fukagawa, Misato; Shibai, Hiroshi; Ito, Yusuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi

    2009-08-05

    We present high-resolution (0''.2) near-infrared images of the Herbig Ae/Be star LkHalpha 234 taken with the stellar coronagraphic camera CIAO (Coronagraphic Imager with Adaptive Optics) on the Subaru Telescope. We have observed LkHalpha 234, located in the NGC 7129 star formation region at 1.25 kpc, using the adaptive optics and the coronagraph. Near-infrared (J, H, K, L' and M' bands) images obtained reveal detailed circumstellar structures around LkHalpha 234. Six young stellar object (YSO) candidates are detected at 2''-10'' from LkHalpha 234, and four out of six candidates are identified for the first time. Our high-resolution imaging reveals the complex morphology of the reflection nebula which is located at approximately 3'' from LkHalpha 234 and extended more than 10'' toward the west. The newly found object in H and K bands may be the source of the reflection nebula.

  15. High-order myopic coronagraphic phase diversity (COFFEE) for wave-front control in high-contrast imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Paul, B; Mugnier, L M; Sauvage, J-F; Dohlen, K; Ferrari, M

    2013-12-30

    The estimation and compensation of quasi-static aberrations is mandatory to reach the ultimate performance of high-contrast imaging systems. COFFEE is a focal plane wave-front sensing method that consists in the extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging systems. Based on a Bayesian approach, it estimates the quasi-static aberrations from two focal plane images recorded from the scientific camera itself. In this paper, we present COFFEE's extension which allows an estimation of low and high order aberrations with nanometric precision for any coronagraphic device. The performance is evaluated by realistic simulations, performed in the SPHERE instrument framework. We develop a myopic estimation that allows us to take into account an imperfect knowledge on the used diversity phase. Lastly, we evaluate COFFEE's performance in a compensation process, to optimize the contrast on the detector, and show it allows one to reach the 10(-6) contrast required by SPHERE at a few resolution elements from the star. Notably, we present a non-linear energy minimization method which can be used to reach very high contrast levels (better than 10(7) in a SPHERE-like context). PMID:24514771

  16. Simulated CMEs and Predictions for STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, M. B.; Vourlidas, A.; Gombosi, T.; Sokolov, I. V.; Cohen, O.; Toth, G.

    2007-05-01

    We compare results of our global MHD simulations of CMEs propagating from Sun-to-Earth to observations made with STEREO. We model a number of events of varying degree of complexity, and model the observations that are made by the SECCHI coronagraph suite and in situ observations by IMPACT and PLASTIC. We make synthetic Thomson-scattered white light images from the simulations as they would appear to the COR1, COR2, and wide-angle coronagraphs HI1 and HI2. We identify shock structures in the coronagraph images and follow their evolution to Earth orbit. At large elongation, we find complex time evolution of the white- light images as a result of three-dimensional structures encountering large variations in scattering efficiency as they pass through the Thomson sphere. We then compare the modeled ICME plasma structures with observations from PLASTIC. We also model solar energetic particles and compare them with IMPACT observations.

  17. PTXT Finder - an application for finding appropriate EHR data elements for data analysis using cross referencing information sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Huei; Haug, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    PTXT Finder was developed to reduce the manual efforts necessary to map from clinical variables in a decision support system to data elements in an EHR. The descriptions in a data dictionary may be inadequate for pinpointing data elements that represent a clinical variable. Semantics implied in taxonomy and real usage of the element are two important supporting information sources. PTXT Finder provides description, hierarchy, and statistics displays so users can cross-reference among these views. PMID:18694132

  18. Searching the Web for Influenza Vaccines: HealthMap Vaccine Finder

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Jane E.; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Kluberg, Sheryl; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the HealthMap Vaccine Finder is to provide a free, comprehensive, online service where users can search for locations that offer immunizations. In this article, we describe the data and systems underlying the HealthMap Vaccine Finder (HVF) and summarize the project’s first year of operations. Methods We collected data on vaccination services from a variety of providers for 2012–2013. Data are used to populate an online, public, searchable map. Results In its first year, HVF collected information from 1256 providers representing 46 381 locations. The public Web site received 625 124 visits during the 2012–2013 influenza vaccination season. Conclusions HVF is a unique tool that connects the public to vaccine providers in their communities. During the 2012–2013 influenza season, HVF experienced significant usage and was able to respond to user feedback with new features. PMID:25880945

  19. Providing a USSD location based clinic finder in South Africa: did it work?

    PubMed

    Parsons, Annie Neo; Timler, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    A new mHealth service, Clinic Finder, was designed to provide a location-based service for any cellphone user in South Africa dialing a dedicated USSD string to find the nearest public primary health care facility. The service was funded by a European Union grant to Cell-Life to support the National Department of Health. Clinic Finder's aims were to provide a reliable and accurate service, and to assess both the most effective means of advertising the service as well as interest in the service. Users dialing the USSD string are asked to agree to geo-location (Vodacom and MTN users) or asked to enter their province, town and street (virtual network users and those choosing not to geo-locate). The service provider, AAT, sends the data to Cell-Life where an SMS with details of the nearest public primary health care facility is sent to the user by Cell-Life's open-source Communicate platform. The service was advertised on 3 days in 2014 using two different means: a newspaper ad on 20 May 2014 and Please Call Me ads on 30 July 2014 and 14 August 2014. 28.2% of unique users on 20 May 2014, 10.5% of unique users on 30 July 2014 and 92.8% of unique users on 14 August 2014 who agreed to geo-location successfully received SMSs. However, only 4.2%, 0.5%, and 2.4% of unique users responding to each advertisement who did not geo-locate then received an SMS. A small survey of users following the 20 May 2014 newspaper ad found overall interest in the idea of Clinic Finder, though unsuccessful users were more likely to dislike the service. The overall experience of using location based services and USSD for Clinic Finder suggests a need in the field of mHealth for wider availability of data on service usability and effectiveness. PMID:25365670

  20. Captain Cook, the Terrestrial Planet Finder and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C.

    2002-01-01

    A recently completed NASA study has concluded that a Terrestrial Planet Finder could be launched within a decade to detect terrestrial planets around nearby stars. Such a mission, complemented by projects (Kepler and Eddington) that will provide statistical information on the frequency of Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone, will determine key terms in the Drake equation that describes the number of intelligent civilizations in the Universe.

  1. PPInterFinder--a mining tool for extracting causal relations on human proteins from literature.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kalpana; Subramani, Suresh; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and challenging problem in biomedical text mining is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text research articles because PPIs play a major role in understanding the various biological processes and the impact of proteins in diseases. We implemented, PPInterFinder--a web-based text mining tool to extract human PPIs from biomedical literature. PPInterFinder uses relation keyword co-occurrences with protein names to extract information on PPIs from MEDLINE abstracts and consists of three phases. First, it identifies the relation keyword using a parser with Tregex and a relation keyword dictionary. Next, it automatically identifies the candidate PPI pairs with a set of rules related to PPI recognition. Finally, it extracts the relations by matching the sentence with a set of 11 specific patterns based on the syntactic nature of PPI pair. We find that PPInterFinder is capable of predicting PPIs with the accuracy of 66.05% on AIMED corpus and outperforms most of the existing systems. DATABASE URL: http://www.biomining-bu.in/ppinterfinder/ PMID:23325628

  2. GLS-Finder: A Platform for Fast Profiling of Glucosinolates in Brassica Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Zhang, Mengliang; Chen, Pei

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry combined with related tandem techniques has become the most popular method for plant secondary metabolite characterization. We introduce a new strategy based on in-database searching, mass fragmentation behavior study, formula predicting for fast profiling of glucosinolates, a class of important compounds in brassica vegetables. A MATLAB script-based expert system computer program, "GLS-Finder", was developed. It is capable of qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of glucosinolates in samples using data generated by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate mass with multi-stage mass fragmentation (UHPLC-HRAM/MS(n)). A suite of bioinformatic tools was integrated into the "GLS-Finder" to perform raw data deconvolution, peak alignment, glucosinolate putative assignments, semi-quantitation, and unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA). GLS-Finder was successfully applied to identify intact glucosinolates in 49 commonly consumed Brassica vegetable samples in the United States. It is believed that this work introduces a new way of fast data processing and interpretation for qualitative and quantitative analyses of glucosinolates, where great efficacy was improved in comparison to identification manually. PMID:27181885

  3. Comparison of three multiplex PCR assays for the detection of respiratory viral infections: evaluation of xTAG respiratory virus panel fast assay, RespiFinder 19 assay and RespiFinder SMART 22 assay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A broad spectrum of pathogens is causative for respiratory tract infections, but symptoms are mostly similar. Therefore, the identification of the causative viruses and bacteria is only feasible using multiplex PCR or several monoplex PCR tests in parallel. Methods The analytical sensitivity of three multiplex PCR assays, RespiFinder-19, RespiFinder-SMART-22 and xTAG-Respiratory-Virus-Panel-Fast-Assay (RVP), were compared to monoplex real-time PCR with quantified standardized control material. All assays include the most common respiratory pathogens. Results To compare the analytical sensitivity of the multiplex assays, samples were inoculated with 13 different quantified viruses in the range of 101 to 105 copies/ml. Concordant results were received for rhinovirus, whereas the RVP detected influenzavirus, RSV and hMPV more frequently in low concentrations. The RespiFinder-19 and the RespiFinder-SMART-22 showed a higher analytical sensitivity for adenoviruses and coronaviruses, whereas the RVP was incapable to detect adenovirus and coronavirus in concentrations of 104 copies/ml. The RespiFinder-19 and RespiFinder-SMART-22A did not detect influenzaviruses (104 copies/ml) and RSV (103 copies/ml). The detection of all 13 viruses in one sample was only achieved using monoplex PCR. To analyze possible competitive amplification reactions between the different viruses, samples were further inoculated with only 4 different viruses in one sample. Compared to the detection of 13 viruses in parallel, only a few differences were found. The incidence of respiratory viruses was compared in tracheal secretion (TS) samples (n = 100) of mechanically ventilated patients in winter (n = 50) and summer (n = 50). In winter, respiratory viruses were detected in 32 TS samples (64%) by RespiFinder-19, whereas the detection rate with RVP was only 22%. The most frequent viruses were adenovirus (32%) and PIV-2 (20%). Multiple infections were detected in 16 TS samples (32

  4. Report on the FINDER Experiment at the HIgS Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; McNabb, D P; Tonchev, A P; Angell, C; Hammond, S; Howell, C; Hutcheson, A; Karwowski, H; Kelley, J; Kwan, E; Rusev, G; Tornow, W

    2008-10-09

    Homeland Security programs are developing systems that use nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) to isotopically map a container. One such system being developed at LLNL is FINDER (Fluorescence Imaging in the Nuclear Domain with Extreme Radiation). The proposed FINDER system works by impinging a tunable monoenergetic gamma ray beam onto a container under investigation. The photons pass through the container and a fraction of them scatter off of the interior components through various electromagnetic processes. One of these processes is NRF. At specific resonance energies, incident photons interact directly with the nuclei of special nuclear material (SNM) or other materials in the container. The incident beam is absorbed and scattered into all directions, depleting the spectrum at the resonant energy. The transmitted gamma ray beam accrues a notch a few eV in width after passing through the material of interest. This notched spectrum will impinge on a witness foil placed on the opposite side of the container relative to the gamma ray source. The witness foil will be made of material identical to the one being sought after. If there is a notch in the spectrum then there will be no NRF photons scattered from the witness foil. The corollary is that if there is no notch in the transmitted spectrum then there will be NRF photons scattered from the witness foil. A simple arrangement of gamma-ray detectors focused on the witness foil, are used to measure the NRF photons. If the detectors see NRF scatter then there was no NRF scatter within the container; therefore, no material of the nature being sought after was in that container. Conversely, if there was no NRF scatter from the witness foil, then the NRF scatter took place from within the container; therefore, the material of interest is inside of the container. Recently, initial feasibility tests of FINDER was performed at the HIgS (High-Intensity Gamma Source) located at Duke University [1]. The preliminary results of

  5. Automatic CME front edge detection from STEREO white-light coronagraph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirnosov, Vladimir; Chang, Lin-Ching; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The coronagraph images captured by a Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) Ahead/Behind (A/B) spacecraft allow tracking of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from two different viewpoints and reconstructing its propagation in three-dimensional space. The reconstruction can be done using a triangulation technique that requires a CME front edge location. There are currently no robust automatic CME front edge detection methods that can be integrated with the triangulation technique. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic method to detect the front edge of the CME using STEREO coronagraph 2 red-colored Red, Green, Blue color model images. Our method consists of two modules: preprocessing and classification. The preprocessing module decomposes each coronagraph image into its three channels and uses only the red channel image for CME segmentation. The output of the preprocessing module is a set of segmented running-difference binary images which is fed into the classification module. These images are then transformed into polar coordinates followed by CME front edge detection based on the distance that CME travels in the field of view. The proposed method was validated against a manual method using total 56 CME events, 28 from STEREO A and 28 from STEREO B, captured in the period from 1 January 2008 to 16 August 2009. The results show that the proposed method is effective for CME front edge detection. The proposed method is useful in quantitative CME processing and analysis and will be immediately applicable to assist automatic triangulation method for real-time space weather forecasting.

  6. Stop-less Lyot coronagraph for exoplanet characterization: design, manufacturing, and tests of the apodizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigan, A.; N'Diaye, M.; Dohlen, K.

    2014-07-01

    Upcoming high-contrast imagers will all provide spectroscopic capabilities for the characterization of directly detected giant planets in wide orbits. While integral field spectroscopy (IFS) can provide both spatial and spectral information, it is usually limited in terms of field of view and resolution. The alternative is to use long slit spectroscopy coupled with coronagraphy (LSC), which can easily provide higher resolution and larger field of view. The SPHERE instrument for the VLT provides a LSC mode in its near-infrared imager and spectrograph, IRDIS. However, the fact that the occulting coronagraphic mask is merged in the focal plane with the slit reduces significantly its capacity to attenuate the diffraction, limiting the high-contrast capabilities of the instrument at close angular separations (0.3"-0.4"). To improve the diffraction suppression of the LSC in IRDIS, we recently proposed to use the stop-less Lyot coronagraph (SLLC) to build an apodized long slit coronagraph (ALSC), and we demonstrated that it improves notably the performance at small angular separation, allowing the spectral analysis of colder planets. The design of the SLLC apodizer has been optimized for an implementation in SPHERE/IRDIS, and it has recently been manufactured before being inserted into the instrument during reintegration of SPHERE in Paranal. In the current work, we present the final design of the SLLC apodizer, its specifications for the manufacturing step, and the first results obtained on SPHERE. We compare the results between the simple LSC and the new ALSC, and we draw the conclusions on the advantages and drawbacks of our design.

  7. Phase-induced amplitude apodization complex mask coronagraph mask fabrication, characterization, and modeling for WFIRST-AFTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan; Wilson, Daniel; Muller, Richard; Sidick, Erkin; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Tang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and modeling of a second-generation occulting mask for a phase-induced amplitude apodization complex mask coronagraph, designed for use on the WFIRST-AFTA mission. The mask has many small features (˜micron lateral scales) and was fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Microdevices Laboratory, then characterized using a scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and optical interferometric microscope. The measured fabrication errors were then fed to a wavefront control model which predicts the contrast performance of a full coronagraph. The expected coronagraphic performance using this mask is consistent with observing ˜15 planetary targets with WFIRST-AFTA in a reasonable time (<1 day/target).

  8. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENT OF THE STOKES POLARIMETER FOR THE COSMO K-CORONAGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Junfeng; De Wijn, Alfred G.; Tomczyk, Steven E-mail: dwijn@ucar.edu

    2013-09-01

    We present the Stokes polarimeter for the new Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory K-coronagraph. The polarimeter can be used in two modes. In observation mode, it is sensitive to linear polarization only and operates as a ''Stokes definition'' polarimeter. In the ideal case, such a modulator isolates a particular Stokes parameter in each modulation state. For calibrations, the polarimeter can diagnose the full Stokes vector. We present here the design process of the polarimeter, analyze its tolerances with a Monte Carlo method, develop a way to align the individual elements, and measure and evaluate its performance in both modes.

  9. Fabrication and Characteristics of Free Standing Shaped Pupil Masks for TPF-Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Echternach, Pierre M.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Muller, Richard E.; White, Victor E.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Belikov, Ruslan; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Ceperley, Daniel; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2006-01-01

    Direct imaging and characterization of exo-solar terrestrial planets require coronagraphic instruments capable of suppressing star light to 10-10. Pupil shaping masks have been proposed and designed1 at Princeton University to accomplish such a goal. Based on Princeton designs, free standing (without a substrate) silicon masks have been fabricated with lithographic and deep etching techniques. In this paper, we discuss the fabrication of such masks and present their physical and optical characteristics in relevance to their performance over the visible to near IR bandwidth.

  10. Coronagraphic technique to infer the nature of the Skylab particulate environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerman, D. W.; Beeson, D. E.; Giovane, F.

    1977-01-01

    Photographs taken with the High Altitude Observatory's White Light Coronagraph (Skylab experiment S052) are shown to contain information on the sizes and velocities of contaminant particulates around Skylab. Sizes as small as 5 micron (radius) are derived for particles as far away as 200 m from the spacecraft. The random error in the size derivation is about 30%, and no particle larger than 120 micron was observed. Transverse velocities are determined to within 0.08 m/sec and radial velocities to within 9 m/sec. The S052 data bank contains about 3500 contaminated frames from which the nature of the Skylab environment can be inferred.

  11. Laser scanning methods and a phase comparison, modulated laser range finder for terrain sensing on a Mars roving vehicle. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herb, G. T.

    1973-01-01

    Two areas of a laser range finder for a Mars roving vehicle are investigated: (1) laser scanning systems, and (2) range finder methods and implementation. Several ways of rapidly scanning a laser are studied. Two digital deflectors and a matrix of laser diodes, are found to be acceptable. A complete range finder scanning system of high accuracy is proposed. The problem of incident laser spot distortion on the terrain is discussed. The instrumentation for a phase comparison, modulated laser range finder is developed and sections of it are tested.

  12. Life Finder Detectors; Detector Needs and Status for Spectroscopic Biosignature Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; McElwain, Michael W.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stahle, Carl; Stark, Christopher C.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2016-01-01

    The search for life on other worlds looms large in NASA's future. Outside our solar system, direct spectroscopic biosignature characterization using very large UV-Optical-IR telescopes with coronagraphs or starshades is a core technique to both AURA's High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) concept and NASA's 30-year strategic plan. These giant space observatories require technological advancements in several areas, one of which is detectors. In this presentation, we review the detector requirements for spectroscopic biosignature characterization and discuss the status of some existing and proposed detector technologies for meeting them.

  13. The PCA Lens-Finder: application to CFHTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraficz, D.; Courbin, F.; Tramacere, A.; Joseph, R.; Metcalf, R. B.; Kneib, J.-P.; Dubath, P.; Droz, D.; Filleul, F.; Ringeisen, D.; Schäfer, C.

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a new search for galaxy-scale strong lensing systems in CFHTLS Wide. Our lens-finding technique involves a preselection of potential lens galaxies, applying simple cuts in size and magnitude. We then perform a Principal Component Analysis of the galaxy images, ensuring a clean removal of the light profile. Lensed features are searched for in the residual images using the clustering topometric algorithm DBSCAN. We find 1098 lens candidates that we inspect visually, leading to a cleaned sample of 109 new lens candidates. Using realistic image simulations we estimate the completeness of our sample and show that it is independent of source surface brightness, Einstein ring size (image separation) or lens redshift. We compare the properties of our sample to previous lens searches in CFHTLS. Including the present search, the total number of lenses found in CFHTLS amounts to 678, which corresponds to ˜4 lenses per square degree down to i(AB) = 24.8. This is equivalent to ˜60.000 lenses in total in a survey as wide as Euclid, but at the CFHTLS resolution and depth.

  14. PEP-SiteFinder: a tool for the blind identification of peptide binding sites on protein surfaces.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Adrien; Rey, Julien; Thévenet, Pierre; Zacharias, Martin; Moroy, Gautier; Tufféry, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Peptide-protein interactions are important to many processes of life, particularly for signal transmission or regulatory mechanisms. When no information is known about the interaction between a protein and a peptide, it is of interest to propose candidate sites of interaction at the protein surface, to assist the design of biological experiments to probe the interaction, or to serve as a starting point for more focused in silico approaches. PEP-SiteFinder is a tool that will, given the structure of a protein and the sequence of a peptide, identify protein residues predicted to be at peptide-protein interface. PEP-SiteFinder relies on the 3D de novo generation of peptide conformations given its sequence. These conformations then undergo a fast blind rigid docking on the complete protein surface, and we have found, as the result of a benchmark over 41 complexes, that the best poses overlap to some extent the experimental patch of interaction for close to 90% complexes. In addition, PEP-SiteFinder also returns a propensity index we have found informative about the confidence of the prediction. The PEP-SiteFinder web server is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/PEP-SiteFinder. PMID:24803671

  15. ThioFinder: A Web-Based Tool for the Identification of Thiopeptide Gene Clusters in DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinyi; Duan, Lian; Wu, Guojun; Bi, Dexi; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Wen; Ou, Hong-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Thiopeptides are a growing class of sulfur-rich, highly modified heterocyclic peptides that are mainly active against Gram-positive bacteria including various drug-resistant pathogens. Recent studies also reveal that many thiopeptides inhibit the proliferation of human cancer cells, further expanding their application potentials for clinical use. Thiopeptide biosynthesis shares a common paradigm, featuring a ribosomally synthesized precursor peptide and conserved posttranslational modifications, to afford a characteristic core system, but differs in tailoring to furnish individual members. Identification of new thiopeptide gene clusters, by taking advantage of increasing information of DNA sequences from bacteria, may facilitate new thiopeptide discovery and enrichment of the unique biosynthetic elements to produce novel drug leads by applying the principle of combinatorial biosynthesis. In this study, we have developed a web-based tool ThioFinder to rapidly identify thiopeptide biosynthetic gene cluster from DNA sequence using a profile Hidden Markov Model approach. Fifty-four new putative thiopeptide biosynthetic gene clusters were found in the sequenced bacterial genomes of previously unknown producing microorganisms. ThioFinder is fully supported by an open-access database ThioBase, which contains the sufficient information of the 99 known thiopeptides regarding the chemical structure, biological activity, producing organism, and biosynthetic gene (cluster) along with the associated genome if available. The ThioFinder website offers researchers a unique resource and great flexibility for sequence analysis of thiopeptide biosynthetic gene clusters. ThioFinder is freely available at http://db-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/ThioFinder/. PMID:23029291

  16. Mapping the coronal hydrogen temperature in view of the forthcoming coronagraph observations by Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolei, S.; Spadaro, D.; Ventura, R.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Synergistic visible light and ultraviolet coronagraphic observations are essential to investigate the link of the Sun to the inner heliosphere through the study of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. Aims: We perform spectroscopic mapping of the outer solar corona to constitute a statistically significant database of neutral hydrogen coronal temperatures, which is suitable for overcoming the lack of spectrometric information in observations performed by coronagraphs that are solely equipped for visible light and ultraviolet imaging; these include the forthcoming Metis instrument on board Solar Orbiter. Methods: We systematically analysed neutral hydrogen Lyα line data that was obtained by UVCS/SOHO observations of the extended solar corona relevant to a lot of polar, mid-latitude and equatorial structures at different phases of solar activity, and collected far longer than a whole solar cycle (1996-2012). Results: We created a database consisting in both the neutral hydrogen temperature components, which are perpendicular and parallel to the radially symmetric coronal magnetic field lines, as a function of the heliocentric distance and polar angle and for different phases of the solar activity cycle. We validated the reliability of the constituted neutral hydrogen temperature database, investigating a new set of UVCS Lyα data with the Doppler dimming technique. The solar wind outflow velocities obtained by adopting both the neutral hydrogen temperature distribution directly derived from the observed Lyα profiles and those taken from our database well agree within the uncertainties.

  17. Testing and Calibration of the NASA COR1 Coronagraph for the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkepile, J. T.

    2001-01-01

    This proposal is for a no cost extension on the period of performance of the existing grant. The period of performance shall be extended to the end of FY 2003. This extension is required due to schedule changes in the COR1 program. Funding for Phase II and Phase III of this grant has been obtained. This unsolicited proposal was for scientific and engineering collaboration between NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and HAO. Performance testing of the COR1 engineering test unit has been partially completed. The COR1 coronagraph engineering test unit requires further testing at NASA s GSFC and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO), operated by the High Altitude Observatory (HAO). HAO personnel have recently supported efforts to test component and breadboard versions of the COR1 using the NCAR Vacuum Tunnel Facility (NVTF). HAO personnel will continue to work closely with scientists and engineers at NASA/GSFC in the development, design, assembly, testing, and operation of this key element of NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission. The element is an internally-occulted coronagraphic telescope, and the design and development effort is already underway at GSFC.

