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Sample records for fine chemicals basel

  1. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Sjöblom, Magnus; Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the production of green fuels and chemicals. PMID:26994015

  2. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides

  3. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber

    2006-12-15

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fine chemicals and fuels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Hui; Xia, Xi; Lin, Chun-Xiang; Tong, Dong-Shen; Beltramini, Jorge

    2011-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant and bio-renewable resource with great potential for sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. This critical review provides insights into the state-of the-art accomplishments in the chemocatalytic technologies to generate fuels and value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, with an emphasis on its major component, cellulose. Catalytic hydrolysis, solvolysis, liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation are the major processes presently studied. Regarding catalytic hydrolysis, the acid catalysts cover inorganic or organic acids and various solid acids such as sulfonated carbon, zeolites, heteropolyacids and oxides. Liquefaction and fast pyrolysis of cellulose are primarily conducted over catalysts with proper acidity/basicity. Gasification is typically conducted over supported noble metal catalysts. Reaction conditions, solvents and catalysts are the prime factors that affect the yield and composition of the target products. Most of processes yield a complex mixture, leading to problematic upgrading and separation. An emerging technique is to integrate hydrolysis, liquefaction or pyrolysis with hydrogenation over multifunctional solid catalysts to convert lignocellulosic biomass to value-added fine chemicals and bio-hydrocarbon fuels. And the promising catalysts might be supported transition metal catalysts and zeolite-related materials. There still exist technological barriers that need to be overcome (229 references). PMID:21863197

  5. Yeast cell factories for fine chemical and API production.

    PubMed

    Pscheidt, Beate; Glieder, Anton

    2008-01-01

    This review gives an overview of different yeast strains and enzyme classes involved in yeast whole-cell biotransformations. A focus was put on the synthesis of compounds for fine chemical and API (= active pharmaceutical ingredient) production employing single or only few-step enzymatic reactions. Accounting for recent success stories in metabolic engineering, the construction and use of synthetic pathways was also highlighted. Examples from academia and industry and advances in the field of designed yeast strain construction demonstrate the broad significance of yeast whole-cell applications. In addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alternative yeast whole-cell biocatalysts are discussed such as Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia sp., Kloeckera sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp. (including Hansenula polymorpha = P. angusta), Rhodotorula sp., Rhodosporidium sp., alternative Saccharomyces sp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. PMID:18684335

  6. Yeast cell factories for fine chemical and API production

    PubMed Central

    Pscheidt, Beate; Glieder, Anton

    2008-01-01

    This review gives an overview of different yeast strains and enzyme classes involved in yeast whole-cell biotransformations. A focus was put on the synthesis of compounds for fine chemical and API (= active pharmaceutical ingredient) production employing single or only few-step enzymatic reactions. Accounting for recent success stories in metabolic engineering, the construction and use of synthetic pathways was also highlighted. Examples from academia and industry and advances in the field of designed yeast strain construction demonstrate the broad significance of yeast whole-cell applications. In addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alternative yeast whole-cell biocatalysts are discussed such as Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia sp., Kloeckera sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp. (including Hansenula polymorpha = P. angusta), Rhodotorula sp., Rhodosporidium sp., alternative Saccharomyces sp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. PMID:18684335

  7. A 'Fine' chemical industry for life science products: green solutions to chemical challenges.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, A; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M

    2003-01-01

    Modern biotechnology, in combination with chemistry and process technology, is crucial for the development of new clean and cost effective manufacturing concepts for fine-chemical, food specialty and pharmaceutical products. The impact of biocatalysis on the fine-chemicals industry is presented, where reduction of process development time, the number of reaction steps and the amount of waste generated per kg of end product are the main targets. Integration of biosynthesis and organic chemistry is seen as a key development. The advances in bioseparation technology need to keep pace with the rate of development of novel bio- or chemocatalytic process routes with revised demands on process technology. The need for novel integrated reactors is also presented. The necessary acceleration of process development and reduction of the time-to-market seem well possible, particularly by integrating high-speed experimental techniques and predictive modelling tools. This is crucial for the development of a more sustainable fine-chemicals industry. The evolution of novel 'green' production routes for semi-synthetic antibiotics (SSAs) that are replacing existing chemical processes serves as a recent and relevant case study of this ongoing integration of disciplines. We will also show some challenges in this specific field. PMID:12747542

  8. 75 FR 9488 - Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... on December 7, 2007 (72 FR 69288). In an effort to refine the Basel II Capital Accord, the Basel... Office of Thrift Supervision Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study AGENCY: Office of Thrift... collection. Title of Proposal: Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW....

  9. FINE SOLIDS REMOVAL FOLLOWING COMBINED CHEMICAL-TRICKLING FILTER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of settling ponds and several types of granular media filters for removing residual fine solids from the effluent of a conventional, high-rate, rock media trickling filter plant when alum is applied ahead of seconda...

  10. Combined Chemical Activation and Fenton Degradation to Convert Waste Polyethylene into High-Value Fine Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Wong, Wing-Leung; Ho, Keith Yat-Fung; Chan, Chung-Sum; Gong, Cheng-Bin

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste is a valuable organic resource. However, proper technologies to recover usable materials from plastic are still very rare. Although the conversion/cracking/degradation of certain plastics into chemicals has drawn much attention, effective and selective cracking of the major waste plastic polyethylene is extremely difficult, with degradation of C-C/C-H bonds identified as the bottleneck. Pyrolysis, for example, is a nonselective degradation method used to crack plastics, but it requires a very high energy input. To solve the current plastic pollution crisis, more effective technologies are needed for converting plastic waste into useful substances that can be fed into the energy cycle or used to produce fine chemicals for industry. In this study, we demonstrate a new and effective chemical approach by using the Fenton reaction to convert polyethylene plastic waste into carboxylic acids under ambient conditions. Understanding the fundamentals of this new chemical process provides a possible protocol to solve global plastic-waste problems. PMID:27168079

  11. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Ampac Fine Chemicals, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... FR 60145, AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC, Highway 50 and Hazel Avenue, Building 05001, Rancho Cordova... and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 823(a), and in accordance with 21 CFR 1301.33, the...

  12. Chemical comminution: a better route to clean, fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, W.T.

    1982-06-01

    One approach to liberating pyrites is to treat the coal such that it will fracture preferentially along internal boundaries between the organic coal substance and such inorganic impurities as ash and pyrites. This process is called chemical comminution. It involves immersion of the coal in a liquid reactant or the injection of a liquid or gaseous material into coal. Such chemical treatment appears to cause selective breakage of the coal along the maceral boundaries and at the interface with foreign substances such as bands of pyrites. The tendency to fracture decreases as the coal rank increases, probably involving a half dozen coal properties; the exact mechanism of chemical comminution is not well understood; it appears to be physical in nature, since no chemical reactions have been observed between the coal substance and the treating material. The manner in which the coal fractures after such treatment is radically different from mechanical crushing; it provides a unique method for attaining a size consist favoring the liberation of pyrites and of extraneous ash particles for subsequent cleaning in a coal-preparation plant. Although the chemcal comminution patents discussed were issued in 1974 and 1975, the method has not been commercialized. Nevertheless, with our demand for coal increasing as a less expensive and readily available energy source, unique processes such as chemical comminution may yet be adopted.

  13. Creating pathways towards aromatic building blocks and fine chemicals.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brian; Machas, Michael; Nielsen, David R

    2015-12-01

    Aromatic compounds represent a broad class of chemicals with a range of industrial applications, all of which are conventionally derived from petroleum feedstocks. However, owing to a diversity of available pathway precursors along with natural and engineered enzyme 'parts', microbial cell factories can be engineered to create alternative, renewable routes to many of the same aromatic products. Drawing from the latest tools and strategies in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, such efforts are becoming an increasingly systematic practice, while continued efforts promise to open new doors to an ever-expanding range and diversity of renewable chemical and material products. This short review will highlight recent and notable achievements related for the microbial production of aromatic chemicals. PMID:26264997

  14. Fabrication of Fine-Grained Positive Temperature Coefficient Ceramics from Chemically Prepared Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Takeshi; Sumiyama, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Iwao; Kinugasa, Masanori; Igarashi, Hideji

    1991-09-01

    Fine barium titanate powders were prepared by chemical synthesis to fabricate positive temperature coefficient ceramics. The calcining condition adapted for the chemical powder was experimentally determined to be a lower temperature than that for conventional powders. Microstructure and temperature dependence of resistivity of the fired samples were examined as a function of firing temperature. Niobium ions doped at a synthesizing stage of barium titanate were homogeneously diffused into a titanium lattice at a low temperature of 1150°C, and fine-grained PTC ceramics with grain sizes of 2˜3 μm were fabricated at that temperature.

  15. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment
    John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

  16. Nanostructured Mg-Al hydrotalcite as catalyst for fine chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Basahel, Sulaiman N; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel A; Narasimharao, Katabathini; Ahmed, Nesreen S; Mokhtar, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews the recent research of nanostructured Mg-Al hydrotalcite (Mg-Al HT) and its application as an efficient solid base catalyst for the synthesis of fine chemicals. Mg-Al HT has many beneficial features, such as low cost, selectivity, catalytic properties, and wide range of preparation and modification methods. They hold promise for providing sought-after, environmentally friendly technologies for the 21st century. Replacement of currently used homogeneous alkaline bases for the synthesis of fine chemicals by a solid catalyst can result in catalyst re-use and waste stream reduction. We introduce briefly the structure, properties and characterization of the nanostructured Mg-Al HT. The efficacy and benign applications of Mg-Al HT as an alternative solid base to homogenous catalysts in the synthesis of fine chemicals are then reviewed. The challenges for the future applications of Mg-Al HT in the synthesis of fine chemicals in terms of green protocol processes are discussed. PMID:24749466

  17. The Basel Problem as a Telescoping Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benko, David

    2012-01-01

    The celebrated Basel Problem, that of finding the infinite sum 1 + 1/ 4 + 1/9 + 1/16 + ..., was open for 91 years. In 1735 Euler showed that the sum is pi[superscript 2]/6. Dozens of other solutions have been found. We give one that is short and elementary.

  18. Development of bio-based fine chemical production through synthetic bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Araki, Michihiro; Okai, Naoko; Wakai, Satoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Fine chemicals that are physiologically active, such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, flavoring agents as well as additives for foods, feed, and fertilizer are produced by enzymatically or through microbial fermentation. The identification of enzymes that catalyze the target reaction makes possible the enzymatic synthesis of the desired fine chemical. The genes encoding these enzymes are then introduced into suitable microbial hosts that are cultured with inexpensive, naturally abundant carbon sources, and other nutrients. Metabolic engineering create efficient microbial cell factories for producing chemicals at higher yields. Molecular genetic techniques are then used to optimize metabolic pathways of genetically and metabolically well-characterized hosts. Synthetic bioengineering represents a novel approach to employ a combination of computer simulation and metabolic analysis to design artificial metabolic pathways suitable for mass production of target chemicals in host strains. In the present review, we summarize recent studies on bio-based fine chemical production and assess the potential of synthetic bioengineering for further improving their productivity. PMID:25494636

  19. Fine-scale chemical exposure differs in point and nonpoint source plumes.

    PubMed

    Lahman, Sara E; Moore, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Increasing influxes of anthropogenic chemicals into aquatic ecosystems has led to growing global concern surrounding human and ecosystem health. As more freshwater systems are deemed not potable or usable for agricultural purposes, more attention is being paid to remediation and mitigation efforts. Predicting and preventing the impacts of the chemical inputs first requires a thorough understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution of chemical plumes in natural habitats. Plume dispersion is intimately tied to fluid mechanics; therefore, alterations in the way that chemical plumes are introduced to habitats can have profound effects on chemical distribution. Such alterations can subsequently alter the exposure to which organisms are subjected. This study examined the influence of point versus nonpoint sources in structuring the distribution of chemicals in a simulated flowing freshwater habitat. The fine-scale (molecular) spatio-temporal distribution of chemicals was measured in situ using an electrochemical detector. Molecular concentration at varying distance and height from the source was quantified using dopamine coupled with an electrochemical detection system. The fine-scale distribution of chemical plumes from point and nonpoint sources showed significant differences in how organisms will be exposed to chemicals. Overall, this study characterized plumes from nonpoint sources as having significantly longer peak lengths and rise times as well as greater peak heights and maximum slopes than plumes from point sources, thus providing a significantly different exposure paradigm. This quantification of how chemicals move differently throughout a fluid medium when introduced from point and nonpoint sources allows a greater understanding of how chemical plumes can potentially affect aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25552326

  20. Tailor-made biocatalysts enzymes for the fine chemical industry in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Tao, Rongsheng; Yang, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The Center of Industrial Biotechnology (CIBT) was established in Huzhou for fine chemicals in 2006 and CIBT Shanghai was founded for bulk chemicals in 2008. CIBT is a non-profit organization under auspices of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai Branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Huzhou Municipal Government. CIBT is affiliated with the CAS, which enables it to take advantage of the rich R&D resources and support from CAS; yet CIBT operates as an independent legal entity. The goal of CIBT is to incubate industrial biotechnologies and accelerate the commercialization of these technologies with corporate partners in China. PMID:27593705

  1. A structured approach to occupational hygiene in the design and operation of fine chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Money, C D

    1992-12-01

    In order to ensure appropriate occupational hygiene controls can be incorporated in the design and operation of fine chemical plant, a structured scheme has been developed based upon the intrinsic hazard of the materials in use. The scheme provides guidelines for managing the inherent risks to health presented by the operation of such plant, including basic recommendations on the selection and operation of selected plant equipment. Although the scheme has focused on a carcinogenic ranking system for aromatic amines and nitro compounds, with suitable modifications its underlying philosophy and principles should be capable of application to any toxicological scheme for ranking the relative hazard of chemical substances. PMID:1471813

  2. [Historical development of anthropology in Basel].

    PubMed

    Bay, R

    1986-12-01

    The author reports on the history of physical anthropology in Basel (Switzerland). The anthropological research activities of Carl Gustav Jung (1794-1864), Wilhelm His-Vischer (1831-1904), Ludwig Rütimeyer (1825-1895), Julius Kollmann (1834-1918), Paul and Fritz Sarasin (P.: 1856-1924; F.: 1859-1942), Felix Speiser (1880-1949) and the author himself (b. 1909) are described in detail. PMID:3548583

  3. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, 2013.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Ana M; Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Schauer, James J

    2015-04-15

    Santiago is one of the largest cities in South America and has experienced high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in fall and winter months for decades. To better understand the sources of fall and wintertime pollution in Santiago, PM2.5 samples were collected for 24 h every weekday from March to October 2013 for chemical analysis. Samples were analyzed for mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water soluble nitrogen (WSTN), secondary inorganic ions, and particle-phase organic tracers for source apportionment. Selected samples were analyzed as monthly composites for organic tracers. PM2.5 concentrations were considerably higher in the coldest months (June-July), averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 62±15 μg/m(3) in these two months. Average fine particle mass concentration during the study period was 40±20 μg/m(3). Organic matter during the peak winter months was the major component of fine particles comprising around 70% of the particle mass. Source contributions to OC were calculated using organic molecular markers and a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. The four combustion sources identified were wood smoke, diesel engine emission, gasoline vehicles, and natural gas. Wood smoke was the predominant source of OC, accounting for 58±42% of OC in fall and winter. Wood smoke and nitrate were the major contributors to PM2.5. In fall and winter, wood smoke accounted for 9.8±7.1 μg/m(3) (21±15%) and nitrate accounted for 9.1±4.8 μg/m(3) (20±10%) of fine PM. The sum of secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) represented about 30% of PM2.5 mass. Secondary organic aerosols contributed only in warm months, accounting for about 30% of fine PM during this time. PMID:25617780

  4. Mechanical and chemical compaction in fine-grained shallow-water limestones.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, E.A.; Robbin, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Significant mechanical compaction resulted from pressures simulating less than 305 m of burial. Increasing loads to an equivalent of more than 3400 m did not significantly increase compaction or reduce sediment core length. Chemical compaction (pressure dissolution) was detected only in sediment cores compacted to pressures greater than 3400 m of burial. These short-term experiments suggest that chemical compaction would begin at much shallower depths given geologic time. Compaction experiments that caused chemical compaction lend support to the well-established hypothesis; that cement required to produce a low-porosity/low-permeability fine-grained limestone is derived internally. Dissolution, ion diffusion, and reprecipitation are considered the most likely processes for creating significant thicknesses of dense limestone in the geologic record. Continuation of chemical compaction after significant porosity reduction necessitates expulsion of connate fluids, possibly including hydrocarbons. -from Authors

  5. Sources and chemical composition of atmospheric fine and coarse particles in the Helsinki area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakkanen, Tuomo A.; Loukkola, Kati; Korhonen, Christina H.; Aurela, Minna; Mäkelä, Timo; Hillamo, Risto E.; Aarnio, Päivi; Koskentalo, Tarja; Kousa, Anu; Maenhaut, Willy

    During April 1996-June 1997 size-segregated atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at an urban and a rural site in the Helsinki area by utilising virtual impactors (VI) and Berner low-pressure impactors (BLPI). In addition, VI samples were collected at a semi-urban site during October 1996-May 1997. The average PM 2.3 (fine particle) concentrations at the urban and rural sites were 11.8 and 8.4 μg/m 3, and the PM 2.3-15 (coarse particle) concentrations were 12.8 and about 5 μg/m 3, respectively. The difference in fine particle mass concentrations suggests that on average, more than one third of the fine mass at the urban site is of local origin. Evaporation of fine particle nitrate from the VI Teflon filters during sampling varied similarly at the three sites, the average evaporation being about 50-60%. The average fine particle concentrations of the chemical components (25 elements and 13 ions) appeared to be fairly similar at the three sites for most components, which suggests that despite the long-range transport, the local emissions of these components were relatively evenly distributed in the Helsinki area. Exceptions were the average fine particles Ba, Fe, Sb and V concentrations that were clearly highest at the urban site pointing to traffic (Ba, Fe, Sb) and to combustion of heavy fuel oil (V) as the likely local sources. The average coarse particle concentrations for most components were highest at the urban site and lowest at the rural site. Average chemical composition of fine particles was fairly similar at the urban and rural sites: non-analysed fraction (mainly carbonaceous material and water) 43% and 37%, sulphate 21% and 25%, crustal matter 12% and 13%, nitrate 12% and 11%, ammonium 9% and 10% and sea-salt 2.5% and 3.2%, respectively. At the semi-urban site also, the average fine particle composition was similar. At the urban site, the year round average composition of coarse particles was dominated by crustal matter (59%) and the non

  6. Nonlinear dendritic integration of electrical and chemical synaptic inputs drives fine-scale correlations

    PubMed Central

    Trenholm, Stuart; McLaughlin, Amanda J; Schwab, David J; Turner, Maxwell H; Smith, Robert G; Rieke, Fred; Awatramani, Gautam B

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the CNS, gap junction–mediated electrical signals synchronize neural activity on millisecond timescales via cooperative interactions with chemical synapses. However, gap junction–mediated synchrony has rarely been studied in the context of varying spatiotemporal patterns of electrical and chemical synaptic activity. Thus, the mechanism underlying fine-scale synchrony and its relationship to neural coding remain unclear. We examined spike synchrony in pairs of genetically identified, electrically coupled ganglion cells in mouse retina. We found that coincident electrical and chemical synaptic inputs, but not electrical inputs alone, elicited synchronized dendritic spikes in subregions of coupled dendritic trees. The resulting nonlinear integration produced fine-scale synchrony in the cells’ spike output, specifically for light stimuli driving input to the regions of dendritic overlap. In addition, the strength of synchrony varied inversely with spike rate. Together, these features may allow synchronized activity to encode information about the spatial distribution of light that is ambiguous on the basis of spike rate alone. PMID:25344631

  7. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  8. Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

    2014-11-18

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5. PMID:25343705

  9. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5. PMID:25343705

  10. Mapping the patent landscape of synthetic biology for fine chemical production pathways.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Pablo; Gök, Abdullah; Shapira, Philip; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2016-09-01

    A goal of synthetic biology bio-foundries is to innovate through an iterative design/build/test/learn pipeline. In assessing the value of new chemical production routes, the intellectual property (IP) novelty of the pathway is important. Exploratory studies can be carried using knowledge of the patent/IP landscape for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. In this paper, we perform an assessment of pathways as potential targets for chemical production across the full catalogue of reachable chemicals in the extended metabolic space of chassis organisms, as computed by the retrosynthesis-based algorithm RetroPath. Our database for reactions processed by sequences in heterologous pathways was screened against the PatSeq database, a comprehensive collection of more than 150M sequences present in patent grants and applications. We also examine related patent families using Derwent Innovations. This large-scale computational study provides useful insights into the IP landscape of synthetic biology for fine and specialty chemicals production. PMID:27489206

  11. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; et al

    2014-10-24

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrationsmore » were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). In conclusion, these estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.« less

  12. SYNBIOCHEM–a SynBio foundry for the biosynthesis and sustainable production of fine and speciality chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Pablo; Currin, Andrew; Dunstan, Mark; Fellows, Donal; Jervis, Adrian; Rattray, Nicholas J.W.; Robinson, Christopher J.; Swainston, Neil; Vinaixa, Maria; Williams, Alan; Yan, Cunyu; Barran, Perdita; Breitling, Rainer; Chen, George Guo-Qiang; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Goble, Carole; Goodacre, Royston; Kell, Douglas B.; Feuvre, Rosalind Le; Micklefield, Jason; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Shapira, Philip; Takano, Eriko; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    The Manchester Synthetic Biology Research Centre (SYNBIOCHEM) is a foundry for the biosynthesis and sustainable production of fine and speciality chemicals. The Centre's integrated technology platforms provide a unique capability to facilitate predictable engineering of microbial bio-factories for chemicals production. An overview of these capabilities is described. PMID:27284023

  13. SYNBIOCHEM-a SynBio foundry for the biosynthesis and sustainable production of fine and speciality chemicals.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Pablo; Currin, Andrew; Dunstan, Mark; Fellows, Donal; Jervis, Adrian; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Robinson, Christopher J; Swainston, Neil; Vinaixa, Maria; Williams, Alan; Yan, Cunyu; Barran, Perdita; Breitling, Rainer; Chen, George Guo-Qiang; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Goble, Carole; Goodacre, Royston; Kell, Douglas B; Feuvre, Rosalind Le; Micklefield, Jason; Scrutton, Nigel S; Shapira, Philip; Takano, Eriko; Turner, Nicholas J

    2016-06-15

    The Manchester Synthetic Biology Research Centre (SYNBIOCHEM) is a foundry for the biosynthesis and sustainable production of fine and speciality chemicals. The Centre's integrated technology platforms provide a unique capability to facilitate predictable engineering of microbial bio-factories for chemicals production. An overview of these capabilities is described. PMID:27284023

  14. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  15. Chemical characteristics of fine particles emitted from different gas cooking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    Gas cooking is an important indoor source of fine particles (PM 2.5). The chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 emitted from different cooking methods, namely, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying were investigated in a domestic kitchen. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and ions) arising from these five cooking methods. To investigate the difference in particle properties of different cooking emissions, the amount and type of food, and the heat setting on the gas stove were kept constant during the entire course of the experiments. Results showed that deep-frying gave rise to the largest amount of PM 2.5 and most chemical components, followed by pan-frying, stir-frying, boiling, and steaming. Oil-based cooking methods released more organic pollutants (OC, PAHs, and organic ions) and metals, while water-based cooking methods accounted for more water-soluble (WS) ions. Their source profiles are also presented and discussed.

  16. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J.

    2014-10-24

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). In conclusion, these estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  17. Electrolytic membrane extraction enables production of fine chemicals from biorefinery sidestreams.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen J; Hennebel, Tom; Gildemyn, Sylvia; Coma, Marta; Desloover, Joachim; Berton, Jan; Tsukamoto, Junko; Stevens, Christian; Rabaey, Korneel

    2014-06-17

    Short-chain carboxylates such as acetate are easily produced through mixed culture fermentation of many biological waste streams, although routinely digested to biogas and combusted rather than harvested. We developed a pipeline to extract and upgrade short-chain carboxylates to esters via membrane electrolysis and biphasic esterification. Carboxylate-rich broths are electrolyzed in a cathodic chamber from which anions flux across an anion exchange membrane into an anodic chamber, resulting in a clean acid concentrate with neither solids nor biomass. Next, the aqueous carboxylic acid concentrate reacts with added alcohol in a water-excluding phase to generate volatile esters. In a batch extraction, 96 ± 1.6% of the total acetate was extracted in 48 h from biorefinery thin stillage (5 g L(-1) acetate) at 379 g m(-2) d(-1) (36% Coulombic efficiency). With continuously regenerated thin stillage, the anolyte was concentrated to 14 g/L acetic acid, and converted at 2.64 g (acetate) L(-1) h(-1) in the first hour to ethyl acetate by the addition of excess ethanol and heating to 70 °C, with a final total conversion of 58 ± 3%. This processing pipeline enables direct production of fine chemicals following undefined mixed culture fermentation, embedding carbon in industrial chemicals rather than returning them to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. PMID:24844669

  18. CHARACTERIZING THE SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MUTAGENIC AND CARCINOGENIC CHEMICALS IN AIRBORNE FINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal and ambient exposures to airborne fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and genotoxic activity has been studied in populations in the US, Japan, China, and the Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors used to collect fine particles were extracted f...

  19. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of fine and coarse particulate matter in Lahore, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Schauer, James; Quraishi, Tauseef A.; Mahmood, Abid

    2010-03-01

    Lahore, Pakistan is an emerging megacity that is heavily polluted with high levels of particle air pollution. In this study, respirable particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) were collected every sixth day in Lahore from 12 January 2007 to 19 January 2008. Ambient aerosol was characterized using well-established chemical methods for mass, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), ionic species (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, calcium, and potassium), and organic species. The annual average concentration (±one standard deviation) of PM 2.5 was 194 ± 94 μg m -3 and PM 10 was 336 ± 135 μg m -3. Coarse aerosol (PM 10-2.5) was dominated by crustal sources like dust (74 ± 16%, annual average ± one standard deviation), whereas fine particles were dominated by carbonaceous aerosol (organic matter and elemental carbon, 61 ± 17%). Organic tracer species were used to identify sources of PM 2.5 OC and chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling was used to estimate relative source contributions. On an annual basis, non-catalyzed motor vehicles accounted for more than half of primary OC (53 ± 19%). Lesser sources included biomass burning (10 ± 5%) and the combined source of diesel engines and residual fuel oil combustion (6 ± 2%). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was an important contributor to ambient OC, particularly during the winter when secondary processing of aerosol species during fog episodes was expected. Coal combustion alone contributed a small percentage of organic aerosol (1.9 ± 0.3%), but showed strong linear correlation with unidentified sources of OC that contributed more significantly (27 ± 16%). Brick kilns, where coal and other low quality fuels are burned together, are suggested as the most probable origins of unapportioned OC. The chemical profiling of emissions from brick kilns and other sources unique to Lahore would contribute to a better understanding of OC sources in this megacity.

