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Sample records for finger gene dnmt3l

  1. The CpG Island Encompassing the Promoter and First Exon of Human DNMT3L Gene Is a PcG/TrX Response Element (PRE)

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Amitava; Dasari, Vasanthi; Mishra, Rakesh K.; Khosla, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    DNMT3L, a member of DNA methyltransferases family, is present only in mammals. As it provides specificity to the action of de novo methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B and interacts with histone H3, DNMT3L has been invoked as the molecule that can read the histone code and translate it into DNA methylation. It plays an important role in the initiation of genomic imprints during gametogenesis and in nuclear reprogramming. With important functions attributed to it, it is imperative that the DNMT3L expression is tightly controlled. Previously, we had identified a CpG island within the human DNMT3L promoter and first exon that showed loss of DNA methylation in cancer samples. Here we show that this Differentially Methylated CpG island within DNMT3L (DNMT3L DMC) acts to repress transcription, is a Polycomb/Trithorax Response Element (PRE) and interacts with both PRC1 and PRC2 Polycomb repressive complexes. In addition, it adopts inactive chromatin conformation and is associated with other inactive chromatin-specific proteins like SUV39H1 and HP1. The presence of DNMT3L DMC also influences the adjacent promoter to adopt repressive histone post-translational modifications. Due to its association with multiple layers of repressive epigenetic modifications, we believe that PRE within the DNMT3L DMC is responsible for the tight regulation of DNMT3L expression and the aberrant epigenetic modifications of this region leading to DNMT3L overexpression could be the reason of nuclear programming during carcinogenesis. PMID:24743422

  2. DNMT3L enables accumulation and inheritance of epimutations in transgenic Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Basu, Amitava; Tomar, Archana; Dasari, Vasanthi; Mishra, Rakesh Kumar; Khosla, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    DNMT3L is an important epigenetic regulator in mammals, integrating DNA methylation and histone modification based epigenetic circuits. Here we show DNMT3L to be a part of the machinery that enables inheritance of epigenetic modifications from one generation to the next. Ectopic expression of DNMT3L in Drosophila, which lacks DNMT3L and its normal interacting partners DNMT3A and DNMT3B, lead to nuclear reprogramming that was gradual and progressive, resulting in melanotic tumors that were observed only when these flies were maintained for five generations. This global gene expression misregulation was accompanied by aberrations in the levels of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3, globally as well as at specific gene promoters. The levels of these epigenetic aberrations (epimutations) also increased progressively across successive generations. The accumulation and inheritance of epimutations across multiple generations recapitulates the important role of DNMT3L in intergenerational epigenetic inheritance in mammals. PMID:26795243

  3. DNMT3L enables accumulation and inheritance of epimutations in transgenic Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Amitava; Tomar, Archana; Dasari, Vasanthi; Mishra, Rakesh Kumar; Khosla, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    DNMT3L is an important epigenetic regulator in mammals, integrating DNA methylation and histone modification based epigenetic circuits. Here we show DNMT3L to be a part of the machinery that enables inheritance of epigenetic modifications from one generation to the next. Ectopic expression of DNMT3L in Drosophila, which lacks DNMT3L and its normal interacting partners DNMT3A and DNMT3B, lead to nuclear reprogramming that was gradual and progressive, resulting in melanotic tumors that were observed only when these flies were maintained for five generations. This global gene expression misregulation was accompanied by aberrations in the levels of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3, globally as well as at specific gene promoters. The levels of these epigenetic aberrations (epimutations) also increased progressively across successive generations. The accumulation and inheritance of epimutations across multiple generations recapitulates the important role of DNMT3L in intergenerational epigenetic inheritance in mammals. PMID:26795243

  4. Structural consequences of disease-causing mutations in the ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain of the chromatin-associated protein ATRX

    PubMed Central

    Argentaro, Anthony; Yang, Ji-Chun; Chapman, Lynda; Kowalczyk, Monika S.; Gibbons, Richard J.; Higgs, Douglas R.; Neuhaus, David; Rhodes, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    The chromatin-associated protein ATRX was originally identified because mutations in the ATRX gene cause a severe form of syndromal X-linked mental retardation associated with α-thalassemia. Half of all of the disease-associated missense mutations cluster in a cysteine-rich region in the N terminus of ATRX. This region was named the ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain, based on sequence homology with a family of DNA methyltransferases. Here, we report the solution structure of the ADD domain of ATRX, which consists of an N-terminal GATA-like zinc finger, a plant homeodomain finger, and a long C-terminal α-helix that pack together to form a single globular domain. Interestingly, the α-helix of the GATA-like finger is exposed and highly basic, suggesting a DNA-binding function for ATRX. The disease-causing mutations fall into two groups: the majority affect buried residues and hence affect the structural integrity of the ADD domain; another group affects a cluster of surface residues, and these are likely to perturb a potential protein interaction site. The effects of individual point mutations on the folding state and stability of the ADD domain correlate well with the levels of mutant ATRX protein in patients, providing insights into the molecular pathophysiology of ATR-X syndrome. PMID:17609377

  5. Trigger finger, tendinosis, and intratendinous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A-C; Aspenberg, P; Eliasson, P

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigger finger has generally been ascribed to primary changes in the first annular ligament. In contrast, we recently found histological changes in the tendons, similar to the findings in Achilles tendinosis or tendinopathy. We therefore hypothesized that trigger finger tendons would show differences in gene expression in comparison to normal tendons in a pattern similar to what is published for Achilles tendinosis. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on biopsies from finger flexor tendons, 13 trigger fingers and 13 apparently healthy control tendons, to assess the expression of 10 genes which have been described to be differently expressed in tendinosis (collagen type 1a1, collagen 3a1, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, TIMP-3, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and versican). In trigger finger tendons, collagen types 1a1 and 3a1, aggrecan and biglycan were all up-regulated, and MMP-3and TIMP-3 were down-regulated. These changes were statistically significant and have been previously described for Achilles tendinosis. The remaining four genes were not significantly altered. The changes in gene expression support the hypothesis that trigger finger is a form of tendinosis. Because trigger finger is a common condition, often treated surgically, it could provide opportunities for clinical research on tendinosis. PMID:22882155

  6. Light-Inducible Gene Regulation with Engineered Zinc Finger Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Polstein, Lauren R.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The coupling of light-inducible protein-protein interactions with gene regulation systems has enabled the control of gene expression with light. In particular, heterodimer protein pairs from plants can be used to engineer a gene regulation system in mammalian cells that is reversible, repeatable, tunable, controllable in a spatiotemporal manner, and targetable to any DNA sequence. This system, Light-Inducible Transcription using Engineered Zinc finger proteins (LITEZ), is based on the blue light-induced interaction of GIGANTEA and the LOV domain of FKF1 that drives the localization of a transcriptional activator to the DNA-binding site of a highly customizable engineered zinc finger protein. This chapter provides methods for modifying LITEZ to target new DNA sequences, engineering a programmable LED array to illuminate cell cultures, and using the modified LITEZ system to achieve spatiotemporal control of transgene expression in mammalian cells. PMID:24718797

  7. A gene encoding 22 highly related zinc fingers is expressed in lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, R; Trowsdale, J

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA was isolated from a T cell library using an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to a sequence conserved in proteins with multiple zinc fingers of the C2H2 type. The predicted protein structure of this cDNA (ZNF43) showed that it contained 22 of the Krüppel type of zinc finger motifs in tandem. The amino acid sequence was strongly conserved between each of the finger domains of this cDNA, except for variable residue positions within the putative DNA binding site. Within the zinc finger domain the amino acid sequence of the four zinc fingers 6 to 9 was very similar to the amino acid sequence of fingers 10 to 13, the DNA sequence bound by this group of eight fingers may include a short repeat. Southern blotting showed that ZNF43 was one of a closely related family of proteins with 10 to 20 members. The members of the ZNF43 family did not appear to be clustered at the chromosomal level. The transcription of many members of this gene family was increased in lymphoid cell lines. After in vitro induced terminal differentiation of the human HL60 cell line the expression of the ZNF43 family was reduced. The expression of the ZNF43 gene was mainly limited to T and B cell lines. The gene was differentially spliced and different cell lines expressed different combinations of transcripts. Images PMID:1711675

  8. Stable Expression of mtlD Gene Imparts Multiple Stress Tolerance in Finger Millet

    PubMed Central

    Hema, Ramanna; Vemanna, Ramu S.; Sreeramulu, Shivakumar; Reddy, Chandrasekhara P.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2014-01-01

    Finger millet is susceptible to abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity stress, in the field during seed germination and early stages of seedling development. Therefore developing stress tolerant finger millet plants combating drought, salinity and associated oxidative stress in these two growth stages is important. Cellular protection through osmotic adjustment and efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Mannitol, an osmolyte, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses and thereby minimize stress damage in several plant species. In this study transgenic finger millet plants expressing the mannitol biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD), were developed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. mtlD gene integration in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by Southern blot. Further, performance of transgenic finger millet under drought, salinity and oxidative stress was studied at plant level in T1 generation and in T1 and T2 generation seedlings. Results from these experiments showed that transgenic finger millet had better growth under drought and salinity stress compared to wild-type. At plant level, transgenic plants showed better osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll retention under drought stress compared to the wild-type. However, the overall increase in stress tolerance of transgenics for the three stresses, especially for oxidative stress, was only marginal compared to other mtlD gene expressing plant species reported in the literature. Moreover, the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol developed for finger millet in this study can be used to introduce diverse traits of agronomic importance in finger millet. PMID:24922513

  9. The Drosophila gene escargot encodes a zinc finger motif found in snail-related genes.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, M; Noguchi, P D; Sensabaugh, S M; Odenwald, W F; Kassis, J A

    1992-02-01

    Two independent P-element enhancer detection lines were obtained that express lacZ in a pattern of longitudinal stripes early in germband elongation. In this paper, molecular and genetic characterization of a gene located near these transposons is presented. Sequence analysis of a cDNA clone from the region reveals that this gene has a high degree of similarity with the Drosophila snail gene (Boulay et al., 1987). The sequence similarity extends over 400 nucleotides, and includes a region encoding five tandem zinc finger motifs (72% nucleotide identity; 76% amino acid identity). This region is also conserved in the snail homologue from Xenopus laevis (76% nucleotide identity; 83% amino acid identity) (Sargent and Bennett, 1990). We have named the Drosophila snail-related gene escargot (esg), and the region of sequence conservation common to all three genes the 'snailbox'. A number of Drosophila genomic DNA fragments cross-hybridize to a probe from the snailbox region suggesting that snail and escargot are members of a multigene family. The expression pattern of escargot is dynamic and complex. Early in germband elongation, escargot RNA is expressed in a pattern of longitudinal stripes identical to the one observed in the two enhancer detection lines. Later in development, escargot is expressed in cells that will form the larval imaginal tissues, escargot is allelic with l(2)35Ce, an essential gene located near snail in the genome. PMID:1571289

  10. Rapid Mutation of Endogenous Zebrafish Genes Using Zinc Finger Nucleases Made by Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN)

    PubMed Central

    Maeder, Morgan L.; Reyon, Deepak; Sander, Jeffry D.; Peterson, Randall T.; Joung, J. Keith

    2009-01-01

    Background Customized zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) form the basis of a broadly applicable tool for highly efficient genome modification. ZFNs are artificial restriction endonucleases consisting of a non-specific nuclease domain fused to a zinc finger array which can be engineered to recognize specific DNA sequences of interest. Recent proof-of-principle experiments have shown that targeted knockout mutations can be efficiently generated in endogenous zebrafish genes via non-homologous end-joining-mediated repair of ZFN-induced DNA double-stranded breaks. The Zinc Finger Consortium, a group of academic laboratories committed to the development of engineered zinc finger technology, recently described the first rapid, highly effective, and publicly available method for engineering zinc finger arrays. The Consortium has previously used this new method (known as OPEN for Oligomerized Pool ENgineering) to generate high quality ZFN pairs that function in human and plant cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that OPEN can also be used to generate ZFNs that function efficiently in zebrafish. Using OPEN, we successfully engineered ZFN pairs for five endogenous zebrafish genes: tfr2, dopamine transporter, telomerase, hif1aa, and gridlock. Each of these ZFN pairs induces targeted insertions and deletions with high efficiency at its endogenous gene target in somatic zebrafish cells. In addition, these mutations are transmitted through the germline with sufficiently high frequency such that only a small number of fish need to be screened to identify founders. Finally, in silico analysis demonstrates that one or more potential OPEN ZFN sites can be found within the first three coding exons of more than 25,000 different endogenous zebrafish gene transcripts. Conclusions and Significance In summary, our study nearly triples the total number of endogenous zebrafish genes successfully modified using ZFNs (from three to eight) and suggests that OPEN provides a reliable

  11. Mutant and overexpression analysis of a C2H2 single zinc finger gene of Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this work was to characterize an Arabidopsis C2H2 single zinc finger gene, named AtZFP11, that is similar to SUPERMAN (SUP) and RABBIT EARS (RBE). No altered phenotype was observed in mutants analyzed that were derived through TILLING, nor a T-DNA insertion into the exon of AtZFP11. Pl...

  12. Changes in ethylene signaling and MADS box gene expression are associated with banana finger drop.

    PubMed

    Hubert, O; Piral, G; Galas, C; Baurens, F-C; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, D

    2014-06-01

    Banana finger drop was examined in ripening banana harvested at immature (iMG), early (eMG) and late mature green (lMG) stages, with contrasting ripening rates and ethylene sensitivities. Concomitantly, 11 ethylene signal transduction components (ESTC) and 6 MADS box gene expressions were comparatively studied in median (control zone, CZ) and pedicel rupture (drop zone DZ) areas in peel tissue. iMG fruit did not ripen or develop finger drop while eMG and lMG fruits displayed a similar finger drop pattern. Several ESTC and MADS box gene mRNAs were differentially induced in DZ and CZ and sequentially in eMG and lMG fruits. MaESR2, 3 and MaEIL1, MaMADS2 and MaMADS5 had a higher mRNA level in eMG and acted earlier, whereas MaERS1, MaCTR1, MaEIL3/AB266319, MaEIL4/AB266320 and MaEIL5/AB266321, MaMADS4 and to a lesser extent MaMADS2 and 5 acted later in lMG. In this fruit, MaERS1 and 3, MaCTR1, MaEIL3, 4 and MaEIL5/AB266321, and MaMADS4 were enhanced by finger drop, suggesting their specific involvement in this process. MaEIL1, MaMADS1 and 3, induced at comparable levels in DZ and CZ, are probably related to the overall fruit ripening process. These findings led us to consider that developmental cues are the predominant finger drop regulation factor. PMID:24767119

  13. The KUP gene, located on human chromosome 14, encodes a protein with two distant zinc fingers.

    PubMed Central

    Chardin, P; Courtois, G; Mattei, M G; Gisselbrecht, S

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated a human cDNA (kup), encoding a new protein with two distantly spaced zinc fingers of the C2H2 type. This gene is highly conserved in mammals and is expressed mainly in hematopoietic cells and testis. Its expression was not higher in the various transformed cells tested than in the normal corresponding tissues. The kup gene is located in region q23-q24 of the long arm of human chromosome 14. The kup protein is 433 a.a. long, has a M.W. close to 50 kD and binds to DNA. Although the structure of the kup protein is unusual, the isolated fingers resemble closely those of the Krüppel family, suggesting that this protein is also a transcription factor. The precise function and DNA motif recognized by the kup protein remain to be determined. Images PMID:2027750

  14. The brain finger protein gene (ZNF179), a member of the RING finger family, maps within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region at 17p11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Toshiyuki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Inazawa, Johji

    1997-03-31

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SAIS) is caused by a microdeletion of 17p11.2 and comprises developmental and growth delay, facial abnormalities, unusual behavior and sleep problems. This phenotype may be due to haploinsufficiency of several contiguous genes. The human brain finger protein gene (ZNF179), a member of the RING finger protein family, has been isolated and mapped to l7p11.2. FISH analyses of metaphase or interphase chromosomes of 6 patients with SMS show that ZNF179 was deleted in one of the 2 homologs (17p11.2), indicating a possible association of the defect of this gene with the pathogenesis of SMS. Furthermore, using a prophase FISH ordering system, we sublocalized ZNF179 proximally to LLGL which lies on the critical region for SMS. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Systematic Analysis of the Maize PHD-Finger Gene Family Reveals a Subfamily Involved in Abiotic Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianqian; Liu, Jinyang; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Yang; Jiang, Haiyang; Cheng, Beijiu

    2015-01-01

    Plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger proteins were found universally in eukaryotes and known as key players in regulating transcription and chromatin structure. Many PHD-finger proteins have been well studied on structure and function in animals. Whereas, only a few of plant PHD-finger factors had been characterized, and majority of PHD-finger proteins were functionally unclear. In this study, a complete comprehensive analysis of maize PHD family is presented. Sixty-seven PHD-finger genes in maize were identified and further divided into ten groups according to phylogenetic analysis that was supported by motif and intron/exon analysis. These genes were unevenly distributed on ten chromosomes and contained 12 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplications were the major contributors in expansion of the maize PHD family. The paralogous genes mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events on the basis of the Ka/Ks ratio. Gene digital expression analysis showed that the PHD family had a wide expression profile in maize development. In addition, 15 potential stress response genes were detected by promoter cis-element and expression analysis. Two proteins ZmPHD14 and ZmPHD19 were located in the nucleus. These results provided a solid base for future functional genome study of the PHD-finger family in maize and afforded important clues for characterizing and cloning potentially important candidates in response to abiotic stresses. PMID:26437398

  16. ZXDC, a novel zinc finger protein that binds CIITA and activates MHC gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kandari, Wafa; Jambunathan, Srikarthika; Navalgund, Vandana; Koneni, Rupa; Freer, Margot; Parimi, Neeta; Mudhasani, Rajini; Fontes, Joseph D.

    2006-01-01

    The class II trans-activator (CIITA) is recognized as the master regulator of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene transcription and contributes to the transcription of MHC class I genes. To better understand the function of CIITA, we performed yeast two-hybrid with the C-terminal 807 amino acids of CIITA, and cloned a novel human cDNA named zinc finger, X-linked, duplicated family member C (ZXDC). The 858 amino acid ZXDC protein contains 10 zinc fingers and a transcriptional activation domain, and was found to interact with the region of CIITA containing leucine-rich repeats. Over-expression of ZXDC in human cell lines resulted in super-activation of MHC class I and class II promoters by CIITA. Conversely, silencing of ZXDC expression reduced the ability of CIITA to activate transcription of MHC class II genes. Given the specific interaction between the ZXDC and CIITA proteins, as well as the effect of ZXDC on MHC gene transcription, it appears that ZXDC is an important regulator of both MHC class I and class II transcription. PMID:16600381

  17. Targeted gene knockout in mammalian cells by using engineered zinc-finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Yolanda; Chan, Edmond; Liu, Pei-Qi; Orlando, Salvatore; Zhang, Lin; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Holmes, Michael C.; Guschin, Dmitry; Waite, Adam; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Rebar, Edward J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Klug, Aaron; Collingwood, Trevor N.

    2008-01-01

    Gene knockout is the most powerful tool for determining gene function or permanently modifying the phenotypic characteristics of a cell. Existing methods for gene disruption are limited by their efficiency, time to completion, and/or the potential for confounding off-target effects. Here, we demonstrate a rapid single-step approach to targeted gene knockout in mammalian cells, using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). ZFNs can be designed to target a chosen locus with high specificity. Upon transient expression of these nucleases the target gene is first cleaved by the ZFNs and then repaired by a natural—but imperfect—DNA repair process, nonhomologous end joining. This often results in the generation of mutant (null) alleles. As proof of concept for this approach we designed ZFNs to target the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. We observed biallelic gene disruption at frequencies >1%, thus obviating the need for selection markers. Three new genetically distinct DHFR−/− cell lines were generated. Each new line exhibited growth and functional properties consistent with the specific knockout of the DHFR gene. Importantly, target gene disruption is complete within 2–3 days of transient ZFN delivery, thus enabling the isolation of the resultant DHFR−/− cell lines within 1 month. These data demonstrate further the utility of ZFNs for rapid mammalian cell line engineering and establish a new method for gene knockout with application to reverse genetics, functional genomics, drug discovery, and therapeutic recombinant protein production. PMID:18359850

  18. DNMT3B isoforms without catalytic activity stimulate gene body methylation as accessory proteins in somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Duymich, Christopher E.; Charlet, Jessica; Yang, Xiaojing; Jones, Peter A.; Liang, Gangning

    2016-01-01

    Promoter DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism for stable gene silencing, but is correlated with expression when located in gene bodies. Maintenance and de novo DNA methylation by catalytically active DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A/B) require accessory proteins such as UHRF1 and DNMT3L. DNMT3B isoforms are widely expressed, although some do not have active catalytic domains and their expression can be altered during cell development and tumourigenesis, questioning their biological roles. Here, we show that DNMT3B isoforms stimulate gene body methylation and re-methylation after methylation-inhibitor treatment. This occurs independently of the isoforms' catalytic activity, demonstrating a similar functional role to the accessory protein DNMT3L, which is only expressed in undifferentiated cells and recruits DNMT3A to initiate DNA methylation. This unexpected role for DNMT3B suggests that it might substitute for the absent accessory protein DNMT3L to recruit DNMT3A in somatic cells. PMID:27121154

  19. Identification and disruption of an Arabidopsis zinc finger gene controlling seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Maura; Sabatini, Sabrina; Bouchez, David; Camilleri, Christine; Costantino, Paolo; Vittorioso, Paola

    2000-01-01

    We describe here the Arabidopsis gene DAG1, encoding a zinc finger transcription factor of the Dof family, and show that it is involved in the control of seed germination. By a reverse genetics approach, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant line with one T-DNA insertion in DAG1. Seeds from homozygous knockout dag1-1 plants do not develop dormancy and germinate also in the absence of light. Segregation analysis indicates that the effect of the mutation is maternal. Accordingly, in situ mRNA hybridizations reveal expression of DAG1 in the vascular tissue of the flower and maturing fruit but not in the seed. PMID:10640273

  20. Disruption of the Myostatin Gene in Porcine Primary Fibroblasts and Embryos Using Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xian-Ju; Zhang, Hong-Xiao; Wang, Huili; Xiong, Kai; Qin, Ling; Liu, Honglin

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin represses muscle growth by negatively regulating the number and size of muscle fibers. Myostatin loss-of-function can result in the double-muscling phenotype and increased muscle mass. Thus, knockout of myostatin gene could improve the quality of meat from mammals. In the present study, zinc finger nucleases, a useful tool for generating gene knockout animals, were designed to target exon 1 of the myostatin gene. The designed ZFNs were introduced into porcine primary fibroblasts and early implantation embryos via electroporation and microinjection, respectively. Mutations around the ZFNs target site were detected in both primary fibroblasts and blastocysts. The proportion of mutant fibroblast cells and blastocyst was 4.81% and 5.31%, respectively. Thus, ZFNs can be used to knockout myostatin in porcine primary fibroblasts and early implantation embryos. PMID:24802055

  1. The Drosophila melanogaster developmental gene g1 encodes a variant zinc-finger-motif protein.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, M L; Côté, S