  18. The CORIMP CME Catalogue: Automatically Detecting and Tracking CMEs in Coronagraph Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jason; Morgan, H.; Habbal, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    Studying CMEs in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the SOHO and STEREO missions also makes manual cataloguing of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloguing packages such as CACTus, SEEDS and ARTEMIS. Here we present the development of the CORIMP (coronal image processing) Catalogue: a new, automated, multiscale, CME detection and tracking catalogue, that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogues. It works by first employing a dynamic CME separation technique to remove the static background, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane-of-sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. These algorithms are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI datasets, and a CORIMP catalogue of results will soon be available to the community.

  19. Stray light analysis and optimization of the ASPIICS/PROBA-3 formation flying solar coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoli, A.; Landini, F.; Vives, S.; Lamy, P.; Halain, J. P.; Rochus, P.

    2010-07-01

    PROBA-3 is a technology mission devoted to the in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. PROBA-3 will implement a giant coronagraph (called ASPIICS) that will both demonstrate and exploit the capabilities and performances of formation flying. ASPIICS is distributed on two spacecrafts separated by 150m, one hosting the external occulting disk and the other the optical part of the coronagraph. This part implements a three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope. Its pupil is placed about 800mm in front of the primary mirror, a solution allowing an efficient baffling and a high reduction of the stray light inside the instrument. A complete stray light analysis of the TMA has been carried out to design the baffles and to establish the required roughness of the mirrors. The analysis has been performed in two steps: first, by calculating the diffraction pattern behind the occulter due to an extended monochromatic source having the diameter of the Sun; second, by propagating this diffraction pattern, through all the telescope optical components, to the prime focal plane. The results obtained are described in this article.

  20. The Ultraviolet Spectro-Coronagraph Pathfinder Mission for the Detection of Coronal Suprathermal Seed Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Leonard; Laming, J. Martin; Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Tun Beltran, Samuel; Socker, Dennis G.; Brown, Charles; Provornikova, Elena

    2016-05-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectro-Coronagraph (UVSC) Pathfinder is a Naval Research Laboratory experiment designed to make the first detection of suprathermal seed particles close to the Sun. It uses an innovative “stacked” occulting system to significantly increase the effective light gathering power of a traditional, 1-meter length, externally occulted coronagraph. The external occultation in combination with a low scatter variable line spaced grating provide the stray light suppression needed to measure non-Maxwellian departures in the wings of the H Lyman alpha emission line profile. After the removal of other factors, these departures may be interpreted as the signature of suprathermal tails of the proton velocity distribution in the corona. UVSC Pathfinder will provide information on the origins and spatial/temporal variability of proton seed particle populations. We will discuss the accuracy needed to make such measurements and describe how the results can be used to develop a capability for predicting the onset of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) storms. The experiment is scheduled for a launch by the DoD Space Test Program in late 2018/early 2019 and should have excellent overlap with the Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions.UVSC Pathfinder is supported by funds from the Chief of Naval Research (via the NRL basic research program) and from NASA (via NDPR NNG13WF951 and NNH16AC29I).

  1. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization Using Ground-based Coronagraphs

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Peter R.; Poyneer, Lisa; Barrett, Harrison; Frazin, Richard; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gładysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Pearson, Iain; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012. PMID:26347393

  2. Design of off-axis mirrors for the phase-induced amplitude apodization complex mask coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluzhnik, Eugene; Guyon, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The phase-induced amplitude apodization complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) provides an efficient way to control diffraction propagation effects caused by the central obstruction/segmented mirrors of the telescope. PIAACMC can be optimized in a way that takes into account both chromatic diffraction effects caused by the telescope obstructed aperture and the tip-tilt sensitivity of the coronagraph. As a result, unlike classic phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA), the PIAACMC mirror shapes are often slightly asymmetric even for an on-axis configuration and require more care in calculating off-axis shapes when an off-axis configuration is preferred. A method to design off-axis PIAA mirror shapes given an on-axis mirror design is presented. The algorithm is based on geometrical ray tracing and is able to calculate off-axis PIAA mirror shapes for an arbitrary geometry of the input and output beams. The method is demonstrated using the third generation PIAACMC design for WFIRST-AFTA telescope. Geometrical optics design issues related to the off-axis diffraction propagation effects are also discussed.

  3. A General Tool for Evaluating High-Contrast Coronagraphic Telescope Performance Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchen, Luis F.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a general purpose Coronagraph Performance Error Budget (CPEB) tool that we have developed under the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program. The CPEB automates many of the key steps required to evaluate the scattered starlight contrast in the dark hole of a space-based coronagraph. It operates in 3 steps: first, a CodeV or Zemax prescription is converted into a MACOS optical prescription. Second, a Matlab program calls ray-trace code that generates linear beam-walk and aberration sensitivity matrices for motions of the optical elements and line-of-sight pointing, with and without controlled coarse and fine-steering mirrors. Third, the sensitivity matrices are imported by macros into Excel 2007 where the error budget is created. Once created, the user specifies the quality of each optic from a predefined set of PSDs. The spreadsheet creates a nominal set of thermal and jitter motions and combines them with the sensitivity matrices to generate an error budget for the system. The user can easily modify the motion allocations to perform trade studies.

  4. Planned Visible Emission Line Space Solar Coronagraph on-board Aditya-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagdev

    2012-07-01

    An imaging visible emission line internally occulted coronagraph using 20 cm off axis parabolic mirror has been designed and planned to be launched in 2014. The coronagraph will have the facility to take images of the solar simultaneously, in the green [Fe xiv] and the red [Fe x] emission lines up to 1.5 solar radii with a frequency of about 3 Hz using 0.5 nm pass band filters and the images in continuum at 580 nm up to 3 solar radii. The satellite has been named as Aditya-1 and the scientific objectives of this payload are: (i) to investigate the existence of intensity oscillations for the study of wave driven coronal heating, (ii) to study the dynamics and formation of coronal loops and temperature structure of the coronal features, (iii) to study the origin, cause and acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections (CME's) and other solar active features, and (iv) Coronal magnetic field topology and the 3-dimensional structures of the CMEs using polarization information. The fabrication of the pay load will be done in the laboratories of LEOS, SAC, ISAC, IIA and USO and launched by ISRO. Here we shall discuss the design and the realization of the mission.

  5. Diagnosing the Structure of the HD 163296 Protoplanetary Disk Via Coronagraphic Imaging Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Clampin, M.; Grady, C. A.; Sitko, M. L.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Fukagawa, M.; Hines, D. C.; Katoh, E.; Whitney, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Coronagraphic imaging polarimetry is a high contrast imaging technique which can diagnose both the spatial distribution and size distribution of dust grains which comprise primordial protoplanetary disks. It can therefore be a useful tool to test our understanding of how the structure of young disks evolves through the era of gas giant planet formation. We report our initial analysis of the H-band polarized and total intensity of the nearby Herbig Ae star HD 163296, and characterize the morphology of the scattered light disk in the context of previous optical HST coronagraphic imagery. Our observations were obtained as part of a multi-epoch campaign designed to diagnose and correlate the behavior of the inner and outer regions of select protoplanetary disks. This campaign will help test recent suggestions (Sitko et al. 2008; Wisniewski et al. 2008) that that HD 163296 dis experiences the novel phenomenon of time-variable self-shadowing, whereby occasional changes in the scale height of the inner disk wall induces changes in the illumination of the outer disk.

  6. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-based Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter; Frazin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012

  7. Electron multiplication CCD detector technology advancement for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA (Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset) is a NASA space observatory. It will host two major astronomical instruments: a wide-field imager (WFI) to search for dark energy and carry out wide field near infrared (NIR) surveys, and a coronagraph instrument (CGI) to image and spectrally characterize extrasolar planets. In this paper, we discuss the work that has been carried out at JPL in advancing Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) technology to higher flight maturity, with the goal of reaching a NASA technology readiness level of 6 (TRL-6) by early-to-mid 2016. The EMCCD has been baselined for both the coronagraph's imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS) based on its sub-electron noise performance at extremely low flux levels - the regime where the AFTA CGI will operate. We present results from a study that fully characterizes the beginning of life performance of the EMCCD. We also discuss, and present initial results from, a recent radiation test campaign that was designed and carried out to mimic the conditions of the WFIRST-AFTA space environment in an L2 orbit, where we sought to assess the sensor's end of life performance, particularly degradation of its charge transfer efficiency, in addition to other parameters such as dark current, electron multiplication gain, clock induced charge and read noise.

  8. Conceptual Design of the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS) for the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Mary Anne; Groff, Tyler; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; McElwain, Michael W.; Galvin, Michael; Carr, Michael A.; Lupton, Robert; Gunn, James E.; Knapp, Gillian; Gong, Qian; Carlotti, Alexis; Brandt, Timothy; Janson, Markus; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takato, Naruhisa

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in high-contrast imaging techniques now make possible both imaging and spectroscopy of planets around nearby stars. We present the conceptual design of the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS), a lenslet-based, cryogenic integral field spectrograph (IFS) for imaging exoplanets on the Subaru telescope. The IFS will provide spectral information for 140 x 140 spatial elements over a 1.75 arcsecs x 1.75 arcsecs field of view (FOV). CHARIS will operate in the near infrared (lambda = 0.9 - 2.5 micron) and provide a spectral resolution of R = 14, 33, and 65 in three separate observing modes. Taking advantage of the adaptive optics systems and advanced coronagraphs (AO188 and SCExAO) on the Subaru telescope, CHARIS will provide sufficient contrast to obtain spectra of young self-luminous Jupiter-mass exoplanets. CHARIS is in the early design phases and is projected to have first light by the end of 2015. We report here on the current conceptual design of CHARIS and the design challenges.

  9. On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-Based Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Frazin, Richard; Barrett, Harrison; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gladysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jerome; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Remi

    2012-01-01

    The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We provide a formal comparison of techniques through a blind data challenge and evaluate performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

  10. Photometric Calibration of the Lasco-C3 Coronagraph Using Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thernisien, A. F.; Morrill, J. S.; Howard, R. A.; Wang, D.

    2006-01-01

    The LASCO-C3 coronagraph on SOHO, launched in December 1995, has been collecting images of the corona and background star fields in a regular manner since 1996. This instrument contains a number of broadband filters with various passbands in the range between 400 and 1100 nm. The filter used most often has been the Clear filter (400 900 nm) but there are four other filters with about 100 nm passbands that are also used periodically. Preliminary calibration of the C3 optical system was done before flight and a number of techniques that use star intensities or magnitudes and position have been applied during flight. In order to understand the long-term behavior of the C3 instrument, we have recently performed an analysis of LASCO data that examines the observed intensities of a set of moderately bright stars whose spectra is known from 13 color photometry. Using these star spectra and the observed count rates we have derived the photometric calibration factors of the C3 coronagraph for all five color filters with an absolute precision of about ± 7%. Observations with the Clear filter have been used to look for long-term trends in the instrument sensitivity. The observations indicate a very slight decrease in the instrument sensitivity of about 3.5% over the 8 years studied here.

  11. The Debris Disk Explorer: A Balloon-Borne Coronagraph for Observing Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr; Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Unwin, Stephen; Trauger, John; Krist, John; Aldrich, Jack; Brugarolas, Paul; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Wyatt, Mark; Stuchlik, David; Lanzi, James

    2013-01-01

    The Debris Disk Explorer (DDX) is a proposed balloon-borne investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. DDX will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of tens of disks. These measurements will enable us to place the Solar System in context. By imaging debris disks around nearby stars, DDX will reveal the presence of perturbing planets via their influence on disk structure, and explore the physics and history of debris disks by characterizing the size and composition of disk dust. The DDX instrument is a 0.75-m diameter off-axis telescope and a coronagraph carried by a stratospheric balloon. DDX will take high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Two flights are planned; an overnight test flight within the United States followed by a month-long science flight launched from New Zealand. The long flight will fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to DDX. It will achieve a raw contrast of 10(exp -7), with a processed contrast of 10(exp -8). A technology benefit of DDX is that operation in the near-space environment will raise the Technology Readiness Level of internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  12. Ori-Finder 2, an integrated tool to predict replication origins in the archaeal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is one of the most basic processes in all three domains of cellular life. With the advent of the post-genomic era, the increasing number of complete archaeal genomes has created an opportunity for exploration of the molecular mechanisms for initiating cellular DNA replication by in vivo experiments as well as in silico analysis. However, the location of replication origins (oriCs) in many sequenced archaeal genomes remains unknown. We present a web-based tool Ori-Finder 2 to predict oriCs in the archaeal genomes automatically, based on the integrated method comprising the analysis of base composition asymmetry using the Z-curve method, the distribution of origin recognition boxes identified by FIMO tool, and the occurrence of genes frequently close to oriCs. The web server is also able to analyze the unannotated genome sequences by integrating with gene prediction pipelines and BLAST software for gene identification and function annotation. The result of the predicted oriCs is displayed as an HTML table, which offers an intuitive way to browse the result in graphical and tabular form. The software presented here is accurate for the genomes with single oriC, but it does not necessarily find all the origins of replication for the genomes with multiple oriCs. Ori-Finder 2 aims to become a useful platform for the identification and analysis of oriCs in the archaeal genomes, which would provide insight into the replication mechanisms in archaea. The web server is freely available at http://tubic.tju.edu.cn/Ori-Finder2/. PMID:25309521

  13. End-to-end simulation of high-contrast imaging systems: methods and results for the PICTURE mission family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Hewasawam, Kuravi; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Cahoy, Kerri L.; Cook, Timothy A.; Finn, Susanna C.; Howe, Glenn A.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Marinan, Anne D.; Mawet, Dimitri; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2015-09-01

    We describe a set of numerical approaches to modeling the performance of space flight high-contrast imaging payloads. Mission design for high-contrast imaging requires numerical wavefront error propagation to ensure accurate component specifications. For constructed instruments, wavelength and angle-dependent throughput and contrast models allow detailed simulations of science observations, allowing mission planners to select the most productive science targets. The PICTURE family of missions seek to quantify the optical brightness of scattered light from extrasolar debris disks via several high-contrast imaging techniques: sounding rocket (the Planet Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment) and balloon flights of a visible nulling coronagraph, as well as a balloon flight of a vector vortex coronagraph (the Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Recoverable Experiment - Coronagraph, PICTURE-C). The rocket mission employs an on-axis 0.5m Gregorian telescope, while the balloon flights will share an unobstructed off-axis 0.6m Gregorian. This work details the flexible approach to polychromatic, end-to-end physical optics simulations used for both the balloon vector vortex coronagraph and rocket visible nulling coronagraph missions. We show the preliminary PICTURE-C telescope and vector vortex coronagraph design will achieve 10-8 contrast without post-processing as limited by realistic optics, but not considering polarization or low-order errors. Simulated science observations of the predicted warm ring around Epsilon Eridani illustrate the performance of both missions.

  14. Astronaut operations requirements document for the White Light Coronagraph experiment s-052 for the Apollo Telescope Mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    Information necessary for successful performance of the observer's function in the White Light Coronagraph portion of the Apollo Telescope Mount experiments is presented. The pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight operations required to perform the S-052 experiment are described. A discussion of the scientific objectives of the experiment and a description of the hardware are provided.

  15. Surging Seas Risk Finder: A Tool for Local-Scale Flood Risk Assessments in Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, S. A.; Strauss, B.

    2015-12-01

    Local decision makers in coastal cities require accurate, accessible, and thorough assessments of flood exposure risk within their individual municipality, in their efforts to mitigate against damage due to future sea level rise. To fill this need, we have developed Climate Central's Surging Seas Risk Finder, an interactive data toolkit which presents our sea level rise and storm surge analysis for every coastal town, city, county, and state within the USA. Using this tool, policy makers can easily zoom in on their local place of interest to receive a detailed flood risk assessment, which synthesizes a wide range of features including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and many other critical facilities. Risk Finder can also be used to identify specific points of interest in danger of exposure at different flood levels. Additionally, this tool provides localized storm surge probabilities and sea level rise projections at tidal gauges along the coast, so that users can quickly understand the risk of flooding in their area over the coming decades.

  16. Is Commercially Available Point Finder Accurate and Reliable in Detecting Active Auricular Acupuncture Points?

    PubMed Central

    Maranets, Inna; Lin, Eric C.; DeZinno, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was done to determine the specificity and sensitivity of a commercial Pointer Plus (Point finder) in detecting a region of low skin resistance on the ear. Design This was a prospective blinded study. Setting/location The study was done at the Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT. Subjects The subjects were men and women who work at Yale New Haven Hospital. Interventions There were no interventions. Outcome measures Correlations were made between self-reported musculoskeletal pain and the detection of low skin resistance on the ear. Results The positive predictive value for Pointer Plus detecting low skin resistance correlating to the neck region of French auricular map is 0.76 (76%). The positive predictive value for Pointer Plus to detect low skin resistance area correlating to the low back region of French auricular map is 0.25. The positive predictive value for Pointer Plus in detecting any low in skin resistance on the external auricles in patients who complained of more than two musculoskeletal pains is 0.29. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a commercial Pointer Plus (point finder) in detecting a region of low skin resistance on the ear being unreliable, depending on the correlating area based on a published auricular map. Additional assessments are needed to support the clinical practice. PMID:22834870

  17. BosFinder: a novel pre-microRNA gene prediction algorithm in Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, B; Ahmadi, H; Azimzadeh-Jamalkandi, S; Nassiri, M R; Masoudi-Nejad, A

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression transcriptionally (transcriptional activation or inactivation) and/or post-transcriptionally (translation inhibition or degradation of their target mRNAs). This phenomenon has significant roles in growth and developmental processes in plants and animals. Bos taurus is one of the most important livestock animals, having great importance in food and economical sciences and industries. However, limited information is available on Bos taurus constituent miRNAs because its whole genome assembly has been only recently published. Therefore, computational methods have been essential tools in miRNA gene prediction and discovery. Among these, machine-learning-based approaches are used to characterize genome scale pre-miRNAs from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In this study, a support vector machine model was used to classify 33 structural and thermodynamic features of pre-miRNA genes. Public bovine EST data were obtained from different tissues in various developmental stages. A new algorithm, called BosFinder, was developed to identify and annotate the whole genome's derived pre-miRNAs. We found 18 776 highly potential pre-miRNA sequences. This is the first genome survey report of Bos taurus based on a machine-learning method for pre-miRNA gene finding. The bosfinder program is freely available at http://lbb.ut.ac.ir/Download/LBBsoft/BosFinder/. PMID:24835488

  18. Characterizing Rocky and Gaseous Exoplanets with 2 m Class Space-based Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-02-01

    Several concepts now exist for small, space-based missions to directly characterize exoplanets in reflected light. While studies have been performed that investigate the potential detection yields of such missions, little work has been done to understand how instrumental and astrophysical parameters will affect the ability of these missions to obtain spectra that are useful for characterizing their planetary targets. Here, we develop an instrument noise model suitable for studying the spectral characterization potential of a coronagraph-equipped, space-based telescope. We adopt a baseline set of telescope and instrument parameters appropriate for near-future planned missions like WFIRST-AFTA, including a 2 m diameter primary aperture, an operational wavelength range of 0.4-1.0 μm, and an instrument spectral resolution of λ/Δλ = 70, and apply our baseline model to a variety of spectral models of different planet types, including Earth twins, Jupiter twins, and warm and cool Jupiters and Neptunes. With our exoplanet spectral models, we explore wavelength-dependent planet-star flux ratios for main-sequence stars of various effective temperatures and discuss how coronagraph inner and outer working angle constraints will influence the potential to study different types of planets. For planets most favorable to spectroscopic characterization—cool Jupiters and Neptunes as well as nearby super-Earths—we study the integration times required to achieve moderate signal-to-noise ratio spectra. We also explore the sensitivity of the integration times required to either detect the bottom or presence of key absorption bands (for methane, water vapor, and molecular oxygen) to coronagraph raw contrast performance, exozodiacal light levels, and the distance to the planetary system. Decreasing detector quantum efficiency at longer visible wavelengths makes the detection of water vapor in the atmospheres of Earth-like planets extremely challenging, and also hinders detections

  19. Fat Finders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Blick, Kottie

    2006-01-01

    Every day the media bombards the nation with concern over childhood obesity. More American children than ever before are developing health problems related to their eating habits and lack of exercise. The classroom is the perfect place to deal with this national crisis by speaking directly to the children. If children could become more aware of…

  20. On-Sky Demonstration of Low-Order Wavefront Sensing and Control with Focal Plane Phase Mask Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Garima; Lozi, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Baudoz, Pierre; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Martinache, Frantz; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Serabyn, Eugene; Kuhn, Jonas

    2015-09-01

    The ability to characterize exoplanets by spectroscopy of their atmospheres requires direct imaging techniques to isolate planet signal from the bright stellar glare. One of the limitations with the direct detection of exoplanets, either with ground- or space-based coronagraphs, is pointing errors and other low-order wavefront aberrations. The coronagraphic detection sensitivity at the diffraction limit therefore depends on how well low-order aberrations upstream of the focal plane mask are corrected. To prevent starlight leakage at the inner working angle of a phase mask coronagraph, we have introduced a Lyot-based low-order wavefront sensor (LLOWFS), which senses aberrations using the rejected starlight diffracted at the Lyot plane. In this article, we present the implementation, testing, and results of LLOWFS on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system (SCExAO) at the Subaru Telescope. We have controlled 35 Zernike modes of a H-band vector vortex coronagraph in the laboratory and 10 Zernike modes on-sky with an integrator control law. We demonstrated a closed-loop pointing residual of 0.02 mas in the laboratory and 0.15 mas on-sky for data sampled using the minimal 2-s exposure time of the science camera. We have also integrated the LLOWFS in the visible high-order control loop of SCExAO, which in closed-loop operation has validated the correction of the noncommon path pointing errors between the infrared science channel and the visible wavefront sensing channel with pointing residual of 0.23 mas on-sky.

  1. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics System: Enabling High-Contrast Imaging on Solar-System Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, N.; Martinache, F.; Guyon, O.; Clergeon, C.; Singh, G.; Kudo, T.; Garrel, V.; Newman, K.; Doughty, D.; Lozi, J.; Males, J.; Minowa, Y.; Hayano, Y.; Takato, N.; Morino, J.; Kuhn, J.; Serabyn, E.; Norris, B.; Tuthill, P.; Schworer, G.; Stewart, P.; Close, L.; Huby, E.; Perrin, G.; Lacour, S.; Gauchet, L.; Vievard, S.; Murakami, N.; Oshiyama, F.; Baba, N.; Matsuo, T.; Nishikawa, J.; Tamura, M.; Lai, O.; Marchis, F.; Duchene, G.; Kotani, T.; Woillez, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a multipurpose high-contrast imaging platform designed for the discovery and detailed characterization of exoplanetary systems and serves as a testbed for high-contrast imaging technologies for ELTs. It is a multiband instrument which makes use of light from 600 to 2500 nm, allowing for coronagraphic direct exoplanet imaging of the inner 3λ/D from the stellar host. Wavefront sensing and control are key to the operation of SCExAO. A partial correction of low-order modes is provided by Subaru's facility adaptive optics system with the final correction, including high-order modes, implemented downstream by a combination of a visible pyramid wavefront sensor and a 2000-element deformable mirror. The well-corrected NIR (y-K bands) wavefronts can then be injected into any of the available coronagraphs, including but not limited to the phase-induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs, both of which offer an inner working angle as low as 1λ/D. Noncommon path, low-order aberrations are sensed with a coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor in the infrared (IR). Low noise, high frame rate NIR detectors allow for active speckle nulling and coherent differential imaging, while the HAWAII 2RG detector in the HiCIAO imager and/or the CHARIS integral field spectrograph (from mid-2016) can take deeper exposures and/or perform angular, spectral, and polarimetric differential imaging. Science in the visible is provided by two interferometric modules: VAMPIRES and FIRST, which enable subdiffraction limited imaging in the visible region with polarimetric and spectroscopic capabilities respectively. We describe the instrument in detail and present preliminary results both on-sky and in the laboratory.