  20. The chemical composition of fine ambient aerosol particles in the Beijing area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekat, Bettina; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Gnauk, Thomas; Müller, Konrad; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2010-05-01

    The strong economical growth in China during the last few decades led to heavy air pollution caused by significantly increased particle emissions. The aerosol particles affect not only the regional air quality and visibility, but can also influence cloud formation processes and the radiative balance of the atmosphere by their optical and microphysical properties. The ability to act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) is related to microphysical properties like the hygroscopic growth or the cloud droplet activation. The chemical composition of CCN plays an important role on these properties and varies strongly with the particle size and the time of day. Hygroscopic or surface active substances can increase the hygroscopicity and lower the surface tension of the particle liquid phase, respectively. The presence of such compounds may result in faster cloud droplet activation by faster water uptake. The DFG project HaChi (Haze in China) aimed at studying physical and chemical parameters of urban aerosol particles in the Beijing area in order to associate the chemical composition of aerosol particles with their ability to act as CCN. To this end, two measurement campaigns were performed at the Wuqing National Ordinary Meteorological Observing Station, which is a background site near Beijing. The winter campaign was realized in March 2009 and the summer campaign took place from mid July 2009 to mid August 2009. Fine particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal 1 μm were continuously sampled for 24h over the two campaigns using a DIGITEL high volume sampler (DHA-80). The present contribution presents and discusses the results of the chemical characterization of the DIGITEL filters samples. The filters were analyzed for the mass concentration, inorganic ions and carbon sum parameters like elemental (EC), organic (OC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The WSOC fraction was further characterized for hygroscopic substances like low molecular

  1. Chemical composition and quantitative relationship between meteorological condition and fine particles in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Li; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Shao, Min; Liu, Xu-Lin; Zeng, Li-Min; Cheng, Cong-Lan; Xu, Xiao-Feng

    2004-01-01

    The recent year's monitor results of Beijing indicated that the pollution level of fine particles PM2.5 showed an increasing trend. To understand pollution characteristics of PM2.5 and its relationship with the meteorological conditions in Beijing, a one-year monitoring of PM2.5 mass concentration and correspondent meteorological parameters was performed in Beijing in 2001. The PM2.5 levels in Beijing were very high, the annual average PM2.5 concentration in 2001 was 7 times of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards proposed by US EPA. The major chemical compositions were organics, sulfate, crustals and nitrate. It was found that the mass concentrations of PM2.5 were influenced by meteorological conditions. The correlation between the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the relative humidity was found. And the correlation became closer at higher relative humidity. And the mass concentrations of PM2.5 were negtive-correlated to wind speeds, but the correlation between the mass concentration of PM2.5 and wind speed was not good at stronger wind. PMID:15559829

  2. Friction and Wear of Ion-Beam-Deposited Diamondlike Carbon on Chemical-Vapor-Deposited, Fine-Grain Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Lanter, William C.

    1996-01-01

    Friction and wear behavior of ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon (DLC) films coated on chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD), fine-grain diamond coatings were examined in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, and humid air environments. The DLC films were produced by the direct impact of an ion beam (composed of a 3:17 mixture of Ar and CH4) at ion energies of 1500 and 700 eV and an RF power of 99 W. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with hemispherical CVD diamond pins sliding on four different carbon-base coating systems: DLC films on CVD diamond; DLC films on silicon; as-deposited, fine-grain CVD diamond; and carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain CVD diamond on silicon. Results indicate that in ultrahigh vacuum the ion-beam-deposited DLC films on fine-grain CVD diamond (similar to the ion-implanted CVD diamond) greatly decrease both the friction and wear of fine-grain CVD diamond films and provide solid lubrication. In dry nitrogen and in humid air, ion-beam-deposited DLC films on fine-grain CVD diamond films also had a low steady-state coefficient of friction and a low wear rate. These tribological performance benefits, coupled with a wider range of coating thicknesses, led to longer endurance life and improved wear resistance for the DLC deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond in comparison to the ion-implanted diamond films. Thus, DLC deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond films can be an effective wear-resistant, lubricating coating regardless of environment.

  3. Chemical characterization of fine organic aerosol for source apportionment at Monterrey, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancilla, Y.; Mendoza, A.; Fraser, M. P.; Herckes, P.

    2015-07-01

    , source attribution results obtained using the CMB model indicate that emissions from motor vehicle exhausts are the most important, accounting for the 64 % of the PM2.5. The vegetative detritus and biomass burning had the smallest contribution (2.2 % of the PM2.5). To our knowledge, this is the second study to explore the broad chemical characterization of fine organic aerosol in Mexico and the first for the MMA.

  4. Dust episodes in Beirut and their effect on the chemical composition of coarse and fine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Malek; Baalbaki, Rima; Mrad, Raya; Daher, Nancy; Shihadeh, Alan; Sioutas, Constantinos; Saliba, Najat A

    2014-10-15

    Particles captured during dust episodes in Beirut originated from both the African and Arabian deserts. This particular air mixture showed an increase, over non-dust episodes, in particle volume distribution which was mostly noticed for particles ranging in sizes between 2.25 and 5 μm. It also resulted in an increase in average mass concentration by 48.5% and 14.6%, for the coarse and fine fractions, respectively. Chemical analysis of major aerosol components accounted for 93% of fine PM and 71% of coarse PM. Crustal material (CM) dominated the coarse PM fraction, contributing to 39 ± 15% of the total mass. Sea salt (SS) (11 ± 10%) and secondary ions (SI) (11 ± 7%) were the second most abundant elements. In the fine fraction, SI (36 ± 14%) were the most abundant PM constituent, followed by organic matter (OM) (33 ± 7%) and CM (13 ± 2%). Enrichment factors (EF) and correlation coefficients show that biogenic and anthropogenic sources contribute to the elemental composition of particles during dust episodes. This study emphasizes on the role played by the long-range transport of aerosols in changing the chemical composition of the organic and inorganic constituents of urban coarse and fine PM. The chemical reactions between aged urban and dust aerosols are enhanced during transport, leading to the formation of organo-nitrogenated and -sulfonated compounds. Their oligomeric morphologies are further confirmed by SEM-EDX measurements. PMID:25064715

  5. Enhancing of chemical compound and drug name recognition using representative tag scheme and fine-grained tokenization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The functions of chemical compounds and drugs that affect biological processes and their particular effect on the onset and treatment of diseases have attracted increasing interest with the advancement of research in the life sciences. To extract knowledge from the extensive literatures on such compounds and drugs, the organizers of BioCreative IV administered the CHEMical Compound and Drug Named Entity Recognition (CHEMDNER) task to establish a standard dataset for evaluating state-of-the-art chemical entity recognition methods. Methods This study introduces the approach of our CHEMDNER system. Instead of emphasizing the development of novel feature sets for machine learning, this study investigates the effect of various tag schemes on the recognition of the names of chemicals and drugs by using conditional random fields. Experiments were conducted using combinations of different tokenization strategies and tag schemes to investigate the effects of tag set selection and tokenization method on the CHEMDNER task. Results This study presents the performance of CHEMDNER of three more representative tag schemes-IOBE, IOBES, and IOB12E-when applied to a widely utilized IOB tag set and combined with the coarse-/fine-grained tokenization methods. The experimental results thus reveal that the fine-grained tokenization strategy performance best in terms of precision, recall and F-scores when the IOBES tag set was utilized. The IOBES model with fine-grained tokenization yielded the best-F-scores in the six chemical entity categories other than the "Multiple" entity category. Nonetheless, no significant improvement was observed when a more representative tag schemes was used with the coarse or fine-grained tokenization rules. The best F-scores that were achieved using the developed system on the test dataset of the CHEMDNER task were 0.833 and 0.815 for the chemical documents indexing and the chemical entity mention recognition tasks, respectively. Conclusions The

  6. Effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on crude oil dispersion in a wave tank under breaking waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengkai; Kepkay, Paul; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Boufadel, Michel C; Venosa, Albert D

    2007-07-01

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the formation of oil-mineral-aggregates (OMAs) in natural seawater. Results of ultraviolet spectrofluorometry and gas chromatography flame ionized detection analysis indicated that dispersants and mineral fines, alone and in combination, enhanced the dispersion of oil into the water column. Measurements taken with a laser in situ scattering and transmissometer (LISST-100X) showed that the presence of mineral fines increased the total concentration of the suspended particles from 4 to 10microl l(-1), whereas the presence of dispersants decreased the particle size (mass mean diameter) of OMAs from 50 to 10microm. Observation with an epifluorescence microscope indicated that the presence of dispersants, mineral fines, or both in combination significantly increased the number of particles dispersed into the water. PMID:17433372

  7. 78 FR 62017 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... reflect aspects of the Basel II Standardized Approach and other Basel Committee standards. \\1\\ 77 FR 52792 (August 30, 2012); 77 FR 52888 (August 30, 2012); 77 FR 52978 (August 30, 2012). \\2\\ Basel III was...\\ \\5\\ 77 FR 52792 (August 30, 2012). \\6\\ 77 FR 52888 (August 30, 2012). \\7\\ The agencies' and the...

  8. Permeability Enhancement in Fine-Grained Sediments by Chemically Induced Clay Fabric Shrinkage

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A M; Kansa, E J; Viani, B E; Blake, R G; Roberts, J J; Huber, R D

    2004-02-26

    The National Research Council [1] identified the entrapment of contaminants in fine-grained clay-bearing soils as a major impediment to the timely and cost-effective remediation of groundwater to regulatory standards. Contaminants trapped in low-permeability, low-diffusivity, high-sorptivity clays are not accessible to advective flushing by treatment fluids from permeable zones, and slowly diffuse out to recontaminate previously cleaned permeable strata. We propose to overcome this barrier to effective remediation by exploiting the ability of certain nontoxic EPA-approved chemicals (e.g., ethanol) to shrink and alter the fabric of clays, and thereby create macro-porosity and crack networks in fine-grained sediments. This would significantly reduce the distance and time scales of diffusive mass transport to advectively flushed boundaries, to yield orders of magnitude reduction in the time required to complete remediation. Given that effective solutions to this central problem of subsurface remediation do not yet exist, the cost and time benefits of successful deployment of this novel concept, both as a stand-alone technology and as an enabling pre-treatment for other remedial technologies that rely on advective delivery, is likely to be very large. This project, funded as a 1-year feasibility study by LLNL's LDRD Program, is a multi-directorate, multi-disciplinary effort that leverages expertise from the Energy & Environment Directorate, the Environmental Restoration Division, and the Manufacturing & Materials Evaluation Division of Mechanical Engineering. In this feasibility study, a ''proof-of-principle'' experiment was performed to answer the central question: ''Can clay shrinkage induced by ethanol in clay-bearing sediments overcome realistic confining stresses, crack clay, and increase its effective permeability by orders of magnitude within a time that is much smaller than the time required for diffusive mass transport of ethanol in the unaltered sediment

  9. Characterizing chemical transport of ozone and fine particles in the Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spak, Scott N.

    This dissertation presents a science framework relevant to evaluating impacts of land use policy scenarios, energy technologies, and climate on urban and regional air quality. Emerging from collaboration with urban planners, this work provides a means for employing atmospheric chemical transport modeling to understand environmental ramifications of long-term, spatially disaggregated changes in population and automobile emissions at the census tract level, and to assess the sensitivity of these changes to densification strategies. Toward these goals, the framework is used to evaluate model skill in resolving contemporary characteristics of ozone (O3) and speciated fine particles (PM2.5) in the Great Lakes region of North America, and to quantitatively explore meteorological processes that bring about observed features of these pollutants in the region. The Great Lakes were chosen due to a population concentrated in sprawling metropolitan areas, consistently high and widespread pollutant burdens, and seasonal effects of the lakes on the atmosphere. In annual simulation at 36 km resolution, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model is evaluated using speciated PM2.5 measurements taken at regulatory monitoring networks orientated to sample urban, rural, and remote areas. Performance relative to ad-hoc regional modeling goals and prior studies is average to excellent for most species throughout the year. Both pollution episodes and seasonality are captured. The Great Lakes affect pollution seasonality: strong winds advect aerosols around the deep marine boundary layer to lower surface PM2.5 in fall and winter, while O3 over the lakes is enhanced throughout the year, driven by temperature in the cool seasons and lake breeze circulation in spring and summer. Simulations confirm observational evidence that rural and small-city sources are responsible for most regional PM2.5. Sensitivities to urban and rural reductions are of comparable magnitude on a percentage basis

  10. Fine particulate matter and visibility in the Lake Tahoe Basin: chemical characterization, trends, and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark C; Chen, L W Antony; DuBois, David W; Molenar, John V

    2012-08-01

    Speciated PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameterFine mass at SOLA is 2.5 times that at BLIS, mainly due to enhanced organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC). SOLA experiences a winter peak in PM25 mainly due to OC and EC from residential wood combustion, whereas BLIS experiences a summer peak in PM2.5 mainly due to OC and ECfrom wildfires. Carbonaceous aerosol dominates visibility impairment, causing about 1/2 the reconstructed aerosol light extinction at BLIS and 70% at SOLA. Trend analysis (1990-2009) showed statistically significant decreases in aerosol extinction at BLIS on 20% best and 60% middle visibility days and statistically insignificant upward trends on 20% worst days. SOLA (1990-2003) showed statistically significant decreases in aerosol extinction for all day categories, driven by decreasing OC and EC. From the regional haze rule baseline period of 2000-2004 until 2005-2009, BLIS saw 20% best days improving and 20% worst days getting worse due to increased wildfire effects. Receptor modeling was performed using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and chemical mass balance (CMB). It confirmed that (1) biomass burning dominanted PM25 sources at both sites with increasing importance over time; (2) low combustion efficiency burning accounts for most of the biomass burning contribution; (3) road dust and traffic contributions were much higher at SOLA than at BLIS; and (4) industrial combustion and salting were minor sources. PMID:22916443

  11. Chemical analysis of World Trade Center fine particulate matter for use in toxicologic assessment.

    PubMed Central

    McGee, John K; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chee, Glen R; Prophete, Colette M; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wasson, Shirley J; Conner, Teri L; Costa, Daniel L; Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-01-01

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants into the local environment. To assess the toxicity of fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)], which may adversely affect the health of workers and residents in the area, we collected fallen dust samples on 12 and 13 September 2001 from sites within a half-mile of Ground Zero. Samples of WTC dust were sieved, aerosolized, and size-separated, and the PM2.5 fraction was isolated on filters. Here we report the chemical and physical properties of PM2.5 derived from these samples and compare them with PM2.5 fractions of three reference materials that range in toxicity from relatively inert to acutely toxic (Mt. St. Helens PM; Washington, DC, ambient air PM; and residual oil fly ash). X-ray diffraction of very coarse sieved WTC PM (< 53 microm) identified calcium sulfate (gypsum) and calcium carbonate (calcite) as major components. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that calcium-sulfur and calcium-carbon particles were also present in the WTC PM2.5 fraction. Analysis of WTC PM2.5 using X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry showed high levels of calcium (range, 22-33%) and sulfur (37-43% as sulfate) and much lower levels of transition metals and other elements. Aqueous extracts of WTC PM2.5 were basic (pH range, 8.9-10.0) and had no evidence of significant bacterial contamination. Levels of carbon were relatively low, suggesting that combustion-derived particles did not form a significant fraction of these samples recovered in the immediate aftermath of the destruction of the towers. Because gypsum and calcite are known to cause irritation of the mucus membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, inhalation of high doses of WTC PM2.5 could potentially cause toxic respiratory effects. PMID:12782501

  12. The Basel Problem as a Rearrangement of Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benko, David; Molokach, John

    2013-01-01

    We give an elementary solution to the famous Basel Problem, originally solved by Euler in 1735. We square the well-known series for arctan(1) due to Leibniz, and use a surprising relation among the re-arranged terms of this squared series.

  13. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of fine and PM10 in the Desert Southwest, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Desert Southwest Coarse Particulate Matter Study was undertaken in Pinal County, Arizona, to better understand the origin and impact of sources of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM) in rural, arid regions of the U.S. southwestern desert. The desert southwest experiences ...

  14. Chemical diversity among fine-grained soils at Gale (Mars): a chemical transition as the rover is approaching the Bagnold Dunes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Agnès; Forni, Olivier; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Schroeder, Susanne; Gasnault, Olivier; Bridges, Nathan; Ehlmann, Bethany; Maurice, Sylvestre; Wiens, Roger

    2016-04-01

    The ChemCam instrument has the capability to study the chemical composition of soils at a sub-millimeter scale, thus providing an unpreceedented spatial resolution for their study. More than 300 soils have been sampled so far with ChemCam and these targets are analyzed frequently in order to monitor any change in composition along the traverse. Detailed chemical analysis as a function of grain size is of great importance in order to better constrain soils formation. Curiosity is approaching the Bagnold Dunes, the first active dune field accessible for in-situ analyses. One of the main goals is to determine or constrain the dune material chemistry as well as its provenance. This study is focusing on recent soils analyzed when ap-proaching the dunes, for a comparison with previous soil targets, and with dunes specifically. Chemical composition of fine-grained soils as we approach the Bagnold Dunes has been compared with previous fine-grained soils analyzed along the traverse. These new soils have an average sum of oxides that is significantly higher than what has been previously analyzed. This would suggest that these soils are less hydrated and probably less altered than previous ones.An enrichment in SiO2, FeO and alkali is also observed in these new fine-grained soils, which could be related to a contamination by local rocks due to erosion. Some coarser grains could correspond to an olivine component. This analysis is on-going and will be detailed as the dedicated Bagnold Dunes campaign starts. We will also report in the hydratation level of the dunes.

  15. ESCA studies of the surface chemistry of lunar fines. [Electron Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.; Grant, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents an ESCA analysis based on the use of a synthetic lunar-glass standard that allows determination of the surface composition of lunar samples with an accuracy that appears to be better than 10% of the amount present for all major elements except Ti. It is found that, on the average, grain surfaces in the lunar fines samples 10084 and 15301 are strongly enriched in Si, moderately enriched in Fe, moderately depleted in Al and Ca, and strongly depleted in Mg. This pattern could not be produced by the deposition of any expected meteoritic vapor. Neither could it be produced by simple inverse-mass-dependent element loss during sputtering. It is suggested that at least part of the pattern may be a simple consequence of agglutinate glass formation in the fines since there is some evidence that Si can become enriched on the surface of silicate melts. These results do not support the strong enrichments in Fe on grain surfaces reported from Auger studies.

  16. 77 FR 24988 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; ISP Freetown Fine Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Chemicals By Notice dated October 8, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010, 75 FR... Amphetamine (1100) II Phenylacetone (8501) II The company plans to manufacture bulk API, for distribution...

  17. 77 FR 24985 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; ISP Freetown Fine Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Chemicals By Notice dated October 8, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010, 75 FR... state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21...

  18. 77 FR 64142 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, ISP Freetown Fine Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Chemicals By Notice dated July 2, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 11, 2012, 77 FR 40910... laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 952(a)...

  19. Development of Agriculture Left-Overs: Fine Organic Chemicals from Wheat Hemicellulose-Derived Pentoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Frédéric; Estrine, Boris; Plantier-Royon, Richard; Hoffmann, Norbert; Portella, Charles

    This review is dedicated to wheat hemicelluloses and its main components d-xylose and l-arabinose as raw materials for fine organic chemistry. The context of the wheat agro-industry, its by-products, and extraction and hydrolysis of hemicelluloses to produce the pentoses are considered. The straightforward preparation of pentose-based surfactants, their properties, and their situation in the field of carbohydrate-based surfactants are addressed. Multistep transformations of pentoses are also described, first from a methodology point of view, with the aim of producing multifunctional enantiopure building-blocks, then considering targeted natural and/or bioactive products. Selected reactions of furfural, an important dehydration product of pentoses, are also presented.

  20. Chemical composition of crystalline rock fragments from Luna 16 and Luna 20 fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbalnikova, A.; Palivcova, M.; Frana, J.; Mastalka, A.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical composition (bulk, rare earth, and trace elements) of the Luna 16 mare regolith and luna 20 highland regolith is discussed. The rock samples considered are 14 basaltic rock fragments (Luna 16) and 13 rock fragments of the ANT suite (Luna 20). On the basis of bulk composition, two types of basaltic rocks have been differentiated and defined in the Luna 16 regolith: mare basalts (fundamental crystalline rocks of Mare Fecunditatis) and high-alumina basalts. The bulk analyses of rock fragments of the ANT suite also enabled distinction of two rock types: anorthositic norites and troctolites and/or spinal-troctolites (the most abundant crystalline rocks of the highland region, the landing site of luna 20), and anorthosites. The chemical compositions of Luna 16 and Luna 20 regolith samples are compared. Differences in the chemistry of the Luna 16 mare regolith and that of mare basalts are discussed. The chemical affinity between the Luna 20 highland regolith and (a) anorthositic norites and (b) troctolites and/or spinel-troctolites has been ascertained.

  1. Wintertime chemical compositions of coarse and fine fractions of particulate matter in Bolu, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Fatma; Keleş, Melek

    2016-07-01

    Coarse (particulate matter (PM)2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) fraction of PM samples were collected between December 2014 and February 2015 at an urban sampling site located at the Bolu plain, of the western Black Sea region of Turkey. The collected samples were analyzed in terms of metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Si, Ti, V, and Zn); elemental carbon (EC); and organic carbon (OC). Elevated concentrations measured in this wintertime study were ∼7.8 μg/m(3) in sum of PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 for SO4 (2-) and ∼59.9 μg/m(3) in PM2.5 for OC. The contributions of primary and secondary OC (POC and SOC, respectively) to total OC mass were 60 and 40 %, respectively, while contribution of SOC to OC increased by up to 74 % in stable atmospheric conditions. The significantly high OC/EC ratio (∼10.1) found in this study relative to other wintertime studies was attributed to increased emissions from residential heating and lower mixing height observed during the study. Two and three factors were resolved by factor analysis for PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, respectively. Two Saharan dust episodes were observed on 31 January and 1 February, during which crustal PM components such as Mg, Si, and Al increased as much as three times their background concentrations. PMID:27048328

  2. Analyses of fine paste ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sabloff, J A

    1980-01-01

    Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

  3. Sources and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Fine Particles in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayebare, S. R.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hussain, M. M.; Zeb, J.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution research in Saudi Arabia and the whole of Middle East is at its inception, making air pollution in the region a significant problem. This study presents the first detailed data on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations of Black Carbon (BC), ions, and trace metals at Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, and assesses their sources. Results showed several characteristic aspects of air pollution at Rabigh. Daily levels of PM2.5 and BC showed significant temporal variability ranging from 12.2 - 75.9 µg/m3 and 0.39 - 1.31 µg/m3, respectively. More than 90% of the time, the daily PM2.5 exceeded the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 µg/m3. Sulfate, NO3-, and NH4+ dominated the identifiable components. Trace metals with significantly higher concentrations included Si, S, Ca, Al, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg, K, and Ti, with average concentrations of 3.1, 2.2, 1.6, 1.2, 1.1, 0.7, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.1 µg/m3, respectively. Based on the Air Quality Index (AQI), there were 44% days of moderate air quality, 33% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, and 23% days of unhealthy air quality throughout the study period. Two categories of aerosol trace metal sources were defined: anthropogenic (S, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Cd, Sb, and Pb) and naturally derived elements (Si, Al, and Fe). The extent of anthropogenic contribution was estimated by the degree of enrichment of these elements compared to the crustal composition. Soil resuspension and/or mobilization is an important source of "natural" elements, while "anthropogenic" elements originate primarily from fossil fuel combustion and industries. Ni and V correlated strongly pointing to combustion of heavy fuel oil as the likely source. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to obtain information about possible sources. Our study highlights the need for stringent laws on PM2.5 emission control to protect human health and the environment.

  4. Mercury Speciation by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy and Sequential Chemical Extractions: A Comparison of Speciation Methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Bloom, N.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Determining the chemical speciation of mercury in contaminated mining and industrial environments is essential for predicting its solubility, transport behavior, and potential bioavailability as well as for designing effective remediation strategies. In this study, two techniques for determining Hg speciation-X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and sequential chemical extractions (SCE)-are independently applied to a set of samples with Hg concentrations ranging from 132 to 7539 mg/kg to determine if the two techniques provide comparable Hg speciation results. Generally, the proportions of insoluble HgS (cinnabar, metacinnabar) and HgSe identified by XAFS correlate well with the proportion of Hg removed in the aqua regia extraction demonstrated to remove HgS and HgSe. Statistically significant (> 10%) differences are observed however in samples containing more soluble Hg-containing phases (HgCl2, HgO, Hg3S2O 4). Such differences may be related to matrix, particle size, or crystallinity effects, which could affect the apparent solubility of Hg phases present. In more highly concentrated samples, microscopy techniques can help characterize the Hg-bearing species in complex multiphase natural samples.

  5. Source apportionment of ambient fine particle from combined size distribution and chemical composition data during summertime in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. R.; Wang, Y. S.; Liu, Q.; Hu, B.; Sun, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous particle number concentration and chemical composition data were collected over one month during summertime in Beijing to investigate the source apportionment of ambient fine particles. Particle size distributions from 15 nm to 2.5 μm in diameter and composition data, such as organic matter, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chlorine, and gaseous pollutants, were analyzed using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) which indentified eight factors: cooking, solid mode exhaust, nucleation mode exhaust, accumulation mode, secondary nitrate, secondary sulfate, coal-fired power plant and road dust. Nearly two-thirds of particle number concentrations were attributed to cooking (22.8%) and motor vehicle (37.5%), whereas road dust, coal-fired power plant and regional sources contributed 69.0% to particle volume concentrations. Local and remote sources were distinguished using size distributions associated with each factor. Local sources were generally characterised by unimodal or bimodal number distributions, consisting mostly of particles less 0.1 μm in diameter, and regional sources were defined by mostly accumulation mode particles. Nearly one third of secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate was transported from the surrounding areas of Beijing during study period. Overall the introduction of combination of particle number concentration and chemical composition in PMF model is successful at separating the components and quantifying relative contributions to the particle number and volume population in a complex urban atmosphere.