    1993-03-30

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the mechanisms involved in the pattern formation of complex internal organs are still largely unknown. However, the identity of the molecular determinants that control the development of these specific tissues is emerging from the combined use of genetic and molecular approaches. We have cloned a gene that is expressed in the mesoderm, one of the fundamental embryonic germ layers which gives rise to internal structures, such as the musculature. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of this gene, designated as g1. The nucleotide (nt) sequence of its cDNA shows an open reading frame of 852 nt, which encodes a 32-kDa protein with two putative zinc fingers, and a serine/glutamine/proline-rich region. These features indicate a functional role for g1, which remains to be elucidated, in regulating gene expression during mesoderm formation. PMID:8462875

  2. Apoptosis-related genes confer resistance to Fusarium wilt in transgenic 'Lady Finger' bananas.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean-Yves; Becker, Douglas K; Dickman, Martin B; Harding, Robert M; Khanna, Harjeet K; Dale, James L

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Apart from resistant cultivars, there are no effective control measures for the disease. We investigated whether the transgenic expression of apoptosis-inhibition-related genes in banana could be used to confer disease resistance. Embryogenic cell suspensions of the banana cultivar, 'Lady Finger', were stably transformed with animal genes that negatively regulate apoptosis, namely Bcl-xL, Ced-9 and Bcl-2 3' UTR, and independently transformed plant lines were regenerated for testing. Following a 12-week exposure to Foc race 1 in small-plant glasshouse bioassays, seven transgenic lines (2 × Bcl-xL, 3 × Ced-9 and 2 × Bcl-2 3' UTR) showed significantly less internal and external disease symptoms than the wild-type susceptible 'Lady Finger' banana plants used as positive controls. Of these, one Bcl-2 3' UTR line showed resistance that was equivalent to that of wild-type Cavendish bananas that were included as resistant negative controls. Further, the resistance of this line continued for 23-week postinoculation at which time the experiment was terminated. Using TUNEL assays, Foc race 1 was shown to induce apoptosis-like features in the roots of wild-type 'Lady Finger' plants consistent with a necrotrophic phase in the life cycle of this pathogen. This was further supported by the observed reduction in these effects in the roots of the resistant Bcl-2 3' UTR-transgenic line. This is the first report on the generation of transgenic banana plants with resistance to Fusarium wilt. PMID:21819535

  3. Chromosome mapping of human (ZNF179), mouse, and rat genes for brain finger protein (bfp), a member of the RING finger family

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Hori, Tada-aki; Inoue, Satoshi; Orimo, Akira

    1996-04-15

    The bfp, a member of the RING finger family, has been shown to be predominantly expressed in brain and up-regulated in neural differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells. Chromosome mapping of the bfp gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals that human BFP (ZNF179) is located at 17p11.2, mouse Bfp at 11B1.3, and rat BFP at 10q22. These results provide additional evidence that the mouse 11B region displays conserved linkage homology with the 17p11.2 region of the human genome and the 10q22 region of the rat genome. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  4. The putative zinc finger of a caulimovirus is essential for infectivity but does not influence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, H B; Wu, F C; Kiernan, J M; Shepherd, R J

    1993-04-01

    Plant pararetroviruses, such as caulimoviruses, and animal retroviruses have in common the presence of a highly conserved arrangement of cysteines and a histidine in the precursor of the capsid protein. The composition of these amino acids resembles a zinc finger element, a structure that is common to a class of eukaryotic proteins that regulate gene expression. The role of the putative zinc finger in the life-cycle of caulimoviruses was investigated by introducing specific mutations in the coat protein coding region of a cloned and infectious form of figwort mosaic virus, a caulimovirus. This mutated viral genome, which no longer encoded the conserved cysteine and histidine residues, was not infectious in plants. Transient expression assays in protoplasts showed that expression of a reporter gene inserted at different places in the genome was not detectably influenced by the coat protein or its putative zinc finger. It appears that the zinc finger-like element of caulimoviruses is not involved in the regulation of gene expression. These observations support a model which predicts a function of the zinc finger in specific recognition and packaging of viral RNA into virions prior to reverse transcription. PMID:8468560

  5. ZNF307, a novel zinc finger gene suppresses p53 and p21 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Wang Yuequn; Fan Xiongwei; Mo Xiaoyang; Wang Zequn; Li Yongqing; Yin Zhaochu; Deng Yun; Luo Na; Zhu Chuanbing; Liu Mingyao; Ma Qian; Ocorr, Karen Yuan Wuzhou Wu Xiushan

    2007-11-30

    We have cloned a novel KRAB-related zinc finger gene, ZNF307, encoding a protein of 545 aa. ZNF307 is conserved across species in evolution and is differentially expressed in human adult and fetal tissues. The fusion protein of EGFP-ZNF307 localizes in the nucleus. Transcriptional activity assays show ZNF307 suppresses transcriptional activity of L8G5-luciferase. Overexpressing ZNF307 in different cell lines also inhibits the transcriptional activities of p53 and p21. Moreover, ZNF307 works by reducing the p53 protein level and p53 protein reduction is achieved by increasing transcription of MDM2 and EP300. ZNF307 might suppress p53-p21 pathway through activating MDM2 and EP300 expression and inducing p53 degradation.

  6. An ascidian RING finger gene is specifically expressed in a single cell of larval ocellus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xutong; Okuyama, Makiko; Miyazaki, Katsumi; Zhang, Shicui; Wada, Hiroshi

    2003-07-17

    The ascidian nervous system is extremely simple, although the structure of it is comparable with the complex vertebrate nervous system. This simplicity makes the ascidian nervous system a good model to understand how the neuronal circuit is built up in the chordate nervous system. In order to study the formation of the neuronal circuit at the single cell level, molecular markers to characterize specific single cells are desired. In the present paper, we describe the gene expression pattern of CIGL: an ascidian homologue of Goliath, a Drosophila RING-finger gene. In the early embryonic stage, CiGl is expressed in the lateral part of the neural tube and in several peripheral nerve cells. Later in the larval stage, CiGl specifically marks ocellus: one of the pigment cells in the ascidian brain, which is involved in the photoreceptive system. CiGl will be useful to understand the differentiation mechanism of ocellus, and especially to test the model proposed by. In addition, the finding of this single cells specific gene expression pattern at a certain developmental stage encourages us to look for more genes which mark single cells, especially those that have not been well characterized. PMID:12909346

  7. Knockout of exogenous EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells using zinc-finger nucleases

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Masahito; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Matsunari, Hitomi; Takayanagi, Shuko; Haruyama, Erika; Nakano, Kazuaki; Fujiwara, Tsukasa; Ikezawa, Yuka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; and others

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} EGFP gene integrated in porcine somatic cells could be knocked out using the ZFN-KO system. {yields} ZFNs induced targeted mutations in porcine primary cultured cells. {yields} Complete absence of EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in ZFN-treated cells. -- Abstract: Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are expected as a powerful tool for generating gene knockouts in laboratory and domestic animals. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be utilized for knocking-out genes in pigs. Here, we investigated whether knockout (KO) events in which ZFNs recognize and cleave a target sequence occur in porcine primary cultured somatic cells that harbor the exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. ZFN-encoding mRNA designed to target the EGFP gene was introduced by electroporation into the cell. Using the Surveyor nuclease assay and flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed ZFN-induced cleavage of the target sequence and the disappearance of EGFP fluorescence expression in ZFN-treated cells. In addition, sequence analysis revealed that ZFN-induced mutations such as base substitution, deletion, or insertion were generated in the ZFN cleavage site of EGFP-expression negative cells that were cloned from ZFN-treated cells, thereby showing it was possible to disrupt (i.e., knock out) the function of the EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the ZFN-KO system can be applied to pigs. These findings may open a new avenue to the creation of gene KO pigs using ZFN-treated cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  8. Clustered organization of homologous KRAB zinc-finger genes with enhanced expression in human T lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bellefroid, E J; Marine, J C; Ried, T; Lecocq, P J; Rivière, M; Amemiya, C; Poncelet, D A; Coulie, P G; de Jong, P; Szpirer, C

    1993-01-01

    KRAB zinc-finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) constitute a large subfamily of ZFPs of the Krüppel C2H2 type. KRAB (Krüppel-associated box) is an evolutionarily conserved protein domain found N-terminally with respect to the finger repeats. We report here the characterization of a particular subgroup of highly related human KRAB-ZFPs. ZNF91 is one representative of this subgroup and contains 35 contiguous finger repeats at its C-terminus. Three mRNA isoforms with sequence identity to ZNF91 were isolated by the polymerase chain reaction. These encode proteins with a KRAB domain present, partially deleted or absent. Five genomic fragments were characterized, each encoding part of a gene: the ZNF91 gene or one of four distinct, related KRAB-ZFP genes. All exhibit a common exon/intron organization with the variant zinc finger repeats organized in a single exon and the KRAB domain encoded by two separate exons. This positioning of introns supports the hypothesis that the mRNA isoforms encoding polypeptides with variability in the KRAB domain could arise by alternative splicing. By in situ chromosomal mapping studies and by analysis of fragments from a human genomic yeast artificial chromosome library containing KRAB-ZFP genes, we show that these genes occur in clusters; in particular, a gene complex containing over 40 genes has been identified in chromosomal region 19p12-p13.1. These ZNF91-related genes probably arose late during evolution since no homologous genes are detected in the mouse and rat genomes. Although the transcription of members of this KRAB-ZFP gene subgroup is detectable in all human tissues, their expression is significantly higher in human T lymphoid cells. Images PMID:8467795

  9. Expression of a novel Krüpple-like zinc-finger gene, ZNF382, in human heart.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kaimei; Yuan, Wuzhou; Zhu, Chuanbin; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Yuequn; Zeng, Weiqi; Jiao, Wei; Liu, Mingyao; Wu, Xiushan

    2002-12-13

    With the aim of identifying genes involved in human heart development and disease, we have isolated a novel KRAB-related zinc-finger gene named ZNF382 from heart cDNA library. The ZNF382 gene has a predicted 548-amino acid open reading frame, encoding a putative 64kDa zinc-finger protein. The N-terminus of the ZNF382 coding region has a well-conserved Krüpple-associated box domain that consists of KRAB boxes A and B, whereas the C-terminus contains a Krüpple-type zinc-finger domain possessing nine C(2)H(2) zinc-finger motifs in tandem arrays. The ZNF382 gene is mapped to chromosome 19q13.13. Northern blot analysis indicates that a 2.9-kb transcript specific for ZNF382 is expressed at very early embryonic stage of human (at least earlier than gestation 34 day) and widely in human embryo tissues. At the adult stage, ZNF382 expression is restricted largely to heart tissue suggesting a potential role in heart development and function. PMID:12459182

  10. Zinc finger transcription factor Slug is a novel target gene of aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ikuta, Togo; Kawajiri, Kaname . E-mail: kawajiri@cancer-c.pref.saitama.jp

    2006-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor. We previously showed that AhR localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm under high cell densities of a keratinocytes cell line, HaCaT, but accumulates in the nucleus at low cell densities. In the current report, we show that the Slug, which is a member of the snail/slug family of zinc finger transcriptional repressors critical for induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT), is activated transcriptionally in accordance with nuclear accumulation of AhR. By reporter assay of the promoter of the Slug gene, gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed AhR directly binds to xenobiotic responsive element 5 at - 0.7 kb of the gene. AhR-targeted gene silencing by small interfering RNA duplexes led to the abolishment of not only CYP1A1 but also Slug induction by 3-methycholanthrene. The Slug was co-localized to the AhR at the wound margins of HaCaT cells, where apparent nuclear distribution of AhR and Slug was observed. The induced Slug was associated with reduction of an epithelial marker of cytokeratin-18 and with an increase in the mesenchymal marker, fibronectin. Taken together, these findings suggest that AhR participated in Slug induction, which, in turn, regulates cellular physiology including cell adhesion and migration.

  11. Editing T cell specificity towards leukemia by zinc-finger nucleases and lentiviral gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Angelo; Magnani, Zulma; Liu, Pei-Qi; Reik, Andreas; Chu, Victoria; Paschon, David E.; Zhang, Lei; Kuball, Jurgen; Camisa, Barbara; Bondanza, Attilio; Casorati, Giulia; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ciceri, Fabio; Bordignon, Claudio; Greenberg, Philip D.; Holmes, Michael C.; Gregory, Philip D.; Naldini, Luigi; Bonini, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of high-avidity T-cell receptor (TCR) genes isolated from rare tumor-specific lymphocytes into polyclonal T cells is an attractive cancer immunotherapy strategy. However, TCR gene transfer results in competition for surface expression and inappropriate pairing between the exogenous and endogenous TCR chains, resulting in suboptimal activity and potentially harmful unpredicted specificities. We designed zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) promoting the disruption of endogenous TCR β and α chain genes. ZFN-treated lymphocytes lacked CD3/TCR surface expression and expanded with IL-7 and IL-15. Upon lentiviral transfer of a TCR for the WT1 tumor antigen, these TCR-edited cells expressed the new TCR at high levels, were easily expanded to near-purity, and proved superior in specific antigen recognition to matched TCR-transferred cells. In contrast to TCR-transferred cells, TCR edited lymphocytes did not mediate off-target reactivity while maintaining anti-tumor activity in vivo, thus demonstrating that complete editing of T-cell specificity generate tumor-specific lymphocytes with improved biosafety profile. PMID:22466705

  12. Targeted gene exchange in plant cells mediated by a zinc finger nuclease double cut.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Katja; Schiermeyer, Andreas; Dolls, Anja; Koch, Natalie; Herwartz, Denise; Kirchhoff, Janina; Fischer, Rainer; Russell, Sean M; Cao, Zehui; Corbin, David R; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Ainley, W Michael; Webb, Steven R; Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Genome modification by homology-directed repair (HDR) is an attractive tool for the controlled genetic manipulation of plants. Here, we report the HDR-mediated gene exchange of expression cassettes in tobacco BY-2 cells using a designed zinc finger nuclease (ZFN). The target contained a 7-kb fragment flanked by two ZFN cutting sites. That fragment was replaced with a 4-kb donor cassette, which integrates gene markers for selection (kanamycin resistance) and for scoring targeting (red fluorescent protein, RFP). Candidates resulting from cassette exchange were identified by molecular analysis of calli generated by transformation via direct DNA delivery. The precision of HDR-mediated donor integration was evaluated by Southern blot analysis, sequencing of the integration locus and analysis of RFP fluorescence by flow cytometry. Screening of 1326 kanamycin-resistant calli yielded 18 HDR events, 16 of which had a perfect cassette exchange at the insert junction and 13 of which produced functional RFP. Our results demonstrate that ZFN-based HDR can be used for high frequency, precise, targeted exchange of fragments of sizes that are commercially relevant in plants. PMID:26426390

  13. Artificial zinc finger DNA binding domains: versatile tools for genome engineering and modulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mir A; Barrow, Joeva J; Shen, Yong; Haq, Md Imdadul; Bungert, Jörg

    2015-11-01

    Genome editing and alteration of gene expression by synthetic DNA binding activities gained a lot of momentum over the last decade. This is due to the development of new DNA binding molecules with enhanced binding specificity. The most commonly used DNA binding modules are zinc fingers (ZFs), TALE-domains, and the RNA component of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These binding modules are fused or linked to either nucleases that cut the DNA and induce DNA repair processes, or to protein domains that activate or repress transcription of genes close to the targeted site in the genome. This review focuses on the structure, design, and applications of ZF DNA binding domains (ZFDBDs). ZFDBDs are relatively small and have been shown to penetrate the cell membrane without additional tags suggesting that they could be delivered to cells without a DNA or RNA intermediate. Advanced algorithms that are based on extensive knowledge of the mode of ZF/DNA interactions are used to design the amino acid composition of ZFDBDs so that they bind to unique sites in the genome. Off-target binding has been a concern for all synthetic DNA binding molecules. Thus, increasing the specificity and affinity of ZFDBDs will have a significant impact on their use in analytical or therapeutic settings. PMID:25989233

  14. Efficient Immunoglobulin Gene Disruption and Targeted Replacement in Rabbit Using Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Offner, Sonja; Ros, Francesca; Lifke, Valeria; Zeitler, Bryan; Rottmann, Oswald; Vincent, Anna; Zhang, Lei; Jenkins, Shirin; Niersbach, Helmut; Kind, Alexander J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Schnieke, Angelika E.; Platzer, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research, yet techniques for their precise genetic modification are lacking. We demonstrate that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) introduced into fertilized oocytes can inactivate a chosen gene by mutagenesis and also mediate precise homologous recombination with a DNA gene-targeting vector to achieve the first gene knockout and targeted sequence replacement in rabbits. Two ZFN pairs were designed that target the rabbit immunoglobulin M (IgM) locus within exons 1 and 2. ZFN mRNAs were microinjected into pronuclear stage fertilized oocytes. Founder animals carrying distinct mutated IgM alleles were identified and bred to produce offspring. Functional knockout of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus was confirmed by serum IgM and IgG deficiency and lack of IgM+ and IgG+ B lymphocytes. We then tested whether ZFN expression would enable efficient targeted sequence replacement in rabbit oocytes. ZFN mRNA was co-injected with a linear DNA vector designed to replace exon 1 of the IgM locus with ∼1.9 kb of novel sequence. Double strand break induced targeted replacement occurred in up to 17% of embryos and in 18% of fetuses analyzed. Two major goals have been achieved. First, inactivation of the endogenous IgM locus, which is an essential step for the production of therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies in the rabbit. Second, establishing efficient targeted gene manipulation and homologous recombination in a refractory animal species. ZFN mediated genetic engineering in the rabbit and other mammals opens new avenues of experimentation in immunology and many other research fields. PMID:21695153

  15. Targeted gene addition into a specified location in the human genome using designed zinc finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Moehle, Erica A.; Rock, Jeremy M.; Lee, Ya-Li; Jouvenot, Yann; DeKelver, Russell C.; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Holmes, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient incorporation of novel DNA sequences into a specific site in the genome of living human cells remains a challenge despite its potential utility to genetic medicine, biotechnology, and basic research. We find that a precisely placed double-strand break induced by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can stimulate integration of long DNA stretches into a predetermined genomic location, resulting in high-efficiency site-specific gene addition. Using an extrachromosomal DNA donor carrying a 12-bp tag, a 900-bp ORF, or a 1.5-kb promoter-transcription unit flanked by locus-specific homology arms, we find targeted integration frequencies of 15%, 6%, and 5%, respectively, within 72 h of treatment, and with no selection for the desired event. Importantly, we find that the integration event occurs in a homology-directed manner and leads to the accurate reconstruction of the donor-specified genotype at the endogenous chromosomal locus, and hence presumably results from synthesis-dependent strand annealing repair of the break using the donor DNA as a template. This site-specific gene addition occurs with no measurable increase in the rate of random integration. Remarkably, we also find that ZFNs can drive the addition of an 8-kb sequence carrying three distinct promoter-transcription units into an endogenous locus at a frequency of 6%, also in the absence of any selection. These data reveal the surprising versatility of the specialized polymerase machinery involved in double-strand break repair, illuminate a powerful approach to mammalian cell engineering, and open the possibility of ZFN-driven gene addition therapy for human genetic disease. PMID:17360608

  16. Targeted gene addition into a specified location in the human genome using designed zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Moehle, Erica A; Moehle, E A; Rock, Jeremy M; Rock, J M; Lee, Ya-Li; Lee, Y L; Jouvenot, Yann; Jouvenot, Y; DeKelver, Russell C; Dekelver, R C; Gregory, Philip D; Gregory, P D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Urnov, F D; Holmes, Michael C; Holmes, M C

    2007-02-27

    Efficient incorporation of novel DNA sequences into a specific site in the genome of living human cells remains a challenge despite its potential utility to genetic medicine, biotechnology, and basic research. We find that a precisely placed double-strand break induced by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can stimulate integration of long DNA stretches into a predetermined genomic location, resulting in high-efficiency site-specific gene addition. Using an extrachromosomal DNA donor carrying a 12-bp tag, a 900-bp ORF, or a 1.5-kb promoter-transcription unit flanked by locus-specific homology arms, we find targeted integration frequencies of 15%, 6%, and 5%, respectively, within 72 h of treatment, and with no selection for the desired event. Importantly, we find that the integration event occurs in a homology-directed manner and leads to the accurate reconstruction of the donor-specified genotype at the endogenous chromosomal locus, and hence presumably results from synthesis-dependent strand annealing repair of the break using the donor DNA as a template. This site-specific gene addition occurs with no measurable increase in the rate of random integration. Remarkably, we also find that ZFNs can drive the addition of an 8-kb sequence carrying three distinct promoter-transcription units into an endogenous locus at a frequency of 6%, also in the absence of any selection. These data reveal the surprising versatility of the specialized polymerase machinery involved in double-strand break repair, illuminate a powerful approach to mammalian cell engineering, and open the possibility of ZFN-driven gene addition therapy for human genetic disease. PMID:17360608

  17. Expression patterns of cell wall-modifying genes from banana during fruit ripening and in relationship with finger drop

    PubMed Central

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, D.; Hubert, O.; Baurens, F. C.; Matsumoto, T.; Chillet, M.; Fils-Lycaon, B.; Sidibé-Bocs, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few molecular studies have been devoted to the finger drop process that occurs during banana fruit ripening. Recent studies revealed the involvement of changes in the properties of cell wall polysaccharides in the pedicel rupture area. In this study, the expression of cell-wall modifying genes was monitored in peel tissue during post-harvest ripening of Cavendish banana fruit, at median area (control zone) and compared with that in the pedicel rupture area (drop zone). To this end, three pectin methylesterase (PME) and seven xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes were isolated. The accumulation of their mRNAs and those of polygalaturonase, expansin, and pectate lyase genes already isolated from banana were examined. During post-harvest ripening, transcripts of all genes were detected in both zones, but accumulated differentially. MaPME1, MaPG1, and MaXTH4 mRNA levels did not change in either zone. Levels of MaPME3 and MaPG3 mRNAs increased greatly only in the control zone and at the late ripening stages. For other genes, the main molecular changes occurred 1–4 d after ripening induction. MaPME2, MaPEL1, MaPEL2, MaPG4, MaXTH6, MaXTH8, MaXTH9, MaEXP1, MaEXP4, and MaEXP5 accumulated highly in the drop zone, contrary to MaXTH3 and MaXTH5, and MaEXP2 throughout ripening. For MaPG2, MaXET1, and MaXET2 genes, high accumulation in the drop zone was transient. The transcriptional data obtained from all genes examined suggested that finger drop and peel softening involved similar mechanisms. These findings also led to the proposal of a sequence of molecular events leading to finger drop and to suggest some candidates. PMID:19357434

  18. Evolutionary expansion and divergence in a large family of primate-specific zinc finger transcription factor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, A T; Huntley, S; Tran-Gyamfi, M; Baggott, D; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L

    2005-09-28

    Although most genes are conserved as one-to-one orthologs in different mammalian orders, certain gene families have evolved to comprise different numbers and types of protein-coding genes through independent series of gene duplications, divergence and gene loss in each evolutionary lineage. One such family encodes KRAB-zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF) genes, which are likely to function as transcriptional repressors. One KRAB-ZNF subfamily, the ZNF91 clade, has expanded specifically in primates to comprise more than 110 loci in the human genome, yielding large gene clusters in human chromosomes 19 and 7 and smaller clusters or isolated copies at other chromosomal locations. Although phylogenetic analysis indicates that many of these genes arose before the split between old world monkeys and new world monkeys, the ZNF91 subfamily has continued to expand and diversify throughout the evolution of apes and humans. The paralogous loci are distinguished by sequence divergence within their zinc finger arrays indicating a selection for proteins with different DNA binding specificities. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization data show that some of these ZNF genes can have tissue-specific expression patterns, however many KRAB-ZNFs that are near-ubiquitous could also be playing very specific roles in halting target pathways in all tissues except for a few, where the target is released by the absence of its repressor. The number of variant KRAB-ZNF proteins is increased not only because of the large number of loci, but also because many loci can produce multiple splice variants, which because of the modular structure of these genes may have separate and perhaps even conflicting regulatory roles. The lineage-specific duplication and rapid divergence of this family of transcription factor genes suggests a role in determining species-specific biological differences and the evolution of novel primate traits.