  2. Performance of the VLT Planet Finder SPHERE. I. Photometry and astrometry precision with IRDIS and IFS in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurlo, A.; Vigan, A.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Moutou, C.; Langlois, M.; Claudi, R. U.; Pueyo, L.; Boccaletti, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Costille, A.; Desidera, S.; Dohlen, K.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Henning, T.; Kasper, M.; Martinez, P.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Pavlov, A.; Puget, P.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Waters, R.; Wildi, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Context. The new planet finder for the Very Large Telescope (VLT), the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE), just had its first light in Paranal. A dedicated instrument for the direct detection of planets, SPHERE, is composed of a polametric camera in visible light, the Zurich IMager POLarimeter (ZIMPOL), and two near-infrared sub-systems: the Infra-Red Dual-beam Imager and Spectrograph (IRDIS), a multi-purpose camera for imaging, polarimetry, and long-slit spectroscopy, and the integral field spectrograph (IFS), an integral field spectrograph. Aims: We present the results obtained from the analysis of data taken during the laboratory integration and validation phase, after the injection of synthetic planets. Since no continuous field rotation could be performed in the laboratory, this analysis presents results obtained using reduction techniques that do not use the angular differential imaging (ADI) technique. Methods: To perform the simulations, we used the instrumental point spread function (PSF) and model spectra of L and T-type objects scaled in contrast with respect to the host star. We evaluated the expected error in astrometry and photometry as a function of the signal to noise of companions, after spectral differential imaging (SDI) reduction for IRDIS and spectral deconvolution (SD) or principal component analysis (PCA) data reductions for IFS. Results: We deduced from our analysis, for example, that β Picb, a 12 Myr old planet of ~10 MJup and semi-major axis of 9-10 AU, would be detected with IRDIS with a photometric error of 0.16 mag and with a relative astrometric position error of 1.1 mas. With IFS, we could retrieve a spectrum with error bars of about 0.15 mag on each channel and astrometric relative position error of 0.6 mas. For a fainter object such as HR 8799d, a 13 MJup planet at a distance of 27 AU, IRDIS could obtain a relative astrometric error of 3 mas.

  3. Optical performances of the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer of the Solar Heliospheric Observatory.

    PubMed

    Pernechele, C; Naletto, G; Nicolosi, P; Tondello, G; Fineschi, S; Romoli, M; Noci, G; Spadaro, D; Kohl, J L

    1997-02-01

    The optical performances of the spectrometer assembly for the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory mission have been tested. The flight unit of the spectrometer assembly, consisting of the structure equipped with the entrance slits assembly, the grating drive mechanisms mounting two toroidal gratings, and the photon-counting detectors, has been integrated and aligned; also the flight unit of the White Light Channel has been integrated and aligned in the spectrometer assembly. Tests with both visible and UV radiation have been performed. Aberration and stray-light measurements have shown that the instrument performs satisfactorily, almost in compliance with the scientific requirements; also some measurements of the polarimeter modulation curve and the relative error have shown performances within the specified requirements. PMID:18250744

  4. Concept study of a UV coronagraph spectrometer for the pinhole-occulter facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a very short study to define an Ultraviolet Coronagraph-Spectrometer (UVCS) for the Pinhole/Occulter Facility (P/OF) are summarized. The P/OF instrument was based on docummentation from the Definition Phase of the Spacelab Coronographs Program which was effectively completed in August 1980. The primary differences between the P/OF instrument and the Spacelab experiment are the remote occulter mask, the telescope size , and the deployable structure to accommodate P/OF's length restrictions. Requirement for P/OF that are associated with these features are briefly considered, but further study is need to more fully consider the unusual implications, particularly in the interplay between the instrument pointing and the P/OF boom control.

  5. Initial results from the High Altitude Observatory white light coronagraph on Skylab - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macqueen, R. M.; Gosling, J. T.; Hildner, E.; Munro, R. H.; Poland, A. I.; Ross, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Frequent periodic observations by the white-light coronagraph allow an examination of coronal variations over a broad range of temporal scales. Examples of the slowest and most rapid variations are presented. An example of extremely slow coronal variations is the gradual evolution - to a large equatorial streamer - in association with a marked decrease in solar activity, as the total magnetic flux in one hemisphere decreased. Another example is given of a long-lived quasi-stable coronal streamer, apparently associated with a stable filament channel; comparison of this streamer with coronal potential-magnetic-field computations show little correlation. Some results on coronal transients - the most rapid variations observed - are summarized. Characteristic masses and energies involved in mass-ejection transients, their temporal and spatial distributions, their associations with surface phenomena and possible interplanetary signatures, and their role in coronal evolution are briefly noted.

  6. Stray-light suppression in a reflecting white-light coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romoli, Marco; Weiser, Heinz; Gardner, Larry D.; Kohl, John L.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of stray-light suppression in the white-light channel of the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer experiment for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory is reported. The white-light channel consists of a reflecting telescope with external and internal occultation and a polarimeter section. Laboratory tests and analytical methods are used to perform the analysis. The various stray-light contributions are classified in two main categories: the contribution from sunlight that passes directly through the entrance aperture and the contribution of sunlight that is diffracted by the edges of the entrance aperture. Values of the stray-light contributions from various sources and the total stray-light level for observations at heliocentric heights from 1.4 to 5 solar radii are derived. Anticipated signal-to-stray-light ratios are presented together with the effective stray-light rejection by the polarimeter, demonstrating the efficacy of the stray-light suppression design.

  7. Revised and expanded catalogue of mass ejections observed by the solar maximum mission coronagraph. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Burkepile, J.T.; St, O.C.

    1993-01-01

    This is a revised and expanded catalogue of coronal mass ejections identified in data from the High Altitude Observatory's coronagraph aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft. The list includes events observed during 1980 and the period 1984 through 1989. The first edition of the catalogue was published in July 1990 (NCAR/TN-352+STR). In the edition, descriptions and measurements of mass ejections included in the first catalogue have been expanded and revised (where necessary). A few additional mass ejections have been identified in the data and have been added to the listing. The catalogue has been expanded to include morphological descriptions of each event and apparent speed measurements, whenever possible. This data has applications to plasma and fusion physics, as well as other sciences.

  8. Calibration of the Soho/Lasco C3 White Light Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, J. S.; Korendyke, C. M.; Brueckner, G. E.; Giovane, F.; Howard, R. A.; Koomen, M.; Moses, D.; Plunkett, S. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Esfandiari, E.; Rich, N.; Wang, D.; Thernisien, A. F.; Lamy, P.; Llebaria, A.; Biesecker, D.; Michels, D.; Gong, Q.; Andrews, M.

    2006-02-01

    We present a detailed review of the calibration of the LASCO C3 coronagraph on the SOHO satellite. Most of the calibration has been in place since early in the mission and has been utilized to varying degrees as required by specific analysis efforts. However, using observational data from the nearly decade-long database of LASCO images, we have re-evaluated and improved many aspects of the calibration. This includes the photometric calibration, vignetting function, geometric distortion, stray light, and exposure and observation times. Using this comprehensive set of corrections we have generated and made available a set of calibrated coronal images along with a set of periodic background images to ease the accessibility and use of the LASCO database.

  9. Statistical study of coronal mass ejection source locations: Understanding CMEs viewed in coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuming; Chen, Caixia; Gui, Bin; Shen, Chenglong; Ye, Pinzhong; Wang, S.

    2011-04-01

    How to properly understand coronal mass ejections (CMEs) viewed in white light coronagraphs is crucial to many relative researches in solar and space physics. The issue is now particularly addressed in this paper through studying the source locations of all the 1078 Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) CMEs listed in Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) CME catalog during 1997-1998 and their correlation with CMEs' apparent parameters. By manually checking LASCO and Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) movies of these CMEs, we find that, except 231 CMEs whose source locations cannot be identified due to poor data, there are 288 CMEs with location identified on the frontside solar disk, 234 CMEs appearing above solar limb, and 325 CMEs without evident eruptive signatures in the field of view of EIT. On the basis of the statistical results of CMEs' source locations, there are four physical issues: (1) the missing rate of CMEs by SOHO LASCO and EIT, (2) the mass of CMEs, (3) the causes of halo CMEs, and (4) the deflections of CMEs in the corona, are exhaustively analyzed. It is found that (1) about 32% frontside CMEs cannot be recognized by SOHO, (2) the brightness of a CME at any heliocentric distance is roughly positively correlated with its speed, and the CME mass derived from the brightness is probably overestimated, (3) both projection effect and violent eruption are the major causes of halo CMEs, and especially for limb halo CMEs the latter is the primary one, and (4) most CMEs deflected toward equator near the solar minimum; these deflections can be classified into three types: the asymmetrical expansion, the nonradial ejection, and the deflected propagation.

  10. Coronagraphic Polarimetry of HST-Resolved Circumstellar T Tauri and Debris Disks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn; Hines, D. C.; 10852, HST/GO; 10847 Teams

    2007-12-01

    The formation of planetary systems is intimately linked to the dust population in circumstellar disks, thus understanding dust grain evolution is essential to advancing our understanding of how planets form. While it is well established that stars form in ISM-like protostellar environments, the connection to now observable light-scattering circumstellar disks and the processes of planet formation is still very uncertain. Mid-IR spectral studies suggest that disk grains are growing in the environments of young stellar objects during the putative planet-formation epoch. Structures revealed in well resolved images of older circumstellar debris disks suggest gravitational influences on the disks from putative co-orbital bodies of planetary mass. To further elucidate the dust and systemic properties in potentially planet-forming systems, we have undertaken two symbiotic HST imaging programs that exploit the recently commission capabilities of coronagraphic polarimetry with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, probing dust structures in T Tauri circumstellar disks during the early epochs of planet formation, and debris disks around older stars. We present the first observational results from these two programs in light of earlier commission observations of TW Hya, focusing on the scattered light disks around the T Tauri star GM Aur and the debris disk associated with HR 32297, along with optical (ACS) coronagraphic polarimetry of the unusual dust structure around HD 61005. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers GO-9768. 10847 and 10852 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  11. A Multiscale Technique for Automatically Detecting and Tracking CMEs in Coronagraph Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jason; Morgan, H.; Habbal, S.

    2011-05-01

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amounts of data available from the SOHO, STEREO, and future Solar Orbiter missions, also makes manual cataloguing of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloguing packages such as CACTus, SEEDS and ARTEMIS. However, the main drawbacks of these catalogues are: the CACTus method of detection fails to resolve CME acceleration profiles; the CACTus and SEEDS running-difference images suffer from spatiotemporal crosstalk; and the SEEDS and ARTEMIS detections are limited to only the LASCO/C2 field-of-view. Recently, the benefits of multiscale filtering of coronagraph data have been demonstrated in an effort to overcome current cataloguing issues. A multiscale decomposition can be applied to individual images in order to enhance the structure of CMEs whilst removing noise and small-scale features like stars. Here we present the development of a new, automated, multiscale, CME detection & tracking technique. It works by first separating the dynamic CME signal from the background corona and then characterising CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are then chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane-of-sky. We demonstrate its application to a sample of LASCO data and prove its efficacy in detecting and tracking CMEs. This technique is being applied to the complete LASCO dataset, and it is planned to further develop it for implementation on the SECCHI/COR dataset in the near future.

  12. Calibrating apodizer fabrication techniques for high-contrast coronagraphs on segmented and monolithic space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Smith, Randy J.; Xi, Xiaoxiang; Zimmerman, Neil T.

    2013-09-01

    High contrast imaging can use pupil apodizers to suppress diffracted starlight from a bright source in order to observe its environs. Metallic half-tone dot transmissive apodizers were developed for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and ESO SPHERE coronagraphs for use in the near-IR. Dot sizes on the scale of the wavelength of the light often result in unexpected variations in the optical transmission vs. superficial dot density relation. We measured 5 and 10 micron half-tone microdot screens' transmissions between 550 -1050 nm to prepare to fabricate apodizations that mitigate diffraction by segments gaps and spiders on future large space telescopes. We utilized slow test beams (f/40, f/80) to estimate the on-axis (far-field, or zero-order) transmission of test patches using a Fourier Transform Spectrograph on Beamline U10B at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source (BNL NSLS). We also modified our previous GPI IR characterization hardware and methods for this experiment. Our measurements show an internal consistency of 0.1% in transmission, a factor of 5 better than our near-IR GPI work on the NSLS U4IR beamline. The systematics of the set-up appeared to limit the absolute calibration for our f/40 data on the 50-patch, maximum Optical Density 3 (OD3), sample. Credible measurements of transmissions down to about 3% transmission were achieved for this sample. Future work on apodizers for obstructed and segmented primary mirror coronagraphs will require configurations that mimic the intended diffractive configurations closely in order to tune apodizer fabrication to any particular application, and measure chromatic effects in representative diffractive regimes. Further experimental refinements are needed to measure the densest test patches which possess transmissions less than a few percent. The new NSLS-II should provide much greater spectral stability of its synchrotron beam, which will improve measurement accuracy and reduce systematics.

  13. Theoretical performance of solar coronagraphs using sharp-edged or apodized circular external occulters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aime, C.

    2013-10-01

    Context. This study focuses on an instrument able to monitor the corona close to the solar limb. Aims: We study the performance of externally occulted solar coronagraphs. We compute the shape of the umbra and penumbra produced by the occulter at the entrance aperture of the telescope and compare levels of rejection obtained for a circular occulter with a sharp or smooth transmission at the edge. Methods: We show that the umbral pattern in an externally occulted coronagraph can be written as a convolution product between the occulter diffraction pattern and an image of the Sun. We then focus on the analysis to circular symmetric occulters. We first derive an analytical expression using two Lommel series for the Fresnel diffraction pattern produced by a sharp-edged circular occulter. Two different expressions are used for inside and outside the occulter's geometric shadow. We verify that a numerical approach that directly solves the Huygens-Fresnel integral gives the same result. This suggests that the numerical computation can be used for a circular occulter with any variable transmission. Results: With the objective of observing the solar corona a few minutes from limb, a sharp-edged circular occulter of a few meters cannot produce an umbra darker than 10-4 of the direct sunlight. The same occulter, having an apodization zone of a few percent of the diameter (3 cm for a 1.5 m occulter), darkers the umbra down to 10-8 of the direct sunlight for linear transmission and to 10-12 for Sonine or cosine bell transmissions. An investigation for an apodized occulter with manufacturing defaults is quickly performed. Conclusions: It has been possible to numerically demonstrate the large superiority of apodized circular occulters with respect to the sharp-edged ones. These occulters allow the theoretical observation of the very limb-close corona with not yet obtained contrast ratios.

  14. Development and recent results from the Subaru coronagraphic extreme adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, N.; Guyon, O.; Martinache, F.; Clergeon, C.; Singh, G.; Kudo, T.; Newman, K.; Kuhn, J.; Serabyn, E.; Norris, B.; Tuthill, P.; Stewart, P.; Huby, E.; Perrin, G.; Lacour, S.; Vievard, S.; Murakami, N.; Fumika, O.; Minowa, Y.; Hayano, Y.; White, J.; Lai, O.; Marchis, F.; Duchene, G.; Kotani, T.; Woillez, J.

    2014-07-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is one of a handful of extreme adaptive optics systems set to come online in 2014. The extreme adaptive optics correction is realized by a combination of precise wavefront sensing via a non-modulated pyramid wavefront sensor and a 2000 element deformable mirror. This system has recently begun on-sky commissioning and was operated in closed loop for several minutes at a time with a loop speed of 800 Hz, on ~150 modes. Further suppression of quasi-static speckles is possible via a process called "speckle nulling" which can create a dark hole in a portion of the frame allowing for an enhancement in contrast, and has been successfully tested on-sky. In addition to the wavefront correction there are a suite of coronagraphs on board to null out the host star which include the phase induced amplitude apodization (PIAA), the vector vortex, 8 octant phase mask, 4 quadrant phase mask and shaped pupil versions which operate in the NIR (y-K bands). The PIAA and vector vortex will allow for high contrast imaging down to an angular separation of 1 λ/D to be reached; a factor of 3 closer in than other extreme AO systems. Making use of the left over visible light not used by the wavefront sensor is VAMPIRES and FIRST. These modules are based on aperture masking interferometry and allow for sub-diffraction limited imaging with moderate contrasts of ~100-1000:1. Both modules have undergone initial testing on-sky and are set to be fully commissioned by the end of 2014.

  15. How Many CMEs Have Flux Ropes? Deciphering the Signatures of Shocks, Flux Ropes, and Prominences in Coronagraph Observations of CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, A.; Lynch, B. J.; Howard, R. A.; Li, Y.

    2013-05-01

    We intend to provide a comprehensive answer to the question on whether all Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) have flux rope structure. To achieve this, we present a synthesis of the LASCO CME observations over the last 16 years, assisted by 3D MHD simulations of the breakout model, EUV and coronagraphic observations from STEREO and SDO, and statistics from a revised LASCO CME database. We argue that the bright loop often seen as the CME leading edge is the result of pileup at the boundary of the erupting flux rope irrespective of whether a cavity or, more generally, a three-part CME can be identified. Based on our previous work on white light shock detection and supported by the MHD simulations, we identify a new type of morphology, the `two-front' morphology. It consists of a faint front followed by diffuse emission and the bright loop-like CME leading edge. We show that the faint front is caused by density compression at a wave (or possibly shock) front driven by the CME. We also present highly detailed multi-wavelength EUV observations that clarify the relative positioning of the prominence at the bottom of a coronal cavity with a clear flux rope structure. Finally, we visually check the full LASCO CME database for flux rope structures. In the process, we classify the events into two clear flux rope classes (`three-part', and `Loop'), jets and outflows (no clear structure). We find that at least 40 % of the observed CMEs have clear flux rope structures and that ˜ 29 % of the database entries are either misidentifications or inadequately measured and should be discarded from statistical analyses. We propose a new definition for flux rope CMEs (FR-CMEs) as a coherent magnetic, twist-carrying coronal structure with angular width of at least 40∘ and able to reach beyond 10 R⊙ which erupts on a time scale of a few minutes to several hours. We conclude that flux ropes are a common occurrence in CMEs and pose a challenge for future studies to identify CMEs that are

  16. FusionFinder: A Software Tool to Identify Expressed Gene Fusion Candidates from RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Richard W.; Thompson-Wicking, Katherine; Carter, Kim W.; Anderson, Denise; Kees, Ursula R.; Beesley, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    The hallmarks of many haematological malignancies and solid tumours are chromosomal translocations, which may lead to gene fusions. Recently, next-generation sequencing techniques at the transcriptome level (RNA-Seq) have been used to verify known and discover novel transcribed gene fusions. We present FusionFinder, a Perl-based software designed to automate the discovery of candidate gene fusion partners from single-end (SE) or paired-end (PE) RNA-Seq read data. FusionFinder was applied to data from a previously published analysis of the K562 chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cell line. Using FusionFinder we successfully replicated the findings of this study and detected additional previously unreported fusion genes in their dataset, which were confirmed experimentally. These included two isoforms of a fusion involving the genes BRK1 and VHL, whose co-deletion has previously been associated with the prevalence and severity of renal-cell carcinoma. FusionFinder is made freely available for non-commercial use and can be downloaded from the project website (http://bioinformatics.childhealthresearch.org.au/software/fusionfinder/). PMID:22761941

  17. Effects of Optical-density and Phase Dispersion of an Imperfect Band-limited Occulting Mask on the Broadband Performance of a TPF Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidiek, Erkin; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2007-01-01

    Practical image-plane occulting masks required by high-contrast imaging systems such as the TPF-Coronagraph introduce phase errors into the transmitting beam., or, equivalently, diffracts the residual starlight into the area of the final image plane used for detecting exo-planets. Our group at JPL has recently proposed spatially Profiled metal masks that can be designed to have zero parasitic phase at the center wavelength of the incoming broadband light with small amounts of' 00 and phase dispersions at other wavelengths. Work is currently underway to design. fabricate and characterize such image-plane masks. In order to gain some understanding on the behaviors of these new imperfect band-limited occulting masks and clarify how such masks utilizing different metals or alloys compare with each other, we carried out some modeling and simulations on the contrast performance of the high-contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at .JPL. In this paper we describe the details of our simulations and present our results.

  18. MacSyFinder: A Program to Mine Genomes for Molecular Systems with an Application to CRISPR-Cas Systems

    PubMed Central

    Abby, Sophie S.; Néron, Bertrand; Ménager, Hervé; Touchon, Marie; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation Biologists often wish to use their knowledge on a few experimental models of a given molecular system to identify homologs in genomic data. We developed a generic tool for this purpose. Results Macromolecular System Finder (MacSyFinder) provides a flexible framework to model the properties of molecular systems (cellular machinery or pathway) including their components, evolutionary associations with other systems and genetic architecture. Modelled features also include functional analogs, and the multiple uses of a same component by different systems. Models are used to search for molecular systems in complete genomes or in unstructured data like metagenomes. The components of the systems are searched by sequence similarity using Hidden Markov model (HMM) protein profiles. The assignment of hits to a given system is decided based on compliance with the content and organization of the system model. A graphical interface, MacSyView, facilitates the analysis of the results by showing overviews of component content and genomic context. To exemplify the use of MacSyFinder we built models to detect and class CRISPR-Cas systems following a previously established classification. We show that MacSyFinder allows to easily define an accurate “Cas-finder” using publicly available protein profiles. Availability and Implementation MacSyFinder is a standalone application implemented in Python. It requires Python 2.7, Hmmer and makeblastdb (version 2.2.28 or higher). It is freely available with its source code under a GPLv3 license at https://github.com/gem-pasteur/macsyfinder. It is compatible with all platforms supporting Python and Hmmer/makeblastdb. The “Cas-finder” (models and HMM profiles) is distributed as a compressed tarball archive as Supporting Information. PMID:25330359

  19. The application of Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) in BTeV pixel trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    We describe a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint such as forming of a straight line. The TTF performs this O(n{sup 3}) function in O(n) time, where n is number of hits in each detector plane. The word ''tiny'' reflects the fact that the FPGA resource usage is small. The number of logic elements needed for the TTF is O(Nlog(N)), where N is the number of bins in the coordinate considered, which for large N, is significantly smaller than O(N{sup 2}) needed for typical implementations of similar functions. The TTF is also suitable for software implementations as well as many other pattern recognition problems.

  20. Terrestrial Planet Finder: the search for life-bearing planets around other stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles A.

    1998-07-01

    The terrestrial plant finder (TPF) will detect and characterize Earth-like planets around nearby stars. NASA is currently funding a number of small studies to look at trade-offs in the design of TPF. The possible trade-offs include orbit location, aperture size, and physically connected baselines vs. separated spacecraft flying in close formation. The performance of TPF depends critically on the brightness of the local zodiacal dust cloud at the observing site, and on the brightness and degree of structure in the zodiacal dust cloud around other stars. Sensitivity calculations indicate that TPF could accomplish its goals using 4-5m telescopes operating at 1 AU. Such a mission would have many advantages relative to a mission operating smaller telescopes in lower background conditions at 5 AU.

  1. HCIT Contrast Performance Sensitivity Studies: Simulation Versus Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Shaklan, Stuart; Krist, John; Cady, Eric J.; Kern, Brian; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    Using NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, we have experimentally investigated the sensitivity of dark hole contrast in a Lyot coronagraph for the following factors: 1) Lateral and longitudinal translation of an occulting mask; 2) An opaque spot on the occulting mask; 3) Sizes of the controlled dark hole area. Also, we compared the measured results with simulations obtained using both MACOS (Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems) and PROPER optical analysis programs with full three-dimensional near-field diffraction analysis to model HCIT's optical train and coronagraph.

  2. Feasibility of Virtual Research Visits in Fox Trial Finder

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, E. Ray; Wagner, Joseph D.; Bull, Michael T.; Rizzieri, Ashley; Grischkan, Justin; Achey, Meredith A.; Sherer, Todd; Chowdhury, Sohini; Meunier, Claire; Cappelletti, Lily; Rocker, Charlotte; Richard, Irene H.; Schwarz, Heidi; Kang, Gail; Ahmad, Stacy H.; Biemiller, Rachel A.; Biglan, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Fox Trial Finder is an online registry for individuals with and without Parkinson disease (PD) interested in participating in PD research. However, distance or disability could prevent such individuals from participating in traditional, clinic-based research at major centers. Objective: Use videoconferencing to connect participants to specialists to: (1) demonstrate feasibility of virtual research visits within this population (2) collect phenotypic data of the participants, (3) validate self-reported diagnosis, and (4) gauge interest in virtual research visits. Methods: We solicited volunteers throughout the United States through Fox Trial Finder. Interested individuals with PD provided consent, were given web cameras if needed, completed baseline surveys, and downloaded videoconferencing software remotely. Participants had a test connection and assessment appointment which included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), then a virtual research visit with a neurologist who reviewed their history and assessed their PD using a modified Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. Neurologists assessed PD diagnosis and symptomatology. Physicians and participants were surveyed about their experience. Results: Of 204 individuals who consented, 166 (81% ) individuals from 39 states completed all visits. The mean age was 62 and mean disease duration was 8.0 years. Mean MoCA score was 26.5, and mean modified MDS-UPDRS motor score was 22.8 (out of a possible 124). Neurologists judged PD as the most likely diagnosis in 97% of cases. Overall satisfaction with the visits was 79% (satisfied or very satisfied) among neurologists and 93% among participants. Conclusions: Through virtual research visits, neurologists engaged, characterized, and validated self-reported diagnosis in individuals with PD over a broad geography. This model may facilitate future research participation. PMID:26406130

  3. CORONAL MASS EJECTION RECONSTRUCTION FROM THREE VIEWPOINTS VIA SIMULATION MORPHING. I. THEORY AND EXAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Frazin, Richard A.