  6. Clarifying the chemical state of additives in membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells by X-ray absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuma, Toshihiro; Itoh, Takanori

    2016-02-01

    Cerium and manganese compounds are used in the membrane for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) as radical scavengers to mitigate chemical degradation of the membrane. The chemical states of cerium and manganese in the membrane were investigated using a fluorescence X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to open circuit voltage (OCV) condition, under which hydroxyl radicals attack the membrane; a shift in absorption energy in X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra was compared between Ce- and Mn-containing membranes before and after OCV testing. In the case of the Ce-containing MEA, there was no significant difference in XANES spectra before and after OCV testing, whereas in the case of the Mn-containing MEA, there was an obvious shift in XANES absorption energy after OCV testing, indicating that Mn atoms with higher valence state than 2+ exist in the membrane after OCV testing. This can be attributed to the difference in the rate of reduction; the reaction of Ce4+ with ·OOH is much faster than that of Mn3+ with ·OOH, leaving some of the Mn atoms with higher valence state. It was confirmed that cerium and manganese redox couples reduced the attack from radicals, mitigating membrane degradation.

  7. Chemical characterization of indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter in an occupied apartment in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2016-08-01

    The daily concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 was determined in indoor and outdoor 24-h samples simultaneously collected for a total of 5 weeks during a winter and a summer period in an apartment sited in Rome, Italy. The use of a specifically developed very quiet sampler (<35 dB) allowed the execution of the study while the family living in the apartment led its normal life. The indoor concentration of PM2.5 showed a small seasonal variation, while outdoor values were much higher during the winter study. Outdoor sources were found to contribute significantly to indoor PM concentration especially during the summer, when the apartment was naturally ventilated by opening the windows. During the winter the infiltration of outdoor PM components was lower and mostly regulated by the particle dimensions. Organics displayed In/Out ratios higher than unity during both periods; their indoor production increased significantly during the weekends, where the family stayed mostly at home. PM components were grouped into macrosources (soil, sea, secondary inorganics, traffic, organics). During the summer the main contributions to outdoor PM2.5 came from soil (30%), secondary inorganics (29%) and organics (22%). Organics dominated both indoor PM2.5 during the summer (60%) and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 during the winter (51% and 66%, respectively). PMID:26184798

  8. Airborne fine particulate pollution in Jinan, China: Concentrations, chemical compositions and influence on visibility impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lingxiao; Zhou, Xuehua; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Yang; Cheng, Shuhui; Xu, Pengju; Gao, Xiaomei; Nie, Wei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Wenxing

    2012-08-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at an urban site (SD) and a rural site (MP) in Jinan, China from March 2006 to February 2007. The samples were analyzed for major inorganic and organic water-soluble ions, 24 elements and carbonaceous species to determine the spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 mass concentrations and chemical compositions and evaluate their contributions to visibility impairment. The annual average concentrations of PM2.5 were 148.71 μg m-3 and 97.59 μg m-3 at SD and MP, respectively. The predominant component of PM2.5 was (NH4)2SO4 at SD and organic mass at MP, which accounted for 28.71% and 37.25% of the total mass, respectively. The higher SOR (sulfur oxidation ratio) and ratios of OC/EC at SD indicated that the formation of secondary inorganic ions and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) could be accelerated in the urban area. Large size (NH4)2SO4 and large size organic mass were the most important contributors to visibility impairment at SD and MP, accounting for 43.80% and 41.02% of the light extinction coefficient, respectively.

  9. Surface study of fine MgFe 2O 4 ferrite powder prepared by chemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Hiromichi; Hirazawa, Hideyuki; Naohara, Takashi; Maehara, Tsunehiro

    2008-02-01

    To study surface behaviors, MgFe 2O 4 ferrite materials having different grain sizes were synthesized by two different chemical methods, i.e., a polymerization method and a reverse coprecipitation method. The single phase of the cubic MgFe 2O 4 was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction method for both the precursors decomposed at 600-1000 °C except for a very small peak of Fe 2O 3 was detected for the samples calcined at 600 and 700 °C by the polymerization method. The crystal size and particle size increased with an increase in the sintering temperature using both methods. The conductance of the MgFe 2O 4 decreased when the atmosphere was changed from ambient air to air containing 10.0 ppm NO 2. The conductance change, C = G(air)/ G(10 ppm NO 2), was reduced with an increase in the operating temperature. For the polymerization method, the maximum C-value was ca. 40 at 300 °C for the samples sintered at 900 °C. However, the samples sintered at 1000 °C showed a low conductance change in the 10 ppm NO 2 gas, because the ratio of the O 2 gas adsorption sites on the particle surface is smaller than those of the samples having a high C-value. The low Mg content on the surface affects the low ratio of the gas adsorption sites. For the reverse coprecipitation method, the particle size was smaller than that of the polymerization method. Although a stable conductance was obtained for the sample sintered at 900 and 1000 °C, its conductance change was less than that of the polymerization method.

  10. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  11. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (AP...

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fine Particulate Matter Mass and Chemical Composition: The Middle East Consortium for Aerosol Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdeen, Ziad; Heo, Jongbae; Wu, Bo; Shpund, Jacob; Vanger, Arye; Sharf, Geula; Moise, Tamar; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Al-Mahasneh, Qusai M.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Schauer, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from January to December 2007 to investigate the sources and chemical speciation in Palestine, Jordan, and Israel. The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected on 6-day intervals at eleven urban and rural sites simultaneously. Major chemical components including metals, ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 across the 11 sites varied from 20.6 to 40.3 μg/m3, with an average of 28.7 μg/m3. Seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentrations was substantial, with higher average concentrations (37.3 μg/m3) in the summer (April–June) months compared to winter (October–December) months (26.0 μg/m3) due mainly to high contributions of sulfate and crustal components. PM2.5 concentrations in the spring were greatly impacted by regional dust storms. Carbonaceous mass was the most abundant component, contributing 40% to the total PM2.5 mass averaged across the eleven sites. Crustal components averaged 19.1% of the PM2.5 mass and sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate accounted for 16.2%, 6.4%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the total PM2.5 mass. The results of this study demonstrate the need to better protect the health and welfare of the residents on both sides of the Jordan River in the Middle East. PMID:25045751

  13. Direct micellar systems as a tool to improve the efficiency of aromatic substrate conversion for fine chemicals production.

    PubMed

    Berti, D; Randazzo, D; Briganti, F; Baglioni, P; Scozzafava, A; Di Gennaro, P; Galli, E; Bestetti, G

    2000-04-01

    Whole-cell bioconversion of naphthalene to (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene by Escherichia coli JM109(pPS1778) recombinant strain, carrying naphthalene dioxygenase and regulatory genes cloned from Pseudomonas fluorescens N3, in direct micellar systems is optimized as an example of fine chemicals bioproduction from scarcely water-soluble substrates. The oxygen insertion into the aromatic substrate, which stops at the enantiomerically pure cis dihydroxylated product, is performed in direct microemulsion systems, where a non-ionic surfactant stabilizes naphthalene containing oil droplets in an aqueous medium. These media provide an increased substrate solubility so that a homogeneous reaction can be carried out, while not affecting bacteria viability and performances. The influence of the chemical nature of the oil is investigated. The phase behavior of the direct microemulsion system was monitored for three different oils as a function their volume fraction and characterized through light scattering. The addition of isopropyl palmitate, oleic acid, or glyceryl trioleate, 0.6-1.2% v/v to the micellar systems, led to an increase of the substrate concentration in the solution and particularly its bioavailability, allowing faster catalytic conversions. All these systems resulted in being suitable for catalytic conversions of aromatic compounds. Although the nature of the oil does have a deep effect on the phase behavior of the micellar systems, in the present investigation no differences in the yields and in the rates of product formation of the enzymatic system were observed on changing the oil, thus showing that in this case the substrate concentration or bioavailability is not the rate-limiting step. PMID:10830854

  14. Chemical composition of fine particles in fresh smoke plumes from boreal wild-land fires in Europe.

    PubMed

    Saarnio, Karri; Aurela, Minna; Timonen, Hilkka; Saarikoski, Sanna; Teinilä, Kimmo; Mäkelä, Timo; Sofiev, Mikhail; Koskinen, Jarkko; Aalto, Pasi P; Kulmala, Markku; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Hillamo, Risto

    2010-05-15

    A series of smoke plumes was detected in Helsinki, Finland, during a one-month-lasting period in August 2006. The smoke plumes originated from wildfires close to Finland, and they were short-term and had a high particulate matter (PM) concentration. Physical and chemical properties of fine particles in those smokes were characterised by a wide range of real-time measurements that enabled the examination of individual plume events. Concurrently PM(1) filter samples were collected and analysed off-line. Satellite observations employing MODIS sensor on board of NASA EOS Terra satellite with the dispersion model SILAM and the Fire Assimilation System were used for evaluation of the emission fluxes from wildfires. The model predicted well the timing of the plumes but the predicted PM concentrations differed from the observed. The measurements showed that the major growth in PM concentration was caused by submicrometer particles consisting mainly of particulate organic matter (POM). POM had not totally oxidised during the transport based on the low WSOC-to-OC ratio. The fresh plumes were compared to another major smoke episode that was observed in Helsinki during April-May 2006. The duration and the source areas of the two episode periods differed. The episode in April-May was a period of nearly constantly upraised level of long-range transported PM and it was composed of aged particles when arriving in Helsinki. The two episodes had differences also in the chemical composition of PM. The mass concentrations of biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan, potassium, and oxalate) increased during both the episodes but different concentration levels of elemental carbon and potassium indicated that the episodes differed in the form of burning as well as in the burning material. In spring dry crop residue and hay from the previous season were burnt whereas in August smokes from smouldering and incomplete burning of fresh vegetation were detected. PMID:20359735

  15. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in downtown Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. Intercomparison of two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21) indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the filter-adjusted continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Correlations of the ACSM NR-PM1 (non-refractory particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 1 μm) plus elemental carbon (EC) with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM2.5 and Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM1 mass are strong with r2 > 0.7 and r2 > 0.8, respectively. Discrepancies might be attributed to evaporative losses of semi-volatile species from the filter measurements used to adjust the collocated continuous measurements. This suggests that adjusting the ambient aerosol continuous measurements with results from filter analysis introduced additional bias to the measurements. We also recommend to calibrate the ambient aerosol monitoring instruments using aerosol standards rather than gas-phase standards. The fitting approach for ACSM relative ionization for sulfate was shown to improve the comparisons between ACSM and collocated measurements in the absence of calibrated values, suggesting the importance of adding sulfate calibration into the ACSM calibration routine.

  16. Magnetic properties of Sr-La system M-type ferrite fine particles prepared by controlling the chemical coprecipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Seki, Hirota

    1999-09-01

    Single phase Sr-La M-type ferrite fine particles were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation and subsequent heat-treatment methods. Optimum magnetic properties were achieved with materials of composition Sr{sub 0.794}{sup 2+}La{sub 0.172}{sup 3+}Fe{sub 0.335}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 11.74}{sup 3+}O{sub 19}, and heat-treatment of 950 C x 2h in air. The magnetic and physical properties are {sigma}{sub s} = 90.5 x 10{sup {minus}6} Wb {center{underscore}dot} m/kg (72.0emu/g), H{sub cJ} = 505.3 kA/m (6.35 kOe), Tc = 454.4 C, the lattice constants a = 0.5882nm, c = 2.303nm, the activation energy = 230.9kJ/mol(55.2kcal/mol), and the average particle size = 0.3{micro}m.

  17. Characterization of chemical components and bioreactivity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during incense burning.

    PubMed

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Lee, S C; Hu, Di; Ho, K F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical and bioreactivity properties of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted during controlled burning of different brands of incense were characterized. Incenses marketed as being environmentally friendly emitted lower mass of PM2.5 particulates than did traditional incenses. However, the environmentally friendly incenses produced higher total concentrations of non-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to the collected PM2.5, followed by determining oxidative stress and inflammation. There was moderate to strong positive correlation (R > 0.60, p < 0.05) between selected PAHs and OPAHs against oxidative-inflammatory responses. Strong positive correlation was observed between interleukin 6 (IL-6) and summation of total Group B2 PAHs/OPAHs (∑7PAHs/ΣOPAHs). The experimental data indicate that emissions from the environmentally friendly incenses contained higher concentrations of several PAH and OPAH compounds than did traditional incense. Moreover, these PAHs and OPAHs were strongly correlated with inflammatory responses. The findings suggest a need to revise existing regulation of such products. PMID:26994327

  18. Fine particulate matter source apportionment for the chemical speciation trends network site at Birmingham, Alabama, using positive matrix factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, K.; Jayanty, R.K.; Flanagan, J.B.

    2008-01-15

    The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model version 1.1 was used with data from the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) Chemical Speciation Trends Network (STN) to estimate source contributions to ambient PM2.5 in a highly industrialized urban setting in the southeastern United States. Model results consistently resolved 10 factors that are interpreted as two secondary, five industrial, one motor vehicle, one road dust, and one biomass burning sources. It was found that most PMF factors did not cleanly represent single source types and instead are 'contaminated' by other sources. Secondary particulate matter formed by atmospheric processes, such as sulfate and secondary OC, contribute the majority of ambient PM2.5 and exhibit strong seasonality 37 {+-} 10% winter vs. 55 {+-} 16% summer average. Motor vehicle emissions constitute the biggest primary PM2.5 mass contribution. In summary, this study demonstrates the utility of the EC tracer method to effectively blank-correct the OC concentrations in the STN dataset. In addition, examination of the effect of input uncertainty estimates on model results indicates that the estimated uncertainties currently being provided with the STN data may be somewhat lower than the levels needed for optimum modeling results. An appendix , available to members on the website www.awma lists stationary sources of PM2.5 within 10 km of the NHBM site and PM2.5 emissions greater than 1 ton per year. 71 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Characterization of chemical composition and concentration of fine particulate matter during a transit strike in Ottawa, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Luyi; Chan, Tak Wai; Ke, Fu; Wang, Daniel K. W.

    2014-06-01

    From December 10, 2008 to February 9, 2009, a strike stopped the public transit services in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. To understand the changes in air quality associated with the transit strike, the chemical composition and concentration of the fine particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), collected before, during, and after the transit strike period, were evaluated. The collected PM2.5 samples were analyzed to determine the particulate matter mass, the levels of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), as well as the particulate non-polar semi-volatiles, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes. Particle number size distributions measured during and after the transit strike period were also compared. Results indicated that during transit strike months, particle number size distributions were entirely dominated by nucleation mode particles leading to an increase in total particle number concentration by about 79%. In addition, particulate matter, organic carbon, and elemental carbon mass concentrations also increased by over 100%. The average total PAH levels during the strike months were higher by a factor of about 7. Elevated concentrations of high molecular weight PAHs (i.e., PAH with 5 and 6 rings) observed during the strike months suggested that there were more gasoline-powered vehicles on the roads over that period. The level of carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene was higher by a factor of 5. Mass concentrations of hopanes and steranes were 30-98% higher during the strike months than non-strike months and exhibited strong correlations with EC suggesting the primary origin of these compounds. These results indicated that the increased traffic volume due to the passenger vehicles and the change in driving pattern during the transit strike period reduced the local air quality.

  20. Intercomparison of an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) with ambient fine aerosol measurements in Downtown Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budisulistiorini, S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Croteau, P. L.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.; Kollman, M. S.; Ng, N. L.; Verma, V.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Weber, R. J.; Surratt, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was recently developed to provide long-term real-time continuous measurements of ambient non-refractory (i.e., organic, sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, and chloride) submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1). Currently, there are a limited number of field studies that evaluate the long-term performance of the ACSM against established monitoring networks. In this study, we present seasonal intercomparisons of the ACSM with collocated fine aerosol (PM2.5) measurements at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Jefferson Street (JST) site near downtown Atlanta, GA, during 2011-2012. The collocated measurements included a second ACSM, continuous and integrated sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium measurements, as well as a semi-continuous Sunset organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC) analyzer, continuous tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), 24 h integrated Federal Reference Method (FRM) filters, and continuous scanning electrical mobility system-mixing condensation particle counter (SEMS-MCPC). Intercomparison of the two collocated ACSMs resulted in strong correlations (r2 > 0.8) for all chemical species, except chloride (r2 = 0.21); mass concentration for all chemical species agreed within ±27%, indicating that ACSM instruments are capable of stable and reproducible operation. Chemical constituents measured by the ACSM are also compared with those obtained from the continuous measurements from JST. Since the continuous measurement concentrations are adjusted to match the integrated filter measurements, these comparisons reflect the combined uncertainties of the ACSM, continuous, and filter measurements. In general, speciated ACSM mass concentrations correlate well (r2 > 0.7) with the continuous measurements from JST, although the correlation for nitrate is weaker (r2 = 0.55) in summer. Differences between ACSM mass concentrations and the filter-adjusted JST continuous data are 5-27%, 4

  1. Transport of intranasally instilled fine Fe2O3 particles into the brain: micro-distribution, chemical states, and histopathological observation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Feng, Wei Y; Wang, Meng; Shi, Jun W; Zhang, Fang; Ouyang, Hong; Zhao, Yu L; Chai, Zhi F; Huang, Yu Y; Xie, Ya N; Wang, Hai F; Wang, Jing

    2007-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that inhaled fine (d < 2.5 microm) and ultrafine (d < 100 nm) particles produce more severe toxicity than coarse particles. Some recent data support the concept that the central nervous system (CNS) may be a target for the inhaled fine particulates. This work describes initial observation of the transport of intranasally instilled fine ferric oxide (Fe2O3) particles in animal brain. The iron micro-distribution and chemical state in the mice olfactory bulb and brain stem on day 14 after intranasal instillation of fine Fe2O3 particle (280 +/- 80 nm) suspension at a single dose of 40 mg/kg body weight were analyzed by synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The micro-distribution map of iron in the olfactory bulb and brain stem shows an obvious increase of Fe contents in the olfactory nerve and the trigeminus of brain stem, suggesting that Fe2O3 particles were possibly transported via uptake by sensory nerve endings of the olfactory nerve and trigeminus. The XANES results indicate that the ratios of Fe (III)/Fe (II) were increased in the olfactory bulb and brain stem. The further histopathological observation showed that the neuron fatty degeneration occurred in the CA3 area of hippocampus. Such results imply an adverse impact of inhalation of fine Fe2O3 particles on CNS. PMID:17916926

  2. Nontoxic chemical process for in situ permeability enhancement and accelerated decontamination of fine-grain subsurface sediments

    DOEpatents

    Kansa, E.J.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

    1997-01-14

    The remediation of heterogeneous subsurfaces is extremely time consuming and expensive with current and developing technologies. Although such technologies can adequately remove contaminants in the high hydraulic conductivity, coarse-grained sediments, they cannot access the contaminated low hydraulic conductivity fine-grained sediments. The slow bleed of contaminants from the fine-grained sediments is the primary reason why subsurface remediation is so time-consuming and expensive. This invention addresses the problem of remediating contaminated fine-grained sediments. It is intended that, in the future, a heterogeneous site be treated by a hybrid process that first remediates the high hydraulic conductivity, coarse-grained sediments, to be followed by the process, described in this invention, to treat the contaminated low hydraulic conductivity fine-grained sediments. The invention uses cationic flocculants and organic solvents to collapse the swelling negative double layer surrounding water saturated clay particles, causing a flocculated, cracked clay structure. The modification of the clay fabric in fine-grained sediments dramatically increases the hydraulic conductivity of previously very tight clays many orders of magnitude. 8 figs.

  3. Nontoxic chemical process for in situ permeability enhancement and accelerated decontamination of fine-grain subsurface sediments

    DOEpatents

    Kansa, Edward J.; Wijesinghe, Ananda M.; Viani, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    The remediation of heterogeneous subsurfaces is extremely time consuming and expensive with current and developing technologies. Although such technologies can adequately remove contaminants in the high hydraulic conductivity, coarse-grained sediments, they cannot access the contaminated low hydraulic conductivity fine-grained sediments. The slow bleed of contaminants from the fine-grained sediments is the primary reason why subsurface remediation is so time-consuming and expensive. This invention addresses the problem of remediating contaminated fine-grained sediments. It is intended that, in the future, a heterogeneous site be treated by a hybrid process that first remediates the high hydraulic conductivity, coarse-grained sediments, to be followed by the process, described in this invention, to treat the contaminated low hydraulic conductivity fine-grained sediments. The invention uses cationic flocculents and organic solvents to collapse the swelling negative double layer surrounding water saturated clay particles, causing a flocculated, cracked clay structure. The modification of the clay fabric in fine-grained sediments dramatically increases the hydraulic conductivity of previously very tight clays many orders of magnitude.

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A HIGH-VOLUME DICHOTOMOUS SAMPLER FOR CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF COARSE AND FINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development and field evaluation of a compact high-volume dichotomous sampler (HVDS) that collects coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter. In its primary configuration as tested, the sampler size-fractionates PM10 into...

  5. Organo- and nano-catalyst in greener reaction medium: Microwave-assisted expedient synthesis of fine chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of emerging microwave (MW) -assisted chemistry techniques is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. A brief account of our experiences in developing MW-assisted organic transformations, which invo...

  6. Update on the Chemical Composition Of Crystalline, Smectite, and Amorphous Components for Rocknest Soil and John Klein and Cumberland Mudstone Drill Fines at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Rampe, E. B.; Treiman, A. H.; Yen, A. S.; Achilles, C. N.; Archer, P. D.; Bristow, T. F.; Cavanaugh, P.; Fenrdrich, K.; Crisp, J. A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; McAdam, A. C.; Morookian, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously calculated the chemical compositions of the X-ray-diffraction (XRD) amorphous component of three solid samples (Rocknest (RN) soil, John Klein (JK) drill fines, and Cumberland (CB) drill fines) using major-element chemistry (APXS), volatile-element chemistry (SAM), and crystalline- phase mineralogy (CheMin) obtained by the Curiosity rover as a part of the ongoing Mars Science Laboratory mission in Gale Crater. According to CheMin analysis, the RN and the JK and CB samples are mineralogically distinct in that RN has no detectable clay minerals and both JK and CB have significant concentrations of high-Fe saponite. The chemical composition of the XRD amorphous component is the composition remaining after mathematical removal of the compositions of crystalline components, including phyllosilicates if present. Subsequent to, we have improved the unit cell parameters for Fe-forsterite, augite, and pigeonite, resulting in revised chemical compositions for the XRD-derived crystalline component (excluding clay minerals). We update here the calculated compositions of amorphous components using these revised mineral compositions.

  7. Effect of gas residence time on near-edge X-ray absorption fine structures of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lingyun; Sugiura, Hirotsugu; Kondo, Hiroki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Oda, Osamu; Sekine, Makoto; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Hori, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    In hydrogenated amorphous carbon films, deposited using a radical-injection plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, the chemical bonding structure was analyzed by near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy. With a change in the residence times of source gases in a reactor, whereby total gas flow rates of H2/CH4 increased from 50 to 400 sccm, sp2-C fractions showed the minimum value at 150 sccm, while H concentration negligibly changed according to the results of secondary ion mass spectroscopy. On the other hand, widths of σ* C-C peaks increased with decreasing gas residence time, which indicates an increase in the fluctuation of bonding structures.

  8. Size distribution, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity of fine particles emitted from an oil-fired heating plant.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Matti; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Frey, Anna; Saarikoski, Sanna; Carbone, Samara; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa; Häyrinen, Anna; Kytömäki, Jorma; Niemi, Jarkko V; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2013-12-17

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is a commonly used fuel in industrial heating and power generation and for large marine vessels. In this study, the fine particle emissions of a 47 MW oil-fired boiler were studied at 30 MW power and with three different fuels. The studied fuels were HFO, water emulsion of HFO, and water emulsion of HFO mixed with light fuel oil (LFO). With all the fuels, the boiler emitted considerable amounts of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Further, these small particles were quite hygroscopic even as fresh and, in the case of HFO+LFO emulsion, the hygroscopic growth of the particles was dependent on particle size. The use of emulsions and the addition of LFO to the fuel had a reducing effect on the hygroscopic growth of particles. The use of emulsions lowered the sulfate content of the smallest particles but did not affect significantly the sulfate content of particles larger than 42 nm and, further, the addition of LFO considerably increased the black carbon content of particulate matter. The results indicate that even the fine particles emitted from HFO based combustion can have a significant effect on cloud formation, visibility, and air quality. PMID:24245691

  9. Evidence of fine-grained sediment transport and deposition in Sheboygan River, Wisconsin, based on sediment core chemical tracer profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzdusek, Philip A.; Lu, Jianhang; Christensen, Erik R.

    2005-04-01

    Fine-grained sediment transport and deposition is observed in nine dated sediment cores obtained from the Sheboygan River. The sediment cores were dated by 137Cs and 210Pb methods. Sediment dating was supported by a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) hydrographic surveys from 1976 to 2002. Plots of 137Cs activity versus depth show distinct peaks related to peak Sheboygan River discharges in the years 1966, 1975, 1979, and 1989. These peaks result from the scouring of sediments during storm discharges and the increased deposition of the fine-grained fraction of particles, including colloidal clay particles (associated with 137Cs and, to some extent, PCBs), in place of the scoured sediments. Core SR1a, upstream of the Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge, and cores SR5-SR8, farther downstream, show continuous sedimentation (1.2-11.8 cm/yr) since the late 1950s, whereas net sediment accumulation virtually ceased after 1988 at the intermediate sites of cores SR1-SR4. The maximum PCB concentration (161 ppm) occurs in 1969 in core SR4.

  10. Inter-comparison of Seasonal Variation, Chemical Characteristics, and Source Identification of Atmospheric Fine Particles on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait.