  19. A new Cys2/His2 zinc finger gene, rKr1, expressed in oligodendrocytes and neurons.

    PubMed

    Pott, U; Colello, R J; Schwab, M E

    1996-05-01

    The myelination of nerve fibers is essential for the function of the vertebrate nervous system as a prerequisite for fast saltatory conduction of action potentials. In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes. In order to identify gene regulatory proteins involved in the differentiation of this glial cell type or in the expression of myelin-specific genes, we have constructed a cDNA library from a highly enriched population of rat oligodendrocytes and screened this library for members of the Krüppel family of Cys2/His2 zinc finger proteins. One of the identified clones, named rKr1, encodes a novel protein of 650 amino acids which contains 12 carboxy-terminal zinc finger domains and an amino-terminal acidic domain. On Northern blots, a single rKr1 mRNA of 4.3 kb is detected. This message is present in all adult rat tissues tested, with the highest levels found in the CNS and testis. In situ hybridization on the P15 brain revealed that the transcript is expressed in differentiated oligodendrocytes and in subtypes of neurons. Particularly high message levels are found in motor neurons of the brainstem and the spinal cord. The modular structure of the rKr1 protein, in which a potential DNA binding region (the zinc fingers) is combined with a putative activation domain (the acidic region), suggests a function as sequence-specific transcriptional activator. PMID:8737674

  20. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor ZXDC Activates CCL2 Gene Expression by Opposing BCL6-mediated Repression

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jon E.; Fontes, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The zinc finger X-linked duplicated (ZXD) family of transcription factors has been implicated in regulating transcription of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in antigen presenting cells; roles beyond this function are not yet known. The expression of one gene in this family, ZXD family zinc finger C (ZXDC), is enriched in myeloid lineages and therefore we hypothesized that ZXDC may regulate myeloid-specific gene expression. Here we demonstrate that ZXDC regulates genes involved in myeloid cell differentiation and inflammation. Overexpression of the larger isoform of ZXDC, ZXDC1, activates expression of monocyte-specific markers of differentiation and synergizes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (which causes differentiation) in the human leukemic monoblast cell line U937. To identify additional gene targets of ZXDC1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed multiple inflammatory gene clusters regulated by ZXDC1. Using a combination of approaches we show that ZXDC1 activates transcription of a gene within one of the regulated clusters, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2; monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; MCP1) via a previously defined distal regulatory element. Further, ZXDC1-dependent up-regulation of the gene involves eviction of the transcriptional repressor B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a factor known to be important in resolving inflammatory responses, from this region of the promoter. Collectively, our data show that ZXDC1 is a regulator in the process of myeloid function and that ZXDC1 is responsible for Ccl2 gene de-repression by BCL6. PMID:23954399

  1. Identification of a novel zinc finger protein gene (ZNF298) in the GAP2 of human chromosome 21q

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, Kazunori; Kudoh, Jun; Okui, Michiyo; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi . E-mail: shimizu@dmb.med.keio.ac.jp

    2005-07-01

    We have isolated a novel zinc finger protein gene, designated ZNF298, as a candidate gene for a particular phenotype of Down syndrome or bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) which maps to human chromosome 21q22.3. ZNF298 gene consists of 25 exons spanning approximately 80 kb in a direction from the telomere to centromere. There are four kinds of transcripts that harbor three types of 3' UTR. These four transcripts (ZNF298a, ZNF298b, ZNF298c, and ZNF298d) contain putative open reading frames encoding 1178, 1198, 555, and 515 amino acids, respectively. ZNF298 gene was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues at very low level. The protein motif analysis revealed that ZNF298 proteins contain a SET [Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax] domain, multiple C2H2-type zinc finger (ZnF{sub C}2H2) domains, several nuclear localization signals (NLSs), and PEST sequences. Nuclear localization of ZNF298 protein was confirmed by transfection of expression vector of GFP-tagged protein into two human cell lines. Interestingly, this gene crosses over a clone gap (GAP2) remaining in the band 21q22.3. We obtained the DNA fragments corresponding to GAP2 using ZNF298 cDNA sequence as anchor primers for PCR and determined its genomic DNA sequence.

  2. Expression of a subset of the Arabidopsis Cys(2)/His(2)-type zinc-finger protein gene family under water stress.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, H; Araki, T; Meshi, T; Iwabuchi, M

    2000-05-01

    The genes encoding Cys(2)/His(2)-type zinc-finger proteins constitute a large family in higher plants. To elucidate the functional roles of these types of protein, four different members of the gene family were cloned from Arabidopsis by PCR-aided methods. One was identical to the already reported gene STZ/ZAT10 and three were as yet unidentified genes, then designated AZF1 (Arabidopsis zinc-finger protein 1), AZF2 and AZF3. The AZF- and STZ-encoded proteins contain two canonical Cys(2)/His(2)-type zinc-finger motifs, separated by a long spacer. Three conserved regions, named B-box, L-box, and DNL-box, were also recognized outside the zinc-finger motifs, as in other members of the two-fingered Cys(2)/His(2)-type zinc-finger protein family. These four genes were positioned on the same branch of a phylogenetic tree constructed based on the zinc-finger motif sequences, suggesting their structural and functional relationship. RNA blot analysis showed that all four genes were mainly expressed in roots and at different levels in other organs. Expression of the four genes responded to water stress. High-salt treatment resulted in elevated levels of expression of all of these genes. Low-temperature treatment increased the expression levels of AZF1, AZF3, and STZ, but not AZF2. Only AZF2 expression was strongly induced by ABA treatment, where the time course of the induction was similar to that caused by high salinity. In situ localization showed that AZF2 mRNA accumulated in the elongation zone of the roots under the salt-stress condition. These results suggest that AZF1, AZF2, AZF3, and STZ are all involved in the water-stress response in an ABA-dependent or -independent pathway to regulate downstream genes. PMID:10806347

  3. A Soybean C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Gene GmZF1 Enhanced Cold Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Liu, Meng-Meng; Shan, Shu-Guang; Cheng, Xian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger proteins were involved in response to different environmental stresses in plant species. A typical Cys2/His2-type (C2H2-type) zinc finger gene GmZF1 from soybean was isolated and was composed of 172 amino acids containing two conserved C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GmZF1 was clustered on the same branch with six C2H2-type ZFPs from dicotyledonous plants excepting for GsZFP1, and distinguished those from monocotyledon species. The GmZF1 protein was localized at the nucleus, and has specific binding activity with EP1S core sequence, and nucleotide mutation in the core sequence of EPSPS promoter changed the binding ability between GmZF1 protein and core DNA element, implying that two amino acid residues, G and C boxed in core sequence TGACAGTGTCA possibly play positive regulation role in recognizing DNA-binding sites in GmZF1 proteins. High accumulation of GmZF1 mRNA induced by exogenous ABA suggested that GmZF1 was involved in an ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Over-expression of GmZF1 significantly improved the contents of proline and soluble sugar and decreased the MDA contents in the transgenic lines exposed to cold stress, indicating that transgenic Arabidopsis carrying GmZF1 gene have adaptive mechanisms to cold stress. Over-expression of GmZF1 also increased the expression of cold-regulated cor6.6 gene by probably recognizing protein-DNA binding sites, suggesting that GmZF1 from soybean could enhance the tolerance of Arabidopsis to cold stress by regulating expression of cold-regulation gene in the transgenic Arabidopsis. PMID:25286048

  4. STP1, a gene involved in pre-tRNA processing, encodes a nuclear protein containing zinc finger motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S S; Stanford, D R; Silvers, C D; Hopper, A K

    1992-01-01

    STP1 is an unessential yeast gene involved in the removal of intervening sequences from some, but not all, families of intervening sequence-containing pre-tRNAs. Previously, we proposed that STP1 might encode a product that generates pre-tRNA conformations efficiently recognized by tRNA-splicing endonuclease. To test the predictions of this model, we have undertaken a molecular analysis of the STP1 gene and its products. The STP1 locus is located on chromosome IV close to at least two other genes involved in RNA splicing: PRP3 and SPP41. The STP1 open reading frame (ORF) could encode a peptide of 64,827 Da; however, inspection of putative transcriptional and translational regulatory signals and mapping of the 5' ends of mRNA provide evidence that translation of the STP1 ORF usually initiates at a second AUG to generate a protein of 58,081 Da. The STP1 ORF contains three putative zinc fingers. The first of these closely resembles both the DNA transcription factor consensus and the Xenopus laevis p43 RNA-binding protein consensus. The third motif more closely resembles the fingers found in spliceosomal proteins. Employing antisera to the endogenous STP1 protein and to STP1-LacZ fusion proteins, we show that the STP1 protein is localized to nuclei. The presence of zinc finger motifs and the nuclear location of the STP1 protein support the model that this gene product is involved directly in pre-tRNA splicing. Images PMID:1588961

  5. Tailor-Made Zinc-Finger Transcription Factors Activate FLO11 Gene Expression with Phenotypic Consequences in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Jia-Ching; Cheng, Yu-Che; Su, Mao-Chang; Moore, Michael; Choo, Yen; Klug, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Cys2His2 zinc fingers are eukaryotic DNA-binding motifs, capable of distinguishing different DNA sequences, and are suitable for engineering artificial transcription factors. In this work, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study the ability of tailor-made zinc finger proteins to activate the expression of the FLO11 gene, with phenotypic consequences. Two three-finger peptides were identified, recognizing sites from the 5′ UTR of the FLO11 gene with nanomolar DNA-binding affinity. The three-finger domains and their combined six-finger motif, recognizing an 18-bp site, were fused to the activation domain of VP16 or VP64. These transcription factor constructs retained their DNA-binding ability, with the six-finger ones being the highest in affinity. However, when expressed in haploid yeast cells, only one three-finger recombinant transcription factor was able to activate the expression of FLO11 efficiently. Unlike in the wild-type, cells with such transcriptional activation displayed invasive growth and biofilm formation, without any requirement for glucose depletion. The VP16 and VP64 domains appeared to act equally well in the activation of FLO11 expression, with comparable effects in phenotypic alteration. We conclude that the functional activity of tailor-made transcription factors in cells is not easily predicted by the in vitro DNA-binding activity. PMID:17710146

  6. Finger pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - finger ... Nearly everyone has had finger pain at some time. You may have: Tenderness Burning Stiffness Numbness Tingling Coldness Swelling Change in skin color Redness Many conditions, such ...

  7. Investigating the Potential Role of Genetic and Epigenetic Variation of DNA Methyltransferase Genes in Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Drini, Musa; Wong, Nicholas C.; Scott, Hamish S.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Dobrovic, Alexander; Hewitt, Chelsee A.; Dow, Christofer; Young, Joanne P.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Saffery, Richard; Macrae, Finlay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome (HPS) is a condition associated with multiple serrated polyps, and an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). At least half of CRCs arising in HPS show a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), potentially linked to aberrant DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity. CIMP is associated with methylation of tumor suppressor genes including regulators of DNA mismatch repair (such as MLH1, MGMT), and negative regulators of Wnt signaling (such as WIF1). In this study, we investigated the potential for interaction of genetic and epigenetic variation in DNMT genes, in the aetiology of HPS. Methods We utilized high resolution melting (HRM) analysis to screen 45 cases with HPS for novel sequence variants in DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and DNMT3L. 21 polyps from 13 patients were screened for BRAF and KRAS mutations, with assessment of promoter methylation in the DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT3L MLH1, MGMT, and WIF1 gene promoters. Results No pathologic germline mutations were observed in any DNA-methyltransferase gene. However, the T allele of rs62106244 (intron 10 of DNMT1 gene) was over-represented in cases with HPS (p<0.01) compared with population controls. The DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B promoters were unmethylated in all instances. Interestingly, the DNMT3L promoter showed low levels of methylation in polyps and normal colonic mucosa relative to matched disease free cells with methylation level negatively correlated to expression level in normal colonic tissue. DNMT3L promoter hypomethylation was more often found in polyps harbouring KRAS mutations (p = 0.0053). BRAF mutations were common (11 out of 21 polyps), whilst KRAS mutations were identified in 4 of 21 polyps. Conclusions Genetic or epigenetic alterations in DNMT genes do not appear to be associated with HPS, but further investigation of genetic variation at rs62106244 is justified given the high frequency of the minor allele in this case series. PMID:21347319

  8. scratch, a pan-neural gene encoding a zinc finger protein related to snail, promotes neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Roark, M; Sturtevant, M A; Emery, J; Vaessin, H; Grell, E; Bier, E

    1995-10-01

    The Drosophila scratch (scrt) gene is expressed in most or all neuronal precursor cells and encodes a predicted zinc finger transcription factor closely related to the product of the mesoderm determination gene snail (sna). Adult flies homozygous for scrt null alleles have a reduced number of photoreceptors in the eye, and embryos lacking the function of both scrt and the pan-neural gene deadpan (dpn), which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein, exhibit a significant loss of neurons. Conversely, ectopic expression of a scrt transgene during embryonic and adult development leads to the production of supernumerary neurons. Consistent with scrt functioning as a transcription factor, various genes are more broadly expressed than normal in scrt null mutants. Reciprocally, these same genes are expressed at reduced levels in response to ectopic scrt expression. We propose that scrt promotes neuronal cell fates by suppressing expression of genes promoting non-neuronal cell fates. We discuss the similarities between the roles of the ancestrally related scrt, sna, and escargot (esc) genes in regulating cell fate choices. PMID:7557390

  9. Altered gene expression patterns in muscle ring finger 1 null mice during denervation- and dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Monica L.; Waddell, David S.; Neff, Eric S.; Baehr, Leslie M.; Ross, Adam P.; Bodine, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle atrophy can result from inactivity or unloading on one hand or the induction of a catabolic state on the other. Muscle-specific ring finger 1 (MuRF1), a member of the tripartite motif family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, is an essential mediator of multiple conditions inducing muscle atrophy. While most studies have focused on the role of MuRF1 in protein degradation, the protein may have other roles in regulating skeletal muscle mass and metabolism. We therefore systematically evaluated the effect of MuRF1 on gene expression during denervation and dexamethasone-induced atrophy. We find that the lack of MuRF1 leads to few differences in control animals, but there were several significant differences in specific sets of genes upon denervation- and dexamethasone-induced atrophy. For example, during denervation, MuRF1 knockout mice showed delayed repression of metabolic and structural genes and blunted induction of genes associated with the neuromuscular junction. In the latter case, this pattern correlates with blunted HDAC4 and myogenin upregulation. Lack of MuRF1 caused fewer changes in the dexamethasone-induced atrophy program, but certain genes involved in fat metabolism and intracellular signaling were affected. Our results demonstrate a new role for MuRF1 in influencing gene expression in two important models of muscle atrophy. PMID:24130153

  10. PEI1, an embryo-specific zinc finger protein gene required for heart-stage embryo formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z; Thomas, T L

    1998-01-01

    We used virtual subtraction, a new gene isolation strategy, to isolate several genes of interest that are expressed in Arabidopsis embryos. These genes have demonstrated biological properties or have the potential to be involved in important biological processes. One gene isolated by virtual subtraction is PEI. It encodes a protein containing a Cys3His zinc finger domain associated with a number of animal and fungal transcription factors. In situ hybridization results showed that PEI1 is expressed throughout the embryo from globular to late cotyledon stage. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a PEI1 antisense gene produced white seeds in which embryo development did not progress through heart stage. Aberrant embryos failed to form cotyledons, but the embryonic root appeared to be normal. Aberrant embryos did not turn green, and the expression of genes involved in photomorphogenesis was drastically attenuated. In culture, aberrant embryos did not form true leaves, but root formation was apparently normal. These results suggest that PEI1 is an embryo-specific transcription factor that plays an important role during Arabidopsis embryogenesis, functioning primarily in the apical domain of the embryo. PMID:9501112

  11. Human KZNF Gene Catalog - A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors

    DOE Data Explorer

    Huntley, S; Baggott, D. M.; Hamilton, A. T.; Tran-Gyamfi, M.; Yang, S.; Kim, J.; Gordon, L.; Branscomb, E.; Stubbs, L.

    Kruppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotes. KRAB-ZNF proteins, in which a potent repressor domain is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs, are specific to tetrapod vertebrates and represent the largest class of ZNF proteins in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the genome sequence for key motifs and then constructed and manually curated gene models incorporating those sequences. The resulting gene catalog contains 423 KRAB-ZNF protein-coding loci, yielding alternative transcripts that altogether predict at least 742 structurally distinct proteins. Active rounds of segmental duplication, involving single genes or larger regions and including both tandem and distributed duplication events, have driven the expansion of this mammalian gene family. Comparisons between the human genes and ZNF loci mined from the draft mouse, dog, and chimpanzee genomes not only identified 103 KRAB-ZNF genes that are conserved in mammals but also highlighted a substantial level of lineage-specific change; at least 136 KRAB-ZNF coding genes are primate specific, including many recent duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are widely expressed and clustered genes are typically not coregulated, indicating that paralogs have evolved to fill roles in many different biological processes. To facilitate further study, we have developed a Web-based public resource with access to gene models, sequences, and other data, including visualization tools to provide genomic context and interaction with other public data sets. [This abstract was copied from: S Huntley, DM Baggott, AT Hamilton, M Tran-Gyamfi, S Yang, J Kim, L Gordon, E Branscomb, and L Stubbs. 2006. A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors, Genome Research 16(5):669 - 677] The website provides the

  12. Gain, Loss and Divergence in Primate Zinc-Finger Genes: A Rich Resource for Evolution of Gene Regulatory Differences between Species

    PubMed Central

    Nowick, Katja; Fields, Christopher; Gernat, Tim; Caetano-Anolles, Derek; Kholina, Nadezda; Stubbs, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The molecular changes underlying major phenotypic differences between humans and other primates are not well understood, but alterations in gene regulation are likely to play a major role. Here we performed a thorough evolutionary analysis of the largest family of primate transcription factors, the Krüppel-type zinc finger (KZNF) gene family. We identified and curated gene and pseudogene models for KZNFs in three primate species, chimpanzee, orangutan and rhesus macaque, to allow for a comparison with the curated set of human KZNFs. We show that the recent evolutionary history of primate KZNFs has been complex, including many lineage-specific duplications and deletions. We found 213 species-specific KZNFs, among them 7 human-specific and 23 chimpanzee-specific genes. Two human-specific genes were validated experimentally. Ten genes have been lost in humans and 13 in chimpanzees, either through deletion or pseudogenization. We also identified 30 KZNF orthologs with human-specific and 42 with chimpanzee-specific sequence changes that are predicted to affect DNA binding properties of the proteins. Eleven of these genes show signatures of accelerated evolution, suggesting positive selection between humans and chimpanzees. During primate evolution the most extensive re-shaping of the KZNF repertoire, including most gene additions, pseudogenizations, and structural changes occurred within the subfamily homininae. Using zinc finger (ZNF) binding predictions, we suggest potential impact these changes have had on human gene regulatory networks. The large species differences in this family of TFs stands in stark contrast to the overall high conservation of primate genomes and potentially represents a potent driver of primate evolution. PMID:21738707

  13. Involvement of maize Dof zinc finger proteins in tissue-specific and light-regulated gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, S; Sheen, J

    1998-01-01

    Dof is a novel family of plant proteins that share a unique and highly conserved DNA binding domain with one C2-C2 zinc finger motif. Although multiple Dof proteins associated with diverse gene promoters have recently been identified in a variety of plants, their physiological functions and regulation remain elusive. In maize, Dof1 (MNB1a) is constitutively expressed in leaves, stems, and roots, whereas the closely related Dof2 is expressed mainly in stems and roots. Here, by using a maize leaf protoplast transient assay, we show that Dof1 is a transcriptional activator, whereas Dof2 can act as a transcriptional repressor. Thus, differential expression of Dof1 and Dof2 may permit leaf-specific gene expression. Interestingly, in vivo analyses showed that although DNA binding activity of Dof1 is regulated by light-dependent development, its transactivation activity and nuclear localization are not. Moreover, in vivo transcription and in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Dof1 can interact specifically with the maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter and enhance its promoter activity, which displays a light-regulated expression pattern matching Dof1 activity. We propose that the evolutionarily conserved Dof proteins can function as transcriptional activators or repressors of tissue-specific and light-regulated gene expression in plants. PMID:9477573

  14. Expression of a gene encoding a rice RING zinc-finger protein, OsRZFP34, enhances stomata opening.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Liu, Chia-Chin; Wu, Shaw-Jye; Kuo, Ying-Yu; Lu, Chung-An; Wu, Ching-Rong; Lian, Pei-Jyun; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Ke, Yi-Ting; Huang, Juin-Hua; Yeh, Ching-Hui

    2014-09-01

    By oligo microarray expression profiling, we identified a rice RING zinc-finger protein (RZFP), OsRZFP34, whose gene expression increased with high temperature or abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. As compared with the wild type, rice and Arabidopsis with OsRZFP34 overexpression showed increased relative stomata opening even with ABA treatment. Furthermore, loss-of-function mutation of OsRZFP34 and AtRZFP34 (At5g22920), an OsRZFP34 homolog in Arabidopsis, decreased relative stomata aperture under nonstress control conditions. Expressing OsRZFP34 in atrzfp34 reverted the mutant phenotype to normal, which indicates a conserved molecular function between OsRZFP34 and AtRZFP34. Analysis of water loss and leaf temperature under stress conditions revealed a higher evaporation rate and cooling effect in OsRZFP34-overexpressing Arabidopsis and rice than the wild type, atrzfp34 and osrzfp34. Thus, stomata opening, enhanced leaf cooling, and ABA insensitivity was conserved with OsRZFP34 expression. Transcription profiling of transgenic rice overexpressing OsRZFP34 revealed many genes involved in OsRZFP34-mediated stomatal movement. Several genes upregulated or downregulated in OsRZFP34-overexpressing plants were previously implicated in Ca(2+) sensing, K(+) regulator, and ABA response. We suggest that OsRZFP34 may modulate these genes to control stomata opening. PMID:25002225

  15. Global Analysis of Ankyrin Repeat Domain C3HC4-Type RING Finger Gene Family in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiyang; Yu, Mingli; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat (ANK) C3HC4-type RING finger (RF) genes comprise a large family in plants and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, we identified 187 ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins from 29 species with complete genomes and named the ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins the XB3-like proteins because they are structurally related to the rice (Oryza sativa) XB3. A phylogenetic relationship analysis suggested that the XB3-like genes originated from ferns, and the encoded proteins fell into 3 major groups. Among these groups, we found that the spacing between the metal ligand position 6 and 7, and the conserved residues, which was in addition to the metal ligand amino acids, in the C3HC4-type RF were different. Using a wide range of protein structural analyses, protein models were established, and all XB3-like proteins were found to contain two to seven ANKs and a C3HC4-type RF. The microarray data for the XB3-like genes of Arabidopsis, Oryza sative, Zea mays and Glycine max revealed that the expression of XB3-like genes was in different tissues and during different life stages. The preferential expression of XB3-like genes in specified tissues and the response to phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments of Arabidopsis and Zea mays not only confirmed the microarray analysis data but also demonstrated that the XB3-like proteins play roles in plant growth and development as well as in stress responses. Our data provide a very useful reference for the identification and functional analysis of members of this gene family and also provide a new method for the genome-wide analysis of gene families. PMID:23516424