    2012-12-10

    The problem of reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) density distribution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from three simultaneous coronagraph observations is timely in that the COR1 and COR2 coronagraphs on the dual-spacecraft STEREO mission complement the LASCO coronagraphs on the SOHO satellite and the Mk4 on Mauna Loa. While the separation angle between the STEREO spacecraft and the Earth depends on the time since the launch in 2006, the reconstruction problem is always severely underinformed. So far, all 3D reconstruction efforts have made use of relatively simple parameterized models in order to determine the 3D structure of the CME. Such approaches do not utilize the power of 3D MHD simulation to inform the reconstruction. This paper considers the situation in which a specific CME event observed in coronagraphs from three viewpoints is later simulated by solving MHD equations. The reconstruction is then subjected to an invertible morphological operator chosen so that morphed MHD simulation is most consistent with the three-viewpoint coronagraph data. The morphological operations are explained mathematically and synthetic examples are given. The practical application to reconstructing CMEs from STEREO and SOHO data is discussed.

  4. Intercomparison of the LASCO-C2, SECCHI-COR1, SECCHI-COR2, and Mk4 Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazin, Richard A.; Vasquez, Alberto M.; Thompson, William T.; Hewett, Russell J.; Lamy, Philippe; Llebaria, Antoine; Vourlidas, Angelos; Burkepile, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability and consistency of white-light coronagraph measurements, we report on quantitative comparisons between polarized brightness [pB] and total brightness [B] images taken by the following white-light coronagraphs: LASCO-C2 on SOHO, SECCHI-COR1 and -COR2 on STEREO, and the ground-based MLSO-Mk4. The data for this comparison were taken on 16 April 2007, when both STEREO spacecraft were within 3.1 deg. of Earth’s heliographic longitude, affording essentially the same view of the Sun for all of the instruments. Due to the difficulties of estimating stray-light backgrounds in COR1 and COR2, only Mk4 and C2 produce reliable coronal-hole values (but not at overlapping heights), and these cannot be validated without rocket flights or ground-based eclipse measurements. Generally, the agreement between all of the instruments’ pB values is within the uncertainties in bright streamer structures, implying that measurements of bright CMEs also should be trustworthy. Dominant sources of uncertainty and stray light are discussed, as is the design of future coronagraphs from the perspective of the experiences with these instruments.

  5. Coronagraphic search for wide substellar companions among members of the Ursa Major moving group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Bedalov, A.; Kranhold, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Neuhäuser, R.; Errmann, R.

    2016-06-01

    Context. We present the results of a survey to detect low-mass companions of Ursa Major (UMa) group members, carried out in 2003-2006 with NACO at the ESO VLT. While many extra-solar planets and planetary candidates have been found in close orbits around stars by the radial velocity and the transit methods, direct detections at wider orbits are rare. The UMa group, a young nearby stellar association at an age of about 200-600 Myr, has not yet been addressed as a whole although its members represent a very interesting sample to search for and characterize substellar companions by direct imaging. Aims: Our goal was to find or to provide detection limits on wide substellar companions around nearby UMa group members using high-resolution imaging. Methods: We searched for faint companions around 20 UMa group members within 30 pc. The primaries were placed below a semi-transparent coronagraph, a rarely used mode of NACO, to increase the dynamic range of the images. In most cases, second epoch images of companion candidates were taken to check whether they share common proper motion with the primary. Results: Our coronagraphic images rule out substellar companions around the stars of the sample. A typical dynamical range of 13-15 mag in the Ks band was achieved at separations beyond 3'' from the star. Candidates as faint as Ks ≈ 20 were securely identified and measured. The survey is most sensitive between separations of 100 and 200 au but only on average because of the very different target distance. Field coverage reaches about 650 au for the most distant targets. Most of the 200 candidates detected in the covered fields are visible in two epochs and were rejected because they are distant background objects. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, in programmes 72.C-0485, 73.C-0225, 76.C-0777, 77.C-0268, 384.C-0245A.Table D.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via

  6. Optimized principal component analysis on coronagraphic images of the fomalhaut system

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkat, Tiffany; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Amara, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a study to optimize the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for planet detection, a new algorithm complementing angular differential imaging and locally optimized combination of images (LOCI) for increasing the contrast achievable next to a bright star. The stellar point spread function (PSF) is constructed by removing linear combinations of principal components, allowing the flux from an extrasolar planet to shine through. The number of principal components used determines how well the stellar PSF is globally modeled. Using more principal components may decrease the number of speckles in the final image, but also increases the background noise. We apply PCA to Fomalhaut Very Large Telescope NaCo images acquired at 4.05 μm with an apodized phase plate. We do not detect any companions, with a model dependent upper mass limit of 13-18 M {sub Jup} from 4-10 AU. PCA achieves greater sensitivity than the LOCI algorithm for the Fomalhaut coronagraphic data by up to 1 mag. We make several adaptations to the PCA code and determine which of these prove the most effective at maximizing the signal-to-noise from a planet very close to its parent star. We demonstrate that optimizing the number of principal components used in PCA proves most effective for pulling out a planet signal.

  7. Coronagraphic Polarimetry with NICMOS: Dust grain evolution in T Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn

    2006-07-01

    The formation of planetary systems is intimately linked to the dust population in circumstellar disks, thus understanding dust grain evolution is essential to advancing our understanding of how planets form. By combining {1} the coronagraphic polarimetry capabilities of NICMOS, {2} powerful 3-D radiative transfer codes, and {3} observations of objects known to span the Class II-III stellar evolutionary phases, we will gain crucial insight into dust grain growth. By observing objects representative of a known evolutionary sequence of YSOs, we will be able to investigate how the dust population evolves in size and distribution during the crucial transition from a star+disk system to a system containing planetesimals. When combine with our previous study on dust grain evolution in the Class I-II phase, the proposed study will help to establish the fundamental time scales for the depletion of ISM-like grains: the first step in understanding the transformation from small submicron sized dust grains, to large millimeter sized grains, and untimely to planetary bodies.

  8. Coronagraphic Imaging of Debris Disks from a High Altitude Balloon Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen; Traub, Wesley; Bryden, Geoffrey; Brugarolas, Paul; Chen, Pin; Guyon, Olivier; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Krist, John; Macintosh, Bruce; Mawet, Dimitri; Mennesson, Bertrand; Moody, Dwight; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stuchlik, David; Trauger, John; Vasisht, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks around nearby stars are tracers of the planet formation process, and they are a key element of our understanding of the formation and evolution of extrasolar planetary systems. With multi-color images of a significant number of disks, we can probe important questions: can we learn about planetary system evolution; what materials are the disks made of; and can they reveal the presence of planets? Most disks are known to exist only through their infrared flux excesses as measured by the Spitzer Space Telescope, and through images measaured by Herschel. The brightest, most extended disks have been imaged with HST, and a few, such as Fomalhaut, can be observed using ground-based telescopes. But the number of good images is still very small, and there are none of disks with densities as low as the disk associated with the asteroid belt and Edgeworth-Kuiper belt in our own Solar System. Direct imaging of disks is major observational challenge, demanding high angular resolution and extremely high dynamic range close to the parent star. The ultimate experiment requires a space-based platform, but demonstrating much of the needed technology, mitigating the technical risks of a space-based coronagraph, and performing valuable measurements of circumstellar debris disks, can be done from a high-altitude balloon platform. In this paper we present a balloon-borne telescope concept based on the Zodiac II design that could undertake compelling studies of a sample of debris disks.

  9. APIC: Absolute Position Interfero Coronagraph for direct exoplanet detection: first laboratory results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, Fatmé; Glindemann, Andreas; Aristidi, Eric; Vakili, Farrokh

    2010-07-01

    For the detection and direct imaging of exoplanets, when the intensity ratio between a star and its orbiting planet can largely exceed 106, coronagraphic methods are mandatory. In 1996, a concept of achromatic interferocoronagraph (AIC) was presented by J. Gay and Y. Rabbia for the detection of very faint stellar companions, such as exoplanets. In an earlier paper, we presented a modified version of the AIC permitting to determine the relative position of these faint companions with respect to the parent star, a problem unsolved in the original design of the AIC. Our modification lied in the use of cylindrical lens doublets as field rotator. By placing two of them in one arm of the interferometric set-up of AIC, we destroyed the axis of symmetry induced by the AIC's original design. Our theoretical study, along with the numerical computations, presented then, and the preliminary test bench results aiming at validating the cylindrical lens doublet field rotation capability, presented in this paper, show that the axis of symmetry is destroyed when one of the cylindrical doublets is rotated around the optic axis.

  10. Accurate Astrometry and Photometry of Saturated and Coronagraphic Point Spread Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; Lafreniere, D; Macintosh, B; Doyon, R

    2006-02-07

    For ground-based adaptive optics point source imaging, differential atmospheric refraction and flexure introduce a small drift of the point spread function (PSF) with time, and seeing and sky transmission variations modify the PSF flux. These effects need to be corrected to properly combine the images and obtain optimal signal-to-noise ratios, accurate relative astrometry and photometry of detected companions as well as precise detection limits. Usually, one can easily correct for these effects by using the PSF core, but this is impossible when high dynamic range observing techniques are used, like coronagraphy with a non-transmissive occulting mask, or if the stellar PSF core is saturated. We present a new technique that can solve these issues by using off-axis satellite PSFs produced by a periodic amplitude or phase mask conjugated to a pupil plane. It will be shown that these satellite PSFs track precisely the PSF position, its Strehl ratio and its intensity and can thus be used to register and to flux normalize the PSF. This approach can be easily implemented in existing adaptive optics instruments and should be considered for future extreme adaptive optics coronagraph instruments and in high-contrast imaging space observatories.

  11. Coronagraphic Observations of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere Near the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium exosphere of the Moon was observed using a solar coronagraph to occult the illuminated surface of the Moon. Exceptionally dust-free atmospheric conditions were required to allow the faint emission from sunlight scattered by lunar sodium atoms to be distinguished from moonlight scattered from atmospheric dust. At 0300 UT on April 22, 1994, ideal conditions prevailed for a few hours, and one excellent image of the sodium exosphere was measured, with the Moon at a phase angle of 51 deg, 81 % illuminated. Analysis of the image data showed that the weighted mean temperature of the exosphere was 1280 K and that the sodium column density varied approximately as cosine-cubed of the latitude. A cosine-cubed variation is an unexpected result, since the flux per unit area of solar photons and solar particles varies as the cosine of latitude. It is suggested that this can be explained by a temperature dependence for the sputtering of sodium atoms from the surface. This is a characteristic feature of chemical sputtering, which has been previously proposed to explain the sodium exosphere of Mercury. A possible interaction between chemical sputtering and solar photons is suggested.

  12. Preliminary analysis of effect of random segment errors on coronagraph performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Mark T.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-09-01

    "Are we alone in the Universe?" is probably the most compelling science question of our generation. To answer it requires a large aperture telescope with extreme wavefront stability. To image and characterize Earth-like planets requires the ability to block 1010 of the host star's light with a 10-11 stability. For an internal coronagraph, this requires correcting wavefront errors and keeping that correction stable to a few picometers rms for the duration of the science observation. This requirement places severe specifications upon the performance of the observatory, telescope and primary mirror. A key task of the AMTD project (initiated in FY12) is to define telescope level specifications traceable to science requirements and flow those specifications to the primary mirror. From a systems perspective, probably the most important question is: What is the telescope wavefront stability specification? Previously, we suggested this specification should be 10 picometers per 10 minutes; considered issues of how this specification relates to architecture, i.e. monolithic or segmented primary mirror; and asked whether it was better to have few or many segments. This paper reviews the 10 picometers per 10 minutes specification; provides analysis related to the application of this specification to segmented apertures; and suggests that a 3 or 4 ring segmented aperture is more sensitive to segment rigid body motion that an aperture with fewer or more segments.

  13. A high-contrast imaging polarimeter with a stepped-transmission filter based coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Chao; Ren, De-Qing; Zhu, Yong-Tian; Dou, Jiang-Pei; Guo, Jing

    2016-05-01

    The light reflected from planets is polarized mainly due to Rayleigh scattering, but starlight is normally unpolarized. Thus it provides an approach to enhance the imaging contrast by inducing the imaging polarimetry technique. In this paper, we propose a high-contrast imaging polarimeter that is optimized for the direct imaging of exoplanets, combined with our recently developed stepped-transmission filter based coronagraph. Here we present the design and calibration method of the polarimetry system and the associated test of its high-contrast performance. In this polarimetry system, two liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVRs) act as a polarization modulator, which can extract the polarized signal. We show that our polarimeter can achieve a measurement accuracy of about 0.2% at a visible wavelength (632.8 nm) with linearly polarized light. Finally, the whole system demonstrates that a contrast of 10‑9 at 5λ/D is achievable, which can be used for direct imaging of Jupiter-like planets with a space telescope.

  14. Initial look at the coronagraph technology gaps for direct imaging of exo-earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Rhonda; Siegler, Nick

    2015-09-01

    NASA's Astrophysics Division plans to initiate mission concept studies in 2016 of large candidate astrophysics missions for consideration by the 2020 Decadal Survey. The studies are expected to include two mission concepts capable of directly imaging exo-earths (HabEx and LUVOIR). Direct imaging of an exo-earth begins with starlight suppression, which is required at a depth of 10-10 in the visible for an earth-sun twin. The current results of laboratory coronagraphs are approaching the levels needed for the direct detection and characterization of an exo-earth. Other critical technologies are needed, such as ultra-low noise detectors, large format deformable mirrors, a large aperture space telescope, and sophisticated post-processing algorithms. While technologically challenging, the goal is not impossible; many of the required technologies are already at TRL 3 and beyond. After the successful on-orbit operation of WFIRST-AFTA in the next decade, some of the technologies will be at TRL 9. This paper summarizes the needed technologies that NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program is prioritizing for maturation.

  15. Coronagraphic imaging of the Beta Pictoris circumstellar disk - Evidence of changing disk structure within 100 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golimowski, David A.; Durrance, Samuel T.; Clampin, Mark

    1993-07-01

    New R-band images of the Beta Pictoris circumstellar disk obtained with the Adaptive Optics Coronagraph expose the disk inward to 40 AU from the star. From these images, the first reliable optical photometry of the disk within 100 AU of Beta Pic is reported. Across a radius of 100 AU, the radial power-law dependence of the disk-midplane surface brightness undergoes an abrupt transition, with power-law indices changing within 100 AU from -3.5 to -2.4 in the NE extension and from -4.2 to -1.9 in the SW extension. This result confirms the previously noted asymmetry in the brightness gradient beyond 250 AU, and suggests an inverted asymmetry within 100 AU. The geometrical thickness of the disk appears nearly constant within about 115 AU and increases proportionally with radius beyond about 115 AU. These changes in brightness gradient and disk thickness are consistent with the two-component disk models of Backman et al. (1992). The observed changes in disk structure at about 100 AU may mark the boundary of rapid ice sublimation within which only refractory grains exist, but may also reflect a flattened grain distribution associated with planetary formation within 40 AU.

  16. Hydrogen Rearrangement Rules: Computational MS/MS Fragmentation and Structure Elucidation Using MS-FINDER Software.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kind, Tobias; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yukihira, Daichi; Tanaka, Wataru; Cajka, Tomas; Saito, Kazuki; Fiehn, Oliver; Arita, Masanori

    2016-08-16

    Compound identification from accurate mass MS/MS spectra is a bottleneck for untargeted metabolomics. In this study, we propose nine rules of hydrogen rearrangement (HR) during bond cleavages in low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). These rules are based on the classic even-electron rule and cover heteroatoms and multistage fragmentation. We evaluated our HR rules by the statistics of MassBank MS/MS spectra in addition to enthalpy calculations, yielding three levels of computational MS/MS annotation: "resolved" (regular HR behavior following HR rules), "semiresolved" (irregular HR behavior), and "formula-assigned" (lacking structure assignment). With this nomenclature, 78.4% of a total of 18506 MS/MS fragment ions in the MassBank database and 84.8% of a total of 36370 MS/MS fragment ions in the GNPS database were (semi-) resolved by predicted bond cleavages. We also introduce the MS-FINDER software for structure elucidation. Molecular formulas of precursor ions are determined from accurate mass, isotope ratio, and product ion information. All isomer structures of the predicted formula are retrieved from metabolome databases, and MS/MS fragmentations are predicted in silico. The structures are ranked by a combined weighting score considering bond dissociation energies, mass accuracies, fragment linkages, and, most importantly, nine HR rules. The program was validated by its ability to correctly calculate molecular formulas with 98.0% accuracy for 5063 MassBank MS/MS records and to yield the correct structural isomer with 82.1% accuracy within the top-3 candidates. In a test with 936 manually identified spectra from an untargeted HILIC-QTOF MS data set of human plasma, formulas were correctly predicted in 90.4% of the cases, and the correct isomer structure was retrieved at 80.4% probability within the top-3 candidates, including for compounds that were absent in mass spectral libraries. The MS-FINDER software is freely available at http

  17. MinFinder: Locating all the local minima of a function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2006-01-01

    A new stochastic clustering algorithm is introduced that aims to locate all the local minima of a multidimensional continuous and differentiable function inside a bounded domain. The accompanying software (MinFinder) is written in ANSI C++. However, the user may code his objective function either in C++, C or Fortran 77. We compare the performance of this new method to the performance of Multistart and Topographical Multilevel Single Linkage Clustering on a set of benchmark problems. Program summaryTitle of program:MinFinder Catalogue identifier:ADWU Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWU Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which is has been tested:The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation:University of Ioannina, Greece Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data:200 KB No. of bits in a word:32 No. of processors used:1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?:no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:5797 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:588 121 Distribution format:gzipped tar file Nature of the physical problem:A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be trapped in any local minimum. Global optimization is then the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions, i.e. they are far from zero. Method of solution:Using a uniform pdf, points are sampled from the

  18. ColoFinder: a prognostic 9-gene signature improves prognosis for 871 stage II and III colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingguang; He, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with a high mortality rate and is still lacking an effective treatment. Our goal is to develop a robust prognosis model for predicting the prognosis in CRC patients. In this study, 871 stage II and III CRC samples were collected from six gene expression profilings. ColoFinder was developed using a 9-gene signature based Random Survival Forest (RSF) prognosis model. The 9-gene signature recurrence score was derived with a 5-fold cross validation to test the association with relapse-free survival, and the value of AUC was gained with 0.87 in GSE39582(95% CI [0.83-0.91]). The low-risk group had a significantly better relapse-free survival (HR, 14.8; 95% CI [8.17-26.8]; P < 0.001) than the high-risk group. We also found that the 9-gene signature recurrence score contributed more information about recurrence than standard clinical and pathological variables in univariate and multivariate Cox analyses when applied to GSE17536(p = 0.03 and p = 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, ColoFinder improved the predictive ability and better stratified the risk subgroups when applied to CRC gene expression datasets GSE14333, GSE17537, GSE12945and GSE24551. In summary, ColoFinder significantly improves the risk assessment in stage II and III CRC patients. The 9-gene prognostic classifier informs patient prognosis and treatment response. PMID:26989635

  19. ColoFinder: a prognostic 9-gene signature improves prognosis for 871 stage II and III colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with a high mortality rate and is still lacking an effective treatment. Our goal is to develop a robust prognosis model for predicting the prognosis in CRC patients. In this study, 871 stage II and III CRC samples were collected from six gene expression profilings. ColoFinder was developed using a 9-gene signature based Random Survival Forest (RSF) prognosis model. The 9-gene signature recurrence score was derived with a 5-fold cross validation to test the association with relapse-free survival, and the value of AUC was gained with 0.87 in GSE39582(95% CI [0.83–0.91]). The low-risk group had a significantly better relapse-free survival (HR, 14.8; 95% CI [8.17–26.8]; P < 0.001) than the high-risk group. We also found that the 9-gene signature recurrence score contributed more information about recurrence than standard clinical and pathological variables in univariate and multivariate Cox analyses when applied to GSE17536(p = 0.03 and p = 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, ColoFinder improved the predictive ability and better stratified the risk subgroups when applied to CRC gene expression datasets GSE14333, GSE17537, GSE12945and GSE24551. In summary, ColoFinder significantly improves the risk assessment in stage II and III CRC patients. The 9-gene prognostic classifier informs patient prognosis and treatment response. PMID:26989635

  20. Environmental use of a Laser Range Finder and the Advanced Visualization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, E. N.; Bohn, S.; Baker, C. P.; Jones, D. R.; Strope, L. A.

    1993-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in characterizing and remediating the contents of hazardous waste inside storage tanks. The characterization process of these tanks is a key step to the remediation process. Due to the hazardous materials inside the waste tanks, all of the work must be done remotely utilizing robotic systems. The Laser Range Finder (LRF) is a single point sensor used to remotely collect range and intensity data. The LRF sensor data is used to reconstruct the tank surface environment based on multiple LRF scans. This reconstructed surface definition can be used by a robotic controller to perform obstacle avoidance with items in the tank. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has used Advanced Visualization System (AVS) to prototype the filtering, transformation, and reconstructing process. AVS software modules have been written to address LRF filtering on both the range and intensity images. A coordinate transformation module was constructed to convert the raw LRF data into a Cartesian coordinate reference frame. The results of filtering and transforms are integrated into a master map of the tank using an octree database. Master octrees are traversed and made into AVS geometry to visualize the tank interior. The graphical display of the tank interior can be used for robotic path planning and monitoring waste removal progress.

  1. The CMS Modular Track Finder boards, MTF6 and MTF7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, D.; Brown, G.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Furic, I.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Madorsky, A.; Matveev, M.; Padley, P.; Rank, D.; Reeves, C.; Scurlock, B.; Wang, S.

    2013-12-01

    To accommodate the increase in energy and luminosity of the upgraded LHC, the CMS Endcap Muon Level 1 Trigger system has to be significantly modified. To provide the best track reconstruction, the Trigger system must now import all available trigger primitives generated by Cathode Strip Chambers and by other regional subsystems, such as Resistive Plate Chambers. In addition to massive input bandwidth, this also requires a significant increase in logic and memory resources. To satisfy these requirements, a new Sector Processor unit for muon track finding is being designed. This unit follows the micro-TCA standard recently adopted by CMS. It consists of three modules. The Core Logic module houses the large FPGA that contains the processing logic and multi-gigabit serial links for data exchange. The Optical module contains optical receivers and transmitters; it communicates with the Core Logic module via a custom backplane section. The Look-Up Table module contains a large amount of low-latency memory that is used to assign the final transverse momentum of the muon candidate tracks. The name of the unit — Modular Track Finder — reflects the modular approach used in the design. Presented here are the details of the hardware design of the prototype unit based on Xilinx's Virtex-6 FPGA family, MTF6, as well as results of the conducted tests. Also presented are plans for the pre-production prototype based on the Virtex-7 FPGA family, MTF7.