    PubMed

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles in areas around the Taiwan Strait were firstly investigated. Fine particles (PM2.5) were simultaneously collected at two sites on the west-side, one site at an offshore island, and three sites on the east-side of the Taiwan Strait in 2013-2014. Field sampling results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations at the west-side sampling sites were generally higher than those at the east-side sampling sites. In terms of chemical composition, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of PM2.5 were SO4(2-), NO3(-), and NH4(+), while natural crustal elements dominated the metallic content of PM2.5, and the most abundant anthropogenic metals of PM2.5 were Pb, Ni and Zn. Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side sampling sites, which are located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Results from CMB receptor modeling showed that the major sources of PM2.5 were anthropogenic sources and secondary aerosols at the both sides, and natural sources dominated PM2.5 at the offshore site. A consistent decrease of secondary sulfate and nitrate contribution to PM2.5 suggested the transportation of aged particles from the west-side to the east-side of the Taiwan Strait. PMID:26973085

  11. Inter-comparison of Seasonal Variation, Chemical Characteristics, and Source Identification of Atmospheric Fine Particles on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2016-03-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles in areas around the Taiwan Strait were firstly investigated. Fine particles (PM2.5) were simultaneously collected at two sites on the west-side, one site at an offshore island, and three sites on the east-side of the Taiwan Strait in 2013–2014. Field sampling results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations at the west-side sampling sites were generally higher than those at the east-side sampling sites. In terms of chemical composition, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of PM2.5 were SO42‑, NO3‑, and NH4+, while natural crustal elements dominated the metallic content of PM2.5, and the most abundant anthropogenic metals of PM2.5 were Pb, Ni and Zn. Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side sampling sites, which are located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Results from CMB receptor modeling showed that the major sources of PM2.5 were anthropogenic sources and secondary aerosols at the both sides, and natural sources dominated PM2.5 at the offshore site. A consistent decrease of secondary sulfate and nitrate contribution to PM2.5 suggested the transportation of aged particles from the west-side to the east-side of the Taiwan Strait.

  12. Inter-comparison of Seasonal Variation, Chemical Characteristics, and Source Identification of Atmospheric Fine Particles on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles in areas around the Taiwan Strait were firstly investigated. Fine particles (PM2.5) were simultaneously collected at two sites on the west-side, one site at an offshore island, and three sites on the east-side of the Taiwan Strait in 2013–2014. Field sampling results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations at the west-side sampling sites were generally higher than those at the east-side sampling sites. In terms of chemical composition, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of PM2.5 were SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+, while natural crustal elements dominated the metallic content of PM2.5, and the most abundant anthropogenic metals of PM2.5 were Pb, Ni and Zn. Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side sampling sites, which are located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Results from CMB receptor modeling showed that the major sources of PM2.5 were anthropogenic sources and secondary aerosols at the both sides, and natural sources dominated PM2.5 at the offshore site. A consistent decrease of secondary sulfate and nitrate contribution to PM2.5 suggested the transportation of aged particles from the west-side to the east-side of the Taiwan Strait. PMID:26973085

  13. A nanotree-like CdS/ZnO nanocomposite with spatially branched hierarchical structure for photocatalytic fine-chemical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqi; Yang, Min-Quan; Tang, Zi-Rong; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2014-06-01

    Branched hierarchical CdS/ZnO nanocomposites have been synthesized for application toward photocatalytic fine-chemical synthesis. Growing ZnO nanorods on the surface of CdS nanowires boosts the light harvesting efficiency and charge separation as well as fast charge transport and collection. A Z-scheme mechanism under artificial solar light is also proposed.Branched hierarchical CdS/ZnO nanocomposites have been synthesized for application toward photocatalytic fine-chemical synthesis. Growing ZnO nanorods on the surface of CdS nanowires boosts the light harvesting efficiency and charge separation as well as fast charge transport and collection. A Z-scheme mechanism under artificial solar light is also proposed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, photographs of the experimental setups for photocatalytic activity testing, zeta potential analysis, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) patterns, the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectra, blank experiments (without light or photocatalyst), time-online data, BET surface data and adsorption experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01227e

  14. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... comments that appeared in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55340), regarding Regulatory... NW., Washington, DC 20429. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-21357, appearing on page 55518... Part 324 RIN 3064-AD95 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel...

  15. Fine particle emissions in three different combustion conditions of a wood chip-fired appliance - Particulate physico-chemical properties and induced cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskinen, J.; Tissari, J.; Uski, O.; Virén, A.; Torvela, T.; Kaivosoja, T.; Lamberg, H.; Nuutinen, I.; Kettunen, T.; Joutsensaari, J.; Jalava, P. I.; Sippula, O.; Hirvonen, M.-R.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2014-04-01

    A biomass combustion reactor with a moving grate was utilised as a model system to produce three different combustion conditions corresponding to efficient, intermediate, and smouldering combustion. The efficient conditions (based on a CO level of approximately 7 mg MJ-1) corresponded to a modern pellet boiler. The intermediate conditions (CO level of approximately 300 mg MJ-1) corresponded to non-optimal settings in a continuously fired biomass combustion appliance. The smouldering conditions (CO level of approximately 2200 mg MJ-1) approached a batch combustion situation. The gaseous and particle emissions were characterised under each condition. Moreover, the ability of fine particles to cause cell death was determined using the particle emissions samples. The physico-chemical properties of the emitted particles and their toxicity were considerably different between the studied combustion conditions. In the efficient combustion, the emitted particles were small in size and large in number. The PM1 emission was low, and it was composed of ash species. In the intermediate and smouldering combustion, the PM1 emission was higher, and the particles were larger in size and smaller in number. In both of these conditions, there were high-emission peaks that produced a significant fraction of the emissions. The PAH emissions were the lowest in the efficient combustion. The smouldering combustion conditions produced the largest PAH emissions. In efficient combustion conditions, the emitted fine particles had the highest potential to cause cell death. This finding was most likely observed because these fine particles were mainly composed of inorganic ash species, and their relative contents of Zn were high. Thus, even the PM1 from optimal biomass combustion might cause health effects, but in these conditions, the particle emissions per energy unit produced were considerably lower.

  16. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-09-15

    The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM₂.₅) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV₂₁) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV₂₁ associated with various air pollutants and PM₂.₅ constituents. Four PM₂.₅ constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

  17. Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of fine particulate organic carbon in Hong Kong during high particulate matter episodes in winter 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Chun; Yu, Jian Zhen; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Schauer, James J.; Yuan, Zibing; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2013-02-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at six general stations and one roadside station in Hong Kong in two periods of high particulate matter (PM) in 2003 (27 October-4 November and 30 November-13 December). The highest PM2.5 reached 216 μg m- 3 during the first high PM period and 113 μg m- 3 during the second high PM period. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions identified individual sampling days under dominant influence of one of three types of air masses, that is, local, regional and long-range transported (LRT) air masses. Roadside samples were discussed separately due to heavy influences from vehicular emissions. This research examines source apportionment of fine organic carbon (OC) and contribution of secondary organic aerosol on high PM days under different synoptic conditions. Six primary OC (POC) sources (vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, cooking, cigarette smoke, vegetative detritus, and coal combustion) were identified on the basis of characteristic organic tracers. Individual POC source contributions were estimated using chemical mass balance model. In the roadside and the local samples, OC was dominated by the primary sources, accounting for more than 74% of OC. In the samples influenced by regional and LRT air masses, secondary OC (SOC), which was approximated to be the difference between the total measured OC and the apportioned POC, contributed more than 54% of fine OC. SOC was highly correlated with water-soluble organic carbon and sulfate, consistent with its secondary nature.

  18. Halogen-induced organic aerosol (XOA): a study on ultra-fine particle formation and time-resolved chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Ofner, Johannes; Kamilli, Katharina A; Held, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    The concurrent presence of high values of organic SOA precursors and reactive halogen species (RHS) at very low ozone concentrations allows the formation of halogen-induced organic aerosol, so-called XOA, in maritime areas where high concentrations of RHS are present, especially at sunrise. The present study combines aerosol smog-chamber and aerosol flow-reactor experiments for the characterization of XOA. XOA formation yields from alpha-pinene at low and high concentrations of chlorine as reactive halogen species (RHS) were determined using a 700 L aerosol smog-chamber with a solar simulator. The chemical transformation of the organic precursor during the aerosol formation process and chemical aging was studied using an aerosol flow-reactor coupled to an FTIR spectrometer. The FTIR dataset was analysed using 2D correlation spectroscopy. Chlorine induced homogeneous XOA formation takes place at even 2.5 ppb of molecular chlorine, which was photolysed by the solar simulator. The chemical pathway of XOA formation is characterized by the addition of chlorine and abstraction of hydrogen atoms, causing simultaneous carbon-chlorine bond formation. During further steps of the formation process, carboxylic acids are formed, which cause a SOA-like appearance of XOA. During the ozone-free formation of secondary organic aerosol with RHS a special kind of particulate matter (XOA) is formed, which is afterwards transformed to SOA by atmospheric aging or degradation pathways. PMID:24601001

  19. Geochemistry of fine-grained sediments in the Yangtze River and the implications for provenance and chemical weathering in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Mengying; Zheng, Hongbo; Clift, Peter D.; Tada, Ryuji; Wu, Weihua; Luo, Chao

    2015-12-01

    In order to interpret the marine clastic record preserved in the sedimentary basins of the East Asian marginal seas, it is important to understand how sediment transport and chemical weathering affect the composition of sediment enroute to its sink. Here we present a new data set for fine-grained sediment (<63 μm) from the Yangtze River and its major tributaries, which represents a baseline for interpreting sediment in the East China Sea. We demonstrate that there is no significant coherent downstream variation in the major element contents, which are generally more enriched than the average upper continental crust, except for water-soluble elements including Sr, Rb, Na, and K. Nd isotopes show that most of the sediment comes from the eastern and middle Yangtze Craton, as well as the Songpan-Garze Terrane. Chemical weathering varies significantly across the basin with upstream tributary sediments being relatively unweathered compared to those in the lower reaches. However, sediments in the main Yangtze stream show no trend in chemical weathering along its course, with some of the least weathered materials being found closest to the delta. Grain size and the abundance of hydrodynamically sorted heavy minerals affect the bulk geochemistry, especially the rare earth elements (REEs).

  20. Estimation of crystallization kinetics for an organic fine chemical using a modified continuous cooling mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougoulos, E.; Jones, A. G.; Wood-Kaczmar, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of an important organic fine chemical was determined using a modified laboratory scale continuous cooling mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer with a product recycle loop designed for use with limited quantities of available material. A convenient method of monitoring steady state in the MSMPR using lasentec focussed beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) is also described. The effect of supersaturation, suspension density of the crystallizer content, impeller velocity (turnover time) and configuration on the growth and nucleation rates was studied. An observed deviation from the McCabe Δ L law for small crystal sizes was attributed to either size-dependent growth (SDG) or growth rate dispersion (GRD) mechanisms and hence complicated the estimation of growth and nucleation rates. SDG was successfully modelled using a three-parameter exponential SDG model. Growth rates estimated from the SDG model were compared to a GRD model using discrete growth probability distributions.

  1. Source apportionment of ambient fine particulate matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using hourly resolved PM chemical composition data.

    PubMed

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Landis, Matthew S; Norris, Gary A; Vedantham, Ram; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July-August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite of semi-continuous sampling and monitoring instruments. Dynamic variations in the sub-hourly concentrations of source 'marker' elements were observed when discrete plumes from local sources impacted the sampling site. Hourly averaged PM2.5 composition data for 639 samples were used to identify and apportion PM2.5 emission sources using the multivariate receptor modeling techniques EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) v4.2 and EPA Unmix v6.0. Source contribution estimates from PMF and Unmix were then evaluated using the Sustained Wind Instance Method (SWIM), which identified plausible source origins. Ten sources were identified by both PMF and Unmix: (1) secondary sulfate, (2) secondary nitrate characterized by a significant diurnal trend, (3) iron and steel production, (4) a potassium-rich factor attributable to iron/steel slag waste processing, (5) a cadmium-rich factor attributable to incineration, (6) an oil refinery characterized by La/Ce>1 specific to south wind, (7) oil combustion, (8) coal combustion, (9) motor vehicles, and (10) road dust enriched with organic carbon. While both models apportioned secondary sulfate, oil refinery, and oil combustion PM2.5 masses closely, the mobile and industrial source apportionments differed. Analyses were also carried out to help infer time-of-day variations in the contributions of local sources. PMID:23302684

  2. Chemical speciation of Fe and Ni in residual oil fly ash fine particulate matter using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked residual oil fly ash fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (ROFA PM(2.5)) to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Bioavailable transition metals within PM have been cited as one of the components that induce such illnesses. By combining synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy with leaching experiment, we studied the effect of residual oil compositions and combustion conditions on the speciation of Fe and Ni in ROFA PM(2.5) and the implication of these species for human health and environment. PM(2.5) samples were obtained from two types of combustors, a fire tube boiler (FTB) and a refractory line combustor (RLC). The study reveals that only Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)·nH(2)O is present in RLC PM(2.5) while Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)·nH(2)O predominates in FTB PM(2.5) with inclusion of varying amounts of nickel ferrite. The finding that RLC PM(2.5) is more bioavailable and hence more toxic than FTB PM(2.5) is significant. The reduction of toxicity of FTB PM(2.5) is due to the immobilization of a portion of Fe and Ni in the formation of an insoluble NiFe(2)O(4). This may explain the variation of toxicity from exposure to different ROFA PM(2.5). Additionally, the speciation data are sought for developing emission inventories for source apportionment study and understanding the mechanism of PM formation. PMID:23126560

  3. Concentrations and chemical compositions of fine particles (PM2.5) during haze and non-haze days in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Huang, Wei; Cai, Tianqi; Fang, Dongqing; Wang, Yuqin; Song, Jian; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the chemical properties of PM2.5 and put forward reasonable control measures, daily samples of PM2.5 were collected at an urban site in Beijing from August 4 to September 3 of 2012 using two 2-channel samplers. Chemical analysis was conducted for eight water soluble inorganic ions (WSII, including Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2 +, Ca2 +, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42 -), organic carbon (OC) and elementary carbon (EC). PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 8.8 to 218.6 μg m- 3, with an average concentration of 80.6 ± 57.3 μg m- 3. WSII, the most dominant PM2.5 constituents contributing 60 ± 18% of its mass, ranged from 3.1 to 172.2 μg m- 3. SO42 -, NO3-, and NH4+ dominated WSII (90 ± 28%) and their concentrations were 1.3-105.7 μg m- 3, 0.5-52.7 μg m- 3 and 0.3-33.5 μg m- 3, respectively. The concentrations of OC and EC were 3.0-28.8 μgC m- 3 and 0.8-7.4 μgC m- 3, constituting 17.6% and 4.9% of PM2.5, respectively. Three serious pollution episodes (haze days) occurred during the campaign. PM2.5 and its chemical species showed substantial increases during haze episodes. The greater enhancement factors for SO42 - (4.5), NO3- (4.0), and NH4+ (4.2) during haze days compared to non-haze days were obtained, suggesting that these secondary inorganic ions play important roles in the formation of haze. The average ratio of NO3-/SO42 - was 0.52. Ion balance calculations showed that PM2.5 samples were acidic during haze periods and close to neutral during non-haze days. Correlation analysis between the major ions was conducted and the results suggested that the main forms of NH4+ might be (NH4)2SO4. In addition, the variations between haze days and non-haze days for OC, EC, and the ratio of OC/EC were discussed.

  4. Modeling of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter: Development and performance assessment of EASYWRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, M.; Lebègue, P.; Visez, N.; Fèvre-Nollet, V.; Crenn, V.; Riffault, V.; Petitprez, D.

    2016-03-01

    The European emission Adaptation SYstem for the WRF-Chem model (EASYWRF-Chem) has been developed to generate chemical information supporting the WRF-Chem requirements from any emission inventory based on the CORINAIR methodology. Using RADM2 and RACM2 mechanisms, "emission species" are converted into "model species" thanks to the SAPRC methodology for gas phase pollutant and the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions. Furthermore, by adapting US EPA PM2.5 profiles, the processing of aerosol chemical speciation profiles separates the unspeciated PM2.5 emission into five chemical families: sulfates, nitrates, elemental carbon, organic aerosol and unspeciated aerosol. The evaluation of the model has been performed by separately comparing model outcomes with (i) meteorological measurements; (ii) NO2, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations from the regional air quality monitoring network; (iii) hourly-resolved data from four field campaign measurements, in winter and in summer, on two sites in the French northern region. In the latter, a High Resolution - Time of Flight - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) provided non-refractory PM1 concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium ions as well as organic matter (OM), while an aethalometer provided black carbon (BC) concentrations in the PM2.5 fraction. Meteorological data (temperature, wind, relative humidity) are well simulated for all the time series data except for specific events as wind direction changes or rainfall. For particulate matter, results are presented by considering firstly the total mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10. EASYWRF-Chem simulations overestimated the PM10 mass concentrations by + 22% and + 4% for summer and winter periods respectively, whereas for the finer PM2.5 fraction, mass concentrations were overestimated by + 20% in summer and underestimated by - 13% in winter. Simulated sulfate concentrations were underestimated and nitrate concentrations were overestimated but hourly variations were well

  5. Chemical composition and source of fine and nanoparticles from recent direct injection gasoline passenger cars: Effects of fuel and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Kondo, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Shinji; Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Particle number, mass, and chemical compositions (i.e., elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elements, ions, and organic species) of fine particles emitted from four of the recent direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline passenger cars and a port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline passenger car were measured under Japanese official transient mode (JC08 mode). Total carbon (TC = EC + OC) dominated the particulate mass (90% on average). EC dominated the TC for both hot and cold start conditions. The EC/TC ratios were 0.72 for PFI and 0.88-1.0 (average = 0.92) for DISI vehicles. A size-resolved chemical analysis of a DISI car revealed that the major organic components were the C20-C28 hydrocarbons for both the accumulation-mode particles and nanoparticles. Contribution of engine oil was estimated to be 10-30% for organics and the sum of the measured elements. The remaining major fraction likely originated from gasoline fuel. Therefore, it is suggested that soot (EC) also mainly originated from the gasoline. In experiments using four fuels at three ambient temperatures, the emission factors of particulate mass were consistently higher with regular gasoline than with premium gasoline. This result suggest that the high content of less-volatile compounds in fuel increase particulate emissions. These results suggest that focusing on reducing fuel-derived EC in the production process of new cars would effectively reduce particulate emission from DISI cars.

  6. Eight-year (2007-2014) trends in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical components in the Capital Region of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2016-05-01

    Currently there have been questions about ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in the Capital Region of Alberta, Canada. An investigation of temporal trends in PM2.5 and its chemical components was undertaken in the City of Edmonton within the Capital Region over an 8-year period (2007-2014). A non-parametric trend detection method was adopted to characterize trends in ambient concentrations. No statistically significant change was observed for ambient PM2.5 concentrations during 2007-2014, while significant decreasing trends were found for organic carbon, elemental carbon, oxalate, barium, lead and cadmium. A statistically significant increasing trend was observed for sodium chloride indicating an increase of de-icing salt contribution for winter road maintenance in recent years. Concentrations of potassium ion and zinc exhibited strong and significant seasonal variability with higher concentrations in winter than in summer likely reflecting wood smoke origins more than other potential sources in Edmonton and the surrounding region. No statistically significant changes were observed for all other chemical components examined. Notwithstanding robust population growth that has occurred in Edmonton, these findings reveal that particulate air quality and corresponding trace elements in Edmonton's air has been unchanged or improved over the investigated period (2007-2014). Longer-term air quality monitoring at least over several decades is needed to establish whether trends reported here are actually occurring. PMID:26949866

  7. Reduced in vitro toxicity of fine particulate matter collected during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing: the roles of chemical and biological components.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Frankenberger, Birgit; Tian, Feng; Chen, Chenyong; Stoeger, Tobias

    2013-10-01

    Beijing has implemented systematic air pollution control legislation to reduce particulate emissions and improve air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympics, but whether the toxicity of fine fraction of particles (PM(2.5)) would be changed remains unclear. In present study we compared in vitro biological responses of PM(2.5) collected before and during the Olympics and tried to reveal possible correlations between its chemical components and toxicological mechanism(s). We measured cytotoxicity, cytokines/chemokines, and related gene expressions in murine alveolar macrophages, MH-S, after treated with 20 PM(2.5) samples. Significant, dose-dependent effects on cell viability, cytokine/chemokine release and mRNA expressions were observed. The cytotoxicity caused at equal mass concentration of PM(2.5) was notably reduced (p<0.05) by control measures, and significant association was found for viability and elemental zinc in PM(2.5). Endotoxin content in PM(2.5) correlated with all of the eight detected cytokines/chemokines; elemental and organic carbon correlated with four; arsenic and chromium correlated with six and three, respectively; iron and barium showed associations with two; nickel, magnesium, potassium, and calcium showed associations with one. PM(2.5) toxicity in Beijing was substantially dependent on its chemical components, and lowering the levels of specific components in PM(2.5) during the 2008 Olympics resulted in reduced biological responses. PMID:23962744

  8. Fine Particle Sources and Cardiorespiratory Morbidity: An Application of Chemical Mass Balance and Factor Analytical Source-Apportionment Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Marmur, Amit; Klein, Mitchel; Kim, Eugene; Russell, Armistead G.; Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Mulholland, James A.; Hopke, Philip K.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Interest in the health effects of particulate matter (PM) has focused on identifying sources of PM, including biomass burning, power plants, and gasoline and diesel emissions that may be associated with adverse health risks. Few epidemiologic studies, however, have included source-apportionment estimates in their examinations of PM health effects. We analyzed a time-series of chemically speciated PM measurements in Atlanta, Georgia, and conducted an epidemiologic analysis using data from three distinct source-apportionment methods. Objective The key objective of this analysis was to compare epidemiologic findings generated using both factor analysis and mass balance source-apportionment methods. Methods We analyzed data collected between November 1998 and December 2002 using positive-matrix factorization (PMF), modified chemical mass balance (CMB-LGO), and a tracer approach. Emergency department (ED) visits for a combined cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD) group were assessed as end points. We estimated the risk ratio (RR) associated with same day PM concentrations using Poisson generalized linear models. Results There were significant, positive associations between same-day PM2.5 (PM with aero-dynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) concentrations attributed to mobile sources (RR range, 1.018–1.025) and biomass combustion, primarily prescribed forest burning and residential wood combustion, (RR range, 1.024–1.033) source categories and CVD-related ED visits. Associations between the source categories and RD visits were not significant for all models except sulfate-rich secondary PM2.5 (RR range, 1.012–1.020). Generally, the epidemiologic results were robust to the selection of source-apportionment method, with strong agreement between the RR estimates from the PMF and CMB-LGO models, as well as with results from models using single-species tracers as surrogates of the source-apportioned PM2.5 values. Conclusions Despite differences among the

  9. Fast changes in chemical composition and size distribution of fine particles during the near-field transport of industrial plumes.

    PubMed

    Marris, Hélène; Deboudt, Karine; Augustin, Patrick; Flament, Pascal; Blond, François; Fiani, Emmanuel; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2012-06-15

    Aerosol sampling was performed inside the chimneys and in the close environment of a FeMn alloys manufacturing plant. The number size distributions show a higher abundance of ultrafine aerosols (10-100 nm) inside the plume than upwind of the plant, indicating the emissions of nanoparticles by the industrial process. Individual analysis of particles collected inside the plume shows a high proportion of metal bearing particles (Mn-/Fe-) consisting essentially of internally mixed aluminosilicate and metallic compounds. These particles evolve rapidly (in a few minutes) after emission by adsorption of VOC gas and sulfuric acid emitted by the plant but also by agglomeration with pre-existing particles. At the moment, municipalities require a monitoring of industrial emissions inside the chimneys from manufacturers. However those measures are insufficient to report such rapid changes in chemical composition and thus to evaluate the real impact of industrial plumes in the close environment of plants (when those particles leave the industrial site). Consequently, environmental authorities will have to consider such fast evolutions and then to adapt future regulations on air pollution sources. PMID:22542297

  10. Use of the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s Basel Statements to Assess and Advance Hospital Pharmacy Practice: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Basel statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation, which provide the first global, unified vision for the hospital pharmacy profession, have recently been revised. Originally released in 2008, the Basel statements have since been made available in 21 languages, and thus have the potential for great impact around the world. Objective: To conduct a scoping review to examine the extent and nature of research activity related to the Basel statements. Methods: Google Scholar, PubMed, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the key term “Basel statements” for relevant research articles. From each included study, data were extracted on geographic location, study design, study outcomes, and use of the Basel statements. Results: The search strategy generated 113 results. Further refinement resulted in 14 English-language articles that met the inclusion criteria. Four of these articles focused on adapting the Basel statements to European practice, an initiative of the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists that led to development of the European statements of Hospital Pharmacy. Six studies focused on monitoring hospital pharmacy practice in Uganda, the Pacific island countries, and the Western Pacific Region. These studies provide valuable baseline data to measure and track the development of hospital pharmacy practices in their respective countries and regions. The remaining 4 studies used qualitative methods to explore the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Basel statements in South Africa, China, and Australia. Conclusion: The Basel statements have led to multiple initiatives around the world, involving more than 70 countries. The European and Western Pacific regions have been the most active. Current initiatives should be continued to ensure identification and resolution of issues related to sustaining their use over time. PMID:27168634

  11. Genotoxicity, inflammation and physico-chemical properties of fine particle samples from an incineration energy plant and urban air.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Rank, Jette; White, Paul A; Lundstedt, Staffan; Gagne, Remi; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2007-10-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) was sampled by use of an electrostatic sampler in an oven hall and a receiving hall in a waste-incineration energy plant, and from urban air in a heavy-traffic street and from background air in Copenhagen. PM was sampled for 1-2 weeks, four samples at each site. The samples were extracted and examined for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, YG1041 and YG5161, for content of inorganic elements and for the presence of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The induction of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and the presence of DNA damage - tested by the comet assay - were determined after 24-h incubations with human A549 lung epithelial cells. The PM(2.5) concentration was about twofold greater in the oven hall than in the receiving hall. The particle size distribution in the receiving hall was similar to that in street air (maximum mode at about 25nm), but the distribution was completely different in the oven hall (maximum mode at about 150nm). Also chemically, the samples from the oven hall were highly different from the other samples. PM extracts from the receiving hall, street and background air were more mutagenic than the PM extracts from the oven hall. PM from all four sites caused similar levels of DNA damage in A549 cells; only the oven hall samples gave results that were statistically significantly different from those obtained with street-air samples. The receiving hall and the urban air samples were similarly inflammatory (relative IL-8 mRNA expression), whereas the oven hall did not cause a statistically significant increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. A principal component analysis separated the oven hall and the receiving hall by the first principal component. These two sites were separated from street and background air with the second principal component. Several clusters of constituents were identified. One cluster consisted of all the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), several groups of metals and one

  12. A one-year comprehensive chemical characterisation of fine aerosol (PM2.5) at urban, suburban and rural background sites in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Nicolas, J. B.; Petit, J.-E.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Féron, A.