  16. Global analysis of ankyrin repeat domain C3HC4-type RING finger gene family in plants.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shizhong; Liu, Shiyang; Yu, Mingli; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat (ANK) C3HC4-type RING finger (RF) genes comprise a large family in plants and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, we identified 187 ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins from 29 species with complete genomes and named the ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins the XB3-like proteins because they are structurally related to the rice (Oryza sativa) XB3. A phylogenetic relationship analysis suggested that the XB3-like genes originated from ferns, and the encoded proteins fell into 3 major groups. Among these groups, we found that the spacing between the metal ligand position 6 and 7, and the conserved residues, which was in addition to the metal ligand amino acids, in the C3HC4-type RF were different. Using a wide range of protein structural analyses, protein models were established, and all XB3-like proteins were found to contain two to seven ANKs and a C3HC4-type RF. The microarray data for the XB3-like genes of Arabidopsis, Oryza sative, Zea mays and Glycine max revealed that the expression of XB3-like genes was in different tissues and during different life stages. The preferential expression of XB3-like genes in specified tissues and the response to phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments of Arabidopsis and Zea mays not only confirmed the microarray analysis data but also demonstrated that the XB3-like proteins play roles in plant growth and development as well as in stress responses. Our data provide a very useful reference for the identification and functional analysis of members of this gene family and also provide a new method for the genome-wide analysis of gene families. PMID:23516424

  17. Functional roles of the pepper RING finger protein gene, CaRING1, in abscisic acid signaling and dehydration tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which include pathogens and conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and drought. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate the defense response of plants to abiotic stress. Previously, we isolated Ring finger protein gene (CaRING1) from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which is associated with resistance to bacterial pathogens, accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Here, we report a new function of the CaRING1 gene product in the ABA-mediated defense responses of plants to dehydration stress. The expression of the CaRING1 gene was induced in pepper leaves treated with ABA or exposed to dehydration or NaCl. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 in pepper plants exhibited low degree of ABA-induced stomatal closure and high levels of transpirational water loss in dehydrated leaves. These led to be more vulnerable to dehydration stress in CaRING1-silenced pepper than in the control pepper, accompanied by reduction of ABA-regulated gene expression and low accumulation of ABA and H2O2. In contrast, CaRING1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the seedling growth and establishment. These plants were also more tolerant to dehydration stress than the wild-type plants because of high ABA accumulation, enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Together, these results suggest that the CaRING1 acts as positive factor for dehydration tolerance in Arabidopsis by modulating ABA biosynthesis and ABA-mediated stomatal closing and gene expression. PMID:26249046

  18. Imprinting and evolution of two Kruppel-type zinc-finger genes, ZIM3 and ZNF264, located in the PEG3/USP29 imprinted domain.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Bergmann, A; Wehri, E; Lu, X; Stubbs, L

    2001-09-01

    We have isolated Kruppel-type (C2H2) zinc-finger genes, ZIM3 (zinc-finger gene 3 from imprinted domain) and ZNF264, located downstream of human and mouse USP29 genes (encoding ubiquitin-specific processing protease 29). In human, both ZIM3 and ZNF264 encode zinc-finger proteins with Kruppel-associated box (KRAB) A and B domains at the amino-terminal regions of the predicted proteins. In contrast, mouse Zim3 and Zfp264 seem to have lost protein-coding capability based on the lack of open reading frames (ORFs) in their cDNA sequences. In particular, the 3' end of the Zim3 transcript overlaps with the coding region of the adjacent gene Usp29 in an antisense orientation, indicating the conversion of mouse Zim3 into an antisense transcript gene for Usp29. The expression patterns of ZIM3 and ZNF264 have been largely conserved between human and mouse, with testis-specific expression of ZIM3 and ubiquitous expression of ZNF264, but high expression levels in adult testes in both species. Our studies also demonstrate that both mouse genes are imprinted with maternal expression of Zim3 in adult testes and paternal expression of Zfp264 in neonatal and adult brain. The reciprocal imprinting of two neighboring mouse genes, Zim3 and Zfp264, is consistent with a pattern observed frequently in other imprinted domains, and suggests that the imprinting of these two genes might be coregulated. PMID:11543637

  19. An evolutionary arms race between KRAB zinc finger genes 91/93 and SVA/L1 retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Frank MJ; Greenberg, David; Nguyen, Ngan; Haeussler, Maximilian; Ewing, Adam D; Katzman, Sol; Paten, Benedict; Salama, Sofie R; Haussler, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary Throughout evolution, primate genomes have been modified by waves of retrotransposon insertions1,2,3. For each wave, the host eventually finds a way to repress retrotransposon transcription and prevent further insertions. In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), transcriptional silencing of retrotransposons requires TRIM28 (KAP1) and it’s repressive complex, which can be recruited to target sites by KRAB zinc finger proteins such as murine-specific ZFP809 which binds to integrated murine leukemia virus DNA elements and recruits KAP1 to repress them4,5. KZNF genes are one of the fastest growing gene families in primates and this expansion is hypothesized to enable primates to respond to newly emerged retrotransposons6,7. However, the identity of KZNF genes battling retrotransposons currently active in the human genome, such as SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA)8 and Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (L1)9, is unknown. We find that two primate-specific KZNF genes rapidly evolved to repress these two distinct retrotransposon families shortly after they began to spread in our ancestral genome. ZNF91 underwent a series of structural changes 8-12 MYA that enabled it to repress SVA elements. ZNF93 evolved earlier to repress the primate L1 lineage until ~12.5 MYA when the L1PA3-subfamily escaped ZNF93’s restriction through purge of the ZNF93 binding site. Our data support a model where KZNF gene expansion limits the activity of newly emerged retrotransposon classes, and this is followed by mutations in these retrotransposons to evade repression, a cycle of events that could explain the rapid expansion of lineage-specific KZNF genes. PMID:25274305

  20. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A.

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A baculovirus gene with a novel transcription pattern encodes a polypeptide with a zinc finger and a leucine zipper.

    PubMed Central

    Thiem, S M; Miller, L K

    1989-01-01

    An Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus gene encoding a 30-kilodalton polypeptide with two different sequence motifs characteristic of DNA-binding proteins was identified immediately downstream of the major capsid protein gene (vp39). The gene, CG30, was characterized by sequencing, transcriptional mapping, in vitro translation of hybrid-selected RNA, and comparison of the derived polypeptide sequence with published data bases. The initial ATG of the 792-base-pair CG30 open reading frame is two nucleotides downstream of the vp39 terminal TAA codon. Early transcripts of CG30 initiate within the vp39 coding sequence. At late times, bicistronic transcripts initiate from the vp39 promoter, continue through CG30, and terminate at the same site as the early transcripts. In vitro translation of hybrid-selected early CG30 RNA yields a polypeptide of 30 kilodaltons. The predicted CG30 polypeptide sequence has characteristics of a eucaryotic transcriptional activator and is novel in having two potential DNA-binding domains. A stretch of acidic residues bridges a zinc finger at the amino terminus and a leucine zipper with a flanking basic region at the carboxyl terminus. Images PMID:2507791

  2. The zinc finger proteins ZNF644 and WIZ regulate the G9a/GLP complex for gene repression.

    PubMed

    Bian, Chunjing; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    The G9a/GLP complex mediates mono- and dimethylation of Lys9 of histone H3 at specific gene loci, which is associated with transcriptional repression. However, the molecular mechanism by which the G9a/GLP complex is targeted to the specific gene loci for H3K9 methylation is unclear. In this study, with unbiased protein affinity purification, we found ZNF644 and WIZ as two core subunits in the G9a/GLP complex. ZNF644 and WIZ interact with the transcription activation domain of G9a and GLP, respectively. Moreover, both ZNF644 and WIZ contain multiple zinc finger motifs that recognize consensus DNA sequences. ZNF644 and WIZ target G9a and GLP to the chromatin and mediate the G9a/GLP complex-dependent H3K9 methylation as well as gene repression. Thus, our studies reveal two key subunits in the G9a/GLP complex that regulate the function of this histone methyltransferase complex. PMID:25789554

  3. Mallet finger - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Baseball finger - aftercare; Drop finger - aftercare; Avulsion fracture - mallet finger - aftercare ... Mallet finger occurs when you cannot straighten your finger: when you try to straighten it, the tip of your ...

  4. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of DTX2, a human WWE and RING-finger gene, in human embryos.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhengfang; Yi, Tingfang; Wu, Zirong

    2006-06-01

    The WWE domain is a conserved globular domain in several proteins and predicted to mediate specificprotein-protein interactions in ubiquitin and ADP ribose conjugation systems. The RING domain is a conserved and specialized zinc-finger motif with 40-60 residues binding to two zinc atoms, which is also probably involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. Here, from human fetal heart cDNA library, we identified DTX2, a human WWE & RING-finger gene, with high similarity with its homologues. Evaluation of full-length cDNA obtained by RACE indicated it encodes a protein composed of two WWE domains and a RING-finger region. The DTX2 gene located in human chromosome 7q11.23 spanning approximately 44.3 kb on the genome and the deduced protein is 622 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed DTX2 was expressed in the 18-week, 22.5-week human embryo hearts and adult hearts, especially with high levels in the 18-week and adult hearts. Taken together, these results indicate that DTX2 is a gene encoding a WWE-RING-finger protein and involved in regulating heart development and heart functions. PMID:17286044

  5. Structural polymorphism in the major groove of a 5S RNA gene complements the zinc finger domains of transcription factor IIIA.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, P W; Morii, T; Mei, H Y; Barton, J K

    1991-01-01

    Metal complexes that bind to DNA on the basis of shape-selection have been used to map the conformational features of the DNA binding site for transcription factor IIIA. Conformationally distinct segments are detected on the 5S rRNA gene that correspond closely to the binding sites identified for the individual zinc finger domains of the protein. The local conformations are characterized by a major groove opened because of a change in base pair inclination and/or displacement at a central 5'-pyrimidine-purine-3' step, flanked by a widened minor groove, as would arise at the junctions between alternating B- and A-like DNA segments. Docking experiments with a consensus structure of a zinc finger reveal that the mixed A-B binding site accommodates the peptide domain better than either canonical B- or A-DNA helices. The close structural matching of the conformational variations in the 5S rDNA both to the proposed sites of zinc finger binding and to the shape of an individual zinc finger domain points to DNA structural polymorphism as providing an important determinant in recognition. In particular, shape selection in the 5' half of the internal control region may orient the multiple finger domains. Images PMID:1961749

  6. The shorter zinc finger protein ZNF230 gene message is transcribed in fertile male testes and may be related to human spermatogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Qiu, W; Wu, H; Zhang, G; Huang, M; Xiao, C; Yang, J; Kamp, C; Huang, X; Huellen, K; Yue, Y; Pan, A; Lebo, R; Milunsky, A; Vogt, P H

    2001-01-01

    The zinc finger gene family represents one of the largest in the mammalian genome, with several of these genes reported to be involved in spermatogenesis. A newly discovered gene has been identified that is expressed abundantly in the testicular tissue of fertile men as determined by mRNA differential display. The gene encodes a C(3)HC(4)-type zinc finger protein motif (ring finger motif) consistent with a role in pre-meiotic or post-meiotic sperm development. The gene was named ZNF230 and mapped to the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p15). ZNF230 has two transcripts, of 1 kb and 4.4 kb in length. The shorter 1 kb transcript was only detected in testicular tissue whereas the longer 4.4 kb transcript was not detected in testis but was found in several other tissues. The lack of detectable ZNF230 expression in azoospermic patients by reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR analysis is interpreted to mean that this gene is involved in maintaining normal human male fertility. PMID:11672448

  7. Sequences homologous to the human x- and y-borne zinc finger protein genes (ZFX/Y) are autosomal in monotreme mannals

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.M.; Frost, C.; Graves, M.J.A. ); Spencer, J.A. )

    1993-02-01

    The human zinc finger protein genes (ZFX/Y) were identified as a result of a systematic search for the testis-determining factor gene on the human Y chromosome. Although they play no direct role in sex determination, they are of particular interest because they are highly conserved among mammals, birds, and amphibians and because, in eutherian mammals at least, they have active alleles on both the X and the Y chromosomes outside the pseudoautosomal region. We used in situ hybridization to localize the homologues of the zinc finger protein gene to chromosome 1 of the Australian echidna and to an equivalent position on chromosomes 1 and 2 of the playtpus. The localization to platypus chromosome 1 was confirmed by Southern analysis of a Chinese hamster [times] platypus cell hybrid retaining most of platypus chromosome 1. This localization is consistent with the cytological homology of chromosome 1 between the two species. The zinc finger protein gene homologues were localized to regions of platypus chromosomes 1 and 2 that included a number of other genes situated near ZFX on the short arm of the human X chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that many of the genes located on the short arm of the human X were originally autosomal and have been translocated to the X chromosome since the eutherian-metatherian divergence. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Zinc-finger nuclease-mediated targeted insertion of reporter genes for quantitative imaging of gene expression in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Fujita, Kazumasa; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichi; Matsuura, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Shibata, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    To understand complex biological systems, such as the development of multicellular organisms, it is important to characterize the gene expression dynamics. However, there is currently no universal technique for targeted insertion of reporter genes and quantitative imaging in multicellular model systems. Recently, genome editing using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) has been reported in several models. ZFNs consist of a zinc-finger DNA-binding array with the nuclease domain of the restriction enzyme FokI and facilitate targeted transgene insertion. In this study, we successfully inserted a GFP reporter cassette into the HpEts1 gene locus of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. We achieved this insertion by injecting eggs with a pair of ZFNs for HpEts1 with a targeting donor construct that contained ∼1-kb homology arms and a 2A-histone H2B-GFP cassette. We increased the efficiency of the ZFN-mediated targeted transgene insertion by in situ linearization of the targeting donor construct and cointroduction of an mRNA for a dominant-negative form of HpLig4, which encodes the H. pulcherrimus homolog of DNA ligase IV required for error-prone nonhomologous end joining. We measured the fluorescence intensity of GFP at the single-cell level in living embryos during development and found that there was variation in HpEts1 expression among the primary mesenchyme cells. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of ZFN-mediated targeted transgene insertion to enable quantification of the expression levels of endogenous genes during development in living sea urchin embryos. PMID:22711830

  9. Efficient Clinical Scale Gene Modification via Zinc Finger Nuclease–Targeted Disruption of the HIV Co-receptor CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Dawn A.; Brennan, Andrea L.; Jiang, Shuguang; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn K.; Lee, Gary; Plesa, Gabriela; Zheng, Zhaohui; Cotte, Julio; Carpenito, Carmine; Wood, Travis; Spratt, S. Kaye; Ando, Dale; Gregory, Philip; Holmes, Michael C.; Perez, Elena. E.; Riley, James L.; Carroll, Richard G.; June, Carl H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Since HIV requires CD4 and a co-receptor, most commonly C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), for cellular entry, targeting CCR5 expression is an attractive approach for therapy of HIV infection. Treatment of CD4+ T cells with zinc-finger protein nucleases (ZFNs) specifically disrupting chemokine receptor CCR5 coding sequences induces resistance to HIV infection in vitro and in vivo. A chimeric Ad5/F35 adenoviral vector encoding CCR5-ZFNs permitted efficient delivery and transient expression following anti-CD3/anti-CD28 costimulation of T lymphocytes. We present data showing CD3/CD28 costimulation substantially improved transduction efficiency over reported methods for Ad5/F35 transduction of T lymphocytes. Modifications to the laboratory scale process, incorporating clinically compatible reagents and methods, resulted in a robust ex vivo manufacturing process capable of generating >1010 CCR5 gene-edited CD4+ T cells from healthy and HIV+ donors. CD4+ T-cell phenotype, cytokine production, and repertoire were comparable between ZFN-modified and control cells. Following consultation with regulatory authorities, we conducted in vivo toxicity studies that showed no detectable ZFN-specific toxicity or T-cell transformation. Based on these findings, we initiated a clinical trial testing the safety and feasibility of CCR5 gene-edited CD4+ T-cell transfer in study subjects with HIV-1 infection. PMID:23360514

  10. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    E Rajakumara; Z Wang; H Ma; L Hu; H Chen; Y Lin; R Guo; F Wu; H Li; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  11. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rajakumara, Eerappa; Wang, Zhentian; Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang

    2011-08-29

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  12. Role of Bmznf-2, a Bombyx mori CCCH zinc finger gene, in masculinisation and differential splicing of Bmtra-2.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Gajula; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Mita, Kazuei; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2016-08-01

    Deciphering the regulatory factors involved in Bombyx mori sex determination has been a puzzle, challenging researchers for nearly a century now. The pre-mRNA of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx), a master regulator gene of sexual differentiation, is differentially spliced, producing Bmdsxm and Bmdsxf transcripts in males and females respectively. The putative proteins encoded by these differential transcripts orchestrate antagonistic functions, which lead to sexual differentiation. A recent study in B. mori illustrated the role of a W-derived fem piRNA in conferring femaleness. In females, the fem piRNA was shown to suppress the activity of a Z-linked CCCH type zinc finger (znf) gene, Masculiniser (masc), which indirectly promotes the Bmdsxm type of splicing. In this study, we report a novel autosomal (Chr 25) CCCH type znf motif encoding gene Bmznf-2 as one of the potential factors in the Bmdsx sex specific differential splicing, and we also provide insights into its role in the alternative splicing of Bmtra2 by using ovary derived BmN cells. Over-expression of Bmznf-2 induced Bmdsxm type of splicing (masculinisation) with a correspondingly reduced expression of Bmdsxf type isoform in BmN cells. Further, the site-directed mutational studies targeting the tandem CCCH znf motifs revealed their indispensability in the observed phenotype of masculinisation. Additionally, the dual luciferase assays in BmN cells using 5' UTR region of the Bmznf-2 strongly implied the existence of a translational repression over this gene. From these findings, we propose Bmznf-2 to be one of the potential factors of masculinisation similar to Masc. From the growing number of Bmdsx splicing regulators, we assume that the sex determination cascade of B. mori is quite intricate in nature; hence, it has to be further investigated for its comprehensive understanding. PMID:27260399

  13. Zfp-37, a new murine zinc finger encoding gene, is expressed in a developmentally regulated pattern in the male germ line.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, P S; Wolgemuth, D J

    1992-01-01

    To begin to examine the function in the mouse testis of genes containing the zinc finger motif, we have screened an adult mouse total testis cDNA library with probes to a conserved region of zinc fingers. We have isolated cDNAs for a new murine zinc finger encoding gene that has been designated Zfp-37. Northern blot hybridization analysis revealed Zfp-37 transcripts at high levels in the testis, the only adult tissue in which Zfp-37 expression was observed. Zfp-37 was also expressed at lower levels in the mid-gestation embryo and placenta. The major testicular transcripts are 2.3 and 2.6 kb. A 4.0 kb transcript was detected at lower levels in the testis as well as in embryo and placenta. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis revealed that expression of Zfp-37 was most abundant in germ cells which have completed meiosis and are undergoing the complex morphogenetic changes of spermiogenesis. The pattern of expression of Zfp-37 and the presence of the zinc finger domain suggest that Zfp-37 may have a role in regulating spermiogenesis. Images PMID:1614869

  14. Finger Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Oosterhoff, Thijs C H; Nota, Sjoerd P F T; Ring, David

    2015-06-01

    Background Finger stiffness varies substantially in patients with hand and upper extremity illness and can be notably more than expected for a given pathophysiology. In prior studies, pain intensity and magnitude of disability consistently correlate with coping strategies such as catastrophic thinking and kinesiophobia, which can be characterized as overprotectiveness. In this retrospective study we address the primary research question whether patients with finger stiffness are more often overprotective when the primary pathology is outside the hand (e.g. distal radius fracture) than when it is located within the hand. Methods In an orthopaedic hand surgery department 160 patients diagnosed with more finger stiffness than expected for a given pathophysiology or time point of recovery between December 2006 and September 2012 were analyzed to compare the proportion of patients characterized as overprotective for differences by site of pathology: (1) inside the hand, (2) outside the hand, and (3) psychiatric etiology (e.g. clenched fist). Results Among 160 subjects with more finger stiffness than expected, 132 (82 %) were characterized as overprotective including 88 of 108 (81 %) with pathology in the hand, 39 of 44 (89 %) with pathology outside the hand, and 5 of 8 (63 %) with psychiatric etiology. These differences were not significant. Conclusions Overprotectiveness is common in patients with more finger stiffness than expected regardless the site and type of primary pathology. It seems worthwhile to recognize and treat maladaptive coping strategies early during recovery to limit impairment, symptoms, and disability. PMID:26078497

  15. Gene expression profiling identifies the zinc-finger protein Charlatan as a regulator of intestinal stem cells in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Amcheslavsky, Alla; Nie, Yingchao; Li, Qi; He, Feng; Tsuda, Leo; Markstein, Michele; Ip, Y. Tony

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the adult Drosophila midgut can respond to tissue damage and support repair. We used genetic manipulation to increase the number of ISC-like cells in the adult midgut and performed gene expression profiling to identify potential ISC regulators. A detailed analysis of one of these potential regulators, the zinc-finger protein Charlatan, was carried out. MARCM clonal analysis and RNAi in precursor cells showed that loss of Chn function caused severe ISC division defects, including loss of EdU incorporation, phosphorylated histone 3 staining and expression of the mitotic protein Cdc2. Loss of Charlatan also led to a much reduced histone acetylation staining in precursor cells. Both the histone acetylation and ISC division defects could be rescued by the simultaneous decrease of the Histone Deacetylase 2. The overexpression of Charlatan blocked differentiation reversibly, but loss of Charlatan did not lead to automatic differentiation. The results together suggest that Charlatan does not simply act as an anti-differentiation factor but instead functions to maintain a chromatin structure that is compatible with stem cell properties, including proliferation. PMID:24961799

  16. Comprehensive Evolutionary and Expression Analysis of FCS-Like Zinc finger Gene Family Yields Insights into Their Origin, Expansion and Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Jamsheer K, Muhammed; Mannully, Chanchal Thomas; Gopan, Nandu; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plant evolution is characterized by frequent genome duplication events. Expansion of habitat resulted in the origin of many novel genes and genome duplication events which in turn resulted in the expansion of many regulatory gene families. The plant-specific FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) gene family is characterized by the presence of a FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) domain which mediates the protein-protein interaction. In this study, we identified that the expansion of FLZ gene family size in different species is correlated with ancestral and lineage-specific whole genome duplication events. The subsequent gene loss found to have a greater role in determining the size of this gene family in many species. However, genomic block duplications played the significant role in the expansion of FLZ gene family in some species. Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa FLZ gene family revealed monocot and dicot specific evolutionary trends. The FLZ genes were found to be under high purifying selection. The spatiotemporal expression analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana FLZ gene family revealed that majority of the members are highly expressed in reproductive organs. FLZ genes were also found to be highly expressed during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition which is correlated with the proposed role of this gene family in sugar signaling. The comparison of sequence, structural and expression features of duplicated genes identified lineage-specific redundancy and divergence. This extensive evolutionary analysis and expression analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana FLZ genes will pave the way for further functional analysis of FLZ genes. PMID:26252898