  2. HGT-Finder: A New Tool for Horizontal Gene Transfer Finding and Application to Aspergillus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Marcus; Ekstrom, Alex; Li, Xueqiong; Yin, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a fast-track mechanism that allows genetically unrelated organisms to exchange genes for rapid environmental adaptation. We developed a new phyletic distribution-based software, HGT-Finder, which implements a novel bioinformatics algorithm to calculate a horizontal transfer index and a probability value for each query gene. Applying this new tool to the Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus nidulans genomes, we found 273, 542, and 715 transferred genes (HTGs), respectively. HTGs have shorter length, higher guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and relaxed selection pressure. Metabolic process and secondary metabolism functions are significantly enriched in HTGs. Gene clustering analysis showed that 61%, 41% and 74% of HTGs in the three genomes form physically linked gene clusters (HTGCs). Overlapping manually curated, secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMGCs) with HTGCs found that 9 of the 33 A. fumigatus SMGCs and 31 of the 65 A. nidulans SMGCs share genes with HTGCs, and that HTGs are significantly enriched in SMGCs. Our genome-wide analysis thus presented very strong evidence to support the hypothesis that HGT has played a very critical role in the evolution of SMGCs. The program is freely available at http://cys.bios.niu.edu/HGTFinder/HGTFinder.tar.gz. PMID:26473921

  3. ProGeRF: Proteome and Genome Repeat Finder Utilizing a Fast Parallel Hash Function

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Walas Jhony Lopes; Rodrigues, Thiago de Souza; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive element sequences are adjacent, repeating patterns, also called motifs, and can be of different lengths; repetitions can involve their exact or approximate copies. They have been widely used as molecular markers in population biology. Given the sizes of sequenced genomes, various bioinformatics tools have been developed for the extraction of repetitive elements from DNA sequences. However, currently available tools do not provide options for identifying repetitive elements in the genome or proteome, displaying a user-friendly web interface, and performing-exhaustive searches. ProGeRF is a web site for extracting repetitive regions from genome and proteome sequences. It was designed to be efficient, fast, and accurate and primarily user-friendly web tool allowing many ways to view and analyse the results. ProGeRF (Proteome and Genome Repeat Finder) is freely available as a stand-alone program, from which the users can download the source code, and as a web tool. It was developed using the hash table approach to extract perfect and imperfect repetitive regions in a (multi)FASTA file, while allowing a linear time complexity. PMID:25811026

  4. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system’s trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  5. Capabilities and performance of the Automated Planet Finder telescope with the implementation of a dynamic scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer; Holden, Bradford; Hanson, Russell; Laughlin, Greg; Vogt, Steve; Butler, Paul; Keiser, Sandy; Deich, William

    2015-10-01

    We report initial performance results emerging from 600 h of observations with the Automated Planet Finder (APF) telescope and Levy spectrometer located at UCO/Lick Observatory. We have obtained multiple spectra of 80 G, K, and M-type stars, which comprise 4954 individual Doppler radial velocity (RV) measurements with a median internal uncertainty of 1.35 ms-1. We find a strong, expected correlation between the number of photons accumulated in the 5000 to 6200 Å iodine region of the spectrum and the resulting internal uncertainty estimates. Additionally, we find an offset between the population of G and K stars and the M stars within the dataset when comparing these parameters. As a consequence of their increased spectral line densities, M-type stars permit the same level of internal uncertainty with 2× fewer photons than G-type and K-type stars. When observing M stars, we show that the APF/Levy has essentially the same speed-on-sky as Keck/high resolution echelle spectrometer (HIRES) for precision RVs. In the interest of using the APF for long-duration RV surveys, we have designed and implemented a dynamic scheduling algorithm. We discuss the operation of the scheduler, which monitors ambient conditions and combines on-sky information with a database of survey targets to make intelligent, real-time targeting decisions.

  6. Compact multispectral continuous zoom camera for color and SWIR vision with integrated laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, M.; Gerken, M.; Achtner, Bertram; Kraus, M.; Münzberg, M.

    2014-06-01

    In an electro-optical sensor suite for long range surveillance tasks the optics for the visible (450nm - 700nm) and the SWIR spectral wavelength range (900nm - 1700 nm) are combined with the receiver optics of an integrated laser range finder (LRF) .The incoming signal from the observed scene and the returned laser pulse are collected within the common entrance aperture of the optics. The common front part of the optics is a broadband corrected lens design from 450 - 1700nm wavelength range. The visible spectrum is split up by a dichroic beam splitter and focused on a HDTV CMOS camera. The returned laser pulse is spatially separated from the scene signal by a special prism and focused on the laser receiver diode of the integrated LRF. The achromatic lens design has a zoom factor 14 and F#2.6 in the visible path. In the SWIR path the F-number is adapted to the corresponding chip dimensions . The alignment of the LRF with respect to the SWIR camera line of sight can be controlled by adjustable integrated wedges. The two images in the visible and the SWIR spectral range match in focus and field of view (FOV) over the full zoom range between 2° and 22° HFOV. The SWIR camera has a resolution of 640×512 pixels. The HDTV camera provides a resolution of 1920×1080. The design and the performance parameters of the multispectral sensor suite is discussed.

  7. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system's trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  8. Environmental use of a Laser Range Finder and the Advanced Visualization System

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, E.N.; Bohn, S.; Baker, C.P.; Jones, D.R.; Strope, L.A.

    1993-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in characterizing and remediating the contents of hazardous waste inside storage tanks. The characterization process of these tanks is a key step to the remediation process. Due to the hazardous materials inside the waste tanks, all of the work must be done remotely utilizing robotic systems. The Laser Range Finder (LRF) is a single point sensor used to remotely collect range and intensity data. The LRF sensor data is used to reconstruct the tank surface environment based on multiple LRF scans. This reconstructed surface definition can be used by a robotic controller to perform obstacle avoidance with items in the tank. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has used Advanced Visualization System (AVS) to prototype the filtering, transformation and reconstructing process. AVS software modules have been written to address LRF filtering on both the range and intensity images. A coordinate transformation module was constructed to convert the raw LRF data into a Cartesian coordinate reference frame. The results of filtering and transforms are integrated into a master map of the tank using an octree database. Master octrees are traversed and made into AVS geometry to visualize the tank interior. The graphical display of the tank interior can be used for robotic path planning and monitoring waste removal progress.

  9. A Y+J Band Laser Frequency Comb for the Habitable Zone Planet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, Steve; Ycas, G. G.; Diddams, S. A.; Bender, C. F.; Donaldson, C. L.; Mahadevan, S.; Quinlan, F.; Ramsey, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) scheduled for deployment to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in late 2015 will extend the radial velocity search for exoplanets into the near infrared by providing a high precision, stabilized near infrared spectrograph spanning the Y+J bands (0.98-1.3μm) with 50,000 resolution. Working in the near infrared will allow the HPF to study cooler, lower mass stars than is possible with the current generation of optical spectrographs. In order to extend the precision of the HPF to lower minimum RV signatures we are proposing to develop a deployable, fully autonomous version of the Y+J band laser frequency comb currently in operation at the NIST Time and Frequency Division in Boulder, Colorado. The Y+J comb is derived from the H band (1.45-1.7μm) comb which was successfully demonstrated at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in 2010. The deployed version will leverage off of existing hardware and demonstrated technology. We present instrument architecture and current performance as well as results of long term stability tests, filter modeling, modal noise reduction results and predicted end-to-end performance.

  10. Recognition of flow in everyday life using sensor agent robot with laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goshima, Misa; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, we suggest an algorithm for a sensor agent robot with a laser range finder to recognize the flows of residents in the living spaces in order to achieve flow recognition in the living spaces, recognition of the number of people in spaces, and the classification of the flows. House reform is or will be demanded to prolong the lifetime of the home. Adaption for the individuals is needed for our aging society which is growing at a rapid pace. Home autonomous mobile robots will become popular in the future for aged people to assist them in various situations. Therefore we have to collect various type of information of human and living spaces. However, a penetration in personal privacy must be avoided. It is essential to recognize flows in everyday life in order to assist house reforms and aging societies in terms of adaption for the individuals. With background subtraction, extra noise removal, and the clustering based k-means method, we got an average accuracy of more than 90% from the behavior from 1 to 3 persons, and also confirmed the reliability of our system no matter the position of the sensor. Our system can take advantages from autonomous mobile robots and protect the personal privacy. It hints at a generalization of flow recognition methods in the living spaces.

  11. Detecting and Characterizing Exoplanets with the WFIRST Coronagraph: Colors of Planets in Standard and Designer Bandpasses-SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Margaret

    The WFIRST mission is now envisioned to include a coronagraph for the purpose of direct detection of nearby exoplanets, including planets known to exist via radial velocity detection and new discoveries. Assuming that starlight rejection sufficient for planet detection (~1e-9) can be achieved, what can be learned about these planets given a realistic spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio? We propose to investigate the potential for WFIRST to efficiently discriminate planets from background sources, and to characterize planets in terms of important diagnostic atmospheric features, using broad- and intermediate band color data. We will map out this capability as a function of signal-to-noise ratio, bandpass location, and bandpass width. Our investigation will place emphasis on gas giants, ice giants, and mini-Neptunes (compatible with current AFTA-C baseline performance specifications), as well as a variety of super-Earths (an AFTA-C "stretch" goal). We will explore a variety of compositions, cloud types, phase angles, and (in the case of super-Earths with semi-transparent atmospheres) surface types. Noiseless spectra generated for these model planets will be passed through (a) standard bandpasses for comparison to prior work and (b) filter transmission curves corresponding to bandpasses of 5-20% over the full range of WFIRST's expected bandpass (400 - 1,000 nm). From this, filter combinations will be used to generate planet colors and find filter sets that most efficiently discriminate between planets and background sources, and between planets of different type. We will then repeat this exercise for S/N levels of 1-1,000 in order to (1) explore the true efficacy of broadband measurements in exoplanet studies, and (2) provide an estimate of total required integration time for a compelling WFIRST exoplanet program. To accomplish this, we will use model spectra for mini-Neptunes, and ice and gas giants of varying composition (Hu et al. 2013), and observed

  12. STIS Coronagraphic Imaging of Fomalhaut: Main Belt Structure and the Orbit of Fomalhaut b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Clampin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We present new optical coronagraphic data of Fomalhaut obtained with HST/STIS in 2010 and 2012. Fomalhaut b is recovered at both epochs to high significance. The observations include the discoveries of tenuous nebulosity beyond the main dust belt detected to at least 209AU projected radius, and a approx. 50AU wide azimuthal gap in the belt northward of Fomalhaut b. The two epochs of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) photometry exclude optical variability greater than 35%. A Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis demonstrates that the orbit of Fomalhaut b is highly eccentric, with e = 0.8 +/- 0.1, a = 177 +/- 68AU, and q = 32 +/- 24AU. Fomalhaut b is apsidally aligned with the belt and 90% of allowed orbits have mutual inclination <=36 deg. Fomalhaut b's orbit is belt crossing in the sky plane projection, but only 12% of possible orbits have ascending or descending nodes within a 25AU wide belt annulus. The high eccentricity invokes a dynamical history where Fomalhaut b may have experienced a significant dynamical interaction with a hypothetical planet Fomalhaut c, and the current orbital configuration may be relatively short-lived. The Tisserand parameter with respect to a hypothetical Fomalhaut planet at 30AU or 120AU lies in the range 2-3, similar to highly eccentric dwarf planets in our solar system. We argue that Fomalhaut b's minimum mass is that of a dwarf planet in order for a circumplanetary satellite system to remain bound to a sufficient radius from the planet to be consistent with the dust scattered light hypothesis. In the coplanar case, Fomalhaut b will collide with the main belt around 2032, and the subsequent emergent phenomena may help determine its physical nature.

  13. STIS CORONAGRAPHIC IMAGING OF FOMALHAUT: MAIN BELT STRUCTURE AND THE ORBIT OF FOMALHAUT b

    SciTech Connect

    Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Clampin, Mark

    2013-09-20

    We present new optical coronagraphic data of Fomalhaut obtained with HST/STIS in 2010 and 2012. Fomalhaut b is recovered at both epochs to high significance. The observations include the discoveries of tenuous nebulosity beyond the main dust belt detected to at least 209 AU projected radius, and a ∼50 AU wide azimuthal gap in the belt northward of Fomalhaut b. The two epochs of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) photometry exclude optical variability greater than 35%. A Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis demonstrates that the orbit of Fomalhaut b is highly eccentric, with e = 0.8 ± 0.1, a = 177 ± 68 AU, and q = 32 ± 24 AU. Fomalhaut b is apsidally aligned with the belt and 90% of allowed orbits have mutual inclination ≤36°. Fomalhaut b's orbit is belt crossing in the sky plane projection, but only 12% of possible orbits have ascending or descending nodes within a 25 AU wide belt annulus. The high eccentricity invokes a dynamical history where Fomalhaut b may have experienced a significant dynamical interaction with a hypothetical planet Fomalhaut c, and the current orbital configuration may be relatively short-lived. The Tisserand parameter with respect to a hypothetical Fomalhaut planet at 30 AU or 120 AU lies in the range 2-3, similar to highly eccentric dwarf planets in our solar system. We argue that Fomalhaut b's minimum mass is that of a dwarf planet in order for a circumplanetary satellite system to remain bound to a sufficient radius from the planet to be consistent with the dust scattered light hypothesis. In the coplanar case, Fomalhaut b will collide with the main belt around 2032, and the subsequent emergent phenomena may help determine its physical nature.

  14. Planet Imaging Coronagraphic Technology Using a Reconfigurable Experimental Base (PlCTURE B)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Supriya

    We propose PICTURE B, the Planet Imaging Coronagraphic Technology Using a Reconfigurable Experimental Base. PICTURE B is a sub-orbital research program to fly the PICTURE experiment as a sounding rocket (flight 1 early in 2014 to observe epsilon Eridani) in order to measure exozodiacal light and debris disks around those stars. PICTURE works in to very small (1.5 lambda/D) inner working angles (IWA) and thus matches or exceeds the ability of current space based systems nearly five times its size. The first objective of the PICTURE B effort will be to fly PICTURE on a sounding rocket to image the debris disk around epsilon Eridani. PICTURE has been designed, qualified, and survived flight (36.225UG) and recovery in a sounding rocket environment. Unfortunately, a NASA telemetry failure during its maiden flight prevented us from obtaining data from the science cameras. As a result, while we know that the instrument survived the flight and that the tracking system stabilized the target to ~3 milliarcseconds (mas) - the tracking data was on a different telemetry link - we do not have in-flight science data from the instrument. Our first task will be to collect the science data that so much effort has been invested in. This will also allow us to raise several key technologies -- particularly nullers and deformable mirrors (DMs) and their control systems -- to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. These images of exoplanetary systems will allow us to assess the exozodiacal background against which all other exoplanet observations will have to be made. This is a key driving parameter of the design of all exoplanet imaging missions yet it remains unknown.

  15. Comparative Study of Manufacturing Techniques for Coronagraphic Binary Pupil Masks: Masks on Substrates and Free-Standing Masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enya, Keigo; Haze, Kanae; Kotani, Takayuki; Abe, Lyu

    2012-12-01

    We present a comparative study of the manufacture of binary pupil masks for coronagraphic observations of exoplanets. A checkerboard mask design, a type of binary pupil mask design, was adopted, and identical patterns of the same size were used for all masks in order that we could compare the differences resulting from the different manufacturing methods. The masks on substrates had aluminum checkerboard patterns with thicknesses of 0.1/0.2/0.4/0.8/1.6μm, constructed on substrates of BK7 glass, silicon, and germanium using photolithography and chemical processes. Free-standing masks made of copper and nickel with thicknesses of 2/5/10/20μm were also realized using photolithography and chemical processes, which included careful release from the substrate used as an intermediate step in the manufacture. Coronagraphic experiments using a visible laser were carried out for all masks on BK7 glass substrate and the free-standing masks. The average contrasts were 8.4 × 10-8, 1.2 × 10-7, and 1.2 × 10-7 for the masks on BK7 substrates, the free-standing copper masks, and the free-standing nickel masks, respectively. No significant correlation was concluded between the contrast and the mask properties. The high-contrast masks have the potential to cover the needs of coronagraphs for both ground-based and space-borne telescopes over a wide wavelength range. Especially, their application to the infrared space telescope, SPICA, is appropriate.

  16. The impact of radiation damage on photon counting with an EMCCD for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Holland, Andrew; Burgon, Ross; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Soman, Matthew; Jordan, Douglas; Demers, Richard; Harding, Leon; Hoenk, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Nemati, Bijan; Peddada, Pavani

    2015-09-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is a 2.4m class NASA observatory designed to address a wide range of science objectives using two complementary scientific payloads. The Wide Field Instrument (WFI) offers Hubble quality imaging over a 0.28 square degree field of view, and will gather NIR statistical data on exoplanets through gravitational microlensing. The second instrument is a high contrast coronagraph that will carry out the direct imaging and spectroscopic analysis of exoplanets, providing a means to probe the structure and composition of planetary systems. The coronagraph instrument is expected to operate in low photon flux for long integration times, meaning all noise sources must be kept to a minimum. In order to satisfy the low noise requirements, the Electron Multiplication (EM)-CCD has been baselined for both the imaging and spectrograph cameras. The EMCCD was selected in comparison with other candidates because of its low effective electronic read noise at sub-electron values with appropriate multiplication gain setting. The presence of other noise sources, however, such as thermal dark signal and Clock Induced Charge (CIC), need to be characterised and mitigated. In addition, operation within a space environment will subject the device to radiation damage that will degrade the Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) of the device throughout the mission lifetime. Here we present our latest results from pre- and post-irradiation testing of the e2v CCD201-20 BI EMCCD sensor, baselined for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument. A description of the detector technology is presented, alongside considerations for operation within a space environment. The results from a room temperature irradiation are discussed in context with the nominal operating requirements of AFTA-C and future work which entails a cryogenic irradiation of the CCD201-20 is presented.

  17. Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs for Arbitrary Apertures. IV. Reduced Inner Working Angle and Increased Robustness to Low-order Aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi

    2015-02-01

    The Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) is a diffraction suppression system installed in the recently deployed instruments Palomar/P1640, Gemini/GPI, and VLT/SPHERE to allow direct imaging and spectroscopy of circumstellar environments. Using a prolate apodization, the current implementations offer raw contrasts down to 10-7 at 0.2 arcsec from a star over a wide bandpass (20%), in the presence of central obstruction and struts, enabling the study of young or massive gaseous planets. Observations of older or lighter companions at smaller separations would require improvements in terms of the inner working angle (IWA) and contrast, but the methods originally used for these designs were not able to fully explore the parameter space. We propose a novel approach to improve the APLC performance. Our method relies on the linear properties of the coronagraphic electric field with the apodization at any wavelength to develop numerical solutions producing coronagraphic star images with high-contrast region in broadband light. We explore the parameter space by considering different aperture geometries, contrast levels, dark-zone sizes, bandpasses, and focal plane mask sizes. We present an application of these solutions to the case of Gemini/GPI with a design delivering a 10-8 raw contrast at 0.19 arcsec and offering a significantly reduced sensitivity to low-order aberrations compared to the current implementation. Optimal solutions have also been found to reach 10-10 contrast in broadband light regardless of the aperture shape, with effective IWA in the 2-3.5 λ/D range, therefore making the APLC a suitable option for the future exoplanet direct imagers on the ground or in space.

  18. APODIZED PUPIL LYOT CORONAGRAPHS FOR ARBITRARY APERTURES. IV. REDUCED INNER WORKING ANGLE AND INCREASED ROBUSTNESS TO LOW-ORDER ABERRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi

    2015-02-01

    The Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) is a diffraction suppression system installed in the recently deployed instruments Palomar/P1640, Gemini/GPI, and VLT/SPHERE to allow direct imaging and spectroscopy of circumstellar environments. Using a prolate apodization, the current implementations offer raw contrasts down to 10{sup –7} at 0.2 arcsec from a star over a wide bandpass (20%), in the presence of central obstruction and struts, enabling the study of young or massive gaseous planets. Observations of older or lighter companions at smaller separations would require improvements in terms of the inner working angle (IWA) and contrast, but the methods originally used for these designs were not able to fully explore the parameter space. We propose a novel approach to improve the APLC performance. Our method relies on the linear properties of the coronagraphic electric field with the apodization at any wavelength to develop numerical solutions producing coronagraphic star images with high-contrast region in broadband light. We explore the parameter space by considering different aperture geometries, contrast levels, dark-zone sizes, bandpasses, and focal plane mask sizes. We present an application of these solutions to the case of Gemini/GPI with a design delivering a 10{sup –8} raw contrast at 0.19 arcsec and offering a significantly reduced sensitivity to low-order aberrations compared to the current implementation. Optimal solutions have also been found to reach 10{sup –10} contrast in broadband light regardless of the aperture shape, with effective IWA in the 2-3.5 λ/D range, therefore making the APLC a suitable option for the future exoplanet direct imagers on the ground or in space.

  19. AUTOMATICALLY DETECTING AND TRACKING CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. SEPARATION OF DYNAMIC AND QUIESCENT COMPONENTS IN CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Huw; Byrne, Jason P.; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    2012-06-20

    Automated techniques for detecting and tracking coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data are of ever increasing importance for space weather monitoring and forecasting. They serve to remove the biases and tedium of human interpretation, and provide the robust analysis necessary for statistical studies across large numbers of observations. An important requirement in their operation is that they satisfactorily distinguish the CME structure from the background quiescent coronal structure (streamers, coronal holes). Many studies resort to some form of time differencing to achieve this, despite the errors inherent in such an approach-notably spatiotemporal crosstalk. This article describes a new deconvolution technique that separates coronagraph images into quiescent and dynamic components. A set of synthetic observations made from a sophisticated model corona and CME demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the technique in isolating the CME signal. Applied to observations by the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs, the structure of a faint CME is revealed in detail despite the presence of background streamers that are several times brighter than the CME. The technique is also demonstrated to work on SECCHI/COR2 data, and new possibilities for estimating the three-dimensional structure of CMEs using the multiple viewing angles are discussed. Although quiescent coronal structures and CMEs are intrinsically linked, and although their interaction is an unavoidable source of error in any separation process, we show in a companion paper that the deconvolution approach outlined here is a robust and accurate method for rigorous CME analysis. Such an approach is a prerequisite to the higher-level detection and classification of CME structure and kinematics.

  20. Design and fabrication of a coherent array of single-mode optical fibers for the nulling coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Duncan T.; Levine, Bruce M.; Shao, Michael

    2003-11-01

    We present the development of a single-mode spatial filter array for the nulling coronagraph application. The development consists of two generations of fiber array designs and a Zygo-interferometer based lens array to fiber array alignment methodology. We discuss the use of large mode field diameter (MFD) fibers to relax fiber placement tolerance of the fiber array. The pros and cons of using the Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) for building the array are discussed. The future plan for implementing a 1000-channel class, single-mode spatial filter array is described.

  1. CCD camera systems and support electronics for a White Light Coronagraph and X-ray XUV solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.; Kubierschky, K.; Staples, M. H.; Carpenter, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two instruments, a White Light Coronagraph and an X-ray XUV telescope built into the same housing, share several electronic functions. Each instrument uses a CCD as an imaging detector, but due to different spectral requirements, each uses a different type. Hardware reduction, required by the stringent weight and volume allocations of the interplanetary mission, is made possible by the use of a microprocessor. Most instrument functions are software controlled with the end use circuits treated as peripherals to the microprocessor. The instruments are being developed for the International Solar Polar Mission.

  2. Deep UV to NIR Space Telescopes and Exoplanet Coronagraphs: A Trade Study on Throughput, Polarization, Mirror Coating Options and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Shaklan, Stuart; Give'on, Amir; Cady, Eric; Marchen, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Exoplanet program and the Cosmic Origins program are exploring technical options to combine the visible to NIR performance requirements of a space coronagraph with the general astrophysics requirements of a space telescope covering the deep UV spectrum. Are there compatible options in terms of mirror coatings and telescope architecture to satisfy both goals? In this paper, we address some of the main concerns, particularly relating to polarization in the visible and throughput in the UV. Telescope architectures employing different coating options compatible with current technology are considered in this trade study.