    2013-08-01

    Studies describing the chemical composition of fine aerosol (PM2.5) in urban areas are often conducted for a few weeks only and at one sole site, giving thus a narrow view of their temporal and spatial characteristics. This paper presents a one-year (11 September 2009-10 September 2010) survey of the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 in the region of Paris, which is the second most populated "Larger Urban Zone" in Europe. Five sampling sites representative of suburban (SUB), urban (URB), northeast (NER), northwest (NWR) and south (SOR) rural backgrounds were implemented. The major chemical components of PM2.5 were determined including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and the major ions. OC was converted to organic matter (OM) using the chemical mass closure methodology, which leads to conversion factors of 1.95 for the SUB and URB sites, and 2.05 for the three rural ones. On average, gravimetrically determined PM2.5 annual mass concentrations are 15.2, 14.8, 12.6, 11.7 and 10.8 μg m-3 for SUB, URB, NER, NWR and SOR sites, respectively. The chemical composition of fine aerosol is very homogeneous at the five sites and is composed of OM (38-47%), nitrate (17-22%), non-sea-salt sulfate (13-16%), ammonium (10-12%), EC (4-10%), mineral dust (2-5%) and sea salt (3-4%). This chemical composition is in agreement with those reported in the literature for most European environments. On an annual scale, Paris (URB and SUB sites) exhibits its highest PM2.5 concentrations during late autumn, winter and early spring (higher than 15 μg m-3 on average, from December to April), intermediates during late spring and early autumn (between 10 and 15 μg m-3 during May, June, September, October, and November) and the lowest during summer (below 10 μg m-3 during July and August). PM levels are mostly homogeneous on a regional scale, during the whole project (e.g. for URB plotted against NER sites: slope = 1.06, r2=0.84, n=330), suggesting the importance of mid- or long

  13. A one-year comprehensive chemical characterisation of fine aerosol (PM2.5) at urban, suburban and rural background sites in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Nicolas, J. B.; Petit, J.-E.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Féron, A.

    2012-11-01

    Studies describing the chemical composition of fine aerosol (PM2.5) in urban areas are often conducted during few weeks only, and at one sole site, giving thus a narrow view of their temporal and spatial characteristics. This paper presents a one-year (11 September 2009-10 September 2010) survey of the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 in the region of Paris, which is the second most populated "Larger Urban Zone" in Europe. Five sampling sites representative of suburban (SUB), urban (URB), northeast (NER), northwest (NWR) and south (SOR) rural backgrounds were implemented. The major chemical components of PM2.5 were determined including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and the major ions. OC was converted to organic matter (OM) using the chemical mass closure methodology, which leads to conversion factors of 1.95 for the SUB and URB sites, and 2.05 for the three rural ones. On average, gravimetrically determined PM2.5 annual mass concentrations are 15.2, 14.8, 12.6, 11.7 and 10.8 μg m-3 for SUB, URB, NER, NWR and SOR sites, respectively. The chemical composition of fine aerosol is very homogeneous at the five sites and is composed of OM (38-47%), nitrate (17-22%), non-sea-salt sulfate (13-16%), ammonium (10-12%), EC (4-10%), mineral dust (2-5%) and sea salt (3-4%). This chemical composition is in agreement with those reported in the literature for most European environments. On the annual scale, Paris (URB and SUB sites) exhibits its highest PM2.5 concentrations during late autumn, winter and early spring (higher than 15 μg m-3 on average, from December to April), intermediates during late spring and early autumn (between 10 and 15 μg m-3 during May, June, September, October, and November) and the lowest during summer (below 10 μg m-3 during July and August). PM levels are mostly homogeneous at the regional scale, on the whole duration of the project (e.g. for URB plotted against NER sites: slope = 1.06, r2 = 0.84, n = 330), suggesting the

  14. Fine structure and chemical analysis of the metathoracic scent gland secretion in Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Durak, Dilek; Kalender, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    Morphology and ultrastructure of metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) of Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Extracts of the volatile fraction of the MTG secretion from males and females were subjected to initial analysis. One pair of the MTG is composed of a reservoir and a pair of lateral glands connected to the reservoir with a duct. MTGs are open in between the meso- and metacoxae, on evaporation areas with a mushroom-like structure. Reservoir walls embody two types of cells, type I and type II, respectively. Cells of type I have numerous organelles, while type II cells have only been found in a certain area of the reservoir wall. They have large secretory ducts lined by a cuticular intima layer. The lateral glands connected to reservoir have two further types of cells. Lateral glands are lined by type A secretory cells and secretory duct is found in their cytoplasm. Type B cells are poor in organelles and are smaller than type A cells. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry examinations revealed that both in males and females of G. lineatum MTGs 14 chemical compounds occur, among which only 10 are common. These secretions indicate information such as defensive and pheromonal activities, other functions could be attributed to the secretion of the MTG of G. lineatum by comparison with other closely related bug species. In the analyses of MTGs of females of G. lineatum, n-octadecanoic acid was observed at the most and n-undecane was determined at lowest level, while males of G. lineatum n-tridecane was determined at the highest level; and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate has been observed at the lowest. PMID:19200924

  15. Associations between Long-Term Exposure to Chemical Constituents of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Mortality in Medicare Enrollees in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Coull, Brent A.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    mortality. These results provide new evidence that chemical composition can partly explain the differential toxicity of PM2.5. Citation: Chung Y, Dominici F, Wang Y, Coull BA, Bell ML. 2015. Associations between long-term exposure to chemical constituents of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality in Medicare enrollees in the eastern United States. Environ Health Perspect 123:467–474; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307549 PMID:25565179

  16. Chemical Composition of the Aerosol Fine Fraction during African Dust Events as part of the Dust ATtACk Experiment in the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo, Pamela; Formenti, Paola; Desboeufs, Karine; Quiñones, Mariana; Chevaillier, Servanne; Santos, Stephanie; Andrews, Elizabeth; Ogren, John A.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    We present results on the assessment of aerosols' chemical composition at the atmospheric observatory of Cabezas de San Juan in Fajardo, Puerto Rico, during the summers of 2011 and 2012, where periods in the presence and absence of dust were studied under the framework of the Dust-ATtACk (Dust- Aging and Transport, from Africa to the Caribbean) experiment. Dust events were identified through observation and using air-mass back-trajectories, Saharan Air Layer images, measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), in situ scattering and absorption coefficients, and chemical analyses. Results obtained for intense dust events were characterized by higher concentration of coarse particles, higher scattering and absorption coefficients (up to 100 Mm-1 and 5 Mm-1 at 550 and 530 nm, respectively), higher AOT (from 0.4 to 0.8) values, and higher concentration of elements associated with mineral dust (e.g., Si μ3 g/m3 compared to background concentrations of 0.15 μg/m3, obtained from XRF analysis). Elemental composition of the fine fraction (Dp < 1.8 μm), analyzed by ICP-OES, also yielded higher average concentrations during dust events of, for example, Fe (0.045 μg m-3, vs 0.016 μg m-3 during low or no dust). Detailed results of the submicron fraction composition for the carbonaceous aerosol (total carbon, organic carbon, black carbon), total nitrogen, the water-soluble organic carbon, water-soluble ions, and the elemental composition with their possible sources will be presented at the meeting.

  17. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Indoor and Outdoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Retirement Communities of the Los Angeles Basin

    PubMed Central

    Hasheminassab, Sina; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Delfino, Ralph J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted at three retirement homes in the Los Angeles Basin during two separate phases (cold and warm) between 2005 and 2006. Indoor-to-outdoor relationships of PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined and sources of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were evaluated using a molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) model. Indoor levels of elemental carbon (EC) along with metals and trace elements were found to be significantly affected by outdoor sources. EC, in particular, displayed very high indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) mass ratios accompanied by strong I/O correlations, illustrating the significant impact of outdoor sources on indoor levels of EC. Similarly, indoor levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes were strongly correlated with their outdoor components and displayed I/O ratios close to unity. On the other hand, concentrations of n-alkanes and organic acids inside the retirement communities were dominated by indoor sources (e.g. food cooking and consumer products), as indicated by their I/O ratios, which exceeded unity. Source apportionment results revealed that vehicular emissions were the major contributor to both indoor and outdoor PM2.5, accounting for 39 and 46% of total mass, respectively. Moreover, the contribution of vehicular sources to indoor levels was generally comparable to its corresponding outdoor estimate. Other water-insoluble organic matter (other WIOM), which accounts for emissions from uncharacterized primary biogenic sources, displayed a wider range of contributions, varying from 2 to 73% of PM2.5, across all sites and phases of the study. Lastly, higher indoor than outdoor contribution of other water-soluble organic matter (other WSOM) was evident at some of the sites, suggesting the production of secondary aerosols as well as direct emissions from primary sources (including cleaning or other consumer products) at the

  18. Fine-tuning of catalytic tin nanoparticles by the reverse micelle method for direct deposition of silicon nanowires by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapour technique.

    PubMed

    Poinern, Gérrard E J; Ng, Yan-Jing; Fawcett, Derek

    2010-12-15

    The reverse micelle method was used for the reduction of a tin (Sn) salt solution to produce metallic Sn nanoparticles ranging from 85 nm to 140 nm in diameter. The reverse micellar system used in this process was hexane-butanol-cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The diameters of the Sn nanoparticles were proportional to the concentration of the aqueous Sn salt solution. Thus, the size of the Sn nanoparticles can easily be controlled, enabling a simple, reproducible mechanism for the growth of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Both the Sn nanoparticles and silicon nanowires were characterised using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Further characterisations of the SiNW's were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to investigate particle size distributions. This procedure demonstrates an economical route for manufacturing reproducible silicon nanowires using fine-tuned Sn nanoparticles for possible solar cell applications. PMID:20887996

  19. Successful Growth of Conductive Highly Crystalline Sn-Doped α-Ga2O3 Thin Films by Fine-Channel Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Dang, Giang T.; Furuta, Mamoru

    2012-04-01

    Highly crystalline α-phase gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were grown by fine-channel mist chemical vapor deposition on c-sapphire substrates at 400 °C at a deposition rate of more than 20 nm/min. The thin films were doped with Sn(IV) atoms, which were obtained from Sn(II) chloride by the reaction SnCl2+ H2O2+ 2HCl→SnCl4+ 2H2O. Conductive α-phase Ga2O3 thin films were successfully grown from source solutions containing less than 10 at. % Sn(IV). The source solution containing 4 at. % Sn(IV) resulted in obtaining a thin film with an n-type conductivity as high as 0.28 S cm-1, a mobility of 0.23 cm2 V-1 s-1, a carrier concentration of 7×1018 cm-3, and a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (0006) reflection X-ray rocking curve as low as 64 arcsec.

  20. Fine Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of fine arts as sources to enrich the study of history. Suggests that such works will serve as barometers of change, examples of cross-cultural influences, and political messages. Includes suggestions of works and artists from different historic periods. (DK)

  1. 3D Finite-Difference Modeling of Strong Ground Motion in the Upper Rhine Graben - 1356 Basel Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprsal, I.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.

    2002-12-01

    The disastrous Basel earthquake of October 18, 1356 (I0=X, M ≈ 6.9), appeared in, today seismically modest, Basel region (Upper Rhine Graben). The lack of strong ground motion seismic data can be effectively supplied by numerical modeling. We applied the 3D finite differences (FD) to predict ground motions which can be used for microzonation and hazard assessment studies. The FD method is formulated for topography models on irregular rectangular grids. It is a 3D explicit FD formulation of the hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE). Elastodynamic PDE is solved in the time domain. The Hooke's isotropic inhomogeneous medium contains discontinuities and a topographic free surface. The 3D elastic FD modeling is applied on a newly established P and S-wave velocities structure model. This complex structure contains main interfaces and gradients inside some layers. It is adjacent to the earth surface and includes topography (Kind, Faeh and Giardini, 2002, A 3D Reference Model for the Area of Basel, in prep.). The first attempt was done for a double-couple point source and relatively simple source function. Numerical tests are planned for several finite-extent source histories because the 1356 Basel earthquake source features have not been well determined, yet. The presumed finite-extent source is adjacent to the free surface. The results are compared to the macroseismic information of the Basel area.

  2. Chemical and magnetic properties of rapidly cooled metastable ferri-ilmenite solid solutions - IV: the fine structure of self-reversed thermoremanent magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Peter; McEnroe, S. A.; Fabian, K.; Harrison, R. J.; Thomas, C. I.; Mukai, H.

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic experiments, a Monte Carlo simulation and transmission electron microscopy observations combine to confirm variable chemical phase separation during quench and annealing of metastable ferri-ilmenite compositions, caused by inhomogeneous Fe-Ti ordering and anti-ordering. Separation begins near interfaces between growing ordered and anti-ordered domains, the latter becoming progressively enriched in ilmenite component, moving the Ti-impoverished hematite component into Fe-enriched diffusion waves near the interfaces. Even when disordered regions are eliminated, Fe-enriched waves persist and enlarge on anti-phase boundaries between growing and shrinking ordered and anti-ordered domains. Magnetic results and conceptual models show that magnetic ordering with falling T initiates in the Fe-enriched wave crests. Although representing only a tiny fraction of material, identified at highest Ts on a field-cooling curve, they control the `pre-destiny' of progressive magnetization at lower T. They can provide a positive magnetic moment in a minority of ordered ferrimagnetic material, which, by exchange coupling, then creates a self-reversed negative moment in the remaining majority. Four Ts or T ranges are recognized on typical field-cooling curves: TPD is the T range of `pre-destination'; TC is the predominant Curie T where major positive magnetization increases sharply; TMAX is where magnetization reaches a positive maximum, beyond which it is outweighed by self-reversed magnetization and TZM is the T where total magnetization passes zero. Disposition of these Ts on cooling curves indicate the fine structure of self-reversed thermoremanent magnetization. These results confirm much earlier suspicions that the `x-phase' responsible for self-reversed magnetization resides in Fe-enriched phase boundaries.

  3. Impacts of chemical amendment and plant growth on lead speciation and enzyme activities in a shooting range soil: an x-ray absorption fine structure investigation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Matsufuru, Hiroki; Takaoka, Masaki; Tanida, Hajime; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    In situ chemical immobilization is a practical remediation technology for metal-contaminated soils because of its capability to reduce cost and environmental impacts. We assessed the immobilization effects of poultry waste amendment and plant growth (Panicum maximum Jacq.) on Pb speciation and enzyme activities in shooting range soils. Soil contaminated with Pb was obtained from the top 20 cm of a shooting range. To evaluate Pb mobility in the soil profile treated with plants and immobilizing amendment, we used large columns filled with Pb-contaminated soil (0-20 cm, surface soils) and non-contaminated soil (20-75 cm, subsurface soils). The column study demonstrated that the amendment reduced the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure-extractable Pb in the surface soil by 90% of the Control soil. Lead mobility from the surface to subsurface profiles was significantly attenuated by plant growth but was promoted by the amendment without plant application. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis revealed that the amendment reduced the proportion of PbCO(3) and Pb-organic complexes and transformed them into a more geochemically stable species of Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl with 30 to 35% of the total Pb species. Applications of plant and amendment increased activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase in the surface soil with 2.7- and 1.1-fold greater than those in Control, respectively. The use of amendments in combination with plant growth may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils. PMID:19465717

  4. Fine particles (PM2.5) at a CAWNET background site in Central China: Chemical compositions, seasonal variations and regional pollution events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Hai-rong; Wang, Zu-wu; Lv, Xiao-pu; Zhu, Zhong-min; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Xin-ming

    2014-04-01

    Fine particle (PM2.5) samples were collected at Jinsha (JSH), a regional background China Atmosphere Watch Network (CAWNET) site in Central China from March 2012 to March 2013. The mass concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were measured. The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 48.7 ± 26.9 μg m-3, exceeding the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (35 μg m-3), implying that PM2.5 is a pollutant of regional concern in Central China. The average concentrations of total WSIIs, OC and EC were 26.1 ± 18.8, 7.5 ± 3.5 and 0.7 ± 0.5 μg m-3, accounting for 53.5%, 15.1% and 1.5% of the PM2.5 concentrations at JSH, respectively. Clear seasonal variations in PM2.5 and the levels of its main chemical species were observed in the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer. Backward air trajectory analysis and potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis implied that the areas north and northeast of JSH contributed significantly to the levels of SO42-, NO3-, NH4+ and OC, while sandstorms originating from Mongolia and traveling across Northwest China may have contributed significantly to the levels of Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in PM2.5 at JSH. Two pollution events, related to regional biomass burning and haze, respectively, were recorded at JSH during the sampling campaign.

  5. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Happo, M.S.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Halinen, A.I.; Jalava, P.I.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Hillamo, R.; Salonen, R.O.

    2008-07-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM2.5-0.2) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM2.5-0.2 correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca{sup 2+}, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM2.5-0.2-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM10 (2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM2.5 (0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects.

  6. Chemical fractionation of arsenic and heavy metals in fine particle matter and its implications for risk assessment: A case study in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiming; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Qin'geng; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yu; Yang, Meng; Li, Fengying; Lu, Hao; Wang, Cheng

    2015-02-01

    A four-step sequential extraction procedure was used to study the chemical fractionation of As and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected from Nanjing, China. The mass concentrations of most PM2.5 samples exceeded the 24 h standard (75 μg/m3) recommended by the new national ambient air quality standard of China. The most abundant elements were Fe, Zn and Pb, while As and Cd were present at the lowest concentrations. As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were mostly present in the two mobile fractions, including the soluble and exchangeable fraction (F1), and carbonates, oxides and reducible fraction (F2). Fe had the highest proportion present in the residual fraction (F4). Relatively high proportions of the metals Ni and Cr were present in the oxidizable and sulfidic fraction (F3). High proportions of Zn, As and Cu and lower proportions of Cd, Cr and Fe were present in the potentially mobile phases. The enrichment factor, contamination factor and risk assessment code were calculated to analyze the main sources and assess the environmental risks of the metals in PM2.5. The carcinogenic risks of As, Cd, Ni and Pb were all lower than the accepted criterion of 10-6, whereas the carcinogenic risks of Cr for children and As and Cr for adults were higher than 10-6. The non-carcinogenic health risk of As and heavy metals because of PM2.5 exposure for children and adults were lower than but close to the safe level of 1.

  7. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe.

    PubMed

    Happo, Mikko S; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Halinen, Arja I; Jalava, Pasi I; Pennanen, Arto S; Sillanpaa, Markus; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O

    2008-11-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM(2.5-0.2)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM(2.5-0.2) correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO3(-), NH4(+)) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO4(2-) had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca2+, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM(2.5-0.2)-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM(10-2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM(2.5-0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects. PMID:18855153

  8. Chemical Characterisation of the Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Environment of an Underground Railway System: Cytotoxic Effects and Oxidative Stress—A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Ottria, Gianluca; Perdelli, Fernanda; Cristina, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to the particulate matter produced in underground railway systems is arousing increasing scientific interest because of its health effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the airborne concentrations of PM10 and three sub-fractions of PM2.5 in an underground railway system environment in proximity to platforms and in underground commercial areas within the system, and to compare these with the outdoor airborne concentrations. We also evaluated the metal components, the cytotoxic properties of the various fractions of particulate matter (PM) and their capacity to induce oxidative stress. Method: We collected the coarse fraction (5–10 µm) and the fine fractions (1–2.5 µm; 0.5–1 µm; 0.25–0.5 µm). Chemical characterisation was determined by means of spectrometry. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) assessment. Results: The concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 proved to be similar at the three sampling sites. Iron and other transition metals displayed a greater concentration at the subway platform than at the other two sites. The 2.5–10 µm and 1–2.5 µm fractions of PM from all three sampling sites determined a greater increase in ROS; the intensity of oxidative stress progressively declined as particle diameter diminished. Moreover, ROS concentrations were correlated with the concentrations of some transition metals, namely Mn, Cr, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Mo. All particulate matter fractions displayed lower or similar ROS values between platform level and the outdoor air. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the underground railway environment at platform level, although containing higher concentrations of some particularly reactive metallic species, did not display higher cytotoxicity and oxidative stress levels than the outdoor air. PMID:25872016

  9. Characteristics and Influence of Biosmoke on the Fine-Particle Ionic Composition Measured in Asian Outflow during the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Orsini, D. A.; Maxwell-Meier, K.; Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Clarke, A. D.; Blake, D. R.; Sachse, G. W.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the sources, prevalence, and fine-particle inorganic composition of biosmoke over the western Pacific Ocean between 24 February and 10 April 2001. The analysis is based on highly time-resolved airborne measurements of gaseous and fine- particle inorganic chemical composition made during the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment. At latitudes below approximately 25 deg. N, relatively pure biomass burning plumes of enhanced fine-particle potassium, nitrate, ammonium, light-absorbing aerosols, and CO concentrations were observed in plumes that back trajectories and satellite fire map data suggest originated from biomass burning in southeast Asia. Fine-particle water-soluble potassium (K+) is confirmed to be a unique biosmoke tracer, and its prevalence throughout the experiment indicates that approximately 20% of the TRACE-P Asian outflow plumes were influenced, to some extent, by biomass or biofuel burning emissions. At latitudes above 25 deg. N, highly mixed urban/industrial and biosmoke plumes, indicated by SO(sup 2, sub 4) and K+, were observed in 5 out of 53 plumes. Most plumes were found in the Yellow Sea and generally were associated with much higher fine-particle loadings than plumes lacking a biosmoke influence. The air mass back trajectories of these mixed plumes generally pass through the latitude range of between 34 deg. and 40 deg. N on the eastern China coast, a region that includes the large urban centers of Beijing and Tianjin. A lack of biomass burning emissions based on fire maps and high correlations between K+ and pollution tracers (e.g., S(sup 2, sub 4) suggest biofuel sources. Ratios of fine-particle potassium to sulfate are used to provide an estimate of relative contributions of biosmoke emissions to the mixed Asian plumes. The ratio is highly correlated with fine-particle volume (r(sup 2) = 0.85) and predicts that for the most polluted plume encounter in TRACE-P, approximately 60% of the

  10. The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Claudia; Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of “social and communicative competencies” (SOKO) was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland). Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students’ cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment. PMID:24062811

  11. Environment and Health - Bridging South, North, East and West. Basel, Switzerland 19-23 August 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-08-19

    EHP is pleased to present the abstracts from the 2013 conference Environment and Health-Bridging South, North, East and West, held 19-23 August 2013 in Basel, Switzerland, and hosted by the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute. The conference was a joint meeting of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ). More than 1,700 participants from all continents and over 70 countries attended. The abstracts are searchable by abstract number, author name, and any word that appears anywhere in the abstract. Use the Filtered Search option to narrow search results by author-assigned keyword. Suggested citation: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ), August 19-23, 2013, Basel, Switzerland. 2013. Environ Health Perspect. Read how the organizers reduced the environmental footprint of the conference in "The Vision of a Green(er) Scientific Conference," an editorial in the August issue of EHP by Nino Künzli and Martin Röösli, conference chairs, and Martina S. Ragettli, chair of the local organizing committee "green club." For more information on the conference, be sure to check out the press release and photos from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute. PMID:24045162

  12. Dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S. . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Fine coal dewatering is one of the most pressing problem facing the coal cleaning industry. This project was undertaken with the objective of improving the dewatering process with surface chemical activation by primarily understanding the fundamental and process engineering aspects of vacuum filtration. Specific tasks for this project included -- development of an experimental apparatus and procedure to yield highly reproducible results and extensive data from each test, detailed experimental investigation of the dewatering characteristics of coal fines with and without the addition of flocculants and surfactants, and under different operating conditions, and finally identification and establishment of the physical limits of mechanical dewatering. Following are the significant conclusions from the study: Fineness and size distribution of the coal fines have the most significant influence on the coal dewatering process; usage of flocculants and surfactants is almost essential in reducing the cake moisture and in increasing the filter throughputs; based on the experimental data and the literature information, the existence of an asymptotic limit for filter cake moisture correlatable with a capillary number of the filter cake was identified. 66 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. 75 FR 82317 - Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework-Basel II; Establishment of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards: A Revised Framework'' (New Accord).\\7\\ \\6\\ 72 FR... use the advanced approaches rules. See 72 FR 69397 (December 7, 2007). \\7\\ The BCBS is a committee of... 325 RIN 3064-AD58 Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework--Basel...

  14. S-wave velocity measurements applied to the seismic microzonation of Basel, Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Fäh, Donat; Polom, Ulrich; Roullé, Agathe

    2007-07-01

    An extensive S-wave velocity survey had been carried out in the frame of a recent seismic microzonation study of Basel and the border areas between Switzerland, France and Germany. The aim was to better constrain the seismic amplification potential of the surface layers. The survey included single station (H/V spectral ratios) and ambient vibration array measurements carried out by the Swiss team, as well as active S-wave velocity measurements performed by the German and French partners. This paper is focused on the application of the array technique, which consists in recording ambient vibrations with a number of seismological stations. Several practical aspects related to the field measurements are outlined. The signal processing aims to determine the dispersion curves of surface waves contained in the ambient vibrations. The inversion of the dispersion curve provides a 1-D S-wave velocity model for the investigated site down to a depth related to the size of the array. Since the size of arrays is theoretically not limited, arrays are known to be well adapted for investigations in deep sediment basins, such as the Upper Rhine Graben including the area of the city of Basel. In this region, 27 array measurements with varying station configurations have been carried out to determine the S-wave velocity properties of the geological layers down to a depth of 100-250 m. For eight sites, the outputs of the array measurements have been compared with the results of the other investigations using active sources, the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) and S-wave reflection seismics. Borehole information available for a few sites could be used to calibrate the geophysical measurements. By this comparison, the advantages and disadvantages of the array method and the other techniques are outlined with regard to the effectiveness of the methods and the required investigation depth. The dispersion curves measured with the arrays and the SASW technique were also combined

  15. [From Basel to Bad Nassau. The fate of the psychoanalyst Arthur Muthmann (1875-1957)].

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Arthur Muthmann is known as a pioneer of psychoanalysis in German-speaking countries. He published on the clinical application of psychoanalysis as well as an article explaining the matter to laymen. His Freiburg years and later work have already been portrayed, while his academic failure in Switzerland and his directorship of a private sanatorium at the famous Hessian spa of Bad Nassau have hardly been looked at. Historians of psychoanalysis reported on Muthmann's definite split from the psychoanalytic movement after 1909 due to the fiasco about his professoral thesis at Basel. His contribution to the spreading of psychoanalytic knowledge of the time has been judged upon harshly by known historians. Both hypotheses will be scrutinised here. PMID:15030054

  16. International environmental justice: Geo-political implications of the Basel agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, D.