  17. Factor-induced Reprogramming and Zinc Finger Nuclease-aided Gene Targeting Cause Different Genome Instability in β-Thalassemia Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Shan, Yongli; Liao, Baojian; Kong, Guanyi; Wang, Cheng; Huang, Ke; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Xiujuan; Chen, Shubin; Pei, Duanqing; Chen, Nansheng; Pan, Guangjin

    2015-01-01

    The generation of personalized induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) followed by targeted genome editing provides an opportunity for developing customized effective cellular therapies for genetic disorders. However, it is critical to ascertain whether edited iPSCs harbor unfavorable genomic variations before their clinical application. To examine the mutation status of the edited iPSC genome and trace the origin of possible mutations at different steps, we have generated virus-free iPSCs from amniotic cells carrying homozygous point mutations in β-hemoglobin gene (HBB) that cause severe β-thalassemia (β-Thal), corrected the mutations in both HBB alleles by zinc finger nuclease-aided gene targeting, and obtained the final HBB gene-corrected iPSCs by excising the exogenous drug resistance gene with Cre recombinase. Through comparative genomic hybridization and whole-exome sequencing, we uncovered seven copy number variations, five small insertions/deletions, and 64 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in β-Thal iPSCs before the gene targeting step and found a single small copy number variation, 19 insertions/deletions, and 340 single nucleotide variations in the final gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs. Our data revealed that substantial but different genomic variations occurred at factor-induced somatic cell reprogramming and zinc finger nuclease-aided gene targeting steps, suggesting that stringent genomic monitoring and selection are needed both at the time of iPSC derivation and after gene targeting. PMID:25795783

  18. RING finger protein 4 (RNF4) derepresses gene expression from DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu

    2014-12-01

    RNF4 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase originally identified as a transcription co-activator. The mechanism by which RNF4 promotes transcription remains unclear. In this study, I found that RNF4 antagonizes transcriptional repression mediated by DNA methylation. RNF4 does not promote DNA demethylation, but mediates the ubiquitination of MeCP2, a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) protein. Removal of MeCP2 from gene promoters activates transcription. This study thus not only uncovers how RNF4 functions as a transcription activator, but also reveals the mechanism by which MeCP2 protein stability is regulated. PMID:25355316

  19. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The author has been prompted to write this article about finger multiplication for a number of reasons. Firstly there are a number of related articles in past issues of "Mathematics Teaching" ("MT") which have connections to this algorithm. Secondly, very few of his primary teaching students and professional colleagues appear to be aware of the…

  20. Novel genes encoding six kinds of three-finger toxins in Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) and function characterization of two recombinant long-chain neurotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Huayuan; Liu, Jing; Xu, Kangsen

    2006-01-01

    Three-finger toxins are a family of low-molecular-mass toxins (<10 kDa) having very similar three-dimensional structures. In the present study, 19 novel cDNAs coding three-finger toxins were cloned from the venom gland of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra). Alignment analysis showed that the putative peptides could be divided into six kinds of three-finger toxins: LNTXs (long-chain neurotoxins), short-chain neurotoxins, cardiotoxins (CTXs), weak neurotoxins, muscarinic toxins and a toxin with a free SH group. Furthermore, a phylogenetic tree was established on the basis of the toxin cDNAs and the previously reported similar nucleotide sequences from the same source venom. It indicated that three-finger-toxin genes in O. hannah diverged early in the course of evolution by long- and short-type pathways. Two LNTXs, namely rLNTX1 (recombinant LNTX1) and rLNTX3, were expressed and showed cytolytic activity in addition to their neurotoxic function. By comparing the functional residues, we offer some possible explanations for the differences in their neurotoxic function. Moreover, a plausible elucidation of the additonal cytolytic activity was achieved by hydropathy-profile analysis. This, to our knowledge, is the first observation that recombinant long chain α-neurotoxins have a CTX-like cytolytic activity. PMID:16689684

  1. Novel genes encoding six kinds of three-finger toxins in Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) and function characterization of two recombinant long-chain neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Huayuan; Liu, Jing; Xu, Kangsen

    2006-09-01

    Three-finger toxins are a family of low-molecular-mass toxins (<10 kDa) having very similar three-dimensional structures. In the present study, 19 novel cDNAs coding three-finger toxins were cloned from the venom gland of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra). Alignment analysis showed that the putative peptides could be divided into six kinds of three-finger toxins: LNTXs (long-chain neurotoxins), short-chain neurotoxins, cardiotoxins (CTXs), weak neurotoxins, muscarinic toxins and a toxin with a free SH group. Furthermore, a phylogenetic tree was established on the basis of the toxin cDNAs and the previously reported similar nucleotide sequences from the same source venom. It indicated that three-finger-toxin genes in O. hannah diverged early in the course of evolution by long- and short-type pathways. Two LNTXs, namely rLNTX1 (recombinant LNTX1) and rLNTX3, were expressed and showed cytolytic activity in addition to their neurotoxic function. By comparing the functional residues, we offer some possible explanations for the differences in their neurotoxic function. Moreover, a plausible elucidation of the additonal cytolytic activity was achieved by hydropathy-profile analysis. This, to our knowledge, is the first observation that recombinant long chain alpha-neurotoxins have a CTX-like cytolytic activity. PMID:16689684

  2. spalt encodes an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger protein of novel structure which provides homeotic gene function in the head and tail region of the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Kühnlein, R P; Frommer, G; Friedrich, M; Gonzalez-Gaitan, M; Weber, A; Wagner-Bernholz, J F; Gehring, W J; Jäckle, H; Schuh, R

    1994-01-01

    The region specific homeotic gene spalt (sal) of Drosophila melanogaster promotes the specification of terminal pattern elements as opposed to segments in the trunk. Our results show that the previously reported sal transcription unit was misidentified. Based on P-element mediated germ line transformation and DNA sequence analysis of sal mutant alleles, we identified the transcription unit that carries sal function. sal is located close to the misidentified transcription unit, and it is expressed in similar temporal and spatial patterns during embryogenesis. The sal gene encodes a zinc finger protein of novel structure composed of three widely spaced 'double zinc finger' motifs of internally conserved sequences and a single zinc finger motif of different sequence. Antibodies produced against the sal protein show that sal is first expressed at the blastoderm stage and later in restricted areas of the embryonic nervous system as well as in the developing trachea. The antibodies detect sal homologous proteins in corresponding spatial and temporal patterns in the embryos of related insect species. Sequence analysis of the sal gene of Drosophila virilis, a species which is phylogenetically separated by approximately 60 million years, suggests that the sal function is conserved during evolution, consistent with its proposed role in head formation during arthropod evolution. Images PMID:7905822

  3. The ancient mammalian KRAB zinc finger gene cluster on human chromosome 8q24.3 illustrates principles of C2H2 zinc finger evolution associated with unique expression profiles in human tissues

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Expansion of multi-C2H2 domain zinc finger (ZNF) genes, including the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) subfamily, paralleled the evolution of tetrapodes, particularly in mammalian lineages. Advances in their cataloging and characterization suggest that the functions of the KRAB-ZNF gene family contributed to mammalian speciation. Results Here, we characterized the human 8q24.3 ZNF cluster on the genomic, the phylogenetic, the structural and the transcriptome level. Six (ZNF7, ZNF34, ZNF250, ZNF251, ZNF252, ZNF517) of the seven locus members contain exons encoding KRAB domains, one (ZNF16) does not. They form a paralog group in which the encoded KRAB and ZNF protein domains generally share more similarities with each other than with other members of the human ZNF superfamily. The closest relatives with respect to their DNA-binding domain were ZNF7 and ZNF251. The analysis of orthologs in therian mammalian species revealed strong conservation and purifying selection of the KRAB-A and zinc finger domains. These findings underscore structural/functional constraints during evolution. Gene losses in the murine lineage (ZNF16, ZNF34, ZNF252, ZNF517) and potential protein truncations in primates (ZNF252) illustrate ongoing speciation processes. Tissue expression profiling by quantitative real-time PCR showed similar but distinct patterns for all tested ZNF genes with the most prominent expression in fetal brain. Based on accompanying expression signatures in twenty-six other human tissues ZNF34 and ZNF250 revealed the closest expression profiles. Together, the 8q24.3 ZNF genes can be assigned to a cerebellum, a testis or a prostate/thyroid subgroup. These results are consistent with potential functions of the ZNF genes in morphogenesis and differentiation. Promoter regions of the seven 8q24.3 ZNF genes display common characteristics like missing TATA-box, CpG island-association and transcription factor binding site (TFBS) modules. Common TFBS modules partly

  4. Species-specific expansion of C2H2 zinc-finger genes and their expression profiles in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jun; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun; Zha, Xingfu; Zhao, Ping; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2008-12-01

    Most C2H2 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) function as sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors, and play important roles in a variety of biology processes, such as development, differentiation, and tumor suppression. By searching the silkworm genome with a HMM model of C2H2 zinc-fingers, we have identified a total of 338 C2H2 ZFPs. Most of the ZFP genes were clustered on chromosomes and showed uneven distribution in the genome. Over one third of genes were concentrated on chromosome 11, 15 and 24. Phylogenetic analysis classified all silkworm C2H2 ZFPs into 75 families; 63 of which belong to evolutionarily conserved families. In addition, 188 C2H2 ZFP genes (55.6%) are species-specific to the silkworm. A species-specific expansion of a family with 39 members in a tandem array on chromosome 24 may explain the higher number of species-specific ZFPs in silkworm compared to other organisms. The expression patterns of C2H2 ZFP genes were also examined by microarray analysis. Most of these genes were actively expressed among different tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. The results provide insight into the biological functions of the silkworm C2H2 ZFP genes in metamorphism and development. PMID:18835444

  5. A Comprehensive Catalog of Human KRAB-associated Zinc Finger Genes: Insights into the Evolutionary History of a Large Family of Transcriptional Repressors

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, S; Baggott, D M; Hamilton, A T; Tran-Gyamfi, M; Yang, S; Kim, J; Gordon, L; Branscomb, E; Stubbs, L

    2005-09-30

    Krueppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotic species. In mammals, most ZNF proteins comprise a single class of transcriptional repressors in which a chromatin interaction domain, called the Krueppel-associated box (KRAB) is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs. KRAB-ZNF loci are specific to tetrapod vertebrates, but have expanded dramatically in numbers through repeated rounds of segmental duplication to create a gene family with hundreds of members in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the human genome for key motifs and used them to construct and manually curate gene models. The resulting KRAB-ZNF gene catalog includes 326 known genes, 243 of which were structurally corrected by manual annotation, and 97 novel KRAB-ZNF genes; this single family therefore comprises 20% of all predicted human transcription factor genes. Many of the genes are alternatively spliced, yielding a total of 743 distinct predicted proteins. Although many human KRAB-ZNF genes are conserved in mammals, at least 136 and potentially more than 200 genes of this type are primate-specific including many recent segmental duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are active in a wide variety of human tissues suggesting roles in many key biological processes, but most member genes remain completely uncharacterized. Because of their sheer numbers, wide-ranging tissue-specific expression patterns, and remarkable evolutionary divergence we predict that KRAB-ZNF transcription factors have played critical roles in crafting many aspects of human biology, including both deeply conserved and primate-specific traits.

  6. Zinc Finger Domain of the PRDM9 Gene on Chromosome 1 Exhibits High Diversity in Ruminants but Its Paralog PRDM7 Contains Multiple Disruptive Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ahlawat, Sonika; Sharma, Priyanka; Sharma, Rekha; Arora, Reena; De, Sachinandan

    2016-01-01

    PRDM9 is the sole hybrid sterility gene identified so far in vertebrates. PRDM9 gene encodes a protein with an immensely variable zinc-finger (ZF) domain that determines the site of meiotic recombination hotspots genome-wide. In this study, the terminal ZF domain of PRDM9 on bovine chromosome 1 and its paralog on chromosome 22 were characterized in 225 samples from five ruminant species (cattle, yak, mithun, sheep and goat). We found extraordinary variation in the number of PRDM9 zinc fingers (6 to 12). We sequenced PRDM9 ZF encoding region from 15 individuals (carrying the same ZF number in both copies) and found 43 different ZF domain sequences. Ruminant zinc fingers of PRDM9 were found to be diversifying under positive selection and concerted evolution, specifically at positions involved in defining their DNA-binding specificity, consistent with the reports from other vertebrates such as mice, humans, equids and chimpanzees. ZF-encoding regions of the PRDM7, a paralog of PRDM9 on bovine chromosome 22 and on unknown chromosomes in other studied species were found to contain 84 base repeat units as in PRDM9, but there were multiple disruptive mutations after the first repeat unit. The diversity of the ZFs suggests that PRDM9 may activate recombination hotspots that are largely unique to each ruminant species. PMID:27203728

  7. The ken and barbie gene encoding a putative transcription factor with a BTB domain and three zinc finger motifs functions in terminalia development of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lukacsovich, Tamas; Yuge, Kazuya; Awano, Wakae; Asztalos, Zoltan; Kondo, Shunzo; Juni, Naoto; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2003-10-01

    Mutations in the ken and barbie locus are accompanied by the malformation of terminalia in adult Drosophila. Male and female genitalia often remain inside the body, and the same portions of genitalia and analia are missing in a fraction of homozygous flies. Rotated and/or duplicated terminalia are also observed. Terminalia phenotypes are enhanced by mutations in the gap gene tailless, the homeobox gene caudal, and the decapentaplegic gene that encodes a TGFbeta-like morphogen. The ken and barbie gene encodes a protein with three CCHH-type zinc finger motifs that are conserved in several transcription factors such as Krüppel and BCL-6. All defects in ken and barbie mutants are fully rescued by the expression of a wild-type genomic construct, which establishes the causality between phenotypes and the gene. PMID:14518006

  8. Cloning and molecular characterization of the potato RING finger protein gene StRFP1 and its function in potato broad-spectrum resistance against Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xuemei; Tian, Zhendong; Liu, Jun; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2010-04-15

    Really interesting new gene (RING) finger proteins function as ubiquitin ligase and play key roles in biotic and abiotic stresses. A new RING-H2 finger protein gene, StRFP1, was cloned from Phytophthora infestans-inoculated leaves of potato (Solanum tuberosum) clone 386209.10, which is free of R1-R11 genes. The deduced amino acid sequence was characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a GLD region and a RING-H2 finger signature. StRFP1 is homologous to the tobacco NtACRE132 protein and belongs to the ATL family. The DNA gel blot analysis and mapping revealed that StRFP1, an intron-free gene, had one to two copies in the potato genome and was located on chromosome 3. RT-PCR assays showed that StRFP1 was constitutively expressed in potato plants and significantly induced in detached potato leaves by P. infestans and plant defense-related signal molecules, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. Transient expression studies revealed that StRFP1 fused with GFP localized to the plasma membrane or out of that in onion epidermal cells. The function of StRFP1 in potato resistance against late blight was further investigated by constructing overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) vectors, which were introduced into potato cv. E-potato 3, respectively. By challenging the detached leaves with mixture races of P. infestans, all of the StRFP1-overexpressing plants displayed slower disease development than non-transformed controls in terms of the lesion growth rate (LGR). In contrast, StRFP1-silencing plants through RNAi were more susceptible to pathogen infection. The present results demonstrate that StRFP1 contributes to broad-spectrum resistance against P. infestans in potato. PMID:20042252

  9. The PR/SET Domain Zinc Finger Protein Prdm4 Regulates Gene Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells but Plays a Nonessential Role in the Developing Mouse Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bogani, Debora; Morgan, Marc A. J.; Nelson, Andrew C.; Costello, Ita; McGouran, Joanna F.; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2013-01-01

    Prdm4 is a highly conserved member of the Prdm family of PR/SET domain zinc finger proteins. Many well-studied Prdm family members play critical roles in development and display striking loss-of-function phenotypes. Prdm4 functional contributions have yet to be characterized. Here, we describe its widespread expression in the early embryo and adult tissues. We demonstrate that DNA binding is exclusively mediated by the Prdm4 zinc finger domain, and we characterize its tripartite consensus sequence via SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) and ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing) experiments. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Prdm4 regulates key pluripotency and differentiation pathways. Two independent strategies, namely, targeted deletion of the zinc finger domain and generation of a EUCOMM LacZ reporter allele, resulted in functional null alleles. However, homozygous mutant embryos develop normally and adults are healthy and fertile. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that Prdm4 functions redundantly with other transcriptional partners to cooperatively regulate gene expression in the embryo and adult animal. PMID:23918801

  10. The PR/SET domain zinc finger protein Prdm4 regulates gene expression in embryonic stem cells but plays a nonessential role in the developing mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Debora; Morgan, Marc A J; Nelson, Andrew C; Costello, Ita; McGouran, Joanna F; Kessler, Benedikt M; Robertson, Elizabeth J; Bikoff, Elizabeth K

    2013-10-01

    Prdm4 is a highly conserved member of the Prdm family of PR/SET domain zinc finger proteins. Many well-studied Prdm family members play critical roles in development and display striking loss-of-function phenotypes. Prdm4 functional contributions have yet to be characterized. Here, we describe its widespread expression in the early embryo and adult tissues. We demonstrate that DNA binding is exclusively mediated by the Prdm4 zinc finger domain, and we characterize its tripartite consensus sequence via SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) and ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing) experiments. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Prdm4 regulates key pluripotency and differentiation pathways. Two independent strategies, namely, targeted deletion of the zinc finger domain and generation of a EUCOMM LacZ reporter allele, resulted in functional null alleles. However, homozygous mutant embryos develop normally and adults are healthy and fertile. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that Prdm4 functions redundantly with other transcriptional partners to cooperatively regulate gene expression in the embryo and adult animal. PMID:23918801

  11. Isolation and fine mapping of 16 novel human zinc finger-encoding cDNAs identify putative candidate genes for developmental and malignant disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Tommerup, N.; Vissing, H.

    1995-05-20

    The authors have isolated and chromosomally fine-mapped 16 novel genes belonging to the human zinc finger Krueppel family (ZNF131-140, 142, 143, 148, 151, 154, and 155), including 1 of the GLI type (ZNF143) and 3 containing a KRAB (Krueppel-associated box) segment (ZNF133, 136, and 140). Based on their map position, several of these ZNF genes are putative candidate genes for both developmental and malignant disorders: ZNF138, ZNF139, and ZNF143 were localized to 7q11.2, 7q21.3-q22.1, and 11p15.3-p15.4, regions involved in deletions and/or translocations associated with Williams syndrome, split hand and foot disease (SHFD1), and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, respectively. ZNF133 was localized to 20p11.2, close to, but probably distinct from, the region deleted in Alagille syndrome. Zinc finger genes mapping to regions commonly deleted in solid tumors included ZNF132, 134, 135, 137, 154, and 155, all located on 19q13 (thyroid adenoma), and ZNF151, at 1p36.1-p36.2 (neuroblastoma, colon cancer, and other tumors). In addition, several of the ZNFs mapped to regions implicated in recurrent chromosomal rearrangements in hematological malignancies (ZNF139, 7q21.3-q22.1; ZNF148, 3q21-q22; ZNF151, 1p36.1-p36.2). The study indicates that the number of ZNF genes in human is large and that systematic isolation and mapping of ZNF genes is a straightforward approach for the identification of novel candidate disease genes. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Finger Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    You use your fingers and thumbs to do everything from grasping objects to playing musical instruments to typing. When there is something wrong ... the skin of your palm. It causes the fingers to stiffen and bend. Trigger finger - an irritation ...

  13. Regulation of the expression of zinc finger protein genes by microRNAs enriched within acute lymphoblastic leukemia-derived microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Chen, X M; Tao, H M; Xiong, W; Jie, S H; Li, H Y

    2015-01-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are submicrometric membrane fragments that can "engulf" cytoplasmic contents such as microRNAs (miRNAs) from their cellular origin. The study of miRNAs carried within MVs might provide insights into the roles that miRNAs play in the underlying pathophysiologic processes of acute lymphoblastic leu-kemia (ALL). We identified numerous dysregulated MV miRNAs in patients with B- and T-cell ALL by using Agilent microarray analysis. Selected miRNAs obtained by microarray profiling were validated us-ing quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Us-ing bioinformatic tools, we found that 118 and 116 miRNAs from B- and T-ALL MVs, respectively, regulated the expression of zinc finger protein (ZFP) genes. For example, zinc finger protein 238 (ZNF238), known as a tumor suppressor, was regulated by miR-20b over-expres-sion. Conversely, ZNF267, a cancer-promoting factor, was mediated by downregulated miR-23a and miR-23b. Considering that miRNAs are generally believed to repress gene expression, antineoplastic ZNF238 was likely inhibited while the level of oncogenic ZNF267 was likely increased by miRNA dysregulation, leading to modifica-tion of the ALL microenvironment. In addition, gene ontology and sig-naling pathway analysis demonstrated that a subset of the ZFP genes targeted by altered MV miRNAs are involved in cellular biological processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. These findings indicated that cancer-associated MV miRNAs and their target ZFP genes might be novel pathogenic factors in ALL. However, the specific roles exerted by MV miRNAs and their target ZFP genes on the pathological mechanisms of ALL remain to be further understood. PMID:26505336

  14. A maize zinc-finger protein binds the prolamin box in zein gene promoters and interacts with the basic leucine zipper transcriptional activator Opaque2

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesus; Moose, Stephen P.; Parsons, Ronald L.; Schmidt, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    The prolamin box (P-box) is a highly conserved 7-bp sequence element (5′-TGTAAAG-3′) found in the promoters of many cereal seed storage protein genes. Nuclear factors from maize endosperm specifically interact with the P-box present in maize prolamin genes (zeins). The presence of the P-box in all zein gene promoters suggests that interactions between endosperm DNA binding proteins and the P-box may play an important role in the coordinate activation of zein gene expression during endosperm development. We have cloned an endosperm-specific maize cDNA, named prolamin-box binding factor (PBF), that encodes a member of the recently described Dof class of plant Cys2-Cys2 zinc-finger DNA binding proteins. When tested in gel shift assays, PBF exhibits the same sequence-specific binding to the P-box as factors present in maize endosperm nuclei. Additionally, PBF interacts in vitro with the basic leucine zipper protein Opaque2, a known transcriptional activator of zein gene expression whose target site lies 20 bp downstream of the P-box in the 22-kDa zein gene promoter. The isolation of the PBF gene provides an essential tool to further investigate the functional role of the highly conserved P-box in regulating cereal storage protein gene expression. PMID:9207153

  15. A Zinc-Finger-Family Transcription Factor, AbVf19, Is Required for the Induction of a Gene Subset Important for Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Oxiles, Lindsay; Brooks, Fred; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Cho, Yangrae

    2011-10-26

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen with a broad host range within the family Brassicaceae. It produces secondary metabolites that marginally affect virulence. Cell wall degrading enzymes (CDWE) have been considered important for pathogenesis but none of them individually have been identified as significant virulence factors in A. brassicicola. In this study, knockout mutants of a gene, AbVf19, were created and produced considerably smaller lesions than the wild type on inoculated host plants. The presence of tandem zinc-finger domains in the predicted amino acid sequence and nuclear localization of AbVf19- reporter protein suggested that it was a transcription factor. Gene expression comparisons using RNA-seq identified 74 genes being downregulated in the mutant during a late stage of infection. Among the 74 downregulated genes, 28 were putative CWDE genes. These were hydrolytic enzyme genes that composed a small fraction of genes within each family of cellulases, pectinases, cutinases, and proteinases. The mutants grew slower than the wild type on an axenic medium with pectin as a major carbon source. This study demonstrated the existence and the importance of a transcription factor that regulates a suite of genes that are important for decomposing and utilizing plant material during the late stage of plant infection.