  3. Referral Finder: Saving Time and Improving The Quality of In-hospital Referrals.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Jennifer; Cowan, Neil; Tully, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Making referrals to other hospital specialties is one of the key duties of the foundation doctor, which can be difficult and time consuming. In Ninewells hospital, Scotland, in our experience the effectiveness of referrals is limited by contact details not being readily accessible and foundation doctors not knowing what information is relevant to each specialty. We surveyed foundation doctors on their experience of the existing referral process to identify where we needed to focus to improve the process. The doctors reported significant delays in obtaining contact details from the operator, and found they did not know the specific information needed in each referral. To increase the information available to foundation doctors, we set up a page on the staff intranet called 'Referral Finder'. This page includes contact details, guidelines for referral, and links to relevant protocols for each specialty. By making this information readily accessible our objective was to increase the speed and quality of referrals. When surveyed two months after the web page was established, foundation doctors reported a reduction in calls to operator from baseline and reported achieving more effective referrals. When asked to comment, many doctors asked if the page could include details for other hospitals in our health board and provide more specialty specific information. This feedback prompted us to extend the scope of the page to include the district general hospital in our region, and update many of the existing details. Doctors were then surveyed after the updates, 100% agreed that the website saved time and there was a 49.3% reduction in doctors who reported not knowing the specific information needed for a referral. Having adequate information improved referrals and resulted in time saved. This would allow more time for patient care. The quality improvement project was praised among doctors as a useful, innovative and replicable project. PMID:27158494

  4. Finding intron/exon splice junctions using INFO, INterruption Finder and Organizer.

    PubMed

    Laub, M T; Smith, D W

    1998-01-01

    INFO, INterruption Finder and Organizer, has been used to find coding sequence intron-exon splice junctions in human and other DNA by comparing the six conceptual translations of the input DNA sequence with sequences in protein databanks using a similarity matrix and windowing algorithm. Similarities detected both delineate position of the gene and provide clues as to the function of the gene product. In addition to use of a standard similarity matrix and windowing algorithm, INFO uses two novel steps, the MiniLibrary and Reverse Sequence steps, to enhance identification of small exons and to improve precision of junction nucleotide delineation. Exons as small as about 30 bases can be reliably found, and > 90% of junctions are precisely identified when canonical splice junction information is used. With the MiniLibrary and Reverse Sequence steps, INFO parameters need not be optimized by the user. In comparative test runs using 19 human DNA sequences, INFO found 108 of 111 exons, with 0 reported false positives, compared with 111 exons and 51 false positives for BLASTX, 99 exons and 6 false positives for GRAIL II, 77 exons and 24 false positives for GeneMark, 61 exons and 9 false positives for GeneID, and 105 exons and 6 false positives for PROCRUSTES. The correlation coefficient for finding and positioning these 111 exons was greater than 98% for INFO. Comparable results were obtained in test runs of 13 nonhuman DNA sequences. INFO is applicable to DNA from any species, will become more robust as sequence databanks expand, and complements other heuristic approaches. PMID:9672834

  5. Efficient α, β-motif finder for identification of phenotype-related functional modules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Microbial communities in their natural environments exhibit phenotypes that can directly cause particular diseases, convert biomass or wastewater to energy, or degrade various environmental contaminants. Understanding how these communities realize specific phenotypic traits (e.g., carbon fixation, hydrogen production) is critical for addressing health, bioremediation, or bioenergy problems. Results In this paper, we describe a graph-theoretical method for in silico prediction of the cellular subsystems that are related to the expression of a target phenotype. The proposed (α, β)-motif finder approach allows for identification of these phenotype-related subsystems that, in addition to metabolic subsystems, could include their regulators, sensors, transporters, and even uncharacterized proteins. By comparing dozens of genome-scale networks of functionally associated proteins, our method efficiently identifies those statistically significant functional modules that are in at least α networks of phenotype-expressing organisms but appear in no more than β networks of organisms that do not exhibit the target phenotype. It has been shown via various experiments that the enumerated modules are indeed related to phenotype-expression when tested with different target phenotypes like hydrogen production, motility, aerobic respiration, and acid-tolerance. Conclusion Thus, we have proposed a methodology that can identify potential statistically significant phenotype-related functional modules. The functional module is modeled as an (α, β)-clique, where α and β are two criteria introduced in this work. We also propose a novel network model, called the two-typed, divided network. The new network model and the criteria make the problem tractable even while very large networks are being compared. The code can be downloaded from http://www.freescience.org/cs/ABClique/ PMID:22078292

  6. A preliminary design for the GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Barnes, Stuart; Bean, Jacob; Bigelow, Bruce; Bouchez, Antonin; Chun, Moo-Young; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Epps, Harland; Evans, Ian; Evans, Janet; Frebel, Anna; Furesz, Gabor; Glenday, Alex; Guzman, Dani; Hare, Tyson; Jang, Bi-Ho; Jang, Jeong-Gyun; Jeong, Ueejong; Jordan, Andres; Kim, Kang-Min; Kim, Jihun; Li, Chih-Hao; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; McCracken, Kenneth; McLeod, Brian; Mueller, Mark; Nah, Jakyung; Norton, Timothy; Oh, Heeyoung; Oh, Jae Sok; Ordway, Mark; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Park, Sung-Joon; Phillips, David; Plummer, David; Podgorski, William; Rodler, Florian; Seifahrt, Andreas; Tak, Kyung-Mo; Uomoto, Alan; Van Dam, Marcos A.; Walsworth, Ronald; Yu, Young Sam; Yuk, In-Soo

    2014-08-01

    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is an optical-band echelle spectrograph that has been selected as the first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). G-CLEF is a general-purpose, high dispersion spectrograph that is fiber fed and capable of extremely precise radial velocity measurements. The G-CLEF Concept Design (CoD) was selected in Spring 2013. Since then, G-CLEF has undergone science requirements and instrument requirements reviews and will be the subject of a preliminary design review (PDR) in March 2015. Since CoD review (CoDR), the overall G-CLEF design has evolved significantly as we have optimized the constituent designs of the major subsystems, i.e. the fiber system, the telescope interface, the calibration system and the spectrograph itself. These modifications have been made to enhance G-CLEF's capability to address frontier science problems, as well as to respond to the evolution of the GMT itself and developments in the technical landscape. G-CLEF has been designed by applying rigorous systems engineering methodology to flow Level 1 Scientific Objectives to Level 2 Observational Requirements and thence to Level 3 and Level 4. The rigorous systems approach applied to G-CLEF establishes a well defined science requirements framework for the engineering design. By adopting this formalism, we may flexibly update and analyze the capability of G-CLEF to respond to new scientific discoveries as we move toward first light. G-CLEF will exploit numerous technological advances and features of the GMT itself to deliver an efficient, high performance instrument, e.g. exploiting the adaptive optics secondary system to increase both throughput and radial velocity measurement precision.

  7. AsteroidFinder - The Space-Borne Telescope to Search for NEO Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, M.; Mosebach, H.; Schubert, J.; Michaelis, H.; Mottola, S.; Kührt, E.; Schindler, K.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the mission profile as well as the optical configuration of the space-borne AsteroidFinder telescope. Its main objective is to retrieve asteroids with orbits interior to the earth's orbit. The instrument requires high sensitivity to detect asteroids with a limiting magnitude of equal or larger than 18.5mag (V-Band) and astrometric accuracy of 1arcsec (1σ). This requires a telescope aperture greater than 400cm2, high image stability, detector with high quantum efficiency (peak > 90%) and very low noise, which is only limited by zodiacal background. The telescope will observe the sky between 30° and 60° in solar elongation. The telescope optics is based on a Cook type TMA. An effective 2°×2° field of view (FOV) is achieved by a fast F/3.4 telescope with near diffraction-limited performance. The absence of centre obscuration or spiders in combination with an accessible intermediate field plane and exit pupil allow for efficient stray light mitigation. Design drivers for the telescope are the required point spread function (PSF) values, an extremely efficient stray light suppression (due to the magnitude requirement mentioned above), the detector performance, and the overall optical and mechanical stability for all orientations of the satellite. To accommodate the passive thermal stabilization scheme and the necessary structural stability, the materials selection for the telescope main structure and the mirrors are of vital importance. A focal plane with four EMCCD detectors is envisaged. The EMCCD technology features shorter integration times, which is in favor regarding the pointing performance of the satellite. The launch of the mission is foreseen for the year 2013 with a subsequent mission lifetime of at least 1 year.

  8. A Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph for the Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of Exoplanet Systems: Recent Results and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Gordon, Brian; Krist, John; Mawet, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    We report our best laboratory contrast demonstrations achieved to date. We review the design, fabrication, performance, and future prospects of a hybrid focal plane occulter for exoplanet coronagraphy. Composed of thickness-profiled metallic and dielectric thin films vacuum deposited on a fused silica substrate, the hybrid occulter uses two superimposed thin films for control over both the real and imaginary parts of the complex attenuation pattern. Together with a deformable mirror for adjustment of wavefront phase, the hybrid Lyot coronagraph potentially exceeds billion-to one contrast over dark fields extending to within angular separations of 3 lambda/D (3 x the cosmological constant / diameter of the telescope) from the central star, over spectral bandwidths of 20 percent or more, and with throughput efficiencies up to 60 percent. We report laboratory contrasts of 3 x 10 (sup -10) degrees over 2 percent bandwidths, 6 x 10 (sup -10) degrees over 10 percent bandwidths, and 2 x 10 (sup -9) over 20 percent bandwidths, achieved across high contrast fields extending from an inner working angle of 3 lambda/D to a radius of 15 lambda/D. Occulter performance is analyzed in light of recent experiments and optical models, and prospects for further improvements are summarized. The science capabilities of the hybrid Lyot coronagraph are compared with requirements of the ACCESS mission, a representative exoplanet space telescope concept study for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanet systems. This work has been supported by NASA's Technology Demonstration for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program.

  9. Technology advancement of the CCD201-20 EMCCD for the WFIRST coronagraph instrument: sensor characterization and radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Neat, Leo S.; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset (WFIRST-AFTA) mission is a 2.4-m class space telescope that will be used across a swath of astrophysical research domains. JPL will provide a high-contrast imaging coronagraph instrument-one of two major astronomical instruments. In order to achieve the low noise performance required to detect planets under extremely low flux conditions, the electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) has been baselined for both of the coronagraph's sensors-the imaging camera and integral field spectrograph. JPL has established an EMCCD test laboratory in order to advance EMCCD maturity to technology readiness level-6. This plan incorporates full sensor characterization, including read noise, dark current, and clock-induced charge. In addition, by considering the unique challenges of the WFIRST space environment, degradation to the sensor's charge transfer efficiency will be assessed, as a result of damage from high-energy particles such as protons, electrons, and cosmic rays. Science-grade CCD201-20 EMCCDs have been irradiated to a proton fluence that reflects the projected WFIRST orbit. Performance degradation due to radiation displacement damage is reported, which is the first such study for a CCD201-20 that replicates the WFIRST conditions. In addition, techniques intended to identify and mitigate radiation-induced electron trapping, such as trap pumping, custom clocking, and thermal cycling, are discussed.

  10. BAND-LIMITED CORONAGRAPHS USING A HALFTONE-DOT PROCESS. II. ADVANCES AND LABORATORY RESULTS FOR ARBITRARY TELESCOPE APERTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, P.; Kasper, M.

    2012-01-01

    The band-limited coronagraph is a nearly ideal concept that theoretically enables perfect cancellation of all the light of an on-axis source. Over the past several years, several prototypes have been developed and tested in the laboratory, and more emphasis is now on developing optimal technologies that can efficiently deliver the expected high-contrast levels of such a concept. Following the development of an early near-IR demonstrator, we present and discuss the results of a second-generation prototype using halftone-dot technology. We report improvement in the accuracy of the control of the local transmission of the manufactured prototype, which was measured to be less than 1%. This advanced H-band band-limited device demonstrated excellent contrast levels in the laboratory, down to {approx}10{sup -6} at farther angular separations than 3{lambda}/D over 24% spectral bandwidth. These performances outperform the ones of our former prototype by more than an order of magnitude and confirm the maturity of the manufacturing process. Current and next-generation high-contrast instruments can directly benefit from such capabilities. In this context, we experimentally examine the ability of the band-limited coronagraph to withstand various complex telescope apertures.

  11. Coronagraphic imaging of pre-main-sequence stars: Remnant evvelopes of star formation seen in reflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Golimowski, David A.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained R- and I-band coronagraphic images of the vicinities of 11 pre-main sequence (PMS) stars to search for faint, small-scale reflection nebulae. The inner radius of the search and the field of view are 1.9 arcsec and 1x1 arcmin, respectively. Reflection nebulae were imaged around RY Tau, T Tau,DG Tau, SU Aur, AB Aur, FU Ori, and Z CMa. No nebulae were detected around HBC 347, GG Tau, V773 Tau, and V830 Tau. Categorically speaking, most of the classical T Tauri program stars and all the FU Orionis-type program stars are associated with the reflection nebulae, while none of the weak-line T Tauri program stars are associated with nebulae. The detected nebulae range in size from 250 to 37 000 AU. From the brightness ratios of the stars and nebulae, we obtain a lower limit to the visual extinction of PMS star light through the nebulae of (A(sub V))(sub neb) = 0.1. The lower limits of masses and volume densities of the nebulae associated with the classical T Tauri stars are 10(exp-6) Solar mass and N(sub H) = 10(exp 5)/cu cm, respectively. Lower limits for the nebulae around FU Orionis stars are 10(exp -5) Solar mass and n(sub H) = 10 (exp 5)/cu cm, respectively. Some reflection nebulae may trace the illuminated surfaces of the optically thick dust nebulae, so these mass estimates are not stringent. All the PMS stars with associated nebulae are strong far-infrared emitters. Both the far-infrared emission and the reflection nebulae appear to originate from the remnant envelopes of star formation. The 100 micrometers emitting regions of SU Aur and FU Ori are likely to be cospatial with the reflection nebulae. A spatial discontinuity between FU Ori and its reflection nebula may explain the dip in the far-infrared spectral energy distribution at 60 micrometers. The warped, disk-like nebulae around T Tau and Z CMa are aligned with and embrace the inner star/circumstellar disk systems. The arc-shaped nebula around DG Tau may be in contact with the coaligned inner

  12. Probability friends-of-friends (PFOF) group finder: Performance study and observational data applications on photometric surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, Hung-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Chen, Chin-Wei; Foucaud, Sebastien; Merson, Alex; Baugh, Carlton; Cole, Shaun; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Murphy, David N. A.; Burgett, William; Kaiser, Nick

    2014-06-20

    In tandem with observational data sets, we utilize realistic mock catalogs, based on a semi-analytic galaxy formation model, constructed specifically for Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Surveys to assess the performance of the Probability Friends-of-Friends (PFOF) group finder, and aim to develop a grouping optimization method applicable to surveys like Pan-STARRS1. Producing mock PFOF group catalogs under a variety of photometric redshift accuracies (σ{sub Δz/(1+z{sub s)}}), we find that catalog purities and completenesses from 'good' (σ{sub Δz/(1+z{sub s)}}∼ 0.01) to 'poor' (σ{sub Δz/(1+z{sub s)}}∼ 0.07) photo-zs gradually degrade from 77% and 70% to 52% and 47%, respectively. A 'subset optimization' approach is developed by using spectroscopic-redshift group data from the target field to train the group finder for application to that field and demonstrated using zCOSMOS groups for PFOF searches within PS1 Medium Deep Field04 (PS1MD04) and DEEP2 EGS groups in PS1MD07. With four data sets spanning the photo-z accuracy range from 0.01 to 0.06, we find purities and completenesses agree with their mock analogs. Further tests are performed via matches to X-ray clusters. We find PFOF groups match ∼85% of X-ray clusters identified in COSMOS and PS1MD04, lending additional support to the reliability of the detection algorithm. In the end, we demonstrate, by separating red and blue group galaxies in the EGS and PS1MD07 group catalogs, that the algorithm is not biased with respect to specifically recovering galaxies by color. The analyses suggest the PFOF algorithm shows great promise as a reliable group finder for photometric galaxy surveys of varying depth and coverage.

  13. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder. Detecting Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography, Ion Mobility, and Mass Spectrometry Features in Complex Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, Kevin L.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Lamarche, Brian L.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-09-05

    We introduce a command line software application LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder that searches for molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass, charge state, LC elution time, and ion mobility drift time values. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting and quantifying co-eluting chemical species, including species that exist in multiple conformations that may have been separated in the IMS dimension.

  14. Autonomous Observing and Planet Discovery with the Automated Planet Finder (APF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer; Hanson, Russell; Holden, Bradford; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Laughlin, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The Automated Planet Finder (APF) is a dedicated, ground-based precision radial velocity facility located at Lick Observatory, operated by University of California Observatories (UCO). The 2.4-m telescope and accompanying high-resolution echelle spectrograph were specifically designed for the purpose of detecting planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars. The telescope is operated every night (weather permitting) to achieve meaningful signal-to-noise gains from high cadence observing and to avoid the aliasing problems inherent to planets whose periods are close to the lunar month.The APF has been taking science quality data for over a year and has contributed to two planet discovery papers with data at a 1 m/s level of precision. The detection of these planets, especially the Uranus mass planet around GL687, indicates that the APF telescope is well suited to the discovery of low-mass planets orbiting low-mass stars in the as-yet relatively un-surveyed region of the sky near the north celestial pole.To take full advantage of the consistent influx of data it is necessary to analyze each night's results before deciding the next evening's targets. We are in the process of developing a fully automated reduction pipeline that will take data from raw FITS files to final radial velocity values and integrate those values into a master database. The database is then run through the publicly available Systemic console, a publically available software package for the analysis and combined multiparameter fitting of Doppler radial velocity observations. Systemic will re-calculate the possibility of planetary signals in the data and use this value, along with other considerations such as the star's brightness and chromospheric activity level, to assign it a priority rating for future observations.When the telescope is again on sky it uses a suite of stellar and atmospheric calibrations derived from the part year's observations to calculate the expected exposure time for

  15. The opto-mechanical design of the GMT-consortium large earth finder (G-CLEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark; Baldwin, Daniel; Bean, Jacob; Bergner, Henry; Bigelow, Bruce; Chun, Moo-Young; Crane, Jeffrey; Foster, Jeff; Fżrész, Gabor; Gauron, Thomas; Guzman, Dani; Hertz, Edward; Jordán, Andrés.; Kim, Kang-Min; McCracken, Kenneth; Norton, Timothy; Ordway, Mark; Park, Chan; Park, Sang; Podgorski, William A.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Uomoto, Alan; Yuk, In-Soo

    2014-08-01

    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is a fiber fed, optical echelle spectrograph that has been selected as a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) currently under construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile's Atacama desert region. We designed G-CLEF as a general-purpose echelle spectrograph with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability used for exoplanet detection. The radial velocity (RV) precision goal of GCLEF is 10 cm/sec, necessary for detection of Earth-sized planets orbiting stars like our Sun in the habitable zone. This goal imposes challenging stability requirements on the optical mounts and the overall spectrograph support structures. Stability in instruments of this type is typically affected by changes in temperature, orientation, and air pressure as well as vibrations caused by telescope tracking. For these reasons, we have chosen to enclose G-CLEF's spectrograph in a thermally insulated, vibration isolated vacuum chamber and place it at a gravity invariant location on GMT's azimuth platform. Additional design constraints posed by the GMT telescope include: a limited space envelope, a thermal emission ceiling, and a maximum weight allowance. Other factors, such as manufacturability, serviceability, available technology and budget are also significant design drivers. All of the previously listed considerations must be managed while ensuring that performance requirements are achieved. In this paper, we discuss the design of G-CLEF's optical mounts and support structures including technical choices made to minimize the system's sensitivity to thermal gradients. A more general treatment of the properties of G-CLEF can be found elsewhere in these proceedings1. We discuss the design of the vacuum chamber which houses the irregularly shaped optical bench and optics while conforming to a challenging space envelope on GMT's azimuth platform. We also discuss the design of G-CLEF's insulated enclosure and thermal

  16. Gene analogue finder: a GRID solution for finding functionally analogous gene products

    PubMed Central

    Tulipano, Angelica; Donvito, Giacinto; Licciulli, Flavio; Maggi, Giorgio; Gisel, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background To date more than 2,1 million gene products from more than 100000 different species have been described specifying their function, the processes they are involved in and their cellular localization using a very well defined and structured vocabulary, the gene ontology (GO). Such vast, well defined knowledge opens the possibility of compare gene products at the level of functionality, finding gene products which have a similar function or are involved in similar biological processes without relying on the conventional sequence similarity approach. Comparisons within such a large space of knowledge are highly data and computing intensive. For this reason this project was based upon the use of the computational GRID, a technology offering large computing and storage resources. Results We have developed a tool, GENe AnaloGue FINdEr (ENGINE) that parallelizes the search process and distributes the calculation and data over the computational GRID, splitting the process into many sub-processes and joining the calculation and the data on the same machine and therefore completing the whole search in about 3 days instead of occupying one single machine for more than 5 CPU years. The results of the functional comparison contain potential functional analogues for more than 79000 gene products from the most important species. 46% of the analyzed gene products are well enough described for such an analysis to individuate functional analogues, such as well-known members of the same gene family, or gene products with similar functions which would never have been associated by standard methods. Conclusion ENGINE has produced a list of potential functionally analogous relations between gene products within and between species using, in place of the sequence, the gene description of the GO, thus demonstrating the potential of the GO. However, the current limiting factor is the quality of the associations of many gene products from non-model organisms that often have

  17. Electric Field Reconstruction in the Image Plane of a High-Contrast Coronagraph Using a Set of Pinholes Around the Lyot Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giveon, Amir; Kern, Brian; Shaklan, Stuart; Wallace, Kent; Noecker, Charley

    2012-01-01

    The pair-wise estimation has been used now on various testbeds with different coronagraphs with the best contrast results to date. Pinholes estimate has been implemented and ready to be tested in closed loop correction. Pinholes estimate offers an independent method. We hope to improve the calibration process to gain better estimates.

  18. StrengthsFinder Signature Themes of Talent in Doctor of Pharmacy Students in Five Midwestern Pharmacy Schools

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Karen B.; Kelley, Katherine A.; Marshall, Vincent D.; Plake, Kimberly S.; Scott, Steven A.; Sorensen, Todd D.; Yee, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe student pharmacists’ Signature Themes from the Clifton StrengthsFinder across 5 Midwestern pharmacy institutions and to compare themes by gender, institution, and undergraduate population. Methods. Student pharmacists completed the StrengthsFinder 2.0 assessment and received their top 5 Signature Themes. Themes were organized and examined by domains (Executing, Influencing, Relationship Building, Strategic Thinking). The distribution of the themes was compared between student pharmacists and undergraduates and themes and domains were compared by institution and gender. Results. Although results varied by institution, the top 5 themes among the 1244 of 1250 students (99.5%) who completed the assessment were: Achiever, Harmony, Learner, Responsibility, and Empathy. Female student pharmacists had more themes in Executing and Relationship Building, while males had more themes in Influencing and Strategic Thinking. Pharmacy students exhibit more Executing domain talents and fewer Influencing domain talents compared with undergraduates. Conclusion. Signature Themes were consistent among student pharmacists across 5 Midwestern colleges of pharmacy. PMID:26089558

  19. Forecast-based Integrated Flood Detection System for Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (Flood-FINDER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcorace, Mauro; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Dell'Oro, Luca; Bjorgo, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Most flood prone areas in the globe are mainly located in developing countries where making communities more flood resilient is a priority. Despite different flood forecasting initiatives are now available from academia and research centers, what is often missing is the connection between the timely hazard detection and the community response to warnings. In order to bridge the gap between science and decision makers, UN agencies play a key role on the dissemination of information in the field and on capacity-building to local governments. In this context, having a reliable global early warning system in the UN would concretely improve existing in house capacities for Humanitarian Response and the Disaster Risk Reduction. For those reasons, UNITAR-UNOSAT has developed together with USGS and CIMA Foundation a Global Flood EWS called "Flood-FINDER". The Flood-FINDER system is a modelling chain which includes meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic models that are accurately linked to enable the production of warnings and forecast inundation scenarios up to three weeks in advance. The system is forced with global satellite derived precipitation products and Numerical Weather Prediction outputs. The modelling chain is based on the "Continuum" hydrological model and risk assessments produced for GAR2015. In combination with existing hydraulically reconditioned SRTM data and 1D hydraulic models, flood scenarios are derived at multiple scales and resolutions. Climate and flood data are shared through a Web GIS integrated platform. First validation of the modelling chain has been conducted through a flood hindcasting test case, over the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand, using multi temporal satellite-based analysis derived for the exceptional flood event of 2011. In terms of humanitarian relief operations, the EO-based services of flood mapping in rush mode generally suffer from delays caused by the time required for their activation, programming, acquisitions and

  20. A 400-3500 nm spectroscopy through a common-path interfero coronagraph instrument on 600 mm telescope on RS ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavrov, A.; Korablev, O.; Ksanfomaliti, L.; Gnedykh, V.; Rodin, A.; Nishikawa, J.; Tamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Kurokawa, T.

    2010-10-01

    A 10e6...10e10 high-contrast coronagraphy is required to image and to characterize extra-solar planetary systems among other faint astronomical targets observed in the vicinity of bright objects. Stellar coronagraphy becomes a rapidly evolving field with many enhanced alternatives to the classical Lyot coronagraph. In this list, an interfero-coronagraph (AIC) is advanced because its wide achromaticity and because its leading spatial resolution specified as the IWA. We developed a common-path achromatic interfero-coronagraph CP-AIC to maintain an OPD trend in an AIC method. At next we proposed the tandem TCP-AIC to obtain a 10e10 coronagraphic contrast at 0.8xλ/D IWA by the ratio of planet to star separation to the stellar size at 0.01xλ/D as considering the Earth-Sun pair. Perspective survey for exoplanets and for faint contrast astronomical objects combines coronagraphy and spectroscopy to enable a material- and potential bio-markers recognition. Solar System planetology has a wide use of observing spectroscopy from surface geology to atmosphere climatology. A 600 mm space telescope is scheduled to monitor the planets spectral identities on the board of Russian Segment of ISS. Among the telescope instruments is a stellar coronagraph (CP-AIC) with a CCD camera observing in a visible wavelength range. CP-AIC is co-linked with a low resolution spectrometer covering 1000...3500 nm to identify the spectral characteristics of faint objects. Special efforts correct a 600 mm telescope pointing error.