    1995-12-01

    The 1994 Basel Convention concluded with a historical agreement to immediately ban the export of hazardous wastes for disposal from member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to non-OECD nations. The OECD nations account for approximately 98 percent of the world`s toxic waste generation. As of December 31, 1997, exports of wastes for recycling will be illegal. For many years, industrialized nations have shipped hazardous wastes to developing nations under the guise of recycling. The ban will make 90 percent of current shipments unlawful. The United States was among the industrialized OCED nations declining to partake in the agreement. In March 1994, the Waste Export and Import Control Act was introduced to Congress by a concerned coalition of Representatives. The bill would ban all exports of toxic wastes except to those nations. Critics have argued that the nature of the Agreement makes it unenforceable under certain conditions. Applied geographical techniques are employed to reveal regions where the effectiveness of the waste ban may be challenged. Formulas are developed to determine the cost-benefit ratio for non-OECD nations involved in significant levels of toxic waste trade. Political and historical analyses are applied in order to clarify the U.S. opposition to the ban. A list of predictions is offered with the future of hazardous waste transhipments within the context of the world`s ever-changing geo-political sphere. Suggestions for improving the effectiveness and enforceability of the Basel Agreement are offered for discussion.

  17. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Canyonlands National Park using organic particulate material concentrations obtained with a multisystem, multichannel diffusion denuder sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatough, Delbert J.; Eatough, David A.; Lewis, Laura; Lewis, Edwin A.

    1996-08-01

    The concentration of fine particulate carbonaceous material has been measured over a 1-year period at the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) Canyonlands National Park, Utah sampling site using a Brigham Young University organic sampling system (BOSS) multisystem, multichannel diffusion denuder sampler. Samples were collected on the IMPROVE schedule of a 24-hour sample every Wednesday and Saturday. The concentrations of particulate C, determined using only a quartz filter pack sampling system, were low by an average of 39%, as a result of the loss of semi-volatile organic compounds from the particles collected on quartz filters during sampling. The loss was higher during the summer than during the winter sampling periods. The BOSS and IMPROVE quartz filter carbon measurements were in agreement except for a few samples collected during the summer. The fine particulate carbonaceous material concentrations determined using the BOSS have been combined with concentrations of particulate elemental C (soot), sulfate, nitrate, crustal material, and fine and coarse particulate mass from the IMPROVE sampling system, as well as relative humidity, light absorption, and transmissometer measurements of light extinction from IMPROVE. Extinction budgets have been calculated using multilinear regression analyses of the data set. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass extinction coefficients for the measured species as a function of relative humidity. The results show carbonaceous material to be the principal contributor to light extinction due to particles during the study period, with the major contributor to light extinction being light-absorbing carbonaceous material. However, the periods of maximum light extinction are associated with high humidity and the associated increased scattering of light due to particulate sulfate during the winter. The effect of particulate organic compounds on light extinction is greatest in the

  18. FINE P M EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION--BIOMASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    FINE PM EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION -- BIOMASS The APPCD fine particle research team was funded (FY 2000) to perform emission characterization and source chemical profile analysis of major particle source emissions in the U.S. The focus of this task is to analyze these data on ai...

  19. A method for the concentration of fine-grained rutile (TiO2) from sediment and sedimentary rocks by chemical leaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, Judith A.; Valentine, Page C.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the sample analyzed by the method described were marine muds collected from the Gulf of Maine (Valentine and Commeau, 1990). The silt and clay fraction (up to 99 wt% of the sediment) is composed of clay minerals (chiefly illite-mica and chlorite), silt-size quartz and feldspar, and small crystals (2-12 um) of rutile and hematite. The bulk sediment samples contained an average of 2 to 3 wt percent CaCO3. Tiher samples analyzed include red and gray Carboniferous and Triassic sandstones and siltstones exposed around the Bay of Fundy region and Paleozoic sandstones, siltstones, and shales from northern Maine and New Brunswick. These rocks are probable sources for the fine-grained rutile found in the Gulf of Maine.

  20. Long-term decay and possible reactivation of induced seismicity at the Basel EGS site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Toni; Herrmann, Marcus; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Tormann, Thessa; Deichmann, Nicolas; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In December 2006, an extensive fluid injection was carried out below the city of Basel, Switzerland, to stimulate a reservoir for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). After six days of gradual increase of flow rate (and thus seismicity), a strongly felt ML3.4 earthquakes led to the immediate termination of the project. The well was opened subsequently and seismicity declined rapidly. The Basel EGS project might be an unsuccessful attempt in terms of energy supply, but a chance to advance the physical understanding of EGSs. The well-monitored and well-studied induced sequence allowed many new insights in terms of reservoir creation. A special observation in the nine years of monitoring is the revive of seismic activity six years after prolonged seismic decay. This renewed activity increase might relate to a gradual pressure increase due to the ultimate shut-in (closure) of the borehole about one year before. Until now, a detailed analysis of the long-term behaviour remained unexplored since a consistent catalogue did not exist. In the current study, we took advantage of the high waveform similarity within a seismic sequence and applied a multi-trace template-matching (i.e. cross-correlation) procedure to detect seismic events about one order of magnitude below the detection threshold. We detected about 100,000 events within the six-day long stimulation alone - previously, only 13,000 microearthquakes were detected. We only scanned the recordings of the deepest borehole station (2.7km). This station is very close to the 5km-deep reservoir and has the highest signal-to-noise ratio among all (borehole-)stations. Our newly obtained catalogue spans over more than nine years and features a uniform (and low) detection threshold and a uniform magnitude determination. The improved resolution of the long-term behaviour and the later seismicity increase will help to understand involved mechanisms better. More induced or natural sequences can be investigated with our procedure.

  1. Making Pure Fine-Grained Inorganic Powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.

    1985-01-01

    Sustained arc plasma chemical reactor fabricates very-fine-grained inorganic solids having low thermal conductivity. Powder fabrication method, based on plasma tube technique produces pure solids without contamination commonly produced by grinding.

  2. Trading trash: why the U.S. won't sign on to the Basel convention.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C W

    1999-01-01

    Environmentalists worry that hazardous wastes produced in industrialized nations are being dumped in cash-starved developing countries--the countries with the least political or economic clout to resist and the fewest resources for managing these toxic imports. Imported waste can pose a serious threat to the health of human populations and ecosystems if not managed appropriately. In 1989, the international community initiated efforts to reduce the flow of hazardous wastes from industrialized countries to developing countries by drafting a treaty known as the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Wastes and their Disposal. The convention's mission is to strictly regulate the international transfer of hazardous wastes and to ensure that wastes are managed and disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. Although the United States supports the convention in theory, it remains the only industrialized country within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development yet to ratify it. However, legislation drafted by the Clinton administration that is soon to go before the 106th Congress could make the United States a party to the convention. PMID:10417374

  3. E-waste issues in Sri Lanka and the Basel Convention.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Inoka

    2016-03-01

    E-waste is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. The management of e-waste is considered a serious challenge in both developed and developing countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Due to significant growth in the economy and investments and other reasons the consumption of electronic and electrical equipment in Sri Lanka has increased over the years resulting in significant generation of e-waste. Several initiatives such as introduction of hazardous waste management rules, ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992 and the introduction of a National Corporate E-waste Management Program have been undertaken in Sri Lanka to manage e-waste. Strengthening policy and legislation, introducing methods for upstream reduction of e-waste, building capacity of relevant officers, awareness raising among school children and the general public and development of an e-waste information system are vital. Research on e-waste needs to be developed in Sri Lanka. The health sector could play a leading role in the provision of occupational health and safety for e-waste workers, advocacy, capacity building of relevant staff and raising awareness among the general public about e-waste. Improper e-waste management practices carried out by informal sector workers need to be addressed urgently in Sri Lanka. PMID:26943598

  4. Layered silicate as an excellent partner of a TiO2 photocatalyst for efficient and selective green fine-chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ide, Yusuke; Torii, Masato; Sano, Tsuneji

    2013-08-14

    When the partial oxidation of benzene to phenol, which is one of the most important reactions in chemical industry, was conducted using TiO2 in the presence of a phenol-philic adsorbent derived from a layered silicate, phenol was recovered in unprecedentedly high yield and purity. This resulted from the fact that the adsorbent captured the generated phenol promptly, selectively, and effectively to prevent the overoxidation, after which the captured phenol could be easily eluted. PMID:23902420

  5. Surface Structure and Chemical Switching of Thioctic Acid Adsorbed on Au(111) as Observed Using Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, R W; van Buuren, T; Vance, A L; Terminello, L J; Willey, T M; Bostedt, C; Fadley, C S

    2004-01-06

    Thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid) is a molecule with a large disulfide-containing base, a short alkyl-chain with four CH{sub 2} units, and a carboxyl termination. Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films of thioctic acid adsorbed on Au(111) have been investigated with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine film quality, bonding and morphology. Using standard preparation protocols for SAMs, that is, dissolving thioctic acid in ethanol and exposing gold to the solution, results in poor films. These films are highly disordered, contain a mixture of carboxyl and carboxylate terminations, have more than monolayer coverage, and exhibit unbound disulfide. Conversely, forming films by dissolving 1 mmol thioctic acid into 5% acetic acid in ethanol (as previously reported with carboxyl-terminated alkyl-thiols) forms ordered monolayers with small amounts of unbound sulfur. NEXAFS indicates tilted over endgroups with the carboxyl group normal on average 38{sup o} from the surface normal. Slight dichroism in other features indicates alkyl chains statistically more upright than prostrate on the surface. Reflection-absorption Fourier transform infrared (RA-FTIR) spectra indicate hydrogen bonding between neighboring molecules. In such well-formed monolayers, a stark reorientation occurs upon deprotonation of the endgroup by rinsing in a KOH solution. The carboxylate plane normal is now about 66{sup o} from sample normal, a much more upright orientation. Data indicate this reorientation may also cause a more upright orientation to the alkyl portion of the molecules.

  6. Characterizing phosphorus speciation of Chesapeake Bay sediments using chemical extraction, 31P NMR, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Joshi, Sunendra R; Hou, Guangjin; Burdige, David J; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient contamination has been one of the lingering issues in the Chesapeake Bay because the bay restoration is complicated by temporally and seasonally variable nutrient sources and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. Differential reactivity of sedimentary phosphorus (P) pools in response to imposed biogeochemical conditions can record past sediment history and therefore a detailed sediment P speciation may provide information on P cycling particularly the stability of a P pool and the formation of one pool at the expense of another. This study examined sediment P speciation from three sites in the Chesapeake Bay: (i) a North site in the upstream bay, (ii) a middle site in the central bay dominated by seasonally hypoxic bottom water, and (iii) a South site at the bay-ocean boundary using a combination of sequential P extraction (SEDEX) and spectroscopic techniques, including (31)P NMR, P X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and Fe extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Results from sequential P extraction reveal that sediment P is composed predominantly of ferric Fe-bound P and authigenic P, which was further confirmed by solid-state (31)P NMR, XANES, and EXAFS analyses. Additionally, solution (31)P NMR results show that the sediments from the middle site contain high amounts of organic P such as monoesters and diesters, compared to the other two sites, but that these compounds rapidly decrease with sediment depth indicating remineralized P could have precipitated as authigenic P. Fe EXAFS enabled to identify the changes in Fe mineral composition and P sinks in response to imposed redox condition in the middle site sediments. The presence of lepidocrocite, vermiculite, and Fe smectite in the middle site sediments indicates that some ferric Fe minerals can still be present along with pyrite and vivianite, and that ferric Fe-bound P pool can be a major P sink in anoxic sediments. These results provide

  7. Source apportionment of fine particles and its chemical components over the Yangtze River Delta, China during a heavy haze pollution episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; An, J. Y.; Zhou, M.; Yan, R. S.; Huang, C.; Lu, Q.; Lin, L.; Wang, Y. J.; Tao, S. K.; Qiao, L. P.; Zhu, S. H.; Chen, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    contributors to organic carbon. Results show that the Yangtze River Delta region should focus on the joint pollution control of industrial processing, combustion emissions, mobile source emissions, and fugitive dust. Regional transport of air pollution among the cities are prominent, and the implementation of regional joint prevention and control of air pollution will help to alleviate fine particulate matter concentrations under heavy pollution case significantly.

  8. Seismic monitoring and analysis of deep geothermal projects in St Gallen and Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Kraft, Toni; Cauzzi, Carlo; Kästli, Philipp; Wiemer, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    from a minimum source-station distance of 20 km down to 1 km. Based on this we could determine the component of the previously derived station specific ML corrections due to local amplification. We analysed ground-motion and detailed macroseismic reports resulting from the 2013 July 20 St Gallen ML = 3.5 ± 0.1 (Mw = 3.3-3.5 ± 0.1) `main shock' and compared it to a similar ML = 3.4 ± 0.1 event (Mw = 3.2 ± 0.1) that occurred in 2006 at another deep geothermal project in Basel, Switzerland. Differences in ground motion amplitudes between the Basel and St Gallen events and to an extent, the associated macroseismic observations, were investigated in terms of the different source terms: Mw for long-period motions and the source-corner frequency (related to the source rupture velocity and stress-drop) for short periods.

  9. Long-term trends of chemical characteristics and sources of fine particle in Foshan City, Pearl River Delta: 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jihua; Duan, Jingchun; Ma, Yongliang; He, Kebin; Cheng, Yuan; Deng, Si-Xin; Huang, Yan-Ling; Si-Tu, Shu-Ping

    2016-09-15

    Foshan is a major international ceramic center and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Here we present the results of the first long-term PM2.5 (particles <2.5μm) sampling and chemical characterization study of the city. A total of 2774 samples were collected at six sites from 2008 to 2014, and analyzed for water soluble species, elements and carbonaceous species. The major constituents of PM2.5 were sulfate, OC (Organic Carbon), nitrate, ammonium and EC (Elemental Carbon), which accounted for 50%-88% of PM2.5. PM2.5 and the most abundant chemical species decreased from 2008 to 2011, but rebounded in 2012-2013. After 2008, the chemical composition of PM2.5 changed dramatically due to the implementation of pollution control measures. From 2008 to 2011, SO4(2-) and NO3(-) were the two largest components; subsequently, however, OC was the largest component. The respective contributions of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and OC to the sum of water soluble species and carbonaceous species were 30.5%, 22.9% and 19.9% in 2008; and 20.2%, 16.5% and 30.2% in 2014. Distinct differences in nitrate and sulfate, and in mass ratio [NO3(-)]/[SO4(2-)] imply that mobile sources tended to more important in Foshan during 2012-2014. The results indicate that pollution control measures implemented during 2008-2014 had a large effect on anthropogenic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Zn and Cu) and water soluble species, but little influence on crustal elements (V, Mn, Ti, Ba and Fe) and carbonaceous species. The PMF method was used for source apportionment of PM2.5. Industry (including the ceramic industry and coal combustion), vehicles and dust were the three most important sources and comprised 39.2%, 20.0% and 18.4% of PM2.5 in 2008, respectively. However, secondary aerosols, vehicles and industry were the three most important sources and comprised 29.5%, 22.4% and 20.4% of PM2.5 in 2014, respectively. During the seven year study interval, the contributions of primary sources (industry and

  10. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... figure out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination ...

  11. The associations between birth weight and exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical constituents during pregnancy: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiping; Zhao, Chunmei; Zhang, Bo; Tao, Jun; Yang, Zuyao; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Tao

    2016-04-01

    We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the associations of maternal exposure to PM2.5 and its chemical constituents with birth weight and to explore the sources of heterogeneity in regard to the findings of these associations. A total of 32 studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, PUBMED, Embase, China Biological Medicine and Wanfang electronic databases before April 2015. We estimated the statistically significant associations of reduced birth weight (β = -15.9 g, 95% CI: -26.8, -5.0) and LBW (OR = 1.090, 95% CI: 1.032, 1.150) with PM2.5 exposure (per 10 μg/m(3) increment) during the entire pregnancy. Trimester-specific analyses showed negative associations between birth weight and PM2.5 exposure during the second (β = -12.6 g) and third (β = -10.0 g) trimesters. Other subgroup analyses indicated significantly different pooled-effect estimates of PM2.5 exposure on birth weight in studies with different exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings. We further observed large differences in the pooled effect estimates of the PM2.5 chemical constituents for birth weight decrease and LBW. We concluded that PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight, and late pregnancy might be the critical window. Some specific PM2.5 constituents may have larger toxic effects on fetal weight. Exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings might be important sources of the heterogeneity among the included studies. PMID:26736054

  12. Socio-psychological airplane noise investigation in the districts of three Swiss airports: Zurich, Geneva and Basel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, R.; Mueller, R.; Meier, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    The results of noise measurements and calculations are available in the form of noise maps for each of the three areas. To measure the stress due to airplane noise the Noise and Number Index (NNI) was applied. In the vicinities of the airports, 400 households were randomly selected in each of the three noise zones (of 10 NNI intervals each). A total of 3939 questionnaires could be evaluated, one quarter of which came from areas without airplane noise. Concurrently, traffic noise was measured in areas of Basel and expressed in sum total levels L sub 50 and the reaction of 944 persons was elicited by interrogation.

  13. Time-varying loss forecast for an earthquake scenario in Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marcus; Zechar, Jeremy D.; Wiemer, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    When an unexpected earthquake occurs, people suddenly want advice on how to cope with the situation. The 2009 L'Aquila quake highlighted the significance of public communication and pushed the usage of scientific methods to drive alternative risk mitigation strategies. For instance, van Stiphout et al. (2010) suggested a new approach for objective evacuation decisions on short-term: probabilistic risk forecasting combined with cost-benefit analysis. In the present work, we apply this approach to an earthquake sequence that simulated a repeat of the 1356 Basel earthquake, one of the most damaging events in Central Europe. A recent development to benefit society in case of an earthquake are probabilistic forecasts of the aftershock occurrence. But seismic risk delivers a more direct expression of the socio-economic impact. To forecast the seismic risk on short-term, we translate aftershock probabilities to time-varying seismic hazard and combine this with time-invariant loss estimation. Compared with van Stiphout et al. (2010), we use an advanced aftershock forecasting model and detailed settlement data to allow us spatial forecasts and settlement-specific decision-making. We quantify the risk forecast probabilistically in terms of human loss. For instance one minute after the M6.6 mainshock, the probability for an individual to die within the next 24 hours is 41 000 times higher than the long-term average; but the absolute value remains at minor 0.04 %. The final cost-benefit analysis adds value beyond a pure statistical approach: it provides objective statements that may justify evacuations. To deliver supportive information in a simple form, we propose a warning approach in terms of alarm levels. Our results do not justify evacuations prior to the M6.6 mainshock, but in certain districts afterwards. The ability to forecast the short-term seismic risk at any time-and with sufficient data anywhere-is the first step of personal decision-making and raising risk

  14. Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association are unclear. We investigated the associations of various chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) with biomarkers of oxidative stress in a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with high air pollution levels in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations, and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) were determined in the laboratory (n=464). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers in association with exposure variables. PM2.5 iron and nickel were positively associated with Ox-LDL (p<0.05). For each interquartile range increase in iron (1-day, 0.51 μg/m(3)) and nickel (2-day, 2.5 ng/m(3)), there were a 1.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2%, 3.7%] increase and a 1.8% (95% CI: 0.2%, 3.4%) increase in Ox-LDL, respectively. We also found that each interquartile range increase in calcium (1-day, 0.7 μg/m(3)) was associated with a 4.8% (95% CI: 0.7%, 9.1%) increase in sCD36. Among the pollution sources, PM2.5 from traffic emissions and coal combustion were suggestively and positively associated with Ox-LDL. Our findings suggest that a subset of metals in airborne particles may be the major air pollution components that contribute to the increased oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis. PMID:25981523

  15. Catalyst Chemical State during CO Oxidation Reaction on Cu(111) Studied with Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Near Edge X-ray Adsorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eren, Baran; Heine, Christian; Bluhm, Hendrik; Somorjai, Gabor A; Salmeron, Miquel

    2015-09-01

    The chemical structure of a Cu(111) model catalyst during the CO oxidation reaction in the CO+O2 pressure range of 10-300 mTorr at 298-413 K was studied in situ using surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron and adsorption spectroscopy techniques [X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS)]. For O2:CO partial pressure ratios below 1:3, the surface is covered by chemisorbed O and by a thin (∼1 nm) Cu2O layer, which covers completely the surface for ratios above 1:3 between 333 and 413 K. The Cu2O film increases in thickness and exceeds the escape depth (∼3-4 nm) of the XPS and NEXAFS photoelectrons used for analysis at 413 K. No CuO formation was detected under the reaction conditions used in this work. The main reaction intermediate was found to be CO2(δ-), with a coverage that correlates with the amount of Cu2O, suggesting that this phase is the most active for CO oxidation. PMID:26275662

  16. Dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, R.

    1995-10-01

    The factors which control the dewatering of fine coal by gravity/centrifugal drainage and by gas displacement (vacuum/hyperbaric filtration) are evaluated. A generalized model is presented and used to describe dewatering kinetics and to establish dewatering limits. Applications to the design of dewatering systems for fine coal dewatering are discussed.

  17. Induced seismicity risk assessment for the 2006 Basel, Switzerland, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) project: Role of parameter uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, Arnaud; Landtwing, Delano; Mena, Banu; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    A project to exploit the geothermal potential of the crystalline rocks below the city of Basel, Switzerland, was abandoned in recent years due to unacceptable risk associated to increased seismic activity during and following hydraulic stimulation. The largest induced earthquake (Mw = 3.2, 8 December 2006) was widely felt by the local population and provoked slight non-structural damage to buildings. Here we present a probabilistic risk assessment analysis for the 2006 Basel EGS project, including uncertainty linked to the following parameters: induced seismicity forecast model, maximum magnitude, intensity prediction equation, site amplification or not, vulnerability index and cost function. Uncertainty is implemented using a logic tree composed of a total of 324 branches. Exposure is defined from the Basel area building stock of Baisch et al. (2009) (SERIANEX study). We first generate deterministic loss curves, defined as the insured value loss (IVL) as a function of earthquake magnitude. We calibrate the vulnerability curves for low EMS-98 intensities (using the input parameters fixed in the SERIANEX study) such that we match the real loss value, which has been estimated to 3 million CHF (lower than the paid value) for the Mw = 3.2 event. Coupling the deterministic loss curves with seismic hazard curves using the short-term earthquake risk (STEER) method, we obtain site-specific probabilistic loss curves (PLC, i.e., probability of exceeding a given IVL) for the 79 settlements considered. We then integrate over the different PLCs to calculate the most probable IVL. Based on the proposed logic tree, we find considerable variations in the most probable IVL, with lower values for the 6-day injection period than for the first 6 days of the post-injection period. This difference is due to a b-value significantly lower in the second period than in the first one, yielding a higher likelihood of larger earthquakes in the post-injection phase. Based on tornado diagrams

  18. Transparency in Research involving Animals: The Basel Declaration and new principles for reporting research in BJP manuscripts.

    PubMed

    McGrath, John C; McLachlan, Elspeth M; Zeller, Rolf

    2015-05-01

    This article discusses the background to the need for change in the reporting of experiments involving animals, including a report of a consensus meeting organised by the Basel Declaration Society and Understanding Animal Research UK that sought to Internationalise guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals. A commentary on the evolution of BJP's attempts to implement the ARRIVE guidelines and details of our new guidance for authors is published separately (McGrath, 2014). This is one of a series of editorials discussing updates to the BJP Instructions to Authors LINKED EDITORIALS: This Editorial is the first in a series. The other Editorials in this series will be published in the forthcoming issues. To view them, visit: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1476-5381. PMID:25899710

  19. A "Fine" Relationship: OSHA and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Steve

    2001-01-01

    To avoid California schools' experience with Occupational Safety and Health Administration fines, principals should comply with safety regulations, establish quick-response procedures, take care of chemicals, prepare site personnel for state OSHA visits, inform safety personnel about procedures for appealing citations, keep good records, and work…

  20. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  1. FINE PARTICLE CHARGING DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the changing of fine particles by unipolar ions in an electric field, and evaluation of a specially designed small pilot-scale (600-1000 acfm) precharging device. Following an extensive review of the lit...

  2. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research. PMID:27422616

  3. The importance of earthquake interactions in forecasting injection induced seismicity: retrospective modelling of the Basel Enhanced Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalli, Flaminia; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    We explore the role of earthquake interactions during an injection induced seismic sequence. We propose a model, which considers both a transient pressure and the static stress redistribution due to event interactions as triggering mechanisms for induced seismicity. We produce more than one thousand of stochastic seismic catalogues that allow a probabilistic analysis of the problem. By calibrating the model against observations at the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) of Basel, Switzerland, we are able to reproduce the time behaviour of the seismicity rate. In particular, we observe that considering earthquake interactions in the modelling can lead to a larger number of expected seismic events (27% more) if compared to a pressure-induced seismicity only. The increase of the rate is true particularly after the end of the injection activity, in accordance with the simultaneous increase of the Coulomb Index (CI, i.e. the percentage of events that occur in locations with positive, cumulative Coulomb static stress changes). We conclude that implementing a model for estimating the static stress changes due to mutual event interactions increases significantly the understanding of the process. This implicitly allows for an improved methodology to forecast the behaviour of induced seismicity, therefore having a significant implication in hazard assessment.

  4. Assessment of environmental tobacco smoke and respirable suspended particle exposures for nonsmokers in Basel by personal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, K.; Howard, D. A.; Bentley, M. C.; Alván, G.

    One hundred and ninety-six randomly selected nonsmoking subjects collected air samples close to their breathing zone by wearing personal monitors for 24 h. The study was centred in Basel, Switzerland, and comprised housewives in one group, primarily for assessing exposures in the home, and office workers in a second group to assess the contribution of the workplace to overall exposure. Samples collected were analysed for respirable suspended particles (RSP), nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particles by using ultraviolet absorbance, fluorescence and solanesol measurements. Saliva cotinine analyses were also undertaken to confirm the nonsmoking status of the subjects. Based upon median 24 h time weighted average concentrations, office workers who live and work with smokers were exposed to 39 μg m -3 RSP, 6.6 μg m -3 ETS particles and 0.90 μg m -3 nicotine. Housewives living with smokers were exposed to median concentrations of 34 μg m -3 RSP, 1.4 μg m -3 ETS particles and 0.60 μg m -3 nicotine. Workplaces where smoking occurred were estimated, on average, to contribute between 34 and 46% to annual exposure of ETS particles and nicotine. Based upon 90th percentile values the most highly exposed housewives, those living with smokers, would potentially inhale 18 cigarette equivalents per year whilst the most highly exposed office workers, both living and working with smokers, might inhale 61 cigarette equivalents. The rate at which subjects misreported their nonsmoking status varied between 9.7 and 12.2%.