  16. Clinical Scale Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Gene Editing of PD-1 in Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for the Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Beane, Joal D; Lee, Gary; Zheng, Zhili; Mendel, Matthew; Abate-Daga, Daniel; Bharathan, Mini; Black, Mary; Gandhi, Nimisha; Yu, Zhiya; Chandran, Smita; Giedlin, Martin; Ando, Dale; Miller, Jeff; Paschon, David; Guschin, Dmitry; Rebar, Edward J; Reik, Andreas; Holmes, Michael C; Gregory, Philip D; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A; Feldman, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is expressed on activated T cells and represents an attractive target for gene-editing of tumor targeted T cells prior to adoptive cell transfer (ACT). We used zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) directed against the gene encoding human PD-1 (PDCD-1) to gene-edit melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). We show that our clinical scale TIL production process yielded efficient modification of the PD-1 gene locus, with an average modification frequency of 74.8% (n = 3, range 69.9–84.1%) of the alleles in a bulk TIL population, which resulted in a 76% reduction in PD-1 surface-expression. Forty to 48% of PD-1 gene-edited cells had biallelic PD-1 modification. Importantly, the PD-1 gene-edited TIL product showed improved in vitro effector function and a significantly increased polyfunctional cytokine profile (TNFα, GM-CSF, and IFNγ) compared to unmodified TIL in two of the three donors tested. In addition, all donor cells displayed an effector memory phenotype and expanded approximately 500–2,000-fold in vitro. Thus, further study to determine the efficiency and safety of adoptive cell transfer using PD-1 gene-edited TIL for the treatment of metastatic melanoma is warranted. PMID:25939491

  17. Speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein gene deletion in ovarian cancer: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a tissue microarray

    PubMed Central

    HU, XIAOYU; YANG, ZHU; ZENG, MANMAN; LIU, YI; YANG, XIAOTAO; LI, YANAN; LI, XU; YU, QIUBO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein (SPOP) gene located on chromosome 17q21 in ovarian cancer (OC). The present study evaluated a tissue microarray, which contained 90 samples of ovarian cancer and 10 samples of normal ovarian tissue, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH is a method where a SPOP-specific DNA red fluorescence probe was used for the experimental group and a centromere-specific DNA green fluorescence probe for chromosome 17 was used for the control group. The present study demonstrated that a deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in 52.27% (46/88) of the ovarian cancer tissues, but was not identified in normal ovarian tissues. Simultaneously, monosomy 17 was frequently identified in the ovarian cancer tissues, but not in the normal ovarian tissues. Furthermore, the present data revealed that the ovarian cancer histological subtype and grade were significantly associated with a deletion of the SPOP gene, which was assessed by the appearance of monosomy 17 in the ovarian cancer samples; the deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in a large proportion of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (41/61; 67.21%), particularly in grade 3 (31/37; 83.78%). In conclusion, deletion of the SPOP gene on chromosome 17 in ovarian cancer samples, which results from monosomy 17, indicates that the SPOP gene may serve as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer. PMID:27347196

  18. Clinical Scale Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Gene Editing of PD-1 in Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for the Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Beane, Joal D; Lee, Gary; Zheng, Zhili; Mendel, Matthew; Abate-Daga, Daniel; Bharathan, Mini; Black, Mary; Gandhi, Nimisha; Yu, Zhiya; Chandran, Smita; Giedlin, Martin; Ando, Dale; Miller, Jeff; Paschon, David; Guschin, Dmitry; Rebar, Edward J; Reik, Andreas; Holmes, Michael C; Gregory, Philip D; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A; Feldman, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is expressed on activated T cells and represents an attractive target for gene-editing of tumor targeted T cells prior to adoptive cell transfer (ACT). We used zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) directed against the gene encoding human PD-1 (PDCD-1) to gene-edit melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). We show that our clinical scale TIL production process yielded efficient modification of the PD-1 gene locus, with an average modification frequency of 74.8% (n = 3, range 69.9-84.1%) of the alleles in a bulk TIL population, which resulted in a 76% reduction in PD-1 surface-expression. Forty to 48% of PD-1 gene-edited cells had biallelic PD-1 modification. Importantly, the PD-1 gene-edited TIL product showed improved in vitro effector function and a significantly increased polyfunctional cytokine profile (TNFα, GM-CSF, and IFNγ) compared to unmodified TIL in two of the three donors tested. In addition, all donor cells displayed an effector memory phenotype and expanded approximately 500-2,000-fold in vitro. Thus, further study to determine the efficiency and safety of adoptive cell transfer using PD-1 gene-edited TIL for the treatment of metastatic melanoma is warranted. PMID:25939491

  19. Inactivation of the Phloem-Specific Dof Zinc Finger Gene DAG1 Affects Response to Light and Integrity of the Testa of Arabidopsis Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Maura; Sabatini, Sabrina; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Hennig, Lars; Schäfer, Eberhard; Costantino, Paolo; Vittorioso, Paola

    2002-01-01

    We show here that seeds from the knockout mutant of the Arabidopsis DAG1 gene encoding a Dof zinc finger transcription factor have an altered response to red and far-red light. Mutant dag1 seeds are induced to germinate by much lower red light fluence rates, and germination reaches more quickly a point where it is independent of phytochrome signaling. Moreover, although microscopic analysis reveals no obvious structural alterations in the seed coat (testa) of dag1 seeds, staining assays with different dyes point to an abnormal fragility of the testa. By extensive in situ mRNA hybridization analysis we show here that the gene, which is not expressed in the embryo, is specifically expressed in the phloem of all organs of the mother plant. PMID:11842145

  20. Noncontacting Finger Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P. (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An annular finger seal is adapted to be interposed between a high pressure upstream region and a lower pressure downstream region to provide noncontact sealing along a rotatable member. The finger seal comprises axially juxtaposed downstream and upstream finger elements, each having integrally spaced fingers. The downstream fingers each have a lift pad, whereas the upstream fingers lack a pad. Each pad extends in a downstream direction. Each upstream finger is spaced from the rotating member a greater distance than each pad. Upon sufficient rotational speed of the rotating member, each pad is operative to lift and ride on a thin film of fluid intermediate the rotating member and the Pad.

  1. Activation of the Ustilagic Acid Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Ustilago maydis by the C2H2 Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Rua1▿

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Beate; Liu, Lidan; Schink, Kay Oliver; Bölker, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The phytopathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes, under conditions of nitrogen starvation, large amounts of the biosurfactant ustilagic acid (UA). This secreted cellobiose glycolipid is toxic for many microorganisms and confers biocontrol activity to U. maydis. Recently, a large gene cluster that is responsible for UA biosynthesis was identified. Here, we show that expression of all cluster genes depends on Rua1, a nuclear protein of the C2H2 zinc finger family, whose gene is located within the gene cluster. While deletion of rua1 results in complete loss of UA production, overexpression of rua1 promotes increased UA synthesis even in the presence of a good nitrogen source. Bioinformatic analysis allowed us to identify a conserved sequence element that is present in the promoters of all structural genes involved in UA biosynthesis. Deletion analysis of several promoters within the cluster revealed that this DNA element serves as an upstream activating sequence (UAS) and mediates Rua1-dependent expression. We used the yeast one-hybrid system to demonstrate specific recognition of this DNA element by Rua1. Introduction of nucleotide exchanges into the consensus sequence interfered with Rua1-dependent activation, suggesting that this sequence element acts as a direct binding site for Rua1. PMID:20173069

  2. Activation of the ustilagic acid biosynthesis gene cluster in Ustilago maydis by the C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor Rua1.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Beate; Liu, Lidan; Schink, Kay Oliver; Bölker, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The phytopathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes, under conditions of nitrogen starvation, large amounts of the biosurfactant ustilagic acid (UA). This secreted cellobiose glycolipid is toxic for many microorganisms and confers biocontrol activity to U. maydis. Recently, a large gene cluster that is responsible for UA biosynthesis was identified. Here, we show that expression of all cluster genes depends on Rua1, a nuclear protein of the C(2)H(2) zinc finger family, whose gene is located within the gene cluster. While deletion of rua1 results in complete loss of UA production, overexpression of rua1 promotes increased UA synthesis even in the presence of a good nitrogen source. Bioinformatic analysis allowed us to identify a conserved sequence element that is present in the promoters of all structural genes involved in UA biosynthesis. Deletion analysis of several promoters within the cluster revealed that this DNA element serves as an upstream activating sequence (UAS) and mediates Rua1-dependent expression. We used the yeast one-hybrid system to demonstrate specific recognition of this DNA element by Rua1. Introduction of nucleotide exchanges into the consensus sequence interfered with Rua1-dependent activation, suggesting that this sequence element acts as a direct binding site for Rua1. PMID:20173069

  3. crooked legs encodes a family of zinc finger proteins required for leg morphogenesis and ecdysone-regulated gene expression during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    D'Avino, P P; Thummel, C S

    1998-05-01

    Drosophila imaginal discs undergo extensive pattern formation during larval development, resulting in each cell acquiring a specific adult fate. The final manifestation of this pattern into adult structures is dependent on pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone during metamorphosis, which trigger disc eversion, elongation and differentiation. We have defined genetic criteria that allow us to screen for ecdysone-inducible regulatory genes that are required for this transformation from patterned disc to adult structure. We describe here the first genetic locus isolated using these criteria: crooked legs (crol). crol mutants die during pupal development with defects in adult head eversion and leg morphogenesis. The crol gene is induced by ecdysone during the onset of metamorphosis and encodes at least three protein isoforms that contain 12-18 C2H2 zinc fingers. Consistent with this sequence motif, crol mutations have stage-specific effects on ecdysone-regulated gene expression. The EcR ecdysone receptor, and the BR-C, E74 and E75 early regulatory genes, are submaximally induced in crol mutants in response to the prepupal ecdysone pulse. These changes in gene activity are consistent with the crol lethal phenotypes and provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of crol action. The genetic criteria described here provide a new direction for identifying regulators of adult tissue development during insect metamorphosis. PMID:9521911

  4. Zinc finger protein genes from Cucurbita pepo are promising tools for conferring non-Cucurbitaceae plants with ability to accumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hideyuki; Hirota, Matashi; Goto, Junya; Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Kodama, Noriko; Matsui, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Eun, Heesoo

    2015-03-01

    Some cultivars of cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and zucchini, which are members of the Cucurbitaceae family, are uniquely subject to contamination by hydrophobic pollutants such as the organohalogen insecticides DDT. However, the molecular mechanisms for the accumulation of these pollutants in cucurbits have not been determined. Here, cDNA subtraction analysis of Cucurbita pepo cultivars that are low and high accumulators of hydrophobic contaminants revealed that a gene for zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are preferentially expressed in high accumulators. The cloned CpZFP genes were classified into 2 types: (1) the PBG type, which were expressed in C. pepo cultivars Patty Green, Black Beauty, and Gold Rush, and (2) the BG type, which were expressed in Black Beauty and Gold Rush. Expression of these CpZFP genes in transgenic tobacco plants carrying an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-based inducible gene expression system significantly induced β-glucuronidase activity when the plants were treated with a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compound, indicating that highly hydrophobic PCBs accumulated in the plants. In transgenic tobacco plants carrying CpZFPs, accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds increased in their aerial parts when they were cultivated in the dioxin-contaminated soil. In summary, we propose that addition of CpZFP genes is a promising tool for conferring noncucurbits with the ability to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants. PMID:25532761

  5. ATRX binds to atypical chromatin domains at the 3′ exons of zinc finger genes to preserve H3K9me3 enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Asif H.; Hasson, Dan; Dyer, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ATRX is a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler proposed to govern genomic stability through the regulation of repetitive sequences, such as rDNA, retrotransposons, and pericentromeric and telomeric repeats. However, few direct ATRX target genes have been identified and high-throughput genomic approaches are currently lacking for ATRX. Here we present a comprehensive ChIP-sequencing study of ATRX in multiple human cell lines, in which we identify the 3′ exons of zinc finger genes (ZNFs) as a new class of ATRX targets. These 3′ exonic regions encode the zinc finger motifs, which can range from 1–40 copies per ZNF gene and share large stretches of sequence similarity. These regions often contain an atypical chromatin signature: they are transcriptionally active, contain high levels of H3K36me3, and are paradoxically enriched in H3K9me3. We find that these ZNF 3′ exons are co-occupied by SETDB1, TRIM28, and ZNF274, which form a complex with ATRX. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function studies demonstrate (i) a reduction of H3K9me3 at the ZNF 3′ exons in the absence of ATRX and ZNF274 and, (ii) H3K9me3 levels at atypical chromatin regions are particularly sensitive to ATRX loss compared to other H3K9me3-occupied regions. As a consequence of ATRX or ZNF274 depletion, cells with reduced levels of H3K9me3 show increased levels of DNA damage, suggesting that ATRX binds to the 3′ exons of ZNFs to maintain their genomic stability through preservation of H3K9me3. PMID:27029610

  6. ATRX binds to atypical chromatin domains at the 3' exons of zinc finger genes to preserve H3K9me3 enrichment.

    PubMed

    Valle-García, David; Qadeer, Zulekha A; McHugh, Domhnall S; Ghiraldini, Flávia G; Chowdhury, Asif H; Hasson, Dan; Dyer, Michael A; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Bernstein, Emily

    2016-06-01

    ATRX is a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler proposed to govern genomic stability through the regulation of repetitive sequences, such as rDNA, retrotransposons, and pericentromeric and telomeric repeats. However, few direct ATRX target genes have been identified and high-throughput genomic approaches are currently lacking for ATRX. Here we present a comprehensive ChIP-sequencing study of ATRX in multiple human cell lines, in which we identify the 3' exons of zinc finger genes (ZNFs) as a new class of ATRX targets. These 3' exonic regions encode the zinc finger motifs, which can range from 1-40 copies per ZNF gene and share large stretches of sequence similarity. These regions often contain an atypical chromatin signature: they are transcriptionally active, contain high levels of H3K36me3, and are paradoxically enriched in H3K9me3. We find that these ZNF 3' exons are co-occupied by SETDB1, TRIM28, and ZNF274, which form a complex with ATRX. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function studies demonstrate (i) a reduction of H3K9me3 at the ZNF 3' exons in the absence of ATRX and ZNF274 and, (ii) H3K9me3 levels at atypical chromatin regions are particularly sensitive to ATRX loss compared to other H3K9me3-occupied regions. As a consequence of ATRX or ZNF274 depletion, cells with reduced levels of H3K9me3 show increased levels of DNA damage, suggesting that ATRX binds to the 3' exons of ZNFs to maintain their genomic stability through preservation of H3K9me3. PMID:27029610

  7. miR-762 promotes porcine immature Sertoli cell growth via the ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) gene

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Changping; Song, Huibin; Yu, Lei; Guan, Kaifeng; Hu, Pandi; Li, Yang; Xia, Xuanyan; Li, Jialian; Jiang, Siwen; Li, Fenge

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of reports have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in spermatogenesis. Our previous study showed that miR-762 is differentially expressed in immature and mature testes of Large White boars. Our present data shows that miR-762 directly binds the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) and down-regulates RNF4 expression. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the RNF4 3′UTR that is significantly associated with porcine sperm quality traits leads to a change in the miR-762 binding ability. Moreover, miR-762 promotes the proliferation of and inhibits apoptosis in porcine immature Sertoli cells, partly by accelerating DNA damage repair and by reducing androgen receptor (AR) expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-762 may play a role in pig spermatogenesis by regulating immature Sertoli cell growth. PMID:27596571

  8. miR-762 promotes porcine immature Sertoli cell growth via the ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) gene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changping; Song, Huibin; Yu, Lei; Guan, Kaifeng; Hu, Pandi; Li, Yang; Xia, Xuanyan; Li, Jialian; Jiang, Siwen; Li, Fenge

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of reports have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in spermatogenesis. Our previous study showed that miR-762 is differentially expressed in immature and mature testes of Large White boars. Our present data shows that miR-762 directly binds the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) and down-regulates RNF4 expression. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the RNF4 3'UTR that is significantly associated with porcine sperm quality traits leads to a change in the miR-762 binding ability. Moreover, miR-762 promotes the proliferation of and inhibits apoptosis in porcine immature Sertoli cells, partly by accelerating DNA damage repair and by reducing androgen receptor (AR) expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-762 may play a role in pig spermatogenesis by regulating immature Sertoli cell growth. PMID:27596571

  9. The Arabidopsis Zinc Finger-Homeodomain Genes Encode Proteins with Unique Biochemical Properties That Are Coordinately Expressed during Floral Development1

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Queenie K.-G.; Irish, Vivian F.

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains approximately 100 homeobox genes, many of which have been shown to play critical roles in various developmental processes. Here we characterize the zinc finger-homeodomain (ZF-HD) subfamily of homeobox genes, consisting of 14 members in Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the HDs of the ZF-HD proteins share some similarities with other known HDs in Arabidopsis, but they contain distinct features that cluster them as a unique class of plant HD-containing proteins. We have carried out mutational analyses to show that the noncanonical residues present in the HDs of this family of proteins are important for function. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid matrix analyses of the ZF-HD proteins reveal that these proteins both homo- and heterodimerize, which may contribute to greater selectivity in DNA binding. These assays also show that most of these proteins do not contain an intrinsic activation domain, suggesting that interactions with other factors are required for transcriptional activation. We also show that the family members are all expressed predominantly or exclusively in floral tissue, indicating a likely regulatory role during floral development. Furthermore, we have identified loss-of-function mutations for six of these genes that individually show no obvious phenotype, supporting the idea that the encoded proteins have common roles in floral development. Based on these results, we propose the ZF-HD gene family encodes a group of transcriptional regulators with unique biochemical activities that play overlapping regulatory roles in Arabidopsis floral development. PMID:16428600

  10. Analysis of a human DNA excision repair gene involved in group A xeroderma pigmentosum and containing a zinc-finger domain.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Miura, N; Satokata, I; Miyamoto, I; Yoshida, M C; Satoh, Y; Kondo, S; Yasui, A; Okayama, H; Okada, Y

    1990-11-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by a high incidence of sunlight-induced skin cancer. Cells from people with this condition are hypersensitive to ultraviolet because of a defect in DNA repair. There are nine genetic complementation groups of XP, groups A-H and a variant. We have cloned the mouse DNA repair gene that complements the defect of group A, the XPAC gene. Here we report molecular cloning of human and mouse XPAC complementary DNAs. Expression of XPAC cDNA confers ultraviolet-resistance on several group A cell lines, but not on lines of other XP groups. Almost all group A lines tested showed abnormality or absence of XPAC messenger RNAs. These results indicate that a defective XPAC gene causes group A XP. The human and mouse XPAC genes are located on chromosome 9q34.1 and chromosome 4C2, respectively. Human XPAC cDNA encodes a protein of 273 amino acids with a zinc-finger motif. PMID:2234061

  11. Expression of aspartyl protease and C3HC4-type RING zinc finger genes are responsive to ascorbic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yongshun; Nishikawa, Hitoshi; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Shibata, Hitoshi; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA) is a redox buffer and enzyme cofactor with various proposed functions in stress responses and growth. The aim was to identify genes whose transcript levels respond to changes in leaf AsA. The AsA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant vtc2-1 was incubated with the AsA precursor L-galactono-1,4-lactone (L-GalL) to increase leaf AsA concentration. Differentially expressed genes screened by DNA microarray were further characterized for AsA responsiveness in wild-type plants. The analysis of 14 candidates by real-time PCR identified an aspartyl protease gene (ASP, At1g66180) and a C3HC4-type RING zinc finger gene (AtATL15, At1g22500) whose transcripts were rapidly responsive to increases in AsA pool size caused by L-GalL and AsA supplementation and light. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing an AtATL15 promoter::luciferase reporter confirmed that the promoter is L-GalL, AsA, and light responsive. The expression patterns of ASP and AtATL15 suggest they have roles in growth regulation. The promoter of AtATL15 is responsive to AsA status and will provide a tool to investigate the functions of AsA in plants further. PMID:21421703

  12. Expression of aspartyl protease and C3HC4-type RING zinc finger genes are responsive to ascorbic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongshun; Nishikawa, Hitoshi; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Shibata, Hitoshi; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2011-06-01

    Ascorbate (AsA) is a redox buffer and enzyme cofactor with various proposed functions in stress responses and growth. The aim was to identify genes whose transcript levels respond to changes in leaf AsA. The AsA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant vtc2-1 was incubated with the AsA precursor L-galactono-1,4-lactone (L-GalL) to increase leaf AsA concentration. Differentially expressed genes screened by DNA microarray were further characterized for AsA responsiveness in wild-type plants. The analysis of 14 candidates by real-time PCR identified an aspartyl protease gene (ASP, At1g66180) and a C3HC4-type RING zinc finger gene (AtATL15, At1g22500) whose transcripts were rapidly responsive to increases in AsA pool size caused by L-GalL and AsA supplementation and light. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing an AtATL15 promoter::luciferase reporter confirmed that the promoter is L-GalL, AsA, and light responsive. The expression patterns of ASP and AtATL15 suggest they have roles in growth regulation. The promoter of AtATL15 is responsive to AsA status and will provide a tool to investigate the functions of AsA in plants further. PMID:21421703

  13. Editing of the Luteinizing Hormone Gene to Sterilize Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Using a Modified Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology with Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenkui; Li, Yun; Su, Baofeng; Cheng, Qi; Ye, Zhi; Perera, Dayan A; Fobes, Michael; Shang, Mei; Dunham, Rex A

    2016-04-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the most important freshwater aquaculture species in the USA. Genetically enhanced fish that are sterile could both profit the catfish industry and reduce potential environmental and ecological risks. As the first step to generate sterile channel catfish, three sets of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) plasmids targeting the luteinizing hormone (LH) gene were designed and electroporated into one-cell embryos, different concentrations were introduced, and the Cel-I assay was conducted to detect mutations. Channel catfish carrying the mutated LH gene were sterile, as confirmed by DNA sequencing and mating experiments. The overall mutation rate was 19.7 % for 66 channel catfish, and the best treatment was ZFN set 1 at the concentration 25 μg/ml. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of gene editing of fish via plasmid introduction instead of mRNA microinjection. The introduction of the ZFN plasmids may have reduced mosaicism, as mutated individuals were gene edited in every tissue evaluated. Apparently, the plasmids were eventually degraded without integration, as they were not detectable in mutated individuals using PCR. Carp pituitary extract failed to induce spawning and restoration of fertility, indicating the need for developing other hormone therapies to achieve reversal of sterility upon demand. This is the first sterilization achieved using ZFN technology in an aquaculture species and the first successful gene editing of channel catfish. Our results will help understand the roles of the LH gene, purposeful sterilization of teleost fishes, and is a step towards control of domestic, hybrid, exotic, invasive, and transgenic fishes. PMID:26846523