  1. A Coronagraphic Survey for Circumstellar Disks Around Main Sequence and Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalas, Paul George

    1996-12-01

    We search for optical reflection nebulosity around ~100 main sequence and pre-main sequence stars to test the hypothesis that Vega-like stars possess replenished dust disks. A Lyot coronagraph is used to suppress light from the central star and to observe the circumstellar environment closer to planet-forming regions than is possible through direct imaging. A model of scattered light from axisymmetric circumstellar disks is developed to establish the sensitivity limits of our observations. Circumstellar nebulosities are detected around four main sequence stars: β Pic, BD +31o 643, HR 241, and HR 1307. No circumstellar disks are found around ~100 other main sequence stars, including Vega, Fomalhaut, HD 98800, HR 4796, and 51 Oph. Non-detections of disks in the main sequence sample, combined with the sensitivity limits, suggest that the optical scattering cross-section of dust at 102 - 103 AU radii is not strongly correlated to the thermal cross-section at 1-10 AU radii. We show that the prominence of the β Pic disk is primarily a result of its large scattering cross-section, rather than its edge-on inclination or close proximity to the Sun (Kalas & Jewitt 1996). Five types of asymmetry are identified and measured in the disk morphology (Kalas & Jewitt 1995). The observed tilt of the midplane may result from a small inclination (<= 5o) of the disk to our line of sight, combined with a non-isotropic scattering phase function. The remaining four asymmetries indicate a non-axisymmetric distribution of orbiting dust particles between 150 and 800 AU projected radius. The disk may have been gravitationally perturbed in the past 102 to 103 years, though a perturbing agent is not detected. A nebulosity imaged near the B5V double star BD +31o 643 is identified as a circumstellar disk candidate based on its morphological similarity to β Pic and our model disks (Kalas & Jewitt 1997). The disk has a position angle 131o, a projected radius of ~2000 AU, an inclination of i

  2. Simulation framework for electromagnetic effects in plasmonics, filter apertures, wafer scattering, grating mirrors, and nano-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceperley, Daniel Peter

    This thesis presents a Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation framework as well as both scientific observations and quantitative design data for emerging optical devices. These emerging applications required the development of simulation capabilities to carefully control numerical experimental conditions, isolate and quantifying specific scattering processes, and overcome memory and run-time limitations on large device structures. The framework consists of a new version 7 of TEMPEST and auxiliary tools implemented as Matlab scripts. In improving the geometry representation and absorbing boundary conditions in TEMPEST from v6 the accuracy has been sustained and key improvements have yielded application specific speed and accuracy improvements. These extensions include pulsed methods, PML for plasmon termination, and plasmon and scattered field sources. The auxiliary tools include application specific methods such as signal flow graphs of plasmon couplers, Bloch mode expansions of sub-wavelength grating waves, and back-propagation methods to characterize edge scattering in diffraction masks. Each application posed different numerical hurdles and physical questions for the simulation framework. The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph required accurate modeling of diffraction mask structures too large for solely FDTD analysis. This analysis was achieved through a combination of targeted TEMPEST simulations and full system simulator based on thin mask scalar diffraction models by Ball Aerospace for JPL. TEMPEST simulation showed that vertical sidewalls were the strongest scatterers, adding nearly 2lambda of light per mask edge, which could be reduced by 20° undercuts. TEMPEST assessment of coupling in rapid thermal annealing was complicated by extremely sub-wavelength features and fine meshes. Near 100% coupling and low variability was confirmed even in the presence of unidirectional dense metal gates. Accurate analysis of surface plasmon coupling efficiency by

  3. Debris Disks in Aggregate: Using Hubble Space Telescope Coronagraphic Imagery to Understand the Scattered-Light Disk Detection Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of coronagraphic imaging of debris disk candidate stars, only 16 have been imaged in scattered light. Since imaged disks provide our best insight into processes which sculpt disks, and can provide signposts of the presence of giant planets at distances which would elude radial velocity and transit surveys, we need to understand under what conditions we detect the disks in scattered light, how these disks differ from the majority of debris disks, and how to increase the yield of disks which are imaged with 0.1" angular resolution. In this talk, I will review what we have learned from a shallow HSTINICMOS NIR survey of debris disks, and present first results from our on-going HST /STIS optical imaging of bright scattered-light disks.

  4. Enceladus life finder: the search for life in a habitable moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, Jonathan; Waite, Hunter; Postberg, Frank; Spilker, Linda; Clark, Karla

    2015-04-01

    Is there life elsewhere in the solar system? Guided by the principle that we can most easily recognize life as we know it -- life that requires liquid water -- Enceladus is particularly attractive because liquid water from its deep interior is actively erupting into space, making sampling of the interior straightforward. The Cassini Saturn Orbiter has provided the motivation. In particular, at high resolution, spatial coincidences between individual geysers and small-scale hot spots revealed the liquid reservoir supplying the eruptions to be not in the near-surface but deeper within the moon [1], putting on a firm foundation the principle that sampling the plume allows us to know the composition of the ocean. Sensitive gravity and topography measurements established the location and dimensions of that reservoir: ~ 35 km beneath the SPT ice shell and extending out to at least 50 degrees latitude, implying an interior ocean large enough to have been stable over geologic time [2]. The Cassini ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) discovered organic and nitrogen-bearing molecules in the plume vapour, and the Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) detected salts in the plume icy grains, arguing strongly for ocean water being in con-tact with a rocky core [3], [4]. As much as Cassini has done, it cannot provide detailed information on the ocean environment that allow for a quantitative assessment of the potential for life. Acquiring such knowledge represents the essential first step in characterizing the nature of the subsurface ocean and its biological potential. Enceladus Life Finder, or ELF, is a solar-powered Saturn orbiter designed to fly multiple times through the plume of Enceladus.The goals of the mission are derived directly from the most recent decadal survey: first, to determine primordial sources of organics and the sites of organic synthesis today, and second, to determine if there are modern habitats in the solar system beyond Earth where the conditions for life exist

  5. Proteome TopFIND 3.0 with TopFINDer and PathFINDer: database and analysis tools for the association of protein termini to pre- and post-translational events

    PubMed Central

    Fortelny, Nikolaus; Yang, Sharon; Pavlidis, Paul; Lange, Philipp F.; Overall, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledgebase TopFIND is an analysis platform focussed on protein termini, their origin, modification and hence their role on protein structure and function. Here, we present a major update to TopFIND, version 3, which includes a 70% increase in the underlying data to now cover a 90 696 proteins, 165 044 N-termini, 130 182 C-termini, 14 382 cleavage sites and 33 209 substrate cleavages in H. sapiens, M. musculus, A. thaliana, S. cerevisiae and E. coli. New features include the mapping of protein termini and cleavage entries across protein isoforms and significantly, the mapping of protein termini originating from alternative transcription and alternative translation start sites. Furthermore, two analysis tools for complex data analysis based on the TopFIND resource are now available online: TopFINDer, the TopFIND ExploRer, characterizes and annotates proteomics-derived N- or C-termini sets for their origin, sequence context and implications for protein structure and function. Neo-termini are also linked to associated proteases. PathFINDer identifies indirect connections between a protease and list of substrates or termini thus supporting the evaluation of complex proteolytic processes in vivo. To demonstrate the utility of the tools, a recent N-terminomics data set of inflamed murine skin has been re-analyzed. In re-capitulating the major findings originally performed manually, this validates the utility of these new resources. The point of entry for the resource is http://clipserve.clip.ubc.ca/topfind from where the graphical interface, all application programming interfaces (API) and the analysis tools are freely accessible. PMID:25332401

  6. A Case Study in High Contrast Coronagraph for Planet Discovery: The Eclipse Concept and Support Laboratory Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Eclipse is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to perform a sensitive imaging survey of nearby planetary systems, including a survey for jovian-sized planets orbiting Sun-like stars to distances of 15 pc. We outline the science objectives of the Eclipse mission and review recent developments in the key enabling technologies. Eclipse is a space telescope concept for high-contrast visible-wavelength imaging and spectrophotometry. Its design incorporates a telescope with an unobscured aperture of 1.8 meters, a coronographic camera for suppression of diffracted light, and precise active wavefront correction for the suppression of scattered background light. For reference, Eclipse is designed to reduce the diffracted and scattered starlight between 0.33 and 1.5 arcseconds from the star by three orders of magnitude compared to any HST instrument. The Eclipse mission provides precursor science exploration and technology experience in support of NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) program.

  7. 100 and counting : SOHO's score as the world's top comet finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    Like nearly all of SOHO's discoveries, the 100th comet showed up in images from the LASCO instrument. This is a set of coronagraphs that view the space around the Sun out to 20 million kilometres, while blotting out the bright solar disk with masks. Developed for SOHO by a multinational team led by the US Naval Research Laboratory, LASCO watches for mass ejections from the Sun that threaten to disturb the Earth's space environment. The comet discoveries are a big bonus. SOHO's experts spot many of the comets as soon as the images come in. But still pictures and movies from LASCO are freely available on the Internet to astronomers around the world, who can discover less obvious comets without leaving their desks. This was the case when Kazimieras Cernis of the Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy in Vilnius, Lithuania, found SOHO-100. "On 4 February I saw the comet as a small speck of light in the previous day's LASCO images," Cernis explained. "It had no visible tail, but it was too fuzzy to be an asteroid. By the time I had seen the object moving steadily across the sky in six successive images, I was convinced it was a comet and I sent the details to the SOHO scientists for verification." The competition to find SOHO's 100th comet was keen. An amateur astronomer, Maik Meyer of Frauenstein, Germany, discovered SOHO-98 and 99. On 5 February, less than 24 hours after Cernis reported the candidate SOHO-100, Meyer found the candidate SOHO-101. On the same day and in the same LASCO images Douglas Biesecker, a member of the SOHO science team, spotted the candidate SOHO-102 travelling ahead of 101. Computations have now validated the orbits for all three candidates, and shown them to be bona fide comet discoveries. Other amateur astronomers have used the LASCO images to find comets. In the summer of 1999 Terry Lovejoy in Australia found five, and since September 1999 an amateur in England, Jonathan Shanklin, has spotted three more. "SOHO is a special chance for

  8. Development of Measurement Device of Working Radius of Crane Based on Single CCD Camera and Laser Range Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Satoru

    In this paper, what we want to do is to develop an observation device to measure the working radius of a crane truck. The device has a single CCD camera, a laser range finder and two AC servo motors. First, in order to measure the working radius, we need to consider algorithm of a crane hook recognition. Then, we attach the cross mark on the crane hook. Namely, instead of the crane hook, we try to recognize the cross mark. Further, for the observation device, we construct PI control system with an extended Kalman filter to track the moving cross mark. Through experiments, we show the usefulness of our device including new control system of mark tracking.

  9. Review of polarization techniques for optimal performance of one and two color wavelength laser range finders and designators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Marco A.

    2015-02-01

    Laser range finders (LRF) and target designators (TD) for military applications usually have stringent environmental requirements for optimal performance. Current technology and system architectures need LRF and TD lasers to function in more than one color (near IR and eye safe wavelengths) for multiple ground and airborne applications. In addition, these kind of lasers need to be packaged inside a small space for portability. It is for these reasons that a folded crossed porro-polarization- out coupled resonators is usually the chosen geometry. This work will explore polarization techniques to design a laser resonator cavity that works perfectly for more than one color, sometimes without the need of actual birefringence components (i.e waveplates) to achieve the goal of a stable laser resonator.

  10. Piles of Rocks Create Mountains of Understanding; The Fossil Finders Model for success in Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pella-Donnelly, M. A.; Daley, B.; Crawford, B.

    2010-12-01

    Through the implementation of the Fossil Finders Resources and Tools Project; students across the country have found increased academic understanding of biological evolution. Evolution curriculum is currently covered minimally in many elementary and middle schools. Fossil Finders is a collaboration of the Cornell University Department of Education, The Paleontological Institution of Ithaca, New York and classrooms all over the United States. Essential elements of this curriculum include a scaffolded series of lessons on nature of science, making observations and inferences of fossils and development of an increased understanding of essential earth science topics including the Law of Uniformitarianism and the principle of superposition . Through these hands-on lessons, students begin to understand evolutionary theory and nature of science. The rewards of implementing this curriculum can be observed with student excitement as they engage in authentic research; they become student paleontologists as they scour bags of rocks for the fossils that may be unearthed. The rocks had been collected during a field study, by the teachers and are well known to contain a multitude of Devonian era fossils. Students become researchers as they examine, identify, measure and quantify all fossils found in these rocks. As the children contribute their own data to an online database of an actual paleontological study, they become self driven to examine that compiled data in order to construct explanations of past life in that collection area. This presentation will focus on personal experiences of two teachers, as they engaged their students in authentic research in earth science It will focus on using inquiry-based strategies that can be transferred to a multitude of classrooms and how to use this basic format to engage, excite and develop understanding of earth science. Teachers will learn about effective inquiry-based lessons that incorporate aspects nature of science. Additionally

  11. 100 and counting : SOHO's score as the world's top comet finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    Like nearly all of SOHO's discoveries, the 100th comet showed up in images from the LASCO instrument. This is a set of coronagraphs that view the space around the Sun out to 20 million kilometres, while blotting out the bright solar disk with masks. Developed for SOHO by a multinational team led by the US Naval Research Laboratory, LASCO watches for mass ejections from the Sun that threaten to disturb the Earth's space environment. The comet discoveries are a big bonus. SOHO's experts spot many of the comets as soon as the images come in. But still pictures and movies from LASCO are freely available on the Internet to astronomers around the world, who can discover less obvious comets without leaving their desks. This was the case when Kazimieras Cernis of the Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy in Vilnius, Lithuania, found SOHO-100. "On 4 February I saw the comet as a small speck of light in the previous day's LASCO images," Cernis explained. "It had no visible tail, but it was too fuzzy to be an asteroid. By the time I had seen the object moving steadily across the sky in six successive images, I was convinced it was a comet and I sent the details to the SOHO scientists for verification." The competition to find SOHO's 100th comet was keen. An amateur astronomer, Maik Meyer of Frauenstein, Germany, discovered SOHO-98 and 99. On 5 February, less than 24 hours after Cernis reported the candidate SOHO-100, Meyer found the candidate SOHO-101. On the same day and in the same LASCO images Douglas Biesecker, a member of the SOHO science team, spotted the candidate SOHO-102 travelling ahead of 101. Computations have now validated the orbits for all three candidates, and shown them to be bona fide comet discoveries. Other amateur astronomers have used the LASCO images to find comets. In the summer of 1999 Terry Lovejoy in Australia found five, and since September 1999 an amateur in England, Jonathan Shanklin, has spotted three more. "SOHO is a special chance for

  12. Electric Field Reconstruction in the Image Plane of a High-Contrast Coronagraph Using a Set of Pinholes around the Lyot Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giveona, Amir; Shaklan, Stuart; Kern, Brian; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve; Wallace, Kent

    2012-01-01

    In a setup similar to the self coherent camera, we have added a set of pinholes in the diffraction ring of the Lyot plane in a high-contrast stellar Lyot coronagraph. We describe a novel complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements consisting of light in the coronagraph's dark hole interfering with light from the pinholes. The image plane field is modified by letting light through one pinhole at a time. In addition to estimation of the field at the science camera, this method allows for self-calibration of the probes by letting light through the pinholes in various permutations while blocking the main Lyot opening. We present results of estimation and calibration from the High Contrast Imaging Testbed along with a comparison to the pair-wise deformable mirror diversity based estimation technique. Tests are carried out in narrow-band light and over a composite 10% bandpass.

  13. Planet Imaging Coronagraphic Technology Using a Reconfigurable Experimental Base (PICTURE-B): The Second in the Series of Suborbital Exoplanet Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Supriya; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Cook, Timothy A.; Martel, Jason F.; Finn, Susanna C.; Howe, Glenn A.; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S.

    2016-03-01

    The PICTURE-B sounding rocket mission is designed to directly image the exozodiacal light and debris disk around the Sun-like star Epsilon Eridani. The payload used a 0.5m diameter silicon carbide primary mirror and a visible nulling coronagraph which, in conjunction with a fine pointing system capable of 5milliarcsecond stability, was designed to image the circumstellar environment around a nearby star in visible light at small angles from the star and at high contrast. Besides contributing an important science result, PICTURE-B matures essential technology for the detection and characterization of visible light from exoplanetary environments for future larger missions currently being imagined. The experiment was launched from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico on 2015 November 24 and demonstrated the first space operation of a nulling coronagraph and a deformable mirror. Unfortunately, the experiment did not achieve null, hence did not return science results.

  14. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets coronagraphic operations: lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.; Ygouf, Marie; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Golimowski, David A.; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument (CGI) currently proposed for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. We review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA CGI. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: (1) detector health and evolution, (2) wavefront control, (3) observing strategies/postprocessing, (4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and (5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  15. Hybrid Lyot coronagraph for wide-field infrared survey telescope-astrophysics focused telescope assets: occulter fabrication and high contrast narrowband testbed demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Byoung-Joon; Gordon, Brian; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andy; Moody, Dwight; Muller, Richard; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Trauger, John; Wilson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Lyot coronagraph (HLC) is one of the two operating modes of the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument. It produces starlight suppression over the full 360-deg annular region and thus is particularly suitable to improve the discovery space around WFIRST-AFTA targets. Since being selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in December 2013, the coronagraph technology is being matured to technology readiness level 5 by September 2016. We present the progress of HLC key component fabrication and testbed demonstrations with the WFIRST-AFTA pupil. For the first time, a circular HLC occulter mask consisting of metal and dielectric layers is fabricated and characterized. Wavefront control using two deformable mirrors is successfully demonstrated in a vacuum testbed with narrowband light (<1-nm bandwidth at 516 nm) to obtain repeatable convergence below 8×10-9 mean contrast in the 360-deg dark hole with a working angle between 3λ/D and 9λ/D with arbitrary polarization. We detail the hardware and software used in the testbed, the results, and the associated analysis.

  16. 10-7 contrast ratio at 4.5λ/D: New results obtained in laboratory experiments using nano-fabricated coronagraph and multi-Gaussian shaped pupil masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Thompson, Laird A.; Rogosky, Michael

    2005-04-01

    We present here new experimental results on high contrast imaging of 10-7 at 4.λ/D (λ=0.820 microns) by combining a circular focal plane mask (coronagraph) of 2.5λ/D diameter and a multi-Gaussian pupil plane mask. Both the masks were fabricated on very high surface quality (λ/30) BK7 optical substrates using nano-fabrication techniques of photolithography and metal lift-off. This process ensured that the shaped masks have a useable edge roughness better than λ/4 (rms error better than 0.2 microns), a specification that is necessary to realize the predicted theoretical limits of any mask design. Though a theoretical model predicts a contrast level of 10-12, the background noise of the observed images was speckle dominated which reduced the contrast level to 4x10-7 at 4.5λ/D. The optical setup was built on the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System (UnISIS) optics table which is at the Coude focus of the 2.5-m telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. We used a 0.820 micron laser source coupled with a 5 micron single-mode fiber to simulate an artificial star on the optical test bench of UnISIS.

  17. 10(-7) contrast ratio at 4.5lambda/D: New results obtained in laboratory experiments using nano-fabricated coronagraph and multi-Gaussian shaped pupil masks.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Thompson, Laird; Rogosky, Michael

    2005-04-01

    We present here new experimental results on high contrast imaging of 10-7 at 4.lambda/D (lambda=0.820 microns) by combining a circular focal plane mask (coronagraph) of 2.5lambda/D diameter and a multi-Gaussian pupil plane mask. Both the masks were fabricated on very high surface quality (lambda/30) BK7 optical substrates using nano-fabrication techniques of photolithography and metal lift-off. This process ensured that the shaped masks have a useable edge roughness better than lambda/4 (rms error better than 0.2 microns), a specification that is necessary to realize the predicted theoretical limits of any mask design. Though a theoretical model predicts a contrast level of 10-12, the background noise of the observed images was speckle dominated which reduced the contrast level to 4x10-7 at 4.5lambda/D. The optical setup was built on the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System (UnISIS) optics table which is at the Coude focus of the 2.5-m telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. We used a 0.820 micron laser source coupled with a 5 micron single-mode fiber to simulate an artificial star on the optical test bench of UnISIS. PMID:19495130

  18. Prominence material embedded in coronal mass ejections as observed with the LASCO-C2 coronagraph using polarization diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Philippe; Boclet, Brice; Koutchmy, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Prominences are believed to be caused by the formation of a flux rope low in the magnetic structure that eventually erupts to form the CME. Indeed, many CME onset models (e.g., flux cancellation, mass loading) require the presence or formation of a prominence in order for the CME to erupt. The remnants of the cool prominence material is often seen as recognizable twisted structures inside the CME in the lines of He II at 304 Å, of D3 HeI at 587.5 nm, and of Hα at 656 nm, sometime up to a distance of several solar radii from the surface in the latter lines. The orange filter of the LASCO-C2 coronagraph includes the D3 HeI line and its presence in the core of CMEs can be unambiguously detected on polarized images as polarization allows disentangling the contributions from the hot coronal plasma (the polarized Thomson scattered light by electrons) and from the unpolarised emission of cool prominence material. This has been made possible by an in-depth calibration that removes adverse instrumental effects. We will show several examples of CME with embedded prominence material and we will attempt to estimate the mass of this material to be compared with that of the CME. We will also exploit the polarization measurements to reconstruct the 3D geometry of the observed CMEs.

  19. Predicting the near-Sun and Interplanetary Magnetic Field of CMEs using photospheric magnetograms and coronagraph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, Spiros; Georgoulis, Manolis

    2016-04-01

    Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) containing a strong southward magnetic-field component upon arrival at 1 AU statistically account for the most powerful geomagnetic storms. Unfortunately, though, we currently lack routine diagnostics of the magnetic field of CMEs and its evolution in the inner heliosphere and the interplanetary (IP) medium. We hereby present a simple, yet powerful and easy-to-implement, method to deduce the near-Sun and IP magnetic field entrained in CMEs, by using photospheric magnetograms of the solar source regions and multi-viewpoint coronagraph images of the corresponding CMEs. The method relies on the principle of magnetic-helicity conservation in low plasma-beta, flux-rope CMEs and a power-law prescription of the radial evolution of the CME magnetic field in the IP medium. We outline a parametric study based on the observed statistics of input parameters to calculate a matrix of magnetic-field solutions for 10000 synthetic CMEs. The robustness and possible limitations / ramifications of the method are deduced by a comparison with the distributions of the predicted CME-ICME magnetic fields at 0.3 and 1 AU using actual Messenger and ACE published observations.

  20. A Glimpse at Quasar Host Galaxy Far-UV Emission Using Damped Lyα's as Natural Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Wang, Ran; McGreer, Ian; Carithers, Bill; Bian, Fuyan; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Finley, Hayley; Pâris, Isabelle; Schneider, Donald P.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ge, Jian; Petitjean, Patrick; Slosar, Anze

    2014-10-01

    In merger-driven models of massive galaxy evolution, the luminous quasar phase is expected to be accompanied by vigorous star formation in quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we use high column density damped Lyα (DLA) systems along quasar sight lines as natural coronagraphs to directly study the far-UV (FUV) radiation from the host galaxies of luminous background quasars. We have stacked the spectra of ~2000 DLA systems (N H I > 1020.6 cm-2) with a median absorption redshift langzrang = 2.6 selected from quasars observed in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We detect residual flux in the dark troughs of the composite DLA spectra. The level of this residual flux significantly exceeds systematic errors in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey fiber sky subtraction; furthermore, the residual flux is strongly correlated with the continuum luminosity of the background quasar, while uncorrelated with DLA column density or metallicity. We conclude that the flux could be associated with the average FUV radiation from the background quasar host galaxies (with medium redshift langzrang = 3.1) that is not blocked by the intervening DLA. Assuming that all of the detected flux originates from quasar hosts, for the highest quasar luminosity bin (langLrang = 2.5 × 1013 L ⊙), the host galaxy has an FUV intensity of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 1040 erg s-1 Å-1 this corresponds to an unobscured UV star formation rate of 9 M ⊙ yr-1.