  5. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated disease at University Hospital Basel including molecular characterisation of the isolates 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Fenner, L; Frei, R; Gregory, M; Dangel, M; Stranden, A; Widmer, A F

    2008-12-01

    A prospective study was conducted during a one-year period between 2006 and 2007 to describe the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) at University Hospital Basel, Switzerland (UHBS) and to determine phenotypic and genotypic features of C. difficile strains isolated at the Microbiology Laboratory UHBS including strains from regional non-university hospitals. We prospectively identified 78 CDAD cases at UHBS with an incidence of 2.65/1,000 hospitalised patients or 2.3/10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients (20.5%) were infected with clindamycin-resistant strains of PCR-ribotype 027 during an outbreak at the geriatric hospital. Among 124 single-patient isolates, 28 (22.6%) were resistant to moxifloxacin and 34 (27.4%) were resistant to clindamycin, but all remained susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Of 102 toxigenic isolates, 19 (18.7%) had an 18-bp deletion in the tcdC gene, eight (7.8%) a 39-bp deletion, and one (1.0%) a 54-bp deletion. Genes for binary toxin were present in 27 (21.8%). PCR-ribotype 027 was associated with older age (median age 83.5 vs. 65.5 years, p < 0.0001) and longer duration of hospitalisation before onset of disease (median 15.5 vs. 9 days, p = 0.014) with a trend towards higher crude mortality, more severe disease, and previous use of macrolides compared to ribotype non-027. Overall, severe disease correlated with use of a nasogastric tube and surprisingly shorter duration of hospitalisation before onset of disease. Today, laboratory-based and epidemiological surveillance systems are required to monitor CDAD cases and emergence of new epidemic strains. PMID:18560909

  6. The resolution of reservoir dynamics with noise based technologies: A case study from the 2006 Basel injection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, Gregor; Husen, Stephan; Obermann, Anne; Planes, Thomas; Campillo, Michel; Larose, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We explore the applicability of noise-based monitoring and imaging techniques in the context of the 2006 Basel stimulation experiment using data from five borehole velocimeters and five surface accelerometers located around the injection site. We observe a significant perturbation of medium properties associated with the reservoir stimulation. The transient perturbation, with a duration of 20-30 days, reaches its maximum about 15 days after shut in, when microseismic activity has ceased; it is thus associated with aseismic deformation. Inverting relative velocity change and decorrelation observations using techniques developed and applied on laboratory and local to regional seismological scales, we can image the associated deformation pattern. We discuss limits of the the frequency- and lapse-time dependent resolution and suggestions for improvements considering the 3-D network geometry together with wave propagation models. The depth sensitivity of the analyzed wave field indicates resolution of perturbation in the shallow parts of the sedimentary layer above the stimulated deep volume located in the crystalline base layer. The deformation pattern is similar to InSAR/satellite observations associated with CO2 sequestration experiments, and indicates the transfer of deformation beyond scales associated with the instantaneously stimulated volume. Our detection and localization of delayed induced shallow aseismic transient deformation indicates that monitoring the evolution of reservoir properties using the ambient seismic field provides observables that complement information obtained with standard microseismic approaches. The results constitute a significant advance for the resolution of reservoir dynamics; the technology has the potential to provide critical constraints in related geotechnical situations associated with fluid injection, fracking, (nuclear) waste management, and carbon capture and storage.

  7. Washability of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the theoretical beneficiation potential of US coals when pulverized down to 44 microns, (2) to determine the effects of fine grinding on the liberation of ash, pyritic sulfur, and other impurities, and (3) to assess the impact of their removal on oil and gas replacement, environmental regulations, and specification feedstocks for emerging coal utilization technologies. With the emphasis on fine coal cleaning, we have developed a centrifugal float-sink technique for coals crushed down to 44 microns. Employing this technique will provide a complete fine coal gravimetric evaluation of US coals crushed down to 44 microns. Parallel research is being conducted through in-house studies by PETC, and contracts with the University of Alaska, the University of North Dakota, and Commercial Testing and Engineering, Inc. Results thus far have been encouraging for selected Northern Appalachian Region Coals (NAR), which have shown pyritic sulfur, SO/sub 2/ emission, and ash reductions of 94, 60, and 82%, respectively, for the float 1.30 specific gravity product. However, the data evaluated for several samples indicate a possible problem in the yield/ash relationship for the float 1.30 specific gravity products for samples crushed to 75 and 44 microns top size. Thus, testing was begun to try to resolve these anomalies in the data. Test results using surface active agents, a reverse order of float-sink, and sample pre-heat techniques have been promising. These modifications to the standard technique resulted in an increase in weight recovery of float 1.30 specific gravity material and a decrease in ash content for each of the other specific gravity fractions, thus showing an improvement in the yield/ash relationship.

  8. Finessing fuel fineness

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, R.F.

    2008-10-15

    Most of today's operating coal plants began service at least a generation ago and were designed to burn eastern bituminous coal. A switch to Powder River Basin coal can stress those plants' boiler systems, especially the pulverisers, beyond their design limits and cause no end of operational and maintenance problems. Many of those problems are caused by failing to maintain good fuel fineness when increasing fuel throughput. This article concerns the proper management of the fuel component of the combustion equation in an eight step plan. 8 figs.

  9. Evidence for Holocene paleoseismicity along the Basel-Reinach Active Normal Fault (Switzerland): A Seismic Source for the 1356 Earthquake in the Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Delouis, B.; Giardini, D.

    2003-04-01

    We conducted a paleoseismic study with geomorphologic mapping, geophysical prospecting and trenching along an 8-km-long NNE-SSW trending fault scarp south of Basel. The city as well as 40 castles within a 20-km radius were destroyed or heavily damaged by the earthquake of 18th October 1356 (Io = IX-X MKS), the largest historical seismic event in central Europe. Active river incisions as well as late Quaternary alluvial terraces are uplifted along the linear Basel-Reinach fault scarp. The active normal fault shows at least two main branches reaching the surface as attested by resistivity profiles, reflection seismic data, and direct observations in six trenches. In trenches, the normal fault rupture affects three colluvial wedge deposits up to the base of the present day soil. Radiocarbon as well as thermoluminescence age determinations from other trenches helped reconstruct the Holocene events chronology. We identified three seismic events with an average coseismic movement of 0.5 - 0.8 m and a total vertical displacement of 1.8 m in the last 7800 years and five events in the last 13200 years. The most recent event occurred in the interval 610 - 1475 A.D. (2sigma) and may likely correspond to the 1356 earthquake. Furthermore, the morphology suggests both a southern and northern fault extensions that may reach 20 km across the Jura Mountains and across the Rhine Valley. Taking this fault length and a 10 km-thick seismogenic layer suggests a M 6.5 or greater event as a possible scenario for the seismic hazard assessment of the Basel region.

  10. Evidence for Holocene palaeoseismicity along the Basel-Reinach active normal fault (Switzerland): a seismic source for the 1356 earthquake in the Upper Rhine graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, Matthieu; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Delouis, Bertrand; Giardini, Domenico

    2005-02-01

    We conducted a palaeoseismic study with geomorphologic mapping, geophysical prospecting and trenching along an 8-km-long NNE-SSW trending fault scarp south of Basel. The city as well as 40 castles within a 20-km radius were destroyed or heavily damaged by the earthquake of 1356 October 18 (Io = IX-X), the largest historical seismic event in central Europe. Active river incisions as well as late Quaternary alluvial terraces are uplifted along the linear Basel-Reinach (BR) fault scarp. The active normal fault is comprised of at least two main branches reaching the surface as evident by resistivity profiles, reflection seismic data and direct observations in six trenches. In trenches, the normal fault rupture affects three colluvial wedge deposits up to the base of the modern soil. Radiocarbon as well as thermoluminescence (TL) age determinations from other trenches helped to reconstruct the Holocene event chronology. We identified three seismic events with an average coseismic movement of 0.5-0.8 m and a total vertical displacement of 1.8 m in the last 7800 yr and five events in the last 13 200 yr. The most recent event occurred in the interval AD 500-1450 (2σ) and may correspond to the 1356 earthquake. Furthermore, the morphology suggests both a southern and northern fault extensions that may reach 20 km across the Jura mountains and across the Rhine valley. Taking this fault length and a 10-km-thick seismogenic layer suggests a Mw 6.5 or greater event as a possible scenario for the seismic hazard assessment of the Basel region.

  11. Granulation of fine powder

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ching-Fong

    2016-08-09

    A mixture of fine powder including thorium oxide was converted to granulated powder by forming a first-green-body and heat treating the first-green-body at a high temperature to strengthen the first-green-body followed by granulation by crushing or milling the heat-treated first-green-body. The granulated powder was achieved by screening through a combination of sieves to achieve the desired granule size distribution. The granulated powder relies on the thermal bonding to maintain its shape and structure. The granulated powder contains no organic binder and can be stored in a radioactive or other extreme environment. The granulated powder was pressed and sintered to form a dense compact with a higher density and more uniform pore size distribution.

  12. Fine-scale Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 19 May 2003

    This image shows fine-scale textures around a crater southwest of Athabasca Vallis. These fine scale ridges are most likely the remnants of older flood eroded layered rocks and not longitudinal grooves carved out of the landscape by flooding. These features are ridges and not grooves. Also note the layers visible on the southeast side of the island.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 9.6, Longitude 155.9 East (204.1). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Automated Camera Array Fine Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouse, Daniel; Padgett, Curtis; Ansar, Adnan; Cheng, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Using aerial imagery, the JPL FineCalibration (JPL FineCal) software automatically tunes a set of existing CAHVOR camera models for an array of cameras. The software finds matching features in the overlap region between images from adjacent cameras, and uses these features to refine the camera models. It is not necessary to take special imagery of a known target and no surveying is required. JPL FineCal was developed for use with an aerial, persistent surveillance platform.

  14. Continuous fine ash depressurization system

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang; Vimalchand, Pannalal

    2011-11-29

    A system for depressurizing and cooling a high pressure, high temperature fine solid particles stream having entrained gas therein. In one aspect, the system has an apparatus for cooling the high pressure, high temperature fine solid particles stream having entrained gas therein and a pressure letdown device for depressurization by separating the cooled fine solid particles from a portion of the fine solid particles stream having entrained gas therein, resulting in a lower temperature, lower pressure outlet of solid particles for disposal or handling by downstream equipment.

  15. Fine Tuning Your Lease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What is the optimum lease arrangement for the no-till farmer? No-till farmers will many times have more "up front" chemical input costs than a conventional till farmer. Do these differences warrant a different lease arrangement? An easy to use spreadsheet tool was developed to enable a farmer to ...

  16. Fine-Tuning Corrective Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, ZhaoHong

    2001-01-01

    Explores the notion of "fine-tuning" in connection with the corrective feedback process. Describes a longitudinal case study, conducted in the context of Norwegian as a second a language, that shows how fine-tuning and lack thereof in the provision of written corrective feedback differentially affects a second language learner's restructuring of…

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Size distribution data processing and fitting
    Ultrafine, very fine and fine PM were collected nearly continuously from December 2000 through March 2003 at a Washington State Department of Ecology site on Beacon Hill in Seattle. Particle size distributio...

  18. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultrafine clean coal obtained using the advanced column flotation technique from the Kerr-McGee's Galatia preparation plant fine coal waste stream. It is also the objective of the research program to utilize the basic study results, i.e., surface chemical, particle shape particle size distribution, etc., in developing a cost-effective dewatering method. The ultimate objective is to develop process criteria to obtain a dewatered clean coal product containing less that 20 percent moisture, using the conventional vacuum dewatering equipment. (VC)

  19. Chemical characterization of outdoor and subway fine (PM(2.5-1.0)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter in Seoul (Korea) by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM).

    PubMed

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-02-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%-60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM(2.5-1.0)) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5-1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%-6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%-83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM(10-2.5) (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM(10-2.5) than PM(2.5-1.0). Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM(10-2.5) than in PM(2.5-1.0). Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM(2.5-1.0) and PM(10-2.5) simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  20. Statistical analysis of the induced Basel 2006 earthquake sequence: introducing a probability-based monitoring approach for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Wiemer, S.; Woessner, J.; Hainzl, S.

    2011-08-01

    Geothermal energy is becoming an important clean energy source, however, the stimulation of a reservoir for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is associated with seismic risk due to induced seismicity. Seismicity occurring due to the water injection at depth have to be well recorded and monitored. To mitigate the seismic risk of a damaging event, an appropriate alarm system needs to be in place for each individual experiment. In recent experiments, the so-called traffic-light alarm system, based on public response, local magnitude and peak ground velocity, was used. We aim to improve the pre-defined alarm system by introducing a probability-based approach; we retrospectively model the ongoing seismicity in real time with multiple statistical forecast models and then translate the forecast to seismic hazard in terms of probabilities of exceeding a ground motion intensity level. One class of models accounts for the water injection rate, the main parameter that can be controlled by the operators during an experiment. By translating the models into time-varying probabilities of exceeding various intensity levels, we provide tools which are well understood by the decision makers and can be used to determine thresholds non-exceedance during a reservoir stimulation; this, however, remains an entrepreneurial or political decision of the responsible project coordinators. We introduce forecast models based on the data set of an EGS experiment in the city of Basel. Between 2006 December 2 and 8, approximately 11 500 m3 of water was injected into a 5-km-deep well at high pressures. A six-sensor borehole array, was installed by the company Geothermal Explorers Limited (GEL) at depths between 300 and 2700 m around the well to monitor the induced seismicity. The network recorded approximately 11 200 events during the injection phase, more than 3500 of which were located. With the traffic-light system, actions where implemented after an ML 2.7 event, the water injection was

  1. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5–1.0) and Coarse (PM10–2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  2. Uprated fine guidance sensor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Future orbital observatories will require star trackers of extremely high precision. These sensors must maintain high pointing accuracy and pointing stability simultaneously with a low light level signal from a guide star. To establish the fine guidance sensing requirements and to evaluate candidate fine guidance sensing concepts, the Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly was used as the reference optical system. The requirements review was separated into three areas: Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), Fine Guidance Sensing and astrometry. The results show that the detectors should be installed directly onto the focal surface presented by the optics. This would maximize throughput and minimize point stability error by not incoporating any additional optical elements.

  3. 'RAT' Leaves a Fine Mess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the light signatures, or spectra, of two sides of the rock dubbed 'Bounce,' located at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The spectra were taken by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The left side of this rock is covered by fine dust created when the rover drilled into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. These 'fines' produce a layer of pyroxene dust that can be detected here in the top spectrum. The right side of the rock has fewer fines and was used to investigate the composition of this basaltic rock.

  4. Impact on air quality of measures to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in Basel, Rotterdam, Xi'an and Suzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuken, M. P.; Jonkers, S.; Verhagen, H. L. M.; Perez, L.; Trüeb, S.; Okkerse, W.-J.; Liu, J.; Pan, X. C.; Zheng, L.; Wang, H.; Xu, R.; Sabel, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Two traffic scenarios to reduce CO2 emissions from road traffic in two European cities (Basel and Rotterdam) and two Chinese cities (Xi'an and Suzhou) were evaluated in terms of their impact on air quality. The two scenarios, one modelling a reduction of private vehicle kilometres driven by 10% on urban streets and the other modelling the introduction of 50% electric-powered private vehicle kilometres on urban streets, were both compared to a scenario following “business-as-usual”: 2020-BAU. The annual average concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) were modelled separately in busy street canyons, near urban motorways and in the remainder of the urban area. It was concluded that traffic-related CO2 emissions in 2020-BAU could be expected to remain at the levels of 2010 in Basel and Rotterdam, while in Xi'an and Suzhou to increase 30-50% due to growth in the traffic volume. Traffic-related CO2 emissions may be reduced by up to 5% and 25%, respectively using the first and second scenarios. Air pollution in the Chinese cities is a factor 3 to 5 higher than in the European cities in 2010 and 2020-BAU. The impact of both CO2 reduction scenarios on air quality in 2020-BAU is limited. In Europe, due to implementation of stringent emission standards in all sectors, air quality is expected to improve at both the urban background and near busy road traffic. In China, the regional background is expected to improve for EC, stabilize for PM2.5 and PM10, and decrease for NO2. The urban background follows this regional trend, while near busy road traffic, air pollution will remain elevated due to the considerable growth in traffic volume. A major constraint for modelling air quality in China is access to the input data required and lack of measurements at ground level for validation.

  5. New fine structure cooling rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    One of the dominant electron cooling processes in the ionosphere is caused by electron impact induced fine structure transitions among the ground state levels of atomic oxygen. This fine structure cooling rate is based on theoretical cross sections. Recent advances in the numerical cross section determinations to include polarization effects and more accurate representations of the atomic target result in new lower values. These cross sections are employed in this paper to derive a new fine structure cooling rate which is between 40% and 60% of the currently used rate. A new generalized formula is presented for the cooling rate (from which the fine structure cooling rate is derived), valid for arbitrary mass and temperature difference of the colliding particles and arbitrary inelastic energy difference.

  6. Monitoring pool-tail fines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, K.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.; Swingle, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fine sediment < 2 and < 6 mm deposited in pool-tail areas of mountain streams is often measured to monitor changes in the supply of fines (e.g., by dam removal, bank erosion, or watershed effects including fires and road building) or to assess the status and trend of aquatic ecosystems. Grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric bedmaterial samples are typically used to quantify pool-tail fines. Grid-count results exhibit a high degree of variability not only among streams and among operators, but also among crews performing a nearly identical procedure (Roper et al. 2010). Variability is even larger when diverse methods are employed, each of which quantifies fines in a different way: grid counts visually count surface fines on small patches within the pool-tail area, pebble counts pick up and tally surface particles along (riffle) transects, and volumetric samples sieve out fines from small-scale bulk samples; and even when delimited to pool-tail areas, individual methods focus on different sampling locales. Two main questions were analyzed: 1) Do pool-tail fines exhibit patterns of spatial variability and are some grid count schemes more likely to provide accurate results than others. 2) How and why does the percentage of fines vary among grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric samples. In a field study, grids were placed at 7 locales in two rows across the wetted width of 10 pool tails in a 14-m wide 3rd order coarse gravel-bed mountain stream with <4% sand and <8% < 6 mm. Several pebble count transects were placed across each pool-tail area, and three volumetric samples were collected in each of three pool tails. Pebble and grid counts both indicated a fining trend towards one or both banks, sometimes interrupted by a secondary peak of fines within the central half of the wetted width. Among the five sampling schemes tested, grid counts covering the wetted width with 7 locales produced the highest accuracy and the least variability among the pools of the

  7. Measurements of cotton fiber maturity and fineness: method comparisons and fiber growth analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maturity (degree of secondary wall development) and fineness (linear density) are important cotton fiber quality and processing properties. Most maturity and fineness measurements are slow, laborious, require chemicals, and/or require expensive instruments. The Cottonscope is a small-footprint instr...

  8. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

  9. Fine Arts Education. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    What are the benefits of a Fine Arts education? With the advent of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2000, extreme pressure has been put on schools to concentrate the majority of their efforts and resources on reading, math and science skills. Yet, NCLB also states that every child should be well-versed in the arts. Some research has shown that when…

  10. Fine Arts. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Bernard, Ed.

    This document contains two papers on fine arts from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference. "Expanding the Boundaries of the Music Education of the Elementary Teacher Classroom with Information Technology" (Cheryl Jackson) reports on how information technology is used in a music methods course for…

  11. Fine Particle Scrubbing: A Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1974

    1974-01-01

    These articles deal with the proceedings of a 1974 symposium on the use of wet scrubbers for the control of fine particle air pollutants. Various wet scrubbers, their engineering, performance, efficiency, and future are discussed. Tables, formulas, and models are included. (TK)

  12. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  13. Swedish discovery: magnetic fines recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hervol, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    A Swedish device, the Magnadisc, which recovers magnetite fines normally lost in tailings is described. The system was developed in the 1970s, but has reached the US only recently. Tests carried out by EPRI are reported and the results are presented. These indicate that the machine can recover a significant percentage of magnetite currently discharged in the tailings from magnetic drum separators.

  14. Fine Arts in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Frederick B., Jr., Ed.

    In this anthology the issues related to the fine arts (music, theater, visual arts) in the elementary secondary curriculum are examined. The fifteen articles, ranging in length from one to seven pages, are followed by a biographical page briefly identifying the contributors. The articles are: "What's It All About?" (Frederick B. Tuttle, Jr.);…

  15. Some characteristics of fine beryllium particle combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, D. A.; Kholopova, O. V.; Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-08-01

    Beryllium dust will be produced under plasma interaction with beryllium armor of the first wall in ITER. Exothermal reaction of this dust with water steam or air, which can leak into the reactor vacuum chamber in some accidents, gives concern in respect to reactor safety. Results of studies devoted to combustion of fine beryllium particles are reviewed in the paper. A chemically active medium and elevated temperature are prerequisite to the combustion of beryllium particles. Their ignition is hampered by oxide films, which form a diffusion barrier on the particle surface as a result of pre-flame oxidation. The temperature to initiate combustion of particles depends on flame temperature, particle size, composition of combustible mixture, heating rate and other factors. In mixtures enriched with combustible, the flame temperature necessary to ignite individual particles approaches the beryllium boiling temperature.

  16. On the original igneous source of Martian fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, A. K.; Clark, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of the silicate portion of Martian regolith fines indicates derivation of the fines from mafic to ultramafic rocks, probably rich in pyroxene. Rock types similar in chemical and mineralogical composition include terrestrial Archean basalts and certain achondrite meteorites. If these igneous rocks weathered nearly isochemically, the nontronitic clays proposed earlier as an analog to Martian fines could be formed. Flood basalts of pyroxenitic lavas may be widespread and characteristic of early volcanism on Mars, analogous to maria flood basalts on the moon and early Precambrian basaltic komatiites on earth. Compositional differences between lunar, terrestrial, and Martian flood basalts may be related to differences in planetary sizes and mantle compositions of the respective planetary objects.

  17. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  18. Requirements for, and benefits of, environmentally sound and economically viable management of battery recycling in the Philippines in the wake of Basel Convention trade restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, U.; Wilson, B.

    The ban on the export of used lead-acid batteries (ULAB) from Annex VII to non-Annex VII countries pursuant to decision III/1 of the Basel Convention reduced the availability of imported scrap feedstock for battery recycling in the Philippines. As ULAB supply from other developing countries becomes scarcer, the ban is likely to encourage and enhance collection and recuperation for domestically generated scrap. From a short-term perspective, this study explores the technological and managerial opportunities for improving the environmental and occupational health performance of the formal battery recycling sector and unregulated reconditioning. From a medium- and long-term point of view, the study investigates restructuring the informal ULAB's collection and recycling sector. The objective has been to make the smaller battery recyclers and reconditioners in the informal sector part of an effective and efficient collection infrastructure that supports an environmentally sound secondary lead sector. This approach gradually phases out uncontrolled, inefficient and environmentally unacceptable methods of secondary lead recovery. Due attention has also been paid to the logistical peculiarities of an archipelago, in particular the regional spread of collection infrastructure, collection and shipment costs as well as the assurance of environmentally safe transport.

  19. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Bradley E.; Kabir, Md. E.; Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  20. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOEpatents

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  1. Recent Applications of Alkene Metathesis in Fine Chemical Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicchielli, Dario; Borguet, Yannick; Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert; Dragutan, Ileana; Dragutan, Valerian; Jossifov, Christo; Kalinova, Radostina; Nicks, François; Sauvage, Xavier

    During the last decade or so, the emergence of the metathesis reaction in organic synthesis has revolutionised the strategies used for the construction of complex molecular structures. Olefin metathesis is indeed particularly suited for the construction of small open-chain molecules and macrocycles using crossmetathesis and ring-closing metathesis, respectively. These reactions serve, inter alia, as key steps in the synthesis of various agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals such as macrocyclic peptides, cyclic sulfonamides, novel macrolides, or insect pheromones. The present chapter is aiming at illustrating the great synthetic potential of metathesis reactions. Shortcomings, such as the control of olefin geometry and the unpredictable effect of substituents on the reacting olefins, will also be addressed. Examples to be presented include epothilones, amphidinolides, spirofungin A, and archazolid. Synthetic approaches involving silicon-tethered ring-closing metathesis, relay ring-closing metathesis, sequential reactions, domino as well as tandem metathesis reactions will also be illustrated.

  2. Dense, finely, grained composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Holt, Joseph B.; Kingman, Donald D.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1990-01-01

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  3. Chemicals from Cradle to Grave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Scope, 2005

    2005-01-01

    About two years ago, an urban school district had planned for the disposal of some hazardous chemicals. It contracted with a chemical recycling company that was considered to be reputable. The school district, along with several other companies, was charged and fined by the Environmental Protection Agency for improperly releasing hazardous…

  4. Fine-particle characterization — An important recycling tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblom, Bo; Samuelsson, Caisa; Sandström, Åke; Ye, Guozhu

    2002-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results from different research projects on fine-particle characterization of metallurgical residues, such as hydroxide sludge, electric-arc furnace dust, and copper-converter dust. These studies demonstrated that characterization is essential for developing new recycling strategies. The basic knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of the residues obtained by the characterizations also provides necessary information on potential problems that could be encountered during the processing of such materials.

  5. Choice of fineness of pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Tolchinskii; A.Yu. Lavrent'ev

    2002-11-15

    Various methods for choosing the fineness of power plant coal dust are reviewed and analytical expressions for determining the fineness are presented. It is shown that the use of the yield of combustibles as a parameter is not always suitable for evaluating the fineness of pulverized coal. The suggested expression for computing the fineness bears composite parameters that allow for the heat value of the volatiles and for the internal surface of the fuel particles.

  6. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...

  7. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...

  8. Considering Fine Art and Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2015-01-01

    There has been a close association between picturebook illustrations and works of fine art since the picturebook was first conceived, and many ways these associations among works of fine art and picturebook illustrations and design play out. To make sense of all the various ways picturebook illustrations are associated with works of fine art,…

  9. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...

  10. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...

  11. 36 CFR 910.35 - Fine arts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fine arts. 910.35 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 Fine arts. Fine arts... of art which are appropriate for the development. For information and guidance, a...

  12. Fine Mode Aerosol over the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, K. E.; Piketh, S. J.; Reid, J. S.; Reid, E. A.