  14. In utero exposure to phthalate downregulates critical genes in Leydig cells of F1 male progeny.

    PubMed

    Sekaran, Suganya; Jagadeesan, Arunakaran

    2015-07-01

    Phthalates are the largest group of environmental pollutants and are considered toxicant to the endocrine system. The present study was aimed to test the effect of in utero exposure of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) on Leydig cell steroidogenesis in F1 male offspring's. Pregnant dams were oral gavaged with different doses (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg/day) of DEHP or olive oil during gestational Day 9-21. Serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels were significantly reduced in male offspring at 60 days of age. Our results also demonstrate a coordinate, dose-dependent disruption of genes involved in steroidogenesis. The gene expression of StAR, Cyp11a1, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, 5α-reductase and cytochrome P450 19a1 (or) aromatase (Cyp-19) were significantly decreased. The transcription factors like steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and specific protein-1 (Sp-1) showed a significant decrease in 10 and 100 mg DEHP treatment group. DNA methylation analysis using bisulfite specific-methylation PCR shows hypermethylation in the SF-1 and Sp-1 promoter regions. Further to determine whether the DEHP-induced methylation changes were associated with increased DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) levels, we measured the expression levels of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Dnmt1, and Dnmt3l using real-time PCR and Western blot method. The mRNA and protein expressions of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, and Dnmt1 were stimulated in 10 and 100 mg DEHP treatment groups, whereas no significant change was seen in Dnmt3l expression, suggesting that increased Dnmt3a/b, Dnmt1 may cause DNA hypermethylation in testicular Leydig cells. Overall, these data suggest that gestational exposure to DEHP affects adult testicular function via altered methylation patterns. PMID:25649163

  15. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Hand and Finger Exercises  Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds.  Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  16. A new rice zinc-finger protein binds to the O2S box of the alpha-amylase gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rihe; Yao, Quanhong; Xiong, Aisheng; Fan, Huiqin; Li, Xian; Peng, Youliang; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Li, Yi

    2004-07-01

    A putative transcription factor, named RAMY, that binds to the 20-bp O2S sequences of the regulatory region of the Amy2 gene promoter has been identified using the yeast one-hybrid system from a rice library. The full length RAMY cDNA clone encodes a 218-amino acid protein and is homologous to the late embryogenesis-abundant protein (LEA5). In vitro mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that RAMY can bind with O2S specifically through an unusual zinc finger with a CXCX(4)CX(2)H consensus sequence. Low levels of RAMY mRNAs were detected in rice leaves and roots by Northern blot hybridization. The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) induces expression of both RAMY and Amy2 genes, as performed by Northern blot hybridization, but the increase in RAMY mRNA level occurs prior to that of the Amy2 mRNA level in the GA-treated aleurone tissues. These data suggest that RAMY may act as a trans-acting protein and is probably involved in the GA-induced expression of the rice alpha-amylase gene. PMID:15233790

  17. Zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 interacts with histones, DNA repair proteins and recruits NuRD complex to regulate gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihui; Lam, Norris; Thiele, Carol J

    2015-09-29

    The zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 has been found to control neural fate-determination in flies, regulate murine and frog cardiac development, control murine retinal cell progenitor expansion and function as a tumor suppressor gene in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which CASZ1 regulates gene transcription to exert these diverse biological functions has not been described. Here we identify co-factors that are recruited by CASZ1b to regulate gene transcription using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and mass spectrometry assays. We find that CASZ1b binds to the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex, histones and DNA repair proteins. Mutagenesis of the CASZ1b protein assay demonstrates that the N-terminus of CASZ1b is required for NuRD binding, and a poly(ADP-ribose) binding motif in the CASZ1b protein is required for histone H3 and DNA repair proteins binding. The N-terminus of CASZ1b fused to an artificial DNA-binding domain (GAL4DBD) causes a significant repression of transcription (5xUAS-luciferase assay), which could be blocked by treatment with an HDAC inhibitor. Realtime PCR results show that the transcriptional activity of CASZ1b mutants that abrogate NuRD or histone H3/DNA binding is significantly decreased. This indicates a model in which CASZ1b binds to chromatin and recruits NuRD complexes to orchestrate epigenetic-mediated transcriptional programs. PMID:26296975

  18. Myeloid Zinc Finger 1 (MZF-1) Regulates Expression of the CCN2/CTGF and CCN3/NOV Genes in the Hematopoietic Compartment.

    PubMed

    Piszczatowski, Richard T; Rafferty, Brian J; Rozado, Andre; Parziale, James V; Lents, Nathan H

    2015-11-01

    Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CCN2/CTGF) and Nephroblastoma Overexpressed (CCN3/NOV) execute key functions within the hematopoietic compartment. Both are abundant in the bone marrow stroma, which is a niche for hematopoiesis and supports marrow function. Roles for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and all-trans retinoic acid in the bone marrow have also been elucidated. Interestingly, some of the annotated roles of these vitamins overlap with established functions of CCN2 and CCN3. Yet, no factor has been identified that unifies these observations. In this study, we report the regulation of the CTGF and NOV genes by Myeloid Zinc Finger-1 (MZF-1), a hematopoietic transcription factor. We show the interaction of MZF-1 with the CTGF and NOV promoters in several cell types. Up-regulation of MZF-1 via calcitriol and vitamin A induces expression of CTGF and NOV, implicating a role for these vitamins in the functions of these two genes. Lastly, knockdown of MZF1 reduces levels of CTGF and NOV. Collectively, our results argue that MZF-1 regulates the CTGF and NOV genes in the hematopoietic compartment, and may be involved in their respective functions in the stroma. PMID:25899830

  19. Identification of genes encoding zinc finger proteins, non-histone chromosomal HMG protein homologue, and a putative GTP phosphohydrolase in the genome of Chilo iridescent virus.

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, P; Hug, M; Handermann, M; Janssen, W; Koonin, E V; Delius, H; Darai, C

    1994-01-01

    Five RNA transcripts of about 1.2 to 1.7 kilobases were mapped to a part of the genome of insect iridescent virus type 6 (Chilo iridescent virus; CIV) between genome coordinates 0.832 and 0.856 within the EcoRI DNA fragment F. The nucleotide sequence of this particular region (5702 base pairs) of the CIV genome was determined. The DNA sequence contains a number of perfect direct, inverted, and palindromic repeats including three clusters of tandemly organized repetitive DNA elements located between the nucleotide positions 1534 to 1566, 3720 to 3780, and 4350 to 4450. Eight long open reading frames (ORFs; EF1 to 8) were detected in the sequenced region of the CIV genome. ORF EF1 encodes a putative protein of 221 amino acid residues (aa) that is closely related to eukaryotic nonhistone chromosomal proteins of the high mobility group (HMG) superfamily. Virus encoded homologues of HMG proteins have not been reported so far. The EF2 gene product (145 aa) contains a specific zinc finger motif and belongs to a distinct group of identified and putative zinc finger proteins including a second putative protein (239 aa) of CIV encoded in the EcoRI DNA fragment Y (1984 bp; 0.381 to 0.391 viral map units). The product of EF6 (127 aa) is related to D250 ORF product of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and belongs to the recently described protein family sharing a highly conserved sequence motif with bacterial antimutator GTP phosphohydrolase MutT. Thus the sequenced region of the CIV genome encodes three putative proteins which may be directly involved in the replication and/or transcription of the viral DNA. Images PMID:8121799

  20. Developmental and wound-, cold-, desiccation-, ultraviolet-B-stress-induced modulations in the expression of the petunia zinc finger transcription factor gene ZPT2-2

    PubMed

    van Der Krol AR; van Poecke RM; Vorst; Voogt; van Leeuwen W; Borst-Vrensen; Takatsuji; van Der Plas LH

    1999-12-01

    The ZPT2-2 gene belongs to the EPF gene family in petunia (Petunia hybrida), which encodes proteins with TFIIIA-type zinc-finger DNA-binding motifs. To elucidate a possible function for ZPT2-2, we analyzed its pattern of expression in relation to different developmental and physiological stress signals. The activity of the ZPT2-2 promoter was analyzed using a firefly luciferase (LUC) reporter gene, allowing for continuous measurements of transgene activity in planta. We show that ZPT2-2::LUC is active in all plant tissues, but is strongly modulated in cotyledons upon germination, in leaves in response to desiccation, cold treatment, wounding, or ultraviolet-B light, and in petal tissue in response to pollination of the stigma. Analysis of mRNA levels indicated that the modulations in ZPT2-2::LUC expression reflect modulations in endogenous ZPT2-2 gene expression. The change in ZPT2-2::LUC activity by cold treatment, wounding, desiccation, and ultraviolet-B light suggest that the phytohormones ethylene and jasmonic acid are involved in regulating the expression of ZPT2-2. Although up-regulation of expression of ZPT2-2 can be blocked by inhibitors of ethylene perception, expression in plants is not induced by exogenously applied ethylene. The application of jasmonic acid does result in an up-regulation of gene activity and, thus, ZPT2-2 may play a role in the realization of the jasmonic acid hormonal responses in petunia. PMID:10594102

  1. Zinc Finger Nuclease-Expressing Baculoviral Vectors Mediate Targeted Genome Integration of Reprogramming Factor Genes to Facilitate the Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Rui-Zhe; Tay, Felix Chang; Goh, Sal-Lee; Lau, Cia-Hin; Zhu, Haibao; Tan, Wee-Kiat; Liang, Qingle; Chen, Can; Du, Shouhui; Li, Zhendong; Tay, Johan Chin-Kang; Wu, Chunxiao; Zeng, Jieming; Fan, Weimin; Toh, Han Chong

    2013-01-01

    Integrative gene transfer using retroviruses to express reprogramming factors displays high efficiency in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), but the value of the method is limited because of the concern over mutagenesis associated with random insertion of transgenes. Site-specific integration into a preselected locus by engineered zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology provides a potential way to overcome the problem. Here, we report the successful reprogramming of human fibroblasts into a state of pluripotency by baculoviral transduction-mediated, site-specific integration of OKSM (Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-myc) transcription factor genes into the AAVS1 locus in human chromosome 19. Two nonintegrative baculoviral vectors were used for cotransduction, one expressing ZFNs and another as a donor vector encoding the four transcription factors. iPSC colonies were obtained at a high efficiency of 12% (the mean value of eight individual experiments). All characterized iPSC clones carried the transgenic cassette only at the ZFN-specified AAVS1 locus. We further demonstrated that when the donor cassette was flanked by heterospecific loxP sequences, the reprogramming genes in iPSCs could be replaced by another transgene using a baculoviral vector-based Cre recombinase-mediated cassette exchange system, thereby producing iPSCs free of exogenous reprogramming factors. Although the use of nonintegrating methods to generate iPSCs is rapidly becoming a standard approach, methods based on site-specific integration of reprogramming factor genes as reported here hold the potential for efficient generation of genetically amenable iPSCs suitable for future gene therapy applications. PMID:24167318

  2. The Nontoxic Cell Cycle Modulator Indirubin Augments Transduction of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors and Zinc-Finger Nuclease-Mediated Gene Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shamim H.; Bobis-Wozowicz, Sylwia; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Gellhaus, Katharina; Pars, Kaweh; Heilbronn, Regine; Jacobs, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Parameters that regulate or affect the cell cycle or the DNA repair choice between non-homologous end-joining and homology-directed repair (HDR) are excellent targets to enhance therapeutic gene targeting. Here, we have evaluated the impact of five cell-cycle modulating drugs on targeted genome engineering mediated by DNA double-strand break (DSB)-inducing nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). For a side-by-side comparison, we have established four reporter cell lines by integrating a mutated EGFP gene into either three transformed human cell lines or primary umbilical cord–derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs). After treatment with different cytostatic drugs, cells were transduced with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors that encode a nuclease or a repair donor to rescue EGFP expression through DSB-induced HDR. We show that transient cell-cycle arrest increased AAV transduction and AAV-mediated HDR up to six-fold in human cell lines and ten-fold in UC-MSCs, respectively. Targeted gene correction was observed in up to 34% of transduced cells. Both the absolute and the relative gene-targeting frequencies were dependent on the cell type, the cytostatic drug, the vector dose, and the nuclease. Treatment of cells with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor indirubin-3′-monoxime was especially promising as this compound combined high stimulatory effects with minimal cytotoxicity. In conclusion, indirubin-3′-monoxime significantly improved AAV transduction and the efficiency of AAV/ZFN-mediated gene targeting and may thus represent a promising compound to enhance DSB-mediated genome engineering in human stem cells, such as UC-MSCs, which hold great promise for future clinical applications. PMID:23072634

  3. The Zinc Finger Protein ZNF658 Regulates the Transcription of Genes Involved in Zinc Homeostasis and Affects Ribosome Biogenesis through the Zinc Transcriptional Regulatory Element

    PubMed Central

    Ogo, Ogo A.; Tyson, John; Cockell, Simon J.; Howard, Alison; Valentine, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified the ZTRE (zinc transcriptional regulatory element) in genes involved in zinc homeostasis and showed that it mediates transcriptional repression in response to zinc. We now report that ZNF658 acts at the ZTRE. ZNF658 was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry of a band excised after electrophoretic mobility shift assay using a ZTRE probe. The protein contains a KRAB domain and 21 zinc fingers. It has similarity with ZAP1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which regulates the response to zinc restriction, including a conserved DNA binding region we show to be functional also in ZNF658. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted to ZNF658 abrogated the zinc-induced, ZTRE-dependent reduction in SLC30A5 (ZnT5 gene), SLC30A10 (ZnT10 gene), and CBWD transcripts in human Caco-2 cells and the ability of zinc to repress reporter gene expression from corresponding promoter-reporter constructs. Microarray analysis of the effect of reducing ZNF658 expression by siRNA uncovered a large decrease in rRNA. We find that ZTREs are clustered within the 45S rRNA precursor. We also saw effects on expression of multiple ribosomal proteins. ZNF658 thus links zinc homeostasis with ribosome biogenesis, the most active transcriptional, and hence zinc-demanding, process in the cell. ZNF658 is thus a novel transcriptional regulator that plays a fundamental role in the orchestrated cellular response to zinc availability. PMID:25582195

  4. Outlier Analysis Defines Zinc Finger Gene Family DNA Methylation in Tumors and Saliva of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gaykalova, Daria A.; Vatapalli, Rajita; Wei, Yingying; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Chi; Hennessey, Patrick T.; Guo, Theresa; Tan, Marietta; Li, Ryan; Ahn, Julie; Khan, Zubair; Westra, William H.; Bishop, Justin A.; Zaboli, David; Koch, Wayne M.; Khan, Tanbir; Ochs, Michael F.; Califano, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most common cancer, annually affecting over half a million people worldwide. Presently, there are no accepted biomarkers for clinical detection and surveillance of HNSCC. In this work, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of epigenetic alterations in primary HNSCC tumors was employed in conjunction with cancer-specific outlier statistics to define novel biomarker genes which are differentially methylated in HNSCC. The 37 identified biomarker candidates were top-scoring outlier genes with prominent differential methylation in tumors, but with no signal in normal tissues. These putative candidates were validated in independent HNSCC cohorts from our institution and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas). Using the top candidates, ZNF14, ZNF160, and ZNF420, an assay was developed for detection of HNSCC cancer in primary tissue and saliva samples with 100% specificity when compared to normal control samples. Given the high detection specificity, the analysis of ZNF DNA methylation in combination with other DNA methylation biomarkers may be useful in the clinical setting for HNSCC detection and surveillance, particularly in high-risk patients. Several additional candidates identified through this work can be further investigated toward future development of a multi-gene panel of biomarkers for the surveillance and detection of HNSCC. PMID:26544568

  5. MusaSAP1, a A20/AN1 zinc finger gene from banana functions as a positive regulator in different stress responses.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2012-11-01

    A20/AN1 zinc finger domain containing Stress Associated Proteins (SAP) are involved in diverse stress response pathways in plants. In the present study, a novel banana SAP gene, MusaSAP1, was identified from banana EST database and was subsequently characterized by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Expression profiling in native banana plants showed that MusaSAP1 was up-regulated by drought, salt, cold, heat and oxidative stress as well as by treatment with abscisic acid. Cellular localization assay carried out by making a MusaSAP1::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaSAP1 is incompletely translocated to nucleus. Copy number analysis performed using real time PCR and Southern blotting indicated that MusaSAP1 occurs in the banana genome in a single copy per 11 chromosome set. Transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing MusaSAP1 displayed better stress endurance characteristics as compared to controls in both in vitro and ex vivo assays. Lesser membrane damage as indicated by reduced malondialdehyde levels in transgenic leaves subjected to drought, salt or oxidative stress pointed towards significant role for MusaSAP1 in stress amelioration pathways of banana. Strong up-regulation of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) coding transcript in MusaSAP1 overexpressing plants together with induction of MusaSAP1 by wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment indicated possible involvement of MusaSAP1 in biotic stress responses where PPOs perform major functions in multiple defense pathways. PMID:22961664

  6. Exome Sequencing of a Pedigree Reveals S339L Mutation in the TLN2 Gene as a Cause of Fifth Finger Camptodactyly.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hao; Deng, Sheng; Xu, Hongbo; Deng, Han-Xiang; Chen, Yulan; Yuan, Lamei; Deng, Xiong; Yang, Shengbo; Guan, Liping; Zhang, Jianguo; Yuan, Hong; Guo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Camptodactyly is a digit deformity characterized by permanent flexion contracture of one or both fifth fingers at the proximal interphalangeal joints. Though over 60 distinct types of syndromic camptodactyly have been described, only one disease locus (3q11.2-q13.12) for nonsyndromic camptodactyly has been identified. To identify the genetic defect for camptodactyly in a four-generation Chinese Han family, exome and Sanger sequencings were conducted and a missense variant, c.1016C>T (p.S339L), in the talin 2 gene (TLN2) was identified. The variant co-segregated with disease in the family and was not observed in 12 unaffected family members or 1,000 normal controls, suggesting that p.S339L is a pathogenic mutation. Two asymptomatic carriers in the family indicated incomplete penetrance or more complicated compensated mechanism. Most of p.S339L carriers also have relatively benign cardiac phenotypes. Expression of wild and mutant TLN2 in HEK293 cells suggested the predominant localization in cytoplasm. Our data suggest a potential molecular link between TLN2 and camptodactyly pathogenesis. PMID:27223613

  7. Exome Sequencing of a Pedigree Reveals S339L Mutation in the TLN2 Gene as a Cause of Fifth Finger Camptodactyly

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongbo; Deng, Han-Xiang; Chen, Yulan; Yuan, Lamei; Deng, Xiong; Yang, Shengbo; Guan, Liping; Zhang, Jianguo; Yuan, Hong; Guo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Camptodactyly is a digit deformity characterized by permanent flexion contracture of one or both fifth fingers at the proximal interphalangeal joints. Though over 60 distinct types of syndromic camptodactyly have been described, only one disease locus (3q11.2-q13.12) for nonsyndromic camptodactyly has been identified. To identify the genetic defect for camptodactyly in a four-generation Chinese Han family, exome and Sanger sequencings were conducted and a missense variant, c.1016C>T (p.S339L), in the talin 2 gene (TLN2) was identified. The variant co-segregated with disease in the family and was not observed in 12 unaffected family members or 1,000 normal controls, suggesting that p.S339L is a pathogenic mutation. Two asymptomatic carriers in the family indicated incomplete penetrance or more complicated compensated mechanism. Most of p.S339L carriers also have relatively benign cardiac phenotypes. Expression of wild and mutant TLN2 in HEK293 cells suggested the predominant localization in cytoplasm. Our data suggest a potential molecular link between TLN2 and camptodactyly pathogenesis. PMID:27223613

  8. Role of Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger (PLZF) in Cell Proliferation and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) Gene Repression*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Min-Young; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Yun, Chae-Ok; Li, Yan; Lee, Choong-Eun; Oh, Jiyoung; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is a transcription repressor that was initially isolated as a fusion protein with retinoic acid receptor α. PLZF is aberrantly overexpressed in various human solid tumors, such as clear cell renal carcinoma, glioblastoma, and seminoma. PLZF causes cellular transformation of NIH3T3 cells and increases cell proliferation in several cell types. PLZF also increases tumor growth in the mouse xenograft tumor model. PLZF may stimulate cell proliferation by controlling expression of the genes of the p53 pathway (ARF, TP53, and CDKN1A). We found that PLZF can directly repress transcription of CDKN1A encoding p21, a negative regulator of cell cycle progression. PLZF binds to the proximal Sp1-binding GC-box 5/6 and the distal p53-responsive elements of the CDKN1A promoter to repress transcription. Interestingly, PLZF interacts with Sp1 or p53 and competes with Sp1 or p53. PLZF interacts with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylates Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the CDKN1A promoter, which indicated the involvement of the corepressor·HDACs complex in transcription repression by PLZF. Also, PLZF represses transcription of TP53 and also decreases p53 protein stability by ubiquitination. PLZF may act as a potential proto-oncoprotein in various cell types. PMID:24821727

  9. A point mutation of zebrafish c-cbl gene in the ring finger domain produces a phenotype mimicking human myeloproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Peng, X; Dong, M; Ma, L; Jia, X-E; Mao, J; Jin, C; Chen, Y; Gao, L; Liu, X; Ma, K; Wang, L; Du, T; Jin, Y; Huang, Q; Li, K; Zon, L I; Liu, T; Deng, M; Zhou, Y; Xi, X; Zhou, Y; Chen, S

    2015-12-01

    Controlled self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) are critical for vertebrate development and survival. These processes are tightly regulated by the transcription factors, signaling molecules and epigenetic factors. Impaired regulations of their function could result in hematological malignancies. Using a large-scale zebrafish N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screening, we identified a line named LDD731, which presented significantly increased HSPCs in hematopoietic organs. Further analysis revealed that the cells of erythroid/myeloid lineages in definitive hematopoiesis were increased while the primitive hematopoiesis was not affected. The homozygous mutation was lethal with a median survival time around 14-15 days post fertilization. The causal mutation was located by positional cloning in the c-cbl gene, the human ortholog of which, c-CBL, is found frequently mutated in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) or acute leukemia. Sequence analysis showed the mutation in LDD731 caused a histidine-to-tyrosine substitution of the amino acid codon 382 within the RING finger domain of c-Cbl. Moreover, the myeloproliferative phenotype in zebrafish seemed dependent on the Flt3 (fms-like tyrosine kinase 3) signaling, consistent with that observed in both mice and humans. Our study may shed new light on the pathogenesis of MPN and provide a useful in vivo vertebrate model of this syndrome for screening drugs. PMID:26104663

  10. Finger snapping during seizures.

    PubMed

    Overdijk, M J; Zijlmans, M; Gosselaar, P H; Olivier, A; Leijten, F S S; Dubeau, F

    2014-01-01

    We describe two patients who showed snapping of the right hand fingers during invasive intracranial EEG evaluation for epilepsy surgery. We correlated the EEG changes with the finger-snapping movements in both patients to determine the underlying pathophysiology of this phenomenon. At the time of finger snapping, EEG spread from the supplementary motor area towards the temporal region was seen, suggesting involvement of these sites. PMID:25667884

  11. Fingers that change color

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions can cause fingers or toes to change color: Buerger disease Chilblains. Painful inflammation of small blood vessels. Cryoglobulinemia Frostbite Necrotizing vasculitis Peripheral artery disease ...