  1. An HST/NICMOS Coronagraphic Imaging Survey of Protoplanetary and Debris Disks Through the Epochs of Planet-Building.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, G.; HST/GO 10177 Team

    2005-12-01

    During HST Cycle 13 we conducted a highly sensitive 52-target NICMOS coronagraphic circumstellar disk imaging survey. Our survey provides: (a) critically needed high resolution scattered-light imagery of protoplanetary and debris disks to assist in discriminating between proposed evolutionary scenarios in the epochs of planet-building, (b) a legacy of cataloged disk morphologies for interpreting mid- and far-IR SEDs (e.g., Spitzer) and (c) reliable, spatially resolved, photometry and flux density limits for non-detections. Our high-contrast scattered-light imagery yields, directly, the spatial distribution of the grains for disks detected within the sensitivity limits of our survey and which cannot be uniquely inferred from (longer-wavelength) spectral energy distributions alone. Asymmetries (e.g., warps, gaps, arc, spirals, rings, axial anisotropies, etc.) in the spatial distributions of dusty debris in evolved disks provide evidence for unseen co-orbital planetary-mass companions through their dynamical interactions with the disk grains. Spatially resolved flux-density limits for non-detections provide constraints to break degeneracies in possible disk geometries and compositions which are otherwise coupled in SED models of thermally emissive disks. We provide an overview of our survey, highlighted with results from both our YSO and debris disk targets. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant number GO-10177 from STScI, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  2. Statistics of dark matter substructure - II. Comparison of model with simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bosch, Frank C.; Jiang, Fangzhou

    2016-05-01

    We compare subhalo mass and velocity functions obtained from different simulations with different subhalo finders among each other, and with predictions from the new semi-analytical model presented in Paper I. We find that subhalo mass functions (SHMFs) obtained using different subhalo finders agree with each other at the level of ˜20 per cent, but only at the low-mass end. At the massive end, subhalo finders that identify subhaloes based purely on density in configuration space dramatically underpredict the subhalo abundances by more than an order of magnitude. These problems are much less severe for subhalo velocity functions (SHVFs), indicating that they arise from issues related to assigning masses to the subhaloes, rather than from detecting them. Overall the predictions from the semi-analytical model are in excellent agreement with simulation results obtained using the more advanced subhalo finders that use information in six-dimensional phase-space. In particular, the model accurately reproduces the slope and host-mass-dependent normalization of both the subhalo mass and velocity functions. We find that the SHMFs and SHVFs have power-law slopes of 0.86 and 2.77, respectively, significantly shallower than what has been claimed in several studies in the literature.

  3. The habitable-zone planet finder: a stabilized fiber-fed NIR spectrograph for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence; Bender, Chad; Terrien, Ryan; Wright, Jason T.; Halverson, Sam; Hearty, Fred; Nelson, Matt; Burton, Adam; Redman, Stephen; Osterman, Steven; Diddams, Scott; Kasting, James; Endl, Michael; Deshpande, Rohit

    2012-09-01

    We present the scientific motivation and conceptual design for the recently funded Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF), a stabilized fiber-fed near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph for the 10 meter class Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) that will be capable of discovering low mass planets around M dwarfs. The HPF will cover the NIR Y and J bands to enable precise radial velocities to be obtained on mid M dwarfs, and enable the detection of low mass planets around these stars. The conceptual design is comprised of a cryostat cooled to 200K, a dual fiber-feed with a science and calibration fiber, a gold coated mosaic echelle grating, and a Teledyne Hawaii-2RG (H2RG) *NIR detector with a 1.7μm cutoff. A uranium-neon hollow-cathode lamp is the baseline wavelength calibration source, and we are actively testing laser frequency combs to enable even higher radial velocity precision. We will present the overall instrument system design and integration with the HET, and discuss major system challenges, key choices, and ongoing research and development projects to mitigate risk. We also discuss the ongoing process of target selection for the HPF survey.

  4. Fusing Range Measurements from Ultrasonic Beacons and a Laser Range Finder for Localization of a Mobile Robot

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Nak Yong; Kuc, Tae-Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for mobile robot localization in a partially unknown indoor environment. The method fuses two types of range measurements: the range from the robot to the beacons measured by ultrasonic sensors and the range from the robot to the walls surrounding the robot measured by a laser range finder (LRF). For the fusion, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is utilized. Because finding the Jacobian matrix is not feasible for range measurement using an LRF, UKF has an advantage in this situation over the extended KF. The locations of the beacons and range data from the beacons are available, whereas the correspondence of the range data to the beacon is not given. Therefore, the proposed method also deals with the problem of data association to determine which beacon corresponds to the given range data. The proposed approach is evaluated using different sets of design parameter values and is compared with the method that uses only an LRF or ultrasonic beacons. Comparative analysis shows that even though ultrasonic beacons are sparsely populated, have a large error and have a slow update rate, they improve the localization performance when fused with the LRF measurement. In addition, proper adjustment of the UKF design parameters is crucial for full utilization of the UKF approach for sensor fusion. This study contributes to the derivation of a UKF-based design methodology to fuse two exteroceptive measurements that are complementary to each other in localization. PMID:25970259

  5. LobeFinder: A Convex Hull-Based Method for Quantitative Boundary Analyses of Lobed Plant Cells1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tzu-Ching; Belteton, Samuel A.; Szymanski, Daniel B.; Umulis, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Dicot leaves are composed of a heterogeneous mosaic of jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells that vary greatly in size and the complexity of their shape. Given the importance of the epidermis and this particular cell type for leaf expansion, there is a strong need to understand how pavement cells morph from a simple polyhedral shape into highly lobed and interdigitated cells. At present, it is still unclear how and when the patterns of lobing are initiated in pavement cells, and one major technological bottleneck to addressing the problem is the lack of a robust and objective methodology to identify and track lobing events during the transition from simple cell geometry to lobed cells. We developed a convex hull-based algorithm termed LobeFinder to identify lobes, quantify geometric properties, and create a useful graphical output of cell coordinates for further analysis. The algorithm was validated against manually curated images of pavement cells of widely varying sizes and shapes. The ability to objectively count and detect new lobe initiation events provides an improved quantitative framework to analyze mutant phenotypes, detect symmetry-breaking events in time-lapse image data, and quantify the time-dependent correlation between cell shape change and intracellular factors that may play a role in the morphogenesis process. PMID:27288363

  6. The Automated Planet Finder's detection of a 6-planet system orbiting the bright, nearby star HD219134

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer; Laughlin, Greg; Meschiari, Stefano; Vogt, Steve; Butler, R. Paul

    2015-12-01

    The Automated Planet Finder (APF) is the newest facility at Lick Observatory, comprised of a 2.4m telescope coupled with the high-resolution Levy echelle spectrograph. Purpose built for exoplanet detection and characterization, 80% of the telescope's observing time is dedicated to these science goals. The APF has demonstrated 1 m/s radial velocity precision on bright, RV standard stars and performs with the same speed-on-sky as Keck/HIRES when observing M-dwarfs.The APF has contributed to the detection of four planetary systems in its first two years of scientific operations. Our most recent detection is that of a 6-planet system around the bright (V=5.5), nearby (d=6.5pc), K3V star HD219134. The planets in this system have masses ranging from 3.5 to108 MEarth, with orbital periods from 3 to 2247 days. An independent detection of the inner 4 planets in this system by the HARPS-N team has shown that the 3d planet transits the star, making this system ideal for follow-up observations.I will discuss the APF's detections to date, highlighting HD219134, as well as the overall performance results of the telescope and our future observing strategy.

  7. Fusing range measurements from ultrasonic beacons and a laser range finder for localization of a mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Ko, Nak Yong; Kuc, Tae-Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for mobile robot localization in a partially unknown indoor environment. The method fuses two types of range measurements: the range from the robot to the beacons measured by ultrasonic sensors and the range from the robot to the walls surrounding the robot measured by a laser range finder (LRF). For the fusion, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is utilized. Because finding the Jacobian matrix is not feasible for range measurement using an LRF, UKF has an advantage in this situation over the extended KF. The locations of the beacons and range data from the beacons are available, whereas the correspondence of the range data to the beacon is not given. Therefore, the proposed method also deals with the problem of data association to determine which beacon corresponds to the given range data. The proposed approach is evaluated using different sets of design parameter values and is compared with the method that uses only an LRF or ultrasonic beacons. Comparative analysis shows that even though ultrasonic beacons are sparsely populated, have a large error and have a slow update rate, they improve the localization performance when fused with the LRF measurement. In addition, proper adjustment of the UKF design parameters is crucial for full utilization of the UKF approach for sensor fusion. This study contributes to the derivation of a UKF-based design methodology to fuse two exteroceptive measurements that are complementary to each other in localization. PMID:25970259

  8. LobeFinder: A Convex Hull-Based Method for Quantitative Boundary Analyses of Lobed Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Ching; Belteton, Samuel A; Pack, Jessica; Szymanski, Daniel B; Umulis, David M

    2016-08-01

    Dicot leaves are composed of a heterogeneous mosaic of jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells that vary greatly in size and the complexity of their shape. Given the importance of the epidermis and this particular cell type for leaf expansion, there is a strong need to understand how pavement cells morph from a simple polyhedral shape into highly lobed and interdigitated cells. At present, it is still unclear how and when the patterns of lobing are initiated in pavement cells, and one major technological bottleneck to addressing the problem is the lack of a robust and objective methodology to identify and track lobing events during the transition from simple cell geometry to lobed cells. We developed a convex hull-based algorithm termed LobeFinder to identify lobes, quantify geometric properties, and create a useful graphical output of cell coordinates for further analysis. The algorithm was validated against manually curated images of pavement cells of widely varying sizes and shapes. The ability to objectively count and detect new lobe initiation events provides an improved quantitative framework to analyze mutant phenotypes, detect symmetry-breaking events in time-lapse image data, and quantify the time-dependent correlation between cell shape change and intracellular factors that may play a role in the morphogenesis process. PMID:27288363

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the CellFinder literature curation pipeline for gene expression in kidney cells and anatomical parts

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Mariana; Damaschun, Alexander; Mah, Nancy; Lekschas, Fritz; Seltmann, Stefanie; Stachelscheid, Harald; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Kurtz, Andreas; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical literature curation is the process of automatically and/or manually deriving knowledge from scientific publications and recording it into specialized databases for structured delivery to users. It is a slow, error-prone, complex, costly and, yet, highly important task. Previous experiences have proven that text mining can assist in its many phases, especially, in triage of relevant documents and extraction of named entities and biological events. Here, we present the curation pipeline of the CellFinder database, a repository of cell research, which includes data derived from literature curation and microarrays to identify cell types, cell lines, organs and so forth, and especially patterns in gene expression. The curation pipeline is based on freely available tools in all text mining steps, as well as the manual validation of extracted data. Preliminary results are presented for a data set of 2376 full texts from which >4500 gene expression events in cell or anatomical part have been extracted. Validation of half of this data resulted in a precision of ∼50% of the extracted data, which indicates that we are on the right track with our pipeline for the proposed task. However, evaluation of the methods shows that there is still room for improvement in the named-entity recognition and that a larger and more robust corpus is needed to achieve a better performance for event extraction. Database URL: http://www.cellfinder.org/ PMID:23599415

  10. In-flight UV and polarized-VL radiometric calibrations of the solar orbiter/METIS imaging coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Capobianco, G.; Andretta, V.; Sasso, C.; Romoli, M.; Landini, F.; Fineschi, S.; Pancrazzi, M.; Bemporad, A.; Nicolini, G.; Pucci, S.; Uslenghi, M.; Naletto, G.; Nicolosi, P.; Spadaro, D.; Teriaca, L.; SchuÌhle, U. H.; Antonucci, E.

    2014-07-01

    METIS is an innovative inverted occulted solar coronagraph capable of obtaining for the first time simultaneous imaging of the full corona in linearly polarized visible-light (580-640 nm) and narrow-band (+/- 10 nm) ultraviolet H I Ly-α (121.6 nm). It has been selected to fly aboard the Solar Orbiter1 spacecraft, whose launch is foreseen in July 2017. Thanks to its own capabilities and exploiting the peculiar opportunities offered by the Solar Orbiter planned orbit, METIS will address some of the still open issues in understanding the physical processes in the corona and inner heliosphere. The Solar Orbiter Nominal Mission Phase (NMP) will be characterized by three scientific observing windows per orbit and METIS will perform at least one in-flight calibration per observing window. The two imaging channels of METIS will be calibrated on ground and periodically checked, verified and re-calibrated in-flight. In particular, radiometric calibration images will be needed to determine the absolute brightness of the solar corona. For UV radiometric calibration a set of targets is represented by continuum-emitting early type bright stars (e.g. A and B spectral types) whose photospheres produce a bright far-ultraviolet continuum spectrum stable over long timescales. These stars represent an important reference standard not only for METIS in-flight calibrations but also for other Solar Orbiter instruments and they will be crucial for instruments cross-calibrations as well. For VL radiometric calibration, a set of linearly polarized stars will be used. These targets shall have a minimum degree of linear polarization (DoLP > 5%) and a detectable magnitude, compatible with the instrument integration times constrained by the desired S/N ratio and the characteristics of the spacecraft orbit dynamics.

  11. HST/ACS Coronagraphic Observations of the HD 163296 Circumstellar Disk: Evidence of Time-Variable Self-Shadowing?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisniewski, J.; Dowling, Lorraine; Clampin, Mark; Grady, C.; Ardila, D.; Golimowski, D.; Illingworth, G.; Krist, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) coronagraphic observations of the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. HD 163296's scattered light disk was resolved in the F606W and F814W filters in observations obtained In 2003 and in the F435W filter in observations obtained in 2004. Analysis of single-epoch data indicates that the disk (V-I) color is redder than the observed stellar (V-I) color. This spatially uniform red disk color might be indicative of either an evolution in the grain size distribution (i.e. grain growth) and/or composition. Both of these processes would be consistent with the observed flat geometry of the outer disk, as diagnosed by the observed r$(exp -3)$ power law behavior of its median azimuthally averaged disk surface brightness, which suggest that grain evolution is occurring. Comparison of ACS and STIS epoch scattered light data reveals differences in the observed disk surface brightnesses, of order 1 mag arcsec$(exp -2)$, in both V and white-light filter bandpasses. Along with the observed variability in the visibility and surface brightness of the ansa(e) in the disk, and spectropolarimetric variability of the system, these results suggest that the resolved scattered light disk is variable, a phenomenon not previously observed in any other Herbig protoplanetary system We speculate that the observed behavior might be attributable to the variable inflation of the scale height of the inner disk wall, which results in variable self-shadowing of the outer disk.

  12. A glimpse at quasar host galaxy far-UV emission using damped Lyα's as natural coronagraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Ran; McGreer, Ian; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Finley, Hayley; Petitjean, Patrick; Carithers, Bill; Bian, Fuyan; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Pâris, Isabelle; Schneider, Donald P.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ge, Jian; Slosar, Anze

    2014-10-01

    In merger-driven models of massive galaxy evolution, the luminous quasar phase is expected to be accompanied by vigorous star formation in quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we use high column density damped Lyα (DLA) systems along quasar sight lines as natural coronagraphs to directly study the far-UV (FUV) radiation from the host galaxies of luminous background quasars. We have stacked the spectra of ∼2000 DLA systems (N {sub H} {sub I} > 10{sup 20.6} cm{sup –2}) with a median absorption redshift (z) = 2.6 selected from quasars observed in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We detect residual flux in the dark troughs of the composite DLA spectra. The level of this residual flux significantly exceeds systematic errors in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey fiber sky subtraction; furthermore, the residual flux is strongly correlated with the continuum luminosity of the background quasar, while uncorrelated with DLA column density or metallicity. We conclude that the flux could be associated with the average FUV radiation from the background quasar host galaxies (with medium redshift (z) = 3.1) that is not blocked by the intervening DLA. Assuming that all of the detected flux originates from quasar hosts, for the highest quasar luminosity bin ((L) = 2.5 × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}), the host galaxy has an FUV intensity of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} Å{sup –1}; this corresponds to an unobscured UV star formation rate of 9 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}.

  13. Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs for Arbitrary Apertures. V. Hybrid Shaped Pupil Designs for Imaging Earth-like planets with Future Space Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Carlotti, Alexis; Stark, Christopher C.; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a new class of solutions for Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs (APLC) with segmented aperture telescopes to remove broadband diffracted light from a star with a contrast level of 1010. These new coronagraphs provide a key advance to enabling direct imaging and spectroscopy of Earth twins with future large space missions. Building on shaped pupil (SP) apodization optimizations, our approach enables two-dimensional optimizations of the system to address any aperture features such as central obstruction, support structures, or segment gaps. We illustrate the technique with a design that could reach a 1010 contrast level at 34 mas for a 12 m segmented telescope over a 10% bandpass centered at a wavelength of {λ }0 = 500 nm. These designs can be optimized specifically for the presence of a resolved star and, in our example, for stellar angular size up to 1.1 mas. This would allow one to probe the vicinity of Sun-like stars located beyond 4.4 pc, therefore, fully retiring this concern. If the fraction of stars with Earth-like planets is {η }\\oplus =0.1, with 18% throughput, assuming a perfect, stable wavefront and considering photon noise only, 12.5 exo-Earth candidates could be detected around nearby stars with this design and a 12 m space telescope during a five-year mission with two years dedicated to exo-Earth detection (one total year of exposure time and another year of overheads). Our new hybrid APLC/SP solutions represent the first numerical solution of a coronagraph based on existing mask technologies and compatible with segmented apertures, and that can provide contrast compatible with detecting and studying Earth-like planets around nearby stars. They represent an important step forward toward enabling these science goals with future large space missions.

  14. Small satellites for big science: the challenges of high-density design in the DLR Kompaktsatellit AsteroidFinder/SSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thimo Grundmann, Jan

    initiated the Kompaktsatellit line of development. It is intended to enable dedicated missions for science projects that would earlier have resulted in one full-scale scientific instrument among many sharing a ride on a large platform without the perspective of follow-on within an academic career lifetime. In an internal competition, the AsteroidFinder instrument dedicated to the search for small bodies orbiting the Sun interior to Earth's orbit has been selected as the payload to fly first on a Kompaktsatellit. Alongside, the Standard Satellite Bus kit, /SSB, is being developed, based on extensive re-use of experience, concepts, and components of the DLR satellites BIRD and TET. It is designed to avoid the overhead carried by pre-defined standard bus concepts while allowing for seamless integration of the payload into an organic spacecraft design. Challenges encountered and solutions found across the subsystems of AsteroidFinder/SSB will be presented.

  15. Wireless Laser Range Finder System for Vertical Displacement Monitoring of Mega-Trusses during Construction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Seon; Son, Sewook; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed. PMID:23648650

  16. Wireless laser range finder system for vertical displacement monitoring of mega-trusses during construction.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Seon; Son, Sewook; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed. PMID:23648650

  17. Optimized design of a TOF laser range finder based on time-correlated single-photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanqin; Yang, Yixin; Huang, Zhe; Cao, YangYang; Gui, Huaqiao

    2014-11-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) laser range finder based on time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) has been developed. By using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (G-APD) with the ability of detecting single-photon events and Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) with picosecond resolution, a good linearity with 4.5 cm range precision can be achieved in the range of 1-10 m. This paper highlights a significant advance in improving the key parameters of this system, including the range precision and measurement dynamic range. In our experiments, it was found that both of the precision and the measurement dynamic range were limited by the signal to noise rate (SNR) and the inherent jitter of system. The range precision can be improved by enhancing the SNR of system. However, when the SNR is high enough, the main factors affecting the range precision will turn into the inherent jitter, which makes the range precision can not be improved infinitely. Moreover, the inherent jitter generated by pulsed laser and the signal processing module has been measured, and its influence on the system performance has also been discussed. Taking all of these factors into account, some optimized designs have been proposed to improve range precision and dynamic range simultaneously. The final experiment results show that, after all of these optimization designs, the range precision of system is better than 1.2 cm and the measurement dynamic range is enlarged to 54 m when the sampling time is as short as 1 ms, which is sufficient for many applications of 3D object recognition, computer vision, reverse engineering and virtual reality.

  18. Performance of the VLT Planet Finder SPHERE. II. Data analysis and results for IFS in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Zurlo, A.; Vigan, A.; Claudi, R. U.; Alberi, M.; Antichi, J.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Costille, A.; Desidera, S.; Dohlen, K.; Fantinel, D.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Giro, E.; Henning, T.; Kasper, M.; Langlois, M.; Maire, A.-L.; Martinez, P.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Pavlov, A.; Puget, P.; Salasnich, B.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Sissa, E.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Waters, R.; Wildi, F.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We present the performance of the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) of SPHERE, the high-contrast imager for the ESO VLT telescope designed to perform imaging and spectroscopy of extrasolar planets, obtained from tests performed at the Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble facility during the integration phase of the instrument. Methods: The tests were performed using the instrument software purposely prepared for SPHERE. The output data were reduced applying the SPHERE data reduction and handling software, adding an improved spectral deconvolution procedure. To this aim, we prepared an alternative procedure for the spectral subtraction exploiting the principal component analysis algorithm. Moreover, a simulated angular differential imaging procedure was also implemented to estimate how the instrument performed once this procedure was applied at telescope. The capability of the IFS to faithfully retrieve the spectra of the detected faint companions was also considered. Results: We found that the application of the updated version of the spectral deconvolution procedure alone, when the algorithm throughput is properly taken into account, gives us a 5σ limiting contrast of the order of 5 × 10-6 or slightly better. The further application of the angular differential imaging procedure on these data should allow us to improve the contrast by one order of magnitude down to around 7 × 10-7 at a separation of 0.3 arcsec. The application of a principal component analysis procedure that simultaneously uses spectral and angular data gives comparable results. Finally, we found that the reproducibility of the spectra of the detected faint companions is greatly improved when angular differential imaging is applied in addition to the spectral deconvolution.

  19. Dual instrument for Flare and CME onset observations - Double solar Coronagraph with Solar Chromospheric Detector and Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter at Lomnicky stit Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Ales; Tomczyk, Steven; Rybak, Jan; Sewell, Scott; Gomory, Peter; Schwartz, Pavol; Ambroz, Jaroslav; Kozak, Matus

    2015-08-01

    We report on unique dual instrument developed for simultaneous measurements of velocity and magnetic fields in the solar chromosphere and corona. We describe the technical parameters and capability of the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP-S) and Solar Chromospheric detector (SCD) mounted at the Double solar coronagraph at Lomnicky Stit Observatory and working simultaneously with strictly parallel pointing of both coronagraphs. The CoMP-S is 2D spectropolarimeter designed for observations of VIS and near-IR emission lines of prominences and corona with operating spectral range: 500 - 1100 nm, sequential measurement of several VIS and near-IR lines. Its field of view is 14 arcmin x 11 arcmin. It consists of 4-stage calcite Lyot filter followed by the ferro-liquid crystal polarizer and four cameras (2 visible, 2 infrared). The capability is to deliver 2D full Stokes I, Q, U, V, using registration with 2 IR cameras (line + background) and 2 VIS cameras (line + background) SCD is a single beam instrument to observe bright chromosphere. It is a combination of tunable filter and polarimeter. Spectral resolution of the SCD ranges from 0.046 nm for observations of the HeI 1083 nm line up to to 25 pm is for observation of the HeI 587.6 nm line. The birefringent filter of the SCD has high spectral resolution, as well as spatial resolution (1.7 arcseconds) and temporal resolution (10 seconds) First results are also reported and discussed.

  20. Impact of WFIRST-AFTA line-of-sight jitter distributions on phase-induced amplitude apodization complex mask coronagraph science yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A framework for evaluating the science yield of a coronagraph in the presence of a variety of line-of-sight jitter environments is described and the use of a tip-tilt threshold for improving science yield is proposed. The current expectations of the WFIRST-AFTA mission are used for specific distributions of line-of-sight jitter, including the current expectations for tip-tilt correction using a low-order wavefront sensor/control. The effect of the residual tip-tilt on the phase-induced amplitude apodization complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) architecture is considered, because the performance of the PIAACMC architecture is expected to be dominated by tip-tilt sensitivity, implying that this treatment has a large impact on the final science yield. The most important outcomes of this study are that the rms residual tip-tilt expected after correction is 0.6 mas rms/axis and that by eliminating some science frames during analysis through a tip-tilt threshold, the number of planets observable increases by ˜25% for the 550-nm imaging channel. The number of known radial velocity planets expected to be observed ranges from 29 to 78 at 550 nm and from 9 to 12 at 890 nm.