    2005-12-01

    The aerosol loading of the atmosphere over the Arabian Gulf region is extremely diverse and is composed not only of dust, but also of pollution that is derived largely from oil-related activities. Fine mode pollution particles are most efficient at scattering incoming solar radiation and have the potential to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and may therefore have implications for climate change. The smaller aerosols may also pose a health hazard if present in high concentrations. The United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) was designed to investigate aerosol and meteorological characteristics over the region using ground-based, aircraft and satellite measurements, and was conducted in August and September 2004. Aerosol chemical composition has been obtained from filters that were collected at the site of the Mobile Atmospheric Aerosol and Radiation Characterization Observatory (MAARCO) on the coast of the UAE between Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Filter samples were also collected on an airborne platform in order to assess how aerosol chemical composition varies across the region and throughout the depth of the boundary layer. Results of the analysis of the PM2.5 coastal samples show that ammonium sulphate is the most prevalent constituent of the fine mode aerosol in the region (>50% of the mass), followed by organic matter, alumino-silicates, calcium carbonate and black carbon. Source apportionment indicates that most of the fine aerosol mass is derived from fossil fuel combustion, while mineral dust and local vehicle emissions also contribute to the fine aerosol loading. The organic carbon-to-total carbon ratio of the aerosol is 0.65, which is typical of fossil fuel combustion. The dominance of sulphates means that the fine mode aerosol in the region is probably responsible for a negative radiative forcing, and that the polluting emissions significantly elevate the concentration of CCN.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of fines from recovered paper processing - Influence of fiber source, lignin and ash content on biogas potential.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Friedrich; Requejo, Ana; Ewald, Christian; Janzon, Ron; Saake, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    Fines concentration harms paper machine runability and output quality in recovered paper processing, hence, their extraction would be fundamentally beneficial. In this study, separated fines from an industrial recycled fiber pulp (RFP) were characterized and evaluated for their potential biogas yields with a focus on understanding the role of varying lignin and ash contents. Further, these results were compared with biogas yields from conventional chemical and mechanical pulps. Overall, methane yields of fines from mechanical pulps (21-28mL/gVS) and RFP (127mL/gVS) are relatively low compared to the high methane yields of 375mL/gVS from the chemical pulp fines. However, it was shown that the high ash content in RFP fines (up to 50%) did not negatively influence overall yield, rather, it was the presence of slowly biodegrading lignin-rich fiber fines. PMID:26520490

  14. Coal fines consolidation. [269 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, A.

    1984-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to survey existing methods and techniques for consolidating coal fines into lump coal which would be suitable as feed to fixed bed gasifiers. Another objective was to characterize the properties of consolidated coal which would establish its suitability for use in such gasifiers. To accomplish these objectives, a search of the technical literature was conducted in the pertinent subject areas. In addition, a survey was made of industrial and research organizations which have been active in the field of coal consolidation. The literature search mainly covered the period from 1970 to the present, although certain basic references were dated in the early 1900's. Approximately 250 from a total of about 1500 references were identified as relevant to the scope of this study. Information on coal consolidation was solicited from about thirty organizations and a response of about 50% was obtained. A review and evaluation of the relevant technical literature was made and is summarized, along with information provided by the survey responses, in the body of this report. Three primary methods for mechanically consolidating coal fines were identified; briquetting, pelletizing, and extrusion. Based on the limited experience reported, it appears that the technical feasibility of consolidating coal fines as feed to fixed bed gasifiers has been demonstrated. Costs for producing coal agglomerates, as reported in the literature, vary over a wide range, from about 7 to about 30 dollars per ton of product. The low cost range might be acceptable in terms of an overall gasification project but further effort is required to determine if such costs are attainable in practice. 269 references.

  15. SPECIATION OF GAS-PHASE AND FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM BURNING OF FOLIAR FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle size distributions (10-1000 nm aerodynamic diameter), physical and chemical properties of fine particle matter (PM2.5) with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 micrometers, and gas-phase emissions from controlled open burning of assorted taxa were measured. Chemical speciation of ...

  16. Luna 24 regolith breccias: A possible source of the fine size material of the Luna 24 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rode, O. D.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    The regolith breccias from the Luna 24 core were analyzed. The Luna 24 regolith is a mixture of fine and coarse grain materials. The comparable analysis of the grain size distributions, the modal and chemical compositions of the breccias, and the regolith from the same levels show that the friable slightly litificated breccia with a friable fine grain matrix may be a source of fine grain material of the Luna 24 present day regolith.

  17. Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Gey, K F; Stähelin, H B; Eichholzer, M

    1993-01-01

    Previous cross-cultural comparisons of the mortality from ischemic heart disease in European communities with associated plasma levels of essential antioxidants have revealed strong inverse correlations for vitamin E and relatively weak correlations for other antioxidants. Similarly, in a case-control study in Edinburgh low plasma levels of vitamin E were significantly associated with an increased risk of previously undiagnosed angina pectoris whereas low levels of other essential antioxidants lacked statistical significance. The current Basel Prospective Study is particularly well suited to elucidate the impact of antioxidants other than vitamin E. In this population (which was recently evaluated regarding cancer mortality) the plasma levels of vitamins E and A are exceptionally high and above the presumed threshold level of risk for ischemic heart disease. The present 12-year follow-up of cardiovascular mortality in this study reveals a significantly increased relative risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke at initially low plasma levels of carotene (< 0.23 mumol/l) and/or vitamin C (< 22.7 mumol/l), independently of vitamin E and of the classical cardiovascular risk factors. Low levels of both carotene and vitamin C increase the risk further, in the case of stroke even with significance for overmultiplicative interaction. In conclusion, in cardiovascular disease independent inverse correlations may exist for every major essential antioxidant although the latter can also interact synergistically. Therefore future intervention trials of antioxidants in the prevention of ischemic heart disease should primarily test the simultaneous optimization of the status of all principal essential antioxidants. PMID:8453256

  18. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley Williamson

    2003-05-31

    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  19. Beginning of grain harvest in the tri-border region Basel as a proxy for mean April - May temperatures; creation of a long Swiss series c. 1455 AD - 1950 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, Oliver; Pfister, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Beginning of grain harvest in the tri-border region Basel as a proxy for mean April-July temperatures; creation of a long Swiss series c. 1454 AD - 1950 AD O. Wetter and C. Pfister Section of Economic, Social and Environmental History, Institute of History, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland (oliver.wetter@hist.unibe.ch) Before agricultural harvesting machines replaced manual labour the date of the grain harvest was largely dependent on mean temperatures from spring to early summer. It thus constitutes a very valuable source of information to reconstruct these temperatures. The later the harvest began, the cooler spring and early summer must have been and vice versa. For this reconstruction a new data series of grain harvests in the tri-border region Basel (representative for north-west Switzerland, the Alsace (France) and south-west Germany) was used as a temperature proxy. The harvesting dates have been extracted from the account books of the hospital of Basel which cover the period from c.1454 AD to 1705 AD. This series could be completed with several series of grain tithe dates originating from the Swiss Midland, covering the period between 1557 and 1825 and several grain harvest dates series covering the time between 1825 and 1950. Thus a series of almost 500 years could be compiled. Since the method of harvesting remained unchanged until the 1950's when manual labour was replaced by machines, the harvest dates of the modern series, lying within the temperature measurement series, could be used for calibrating the medieval dates.

  20. Prediction of the effect of fine grit on the MLVSS/MLSS ratio of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianping; Ji, Fangying; Xu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Ying; Yan, Dachao; Xu, Xuan; Chen, Qingkong; Xiong, Jingzhong; He, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigated the suspension properties of fine grit with different particle sizes in a bioreactor and developed a model to predict its effect on the ratio of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids to the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS/MLSS) of activated sludge. The experimental results revealed that a smaller particle size corresponds to a larger suspension ratio, defined as the proportion of fine grit brought in by influent that is suspended in the activated sludge, and a smaller MLVSS/MLSS ratio. The model demonstrated that the effect of fine grit on the MLVSS/MLSS ratio is related to the fine grit concentration and chemical oxygen demand in influent and the observed sludge yield. However, fine grit has no influence on the activity of microorganisms. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can adjust MLSS based on the MLVSS/MLSS ratio to ensure the stability of MLVSS, which can achieve the stable operation of WWTPs. PMID:25919937

  1. Fine Structure in Solar Flares.

    PubMed

    Warren

    2000-06-20

    We present observations of several large two-ribbon flares observed with both the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and the soft X-ray telescope on Yohkoh. The high spatial resolution TRACE observations show that solar flare plasma is generally not confined to a single loop or even a few isolated loops but to a multitude of fine coronal structures. These observations also suggest that the high-temperature flare plasma generally appears diffuse while the cooler ( less, similar2 MK) postflare plasma is looplike. We conjecture that the diffuse appearance of the high-temperature flare emission seen with TRACE is due to a combination of the emission measure structure of these flares and the instrumental temperature response and does not reflect fundamental differences in plasma morphology at the different temperatures. PMID:10859129

  2. Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Danny; Omura, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Satoko; Kletzing, Craig A.

    2014-11-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss has been widely regarded as a broadband, structureless, incoherent emission. In this study, by examining burst-mode vector waveform data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission, we show that plasmaspheric hiss is a coherent emission with complex fine structure. Specifically, plasmaspheric hiss appears as discrete rising tone and falling tone elements. Our study comprises the analysis of two 1 h samples within which a total of eight 1 s samples were analyzed. By means of waveform analysis on two samples, we identify typical amplitudes, phase profiles, and sweep rates of the rising and falling tone elements. The exciting new observations reported here can be expected to fuel a reexamination of the properties of plasmaspheric hiss, including a further reanalysis of the generation mechanism for hiss.

  3. FINE: fisher information nonparametric embedding.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kevin M; Raich, Raviv; Finn, William G; Hero, Alfred O

    2009-11-01

    We consider the problems of clustering, classification, and visualization of high-dimensional data when no straightforward euclidean representation exists. In this paper, we propose using the properties of information geometry and statistical manifolds in order to define similarities between data sets using the Fisher information distance. We will show that this metric can be approximated using entirely nonparametric methods, as the parameterization and geometry of the manifold is generally unknown. Furthermore, by using multidimensional scaling methods, we are able to reconstruct the statistical manifold in a low-dimensional euclidean space; enabling effective learning on the data. As a whole, we refer to our framework as Fisher Information Nonparametric Embedding (FINE) and illustrate its uses on practical problems, including a biomedical application and document classification. PMID:19762935

  4. 28 CFR 571.52 - Procedures-committed fines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the inmate's commitment, staff shall inform the inmate that there is a committed fine, or fine and... the fine, or fine and costs is paid, except— (i) The inmate may spend money from his/her trust fund.... (b) If the inmate pays the committed fine, or fine and costs, or staff have verified payment,...

  5. The Apollo 15 coarse fines (4-10 mm)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Sherman, Sarah Bean

    1989-01-01

    A new catalog of the Apollo 15 coarse fines particles is presented. Powell's macroscopic descriptions, resulting from his 1972 particle by particle binocular examination of all of the Apollo 15 4 to 10 mm fines samples, are retained. His groupings are also retained, but petrographic, chemical, and other data from later analyses are incorporated into this catalog to better characterize individual particles and describe the groups. A large number of particles have no characterization beyond that done by Powell. Complete descriptions of the particles and all known references are provided. The catalog is intended for anyone interested in the rock types collected by Dave Scott and Jim Irwin in the Hadley-Appenine region, and particularly for researchers requiring sample allocations.

  6. Fine structure of track-plated Au-Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.; Staudhammer, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    The burnishing process, i.e., mechanical rubbing of the deposit during electrodeposition, produces continuous nucleation of new grains during deposition which effectively prevents large columnar grains and macroporosity. In addition, track plating produces a uniform subgrain and substructure. By the use of STEM and TEM we were able to define a number of structural features of this material. Evident from the micrographs is the non-uniform polishing of the layers resulting from the chemical variation in the plating process. Microstructural features of the Au rich regions are shown. The unit size of this structure is about 22 nm. The fine-grained structure does not have well defined boundaries but does contain a slight amount of preferred alignment. Each equivalent unit has periodic fine structure measurable to approx. 2 nm.

  7. Modelling fines mobilization, migration and clogging

    SciTech Connect

    Wennberg, K.E.; Batrouni, G.; Hansen, A.

    1995-12-31

    The authors introduce and discuss a model for fines mobilization, migration and clogging in porous media based on the convection-diffusion equation. Their model contains two fields: The concentration of fine particles deposited on the pore walls and the concentration of fines suspended in the ambient liquid. The model contains four parameters--or seven if certain nonlinearities in the clogging process are important. They discuss the physical contents of the model and test it numerically in two dimensions.

  8. Fused silica fine grinding with low roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lei; Gu, Yongqiang; Wu, Di

    2014-08-01

    Lithography-optics is one of the most complex optical systems. The fine grinding process is the most important step before polishing. Roughness and sub-surface damage (SSD) are essential outputs of fine grinding. We demonstrate the method that use fix abrasive cup tool with CNC grinding machine to complete the fine grinding process, even instead of lapping process. And experiment sample roughness can reach 23.40nm rms and Ra 18.554nm. The SSD estimate is about 2 μm which is also smaller than commercial lapping process. The fine grinding output can satisfy the lithography optic fabrication demands and efficiently reduce the polishing time.

  9. Beginning of grain harvest in the tri-border region Basel as a proxy for mean April-July temperatures; creation of a long Swiss series c. 1454 AD - 1950 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, O.; Pfister, C.

    2010-09-01

    Before agricultural harvesting machines replaced manual labour the date of the grain harvest was largely dependent on mean temperatures from spring to early summer. It thus constitutes a very valuable source of information to reconstruct these temperatures. The later the harvest began, the cooler spring and early summer must have been and vice versa. For this reconstruction a new data series of grain harvests in the tri-border region Basel(representative for north-west Switzerland, the Alsace (France) and south-west Germany)was used as a temperature proxy. The harvesting dates have been extracted from the account books of the hospital of Basel which cover the period from c.1454 AD to 1705 AD. This series could be completed with several series of grain tithe dates originating from the Swiss Midland, covering the period between 1557 and 1825 and several grain harvest dates series covering the time between 1825 and 1950. Thus a series of almost 500 years could be compiled. Since the method of harvesting remained unchanged until the 1950's when manual labour was replaced by machines, the harvest dates of the modern series, lying within the temperature measurement series, could be used for calibrating the medieval dates.

  10. Development of concepts for the management of shallow geothermal resources in urban areas - Experience gained from the Basel and Zaragoza case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Mueller, Matthias H.; Huggenberger, Peter; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2015-04-01

    In urban areas the shallow subsurface often is used as a heat resource (shallow geothermal energy), i.e. for the installation and operation of a broad variety of geothermal systems. Increasingly, groundwater is used as a low-cost heat sink, e.g. for building acclimatization. Together with other shallow geothermal exploitation systems significantly increased groundwater temperatures have been observed in many urban areas (urban heat island effect). The experience obtained from two selected case study cities in Basel (CH) and Zaragoza (ES) has allowed developing concepts and methods for the management of thermal resources in urban areas. Both case study cities already have a comprehensive monitoring network operating (hydraulics and temperature) as well as calibrated high-resolution numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport models. The existing datasets and models have allowed to compile and compare the different hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions for both groundwater bodies, including: (1) River boundaries (River Rhine and Ebro), (2) Regional hydraulic and thermal settings, (3) Interaction with the atmosphere under consideration of urbanization and (4) Anthropogenic quantitative and thermal groundwater use. The potential natural states of the considered groundwater bodies also have been investigated for different urban settings and varying processes concerning groundwater flow and thermal regimes. Moreover, concepts for the management of thermal resources in urban areas and the transferability of the applied methods to other urban areas are discussed. The methods used provide an appropriate selection of parameters (spatiotemporal resolution) that have to be measured for representative interpretations of groundwater flow and thermal regimes of specific groundwater bodies. From the experience acquired from the case studies it is shown that understanding the variable influences of the specific geological and hydrogeological as well as hydraulic and thermal

  11. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  12. The apparent fine-tuning of the cosmological, gravitational and fine structure constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaves, Laurence

    2016-02-01

    A numerical coincidence relating the values of the cosmological, gravitational and electromagnetic fine structure constants is presented and discussed in relation to the apparent anthropic fine-tuning of these three fundamental constants of nature.

  13. Belowground Biomass Sampling to Estimate Fine Root Mass across NEON Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, J. J.; Meier, C. L.; Abercrombie, H.; Everhart, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Production of belowground biomass is an important and relatively uncharacterized component of the net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystems. Fine root productivity makes up a significant portion of total belowground production because fine roots turn over rapidly, and therefore contribute disproportionately to annual estimates of belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). One of the major goals of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is to quantify above- and below-ground NPP at 60 sites within 20 different eco-climactic regions. NEON's Terrestrial Observation System will carry out belowground biomass sampling throughout the life of the observatory to estimate fine root production. However, belowground biomass sampling during NEON operations will be constrained to a maximum depth of 50cm. This limited depth range leaves the question of what proportion of total fine root mass is being collected and how to optimally characterize belowground biomass given sampling depth limitations. During the construction period, NEON is characterizing fine root biomass distribution at depth down to 2m at each site, as well as physical and chemical properties in each soil horizon. Each sampling unit is a pit (2m deep and approximately 1.5m wide), dug in the site's dominant vegetation type where fine root biomass sampling will also occur during Operations. To sample fine root biomass in each pit, soil samples of a known volume are taken from three vertical profiles down the face of the pit. Samples are then wet sieved to extract fine root mass, and roots are dried at 65°C for 48 hours and then weighed. The soil pit data are used to estimate the proportion of total fine root biomass from each site as a function of depth. Non-linear curves are fitted to the data to calculate total fine root mass at depth and to provide estimates of the proportion of the total fine root mass that is sampled at each site during NEON's 30 year operational sampling. The belowground

  14. Fine Structure of Plasmaspheric Hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, D.; Omura, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Kletzing, C.

    2014-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss plays a key role in controlling the structure and dynamics of Earth's radiation belts.The quiet time slot region between the inner and outer belts can be explained as a steady-state balance between earthward radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering loss of energetic electrons to the atmosphere induced by plasmaspheric hiss. Plasmaspheric hiss can also induce gradual precipitation loss of MeV electrons from the outer radiation belt. Plasmaspheric hiss has been widely regarded as a broadband,structureless,incoherent emission. Here, by examining burst-mode vector waveform data from the EMFISIS instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission,we show that plasmaspheric hiss is a coherent emission with complex fine structure. Specifically, plasmaspheric hiss appears as discrete rising tone and falling tone elements. By means of waveform analysis we identify typical amplitudes,phase profiles,and sweep rates of the rising and falling tone elements. The new observations reported here can be expected to fuel a re-examination of the properties of plasmaspheric hiss, including a further re-analysis of the generation mechanism for hiss.

  15. Modeling of Fine-Particle Formation in Turbulent Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Venkat; Fox, Rodney O.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of nanostructured particles in high-temperature flames is important both for the control of emissions from combustion devices and for the synthesis of high-value chemicals for a variety of applications. The physiochemical processes that lead to the production of fine particles in turbulent flames are highly sensitive to the flow physics and, in particular, the history of thermochemical compositions and turbulent features they encounter. Consequently, it is possible to change the characteristic size, structure, composition, and yield of the fine particles by altering the flow configuration. This review describes the complex multiscale interactions among turbulent fluid flow, gas-phase chemical reactions, and solid-phase particle evolution. The focus is on modeling the generation of soot particles, an unwanted pollutant from automobile and aircraft engines, as well as metal oxides, a class of high-value chemicals sought for specialized applications, including emissions control. Issues arising due to the numerical methods used to approximate the particle number density function, the modeling of turbulence-chemistry interactions, and model validation are also discussed.

  16. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS INFORMATION SYSTEM REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a basic reference manual on the Fine Particle Emissions Information System (FPEIS), a computerized database on primary fine particle emissions to the atmosphere from stationary point sources. The FPEIS is a component of the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EAD...

  17. Biased experimental fineness and maturity results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Part I of this series, models were developed and computer simulations were performed to understand the variability in coefficients of determination (R2) between fineness and maturity, micronaire and fineness, and micronaire and maturity of cotton. Part II concentrated on derivation and testing of...

  18. 34 CFR 668.84 - Fine proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fine proceedings. 668.84 Section 668.84 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Fine, Limitation, Suspension and...

  19. 33 CFR 153.205 - Fines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fines. 153.205 Section 153.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Notice of the Discharge of Oil or a Hazardous Substance § 153.205 Fines....

  20. Fine-Sediment Loadings to Lake Tahoe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 35 years, a trend of decreasing water clarity has been documented in Lake Tahoe, attributable in part to the delivery of fine-grained sediments emanating from upland and channel sources. The overall objective of the research reported here was to determine the amount of fine sediment de...

  1. ADVANCING FINE ROOT RESEARCH WITH MINIRHIZOTRONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Minirhizotrons provide a nondestructive, in situ method for directly viewing and studying fine roots. Although many insights into fine roots have been gained using minirhizotrons, it is clear from the literature that there is still wide variation in how minirhizotrons and minirhi...

  2. The Relationship between Fine-Motor Play and Fine-Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Deborah; Cermak, Sharon; Cohn, Ellen S.; Henderson, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between free-play choices and fine-motor skill in 4-year-old children attending Head Start. Children with poor fine-motor skill were matched for age and gender with children in the same classroom that exhibited good fine-motor skill. Each pair was observed during free-play sessions to examine the degree of…

  3. Get out of Fines Free: Recruiting Student Usability Testers via Fine Waivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenberry, Benjamin; Blackburn, Kourtney

    2016-01-01

    St. John Fisher College's Lavery Library's Access Services and Systems departments began a pilot project in which students with overdue fines tested usability of library Web sites in exchange for fine waivers. Circulation staff promoted the program and redeemed fine waiver vouchers at the Checkout Desk, while Systems staff administered testing and…

  4. Autonomous patterning of cells on microstructured fine particles.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Iwori; Kawanabe, Masato; Kaneko, Arata

    2015-05-01

    Regularly patterned cells can clarify cellular function and are required in some biochip applications. This study examines cell patterning along microstructures and the effect of microstructural geometry on selective cellular adhesion. Particles can be autonomously assembled on a soda-lime glass substrate that is chemically patterned by immersion in a suspension of fine particles. By adopting various sizes of fine particles, we can control the geometry of the microstructure. Cells adhere more readily to microstructured fine particles than to flat glass substrate. Silica particles hexagonally packed in 5-40 μm line and space microstructures provide an effective cell scaffold on the glass substrate. Cultured cells tend to attach and proliferate along the microstructured region while avoiding the flat region. The difference in cell adhesion is attributed to their geometries, as both of the silica particles and soda-lime glass are hydrophilic related with cell adhesiveness. After cell seeding, cells adhered to the flat region migrated toward the microstructured region. For most of the cells to assemble on the scaffold, the scaffolding microstructures must be spaced by at most 65 μm. PMID:25746259

  5. Modifying the properties of finely ground limestone by tumbling granulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, Oliver; Eckert, Maroš; Tomášová, Barbora; Peciar, Peter; Ščasný, Martin; Fekete, Roman; Peciar, Marián

    2016-06-01

    Calcium carbonate in the form of finely ground limestone is a material that has found its application in a wide range of industries, in the chemical, rubber, agricultural, and paper industries, is used for desulfurization of boilers and other. In civil engineering, ground limestone is used for the production of building materials, plaster and mortar mixtures, as a filler in concrete mixtures, in road construction, and as an essential component of mastic asphalt. This paper deals with examining the modification of the properties of finely ground limestone by the tumbling agglomeration method. It has been shown that the components of concrete with a round grain have a positive effect on the pumping of concrete in comparison with an elongated grain or the rough surface of crushed stone. The experiments will be carried out on a granulation plate using a variety of granulation liquid. The agglomerates and their properties were compared with untreated finely ground limestone, with a focus on detecting changes in compressibility, density and particle size. The output of this paper is a description and graphical representation of the changes in the properties of ground limestone before and after the agglomeration process.

  6. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  7. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.

    2011-01-01

    Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

  8. Source apportionment of airborne fine particulate matter in an underground mine.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jacob D; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John C; McDaniel, Mark R; Mousset-Jones, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    The chemical mass balance source apportionment technique was applied to an underground gold mine to assess the contribution of diesel exhaust, rock dust, oil mists, and cigarette smoke to airborne fine (<2.5 microm) particulate matter (PM). Apportionments were conducted in two locations in the mine, one near the mining operations and one near the exit of the mine where the ventilated mine air was exhausted. Results showed that diesel exhaust contributed 78-98% of the fine particulate mass and greater than 90% of the fine particle carbon, with rock dust making up the remainder. Oil mists and cigarette smoke contributions were below detection limits for this study. The diesel exhaust fraction of the total fine PM was higher than the recently implemented mine air quality standards based on total carbon at both sample locations in the mine. PMID:12708502

  9. Comparison of sulfur measurements from a regional fine particle network with concurrent acid modes network results

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.L.; Stockburger, L.; Barnes, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fine Particle Network (FPN), a system of fine particle (less than 2.5 micrometers) samplers, was operated at 41 sites selected from the Enviromental Protection Agency Acid MODES program during the two year period in 1988-90. The 24-hour sample results included fine particle mass and the most predominant chemical element concentrations determined by wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. Statistical summaries of the fine mass and sulfur concentrations by site and season were prepared. The availability of simultaneous particulate sulfate measurements from independent collection and analytical procedures provided an opportunity to examine their agreement and provide a more reliable data base for evaluation of regional particulate models and estimation of contribution to urban aerosol concentration.

  10. High energy collimating fine grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Victor M.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Laferla, Raffaele

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the fabrication of extremely tight tolerance collimating grids using a high-Z material, specifically tungsten. The approach taken was to fabricate grids by a replication method involving the coating of a silicon grid substrate with tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A negative of the desired grid structure was fabricated in silicon using highly wafering techniques developed for the semiconductor industry and capable of producing the required tolerances. Using diamond wafering blades, a network of accurately spaced slots was machined into a single-crystal silicon surface. These slots were then filled with tungsten by CVD, via the hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride. Following tungsten deposition, the silicon negative was etched away to leave the tungsten collimating grid structure. The project was divided into five tasks: (1) identify materials of construction for the replica and final collimating grid structures; (2) identify and implement a micromachining technique for manufacturing the negative collimator replicas (performed by NASA/JPL); (3) develop a CVD technique and processing parameters suitable for the complete tungsten densification of the collimator replicas; (4) develop a chemical etching technique for the removal of the collimator replicas after the tungsten deposition process; and (5) fabricate and deliver tungsten collimating grid specimens.