  12. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae. PMID:25698512

  13. p16 INK4a gene promoter variation and differential binding of a repressor, the ras-responsive zinc-finger transcription factor, RREB.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuling; Qian, Xiaolan; Redman, Chanelle; Bliskovski, Valeri; Ramsay, Edward S; Lowy, Douglas R; Mock, Beverly A

    2003-04-17

    BALB/c mice are susceptible to the development of pristane-induced plasma cell tumors, and have a rare allelic variant in the coding region of the p16(INK4a) (p16) tumor suppressor gene that produces a protein with impaired activity. We have now found that the BALB/c p16 promoter has an allelic variant that may also compromise p16 activity. Following pristane treatment, BALB/c p16 mRNA levels in B cells were lower than that in DBA/2 or C.D2-Pctr1, a resistant BALB/c congenic strain that harbors DBA/2 chromatin surrounding the p16 locus. Four sequence variants were found between BALB/c and DBA/2 in the p16 promoter region. In reporter assays, the DBA promoter was at least four times more active in driving luciferase expression than the BALB/c promoter. Most of the difference in activity was localized to a single nucleotide deletion in BALB/c. This deletion created a consensus binding site for RREB, a ras-responsive transcriptional element with zinc-finger binding motifs. Transient transfections with RREB confirmed that the p16 promoter can be downregulated by RREB, in a Ras- or Mek-dependent manner, and that the BALB/c promoter is more sensitive than DBA/2 to regulation by RREB. BALB/c mice have both regulatory and coding region defects that may contribute to the impairment of p16 gene function. PMID:12700664

  14. Zinc finger nuclease-mediated gene knockout results in loss of transport activity for P-glycoprotein, BCRP, and MRP2 in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Kathleen E; Brinker, Amanda; Pratt, Jennifer; Venkatraman, Neetu; Xiao, Yongling; Blasberg, Jim; Steiner, Toni; Bourner, Maureen; Thompson, David C

    2015-02-01

    Membrane transporters P-glycoprotein [P-gp; multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)], multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) affect drug absorption and disposition and can also mediate drug-drug interactions leading to safety/toxicity concerns in the clinic. Challenges arise with interpreting cell-based transporter assays when substrates or inhibitors affect more than one actively expressed transporter and when endogenous or residual transporter activity remains following overexpression or knockdown of a given transporter. The objective of this study was to selectively knock out three drug efflux transporter genes (MDR1, MRP2, and BCRP), both individually as well as in combination, in a subclone of Caco-2 cells (C2BBe1) using zinc finger nuclease technology. The wild-type parent and knockout cell lines were tested for transporter function in Transwell bidirectional assays using probe substrates at 5 or 10 μM for 2 hours at 37°C. P-gp substrates digoxin and erythromycin, BCRP substrates estrone 3-sulfate and nitrofurantoin, and MRP2 substrate 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein each showed a loss of asymmetric transport in the MDR1, BCRP, and MRP2 knockout cell lines, respectively. Furthermore, transporter interactions were deduced for cimetidine, ranitidine, fexofenadine, and colchicine. Compared with the knockout cell lines, standard transporter inhibitors showed substrate-specific variation in reducing the efflux ratios of the test compounds. These data confirm the generation of a panel of stable Caco-2 cell lines with single or double knockout of human efflux transporter genes and a complete loss of specific transport activity. These cell lines may prove useful in clarifying complex drug-transporter interactions without some of the limitations of current chemical or genetic knockdown approaches. PMID:25388687

  15. Characterization and expression of a new class of zinc finger protein that binds to silencer region of ascorbate oxidase gene.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Y; Ono, T; Shimofurutani, N; Suzuki, M; Esaka, M

    1998-10-01

    A unique A/T-rich sequence (5'-AAAAAGTAAAAA-GTAAAAAAGTAAAAAG-3), referred to as the AGTA repeat, is found in the silencer region of the pumpkin ascorbate oxidase gene. A cDNA for protein (AOBP) that binds to the AGTA repeat was isolated from pumpkin by the southwestern method. The AOBP protein has a new class of zinc/DNA-binding domain named Dof/MOA domain that is highly conserved in many plant proteins and is significantly related to those of steroid hormone receptors and GATA1. Gel retardation analysis indicated that AOBP bound to the AGTA repeat through the Dof/MOA domain. Metal chelators, 1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA, specifically inhibited the DNA binding of AOBP, indicating that metal coordination plays an important role in DNA binding of AOBP. Thus, the Dof/MOA domain acts as a zinc/DNA-binding domain in AOBP. Gel retardation analysis with mutated oligonucleotides suggested that the Dof/MOA domain recognized the AGTA core sequence. AOBP mRNA was expressed in mature tissues of pumpkin, but was expressed only in small amounts or was not expressed in growing tissues. Furthermore, the expression was auxin-independent. The expression pattern of AOBP and that of ascorbate oxidase did not show a positive correlation. PMID:9871365

  16. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  17. Finger and toenail onycholysis.

    PubMed

    Zaias, N; Escovar, S X; Zaiac, M N

    2015-05-01

    Onycholysis - the separation of the nail plate from the nail bed occurs in fingers and toenails. It is diagnosed by the whitish appearance of the separated nail plate from the nail bed. In fingers, the majority is caused by trauma, manicuring, occupational or self-induced behavior. The most common disease producing fingernail onycholysis is psoriasis and pustular psoriasis. Phototoxic dermatitis, due to drugs can also produce finger onycholysis. Once the separation occurs, the environmental flora sets up temporary colonization in the available space. Finger onycholysis is most common in women. Candida albicans is often recovered from the onycholytic space. Many reports, want to associate the yeast as cause and effect, but the data are lacking and the treatment of the candida does not improve finger onycholysis. A reasonable explanation for the frequent isolation of Candida and Pseudomonas in fingernail onycholysis in women, is the close proximity the fingers have to the vaginal and gastrointestinal tract. Fifty per cent of humans harbour C. albicans in the GI tract and it is frequently carried to the vagina during hygienic practices. Finger onycholysis is best treated by drying the nail 'lytic' area with a hair blower, since all colonizing biota are moisture loving and perish in a dry environment. Toenail onycholysis has a very different etiology. It is mechanical, the result of pressure on the toes from the closed shoes, while walking, because of the ubiquitous uneven flat feet producing an asymmetric gait with more pressure on the foot with the flatter sole. PMID:25512134

  18. Multiple Fingers - One Gestalt.

    PubMed

    Lezkan, Alexandra; Manuel, Steven G; Colgate, J Edward; Klatzky, Roberta L; Peshkin, Michael A; Drewing, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The Gestalt theory of perception offered principles by which distributed visual sensations are combined into a structured experience ("Gestalt"). We demonstrate conditions whereby haptic sensations at two fingertips are integrated in the perception of a single object. When virtual bumps were presented simultaneously to the right hand's thumb and index finger during lateral arm movements, participants reported perceiving a single bump. A discrimination task measured the bump's perceived location and perceptual reliability (assessed by differential thresholds) for four finger configurations, which varied in their adherence to the Gestalt principles of proximity (small versus large finger separation) and synchrony (virtual spring to link movements of the two fingers versus no spring). According to models of integration, reliability should increase with the degree to which multi-finger cues integrate into a unified percept. Differential thresholds were smaller in the virtual-spring condition (synchrony) than when fingers were unlinked. Additionally, in the condition with reduced synchrony, greater proximity led to lower differential thresholds. Thus, with greater adherence to Gestalt principles, thresholds approached values predicted for optimal integration. We conclude that the Gestalt principles of synchrony and proximity apply to haptic perception of surface properties and that these principles can interact to promote multi-finger integration. PMID:26863671

  19. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn].

    PubMed

    Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Millets are the primary food source for millions of people in tropical regions of the world supplying mineral nutrition and protein. In this chapter, we describe an optimized protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of finger millet variety GPU 45. Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring plasmid pCAMBIA1301 which contains hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as selectable marker gene and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as reporter gene has been used. This protocol utilizes the shoot apex explants for the somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of finger millet after the transformation by Agrobacterium. Desiccation of explants during cocultivation helps for the better recovery of transgenic plants. This protocol is very useful for the efficient production of transgenic plants in finger millet through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:25300836

  20. Fingering in Confined Elastic Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggins, John; Mahadevan, L.; Wei, Z.; Saintyves, Baudouin; Bouchaud, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Fingering has recently been observed in soft highly elastic layers that are confined between and bonded to two rigid bodies. In one case an injected fluid invades the layer in finger-like protrusions at the layer's perimeter, a solid analogue of Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering. In a second case, separation of the rigid bodies (with maintained adhesion to the layer) leads air to the formation of similar fingers at the layer's perimeter. In both cases the finger formation is reversible: if the fluid is removed or the separation reduced, the fingers vanish. In this talk I will discuss a theoretical model for such elastic fingers that shows that the origin of the fingers is large-strain geometric non-linearity in the elasticity of soft solids. Our simplified elastic model unifies the two types of fingering and accurately estimates the thresholds and wavelengths of the fingers.

  1. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  2. Delayed Administration of a Bio-Engineered Zinc-Finger VEGF-A Gene Therapy Is Neuroprotective and Attenuates Allodynia Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Sarah A.; Liu, Yang; Karadimas, Spyridon K.; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Fettes, Peter; Spratt, S. Kaye; Lee, Gary; Ando, Dale; Surosky, Richard; Giedlin, Martin; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI) there are drastic changes that occur in the spinal microvasculature, including ischemia, hemorrhage, endothelial cell death and blood-spinal cord barrier disruption. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a pleiotropic factor recognized for its pro-angiogenic properties; however, VEGF has recently been shown to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that delivery of AdV-ZFP-VEGF – an adenovirally delivered bio-engineered zinc-finger transcription factor that promotes endogenous VEGF-A expression – would result in angiogenesis, neuroprotection and functional recovery following SCI. This novel VEGF gene therapy induces the endogenous production of multiple VEGF-A isoforms; a critical factor for proper vascular development and repair. Briefly, female Wistar rats – under cyclosporin immunosuppression – received a 35 g clip-compression injury and were administered AdV-ZFP-VEGF or AdV-eGFP at 24 hours post-SCI. qRT-PCR and Western Blot analysis of VEGF-A mRNA and protein, showed significant increases in VEGF-A expression in AdV-ZFP-VEGF treated animals (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). Analysis of NF200, TUNEL, and RECA-1 indicated that AdV-ZFP-VEGF increased axonal preservation (p<0.05), reduced cell death (p<0.01), and increased blood vessels (p<0.01), respectively. Moreover, AdV-ZFP-VEGF resulted in a 10% increase in blood vessel proliferation (p<0.001). Catwalk™ analysis showed AdV-ZFP-VEGF treatment dramatically improves hindlimb weight support (p<0.05) and increases hindlimb swing speed (p<0.02) when compared to control animals. Finally, AdV-ZFP-VEGF administration provided a significant reduction in allodynia (p<0.01). Overall, the results of this study indicate that AdV-ZFP-VEGF administration can be delivered in a clinically relevant time-window following SCI (24 hours) and provide significant molecular and functional benefits. PMID:24846143

  3. Osseointegrated finger prostheses.

    PubMed

    Doppen, P; Solomons, M; Kritzinger, S

    2009-02-01

    Amputation of a digit can lead to functional and psychological problems and patients can benefit from digital prostheses. Unfortunately, standard prostheses are often unstable, particularly when fitted over short amputation stumps. Prosthesis fixation by osseointegration is widely used in oral and extraoral applications and may help avoid the problem of instability. This paper reports the results of four patients with five finger amputations who were treated with osseointegrated implants to attach finger prostheses. One implant failed to osseointegrate and the procedure was abandoned. Three patients were successfully treated to completion of three finger prostheses and are extremely satisfied with their outcomes, both cosmetically and functionally, with osseoperception reported by all three patients. PMID:19091736

  4. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  5. Repair of webbed fingers - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/presentations/100096.htm Repair of webbed fingers - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Finger Injuries and Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  6. Three-Fingered Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.; Salisbury, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical joints and tendons resemble human hand. Robot hand has three "human-like" fingers. "Thumb" at top. Rounded tips of fingers covered with resilient material provides high friction for griping. Hand potential as prosthesis for humans.

  7. Spiral viscous fingering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Atsushi; Kato, Yoshihito; Tada, Yutaka

    2006-11-01

    When a less-viscous fluid displaces a more-viscous fluid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell, viscous fingering pattern is believed to develop in a radial direction. We performed experiments on viscous fingering in a radial Hele-Shaw cell when a polymer solution, a sodium polyacrylate (SPA) solution is used as the more-viscous fluid and the trivalent iron (Fe^3+) solution is as the less-viscous fluid. The experiment was done by varying the concentration of Fe^3+, cFe3+. We have found that viscous fingering pattern develops spirally when cFe3+ is larger than a threshold value, while the pattern develops in a radial direction for small cFe3+. We confirmed from different experiments that an instantaneous chemical reaction takes place between SPA solution and Fe^3+ solution. The chemical reaction produces precipitation and significantly reduces the viscosity of the SPA solution. The quantity of the precipitation is increased with cFe3+. We will make a discussion on the relationship between the formation of spiral viscous fingering and the chemical reaction taking place between the two fluids.

  8. Safe Finger Tourniquet--Ideas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Hwang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Li, Chun-Chang; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

    2016-03-01

    Tourniquets are often needed for optimized phalangeal surgeries. However, few surgeons forget to remove them and caused ischemic injuries. We have a modified method to create a safe finger tourniquet for short duration finger surgeries, which can avoid such tragedy. It is done by donning a glove, cutting the tip of the glove over the finger of interest, and rolling the glove finger to the base. From 2010 to 2013, approximately 54 patients underwent digital surgical procedures with our safe finger tourniquet. Because the glove cannot be forgotten to be removed, the tourniquet must be released and removed. This is a simple and efficient way to apply a safe finger tourniquet by using hand rubber glove for a short-term bloodless finger surgery and can achieve an excellent surgical result. PMID:26855166

  9. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alex; Goebl, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17) and professional clarinettists (N = 6) were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 × 2 × 2 design (register: low–high; tempo: slow–fast, dynamics: soft–loud). There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low–high) of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions). The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast) in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (Fmean) and peak force (Fmax) were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (Fmean = 1.17 N, Fmax = 3.05 N) compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g., guitar). Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (Fmean = 1.21 N). For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (Fmean = 0.54 N). Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  10. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  11. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  12. The PHD Finger Protein MMD1/DUET Ensures the Progression of Male Meiotic Chromosome Condensation and Directly Regulates the Expression of the Condensin Gene CAP-D3[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Niu, Baixiao; Huang, Jiyue; Wang, Hongkuan; Yang, Xiaohui; Dong, Aiwu

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome condensation, a process mediated by the condensin complex, is essential for proper chromosome segregation during cell division. Unlike rapid mitotic chromosome condensation, meiotic chromosome condensation occurs over a relatively long prophase I and is unusually complex due to the coordination with chromosome axis formation and homolog interaction. The molecular mechanisms that regulate meiotic chromosome condensation progression from prophase I to metaphase I are unclear. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic PHD-finger protein MMD1/DUET is required for progressive compaction of prophase I chromosomes to metaphase I bivalents. The MMD1 PHD domain is required for its function in chromosome condensation and binds to methylated histone tails. Transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR showed that several condensin genes exhibit significantly reduced expression in mmd1 meiocytes. Furthermore, MMD1 specifically binds to the promoter region of the condensin subunit gene CAP-D3 to enhance its expression. Moreover, cap-d3 mutants exhibit similar chromosome condensation defects, revealing an MMD1-dependent mechanism for regulating meiotic chromosome condensation, which functions in part by promoting condensin gene expression. Together, these discoveries provide strong evidence that the histone reader MMD1/DUET defines an important step for regulating the progression of meiotic prophase I chromosome condensation. PMID:27385818

  13. Silencing of the Tapetum-Specific Zinc Finger Gene TAZ1 Causes Premature Degeneration of Tapetum and Pollen Abortion in Petunia

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Sanjay; Kobayashi, Akira; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    TAZ1 (TAPETUM DEVELOPMENT ZINC FINGER PROTEIN1; renamed from PEThy; ZPT3-2) cDNA was first isolated as an anther-specific cDNA from petunia. Here, we report a functional characterization that includes analysis of spatial and temporal expression profiles and examination of anther phenotypes in TAZ1-silenced plants. TAZ1 showed a biphasic expression pattern. In the premeiotic phase, TAZ1 transcripts were found to accumulate in all cell types of the anther except the tapetum and gametophytic tissues, whereas the postmeiotic phase of anther development was characterized by expression exclusively in the tapetum. Silencing of TAZ1 by cosuppression resulted in aberrant development and precocious degeneration of the tapetum, followed by extensive microspore abortion that started soon after their release from pollen tetrads. A few pollen grains that survived showed reduced flavonol accumulation, defects in pollen wall formation, and poor germination rates. This study demonstrates an essential role for TAZ1 in the postmeiotic phase of tapetum development. PMID:12368491

  14. OsTZF1, a CCCH-Tandem Zinc Finger Protein, Confers Delayed Senescence and Stress Tolerance in Rice by Regulating Stress-Related Genes1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Asad; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Todaka, Daisuke; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Abo, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    OsTZF1 is a member of the CCCH-type zinc finger gene family in rice (Oryza sativa). Expression of OsTZF1 was induced by drought, high-salt stress, and hydrogen peroxide. OsTZF1 gene expression was also induced by abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. Histochemical activity of β-glucuronidase in transgenic rice plants containing the promoter of OsTZF1 fused with β-glucuronidase was observed in callus, coleoptile, young leaf, and panicle tissues. Upon stress, OsTZF1-green fluorescent protein localization was observed in the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic foci. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsTZF1 driven by a maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter (Ubi:OsTZF1-OX [for overexpression]) exhibited delayed seed germination, growth retardation at the seedling stage, and delayed leaf senescence. RNA interference (RNAi) knocked-down plants (OsTZF1-RNAi) showed early seed germination, enhanced seedling growth, and early leaf senescence compared with controls. Ubi:OsTZF1-OX plants showed improved tolerance to high-salt and drought stresses and vice versa for OsTZF1-RNAi plants. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to stress, reactive oxygen species homeostasis, and metal homeostasis were regulated in the Ubi:OsTZF1-OX plants. RNA-binding assays indicated that OsTZF1 binds to U-rich regions in the 3′ untranslated region of messenger RNAs, suggesting that OsTZF1 might be associated with RNA metabolism of stress-responsive genes. OsTZF1 may serve as a useful biotechnological tool for the improvement of stress tolerance in various plants through the control of RNA metabolism of stress-responsive genes. PMID:23296688

  15. Gert Finger Becomes Emeritus Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zeeuw, T.; Lucuix, C.; Péron, M.

    2016-03-01

    Gert Finger has retired after almost 33 years service and he has been made the first Emeritus Physicist at ESO. An appreciation of some of his many achievements in the development of infrared instrumentation and detector controllers is given. A retirement party for Gert Finger was held in February 2016.

  16. CTCF, a conserved nuclear factor required for optimal transcriptional activity of the chicken c-myc gene, is an 11-Zn-finger protein differentially expressed in multiple forms.

    PubMed Central

    Klenova, E M; Nicolas, R H; Paterson, H F; Carne, A F; Heath, C M; Goodwin, G H; Neiman, P E; Lobanenkov, V V

    1993-01-01

    A novel sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, CTCF, which interacts with the chicken c-myc gene promoter, has been identified and partially characterized (V. V. Lobanenkov, R. H. Nicolas, V. V. Adler, H. Paterson, E. M. Klenova, A. V. Polotskaja, and G. H. Goodwin, Oncogene 5:1743-1753, 1990). In order to test directly whether binding of CTCF to one specific DNA region of the c-myc promoter is important for chicken c-myc transcription, we have determined which nucleotides within this GC-rich region are responsible for recognition of overlapping sites by CTCF and Sp1-like proteins. Using missing-contact analysis of all four nucleotides in both DNA strands and homogeneous CTCF protein purified by sequence-specific chromatography, we have identified three sets of nucleotides which contact either CTCF or two Sp1-like proteins binding within the same DNA region. Specific mutations of 3 of 15 purines required for CTCF binding were designed to eliminate binding of CTCF without altering the binding of other proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay of nuclear extracts showed that the mutant DNA sequence did not bind CTCF but did bind two Sp1-like proteins. When introduced into a 3.3-kbp-long 5'-flanking noncoding c-myc sequence fused to a reporter CAT gene, the same mutation of the CTCF binding site resulted in 10- and 3-fold reductions, respectively, of transcription in two different (erythroid and myeloid) stably transfected chicken cell lines. Isolation and analysis of the CTCF cDNA encoding an 82-kDa form of CTCF protein shows that DNA-binding domain of CTCF is composed of 11 Zn fingers: 10 are of C2H2 class, and 1 is of C2HC class. CTCF was found to be abundant and conserved in cells of vertebrate species. We detected six major nuclear forms of CTCF protein differentially expressed in different chicken cell lines and tissues. We conclude that isoforms of 11-Zn-finger factor CTCF which are present in chicken hematopoietic HD3 and BM2 cells can act as a positive

  17. RNA binding by the Wilms tumor suppressor zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Caricasole, A; Duarte, A; Larsson, S H; Hastie, N D; Little, M; Holmes, G; Todorov, I; Ward, A

    1996-01-01

    The Wilms tumor suppressor gene WT1 is implicated in the ontogeny of genito-urinary abnormalities, including Denys-Drash syndrome and Wilms tumor of the kidney. WT1 encodes Kruppel-type zinc finger proteins that can regulate the expression of several growth-related genes, apparently by binding to specific DNA sites located within 5' untranslated leader regions as well as 5' promoter sequences. Both WT1 and a closely related early growth response factor, EGR1, can bind the same DNA sequences from the mouse gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf-2). We report that WT1, but not EGR1, can bind specific Igf-2 exonic RNA sequences, and that the zinc fingers are required for this interaction. WT1 zinc finger 1, which is not represented in EGR1, plays a more significant role in RNA binding than zinc finger 4, which does have a counterpart in EGR1. Furthermore, the normal subnuclear localization of WT1 proteins is shown to be RNase, but not DNase, sensitive. Therefore, WT1 might, like the Kruppel-type zinc finger protein TFIIIA, regulate gene expression by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8755514

  18. Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger-Retinoic Acid Receptor α (PLZF-RARα), an Oncogenic Transcriptional Repressor of Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) and Tumor Protein p53 (TP53) Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Il; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Young; Koh, Dong-In; Licht, Jonathan D.; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor α (PLZF-RARα) is an oncogene transcriptional repressor that is generated by a chromosomal translocation between the PLZF and RARα genes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL-type) patients. The molecular interaction between PLZF-RARα and the histone deacetylase corepressor was proposed to be important in leukemogenesis. We found that PLZF-RARα can repress transcription of the p21WAF/CDKN1A gene, which encodes the negative cell cycle regulator p21 by binding to its proximal promoter Sp1-binding GC-boxes 3, 4, 5/6, a retinoic acid response element (RARE), and distal p53-responsive elements (p53REs). PLZF-RARα also acts as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53, RARα, and Sp1. PLZF-RARα interacts with co-repressors such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating histones Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 at the CDKN1A promoter. PLZF-RARα also interacts with the MBD3-NuRD complex, leading to epigenetic silencing of CDKN1A through DNA methylation. Furthermore, PLZF-RARα represses TP53 and increases p53 protein degradation by ubiquitination, further repressing p21 expression. Resultantly, PLZF-RARα promotes cell proliferation and significantly increases the number of cells in S-phase. PMID:24821728

  19. Targeted Mutagenesis in Zebrafish Using Customized Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jonathan E.; Maeder, Morgan L.; Pearlberg, Joseph; Joung, J. Keith; Peterson, Randall T.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish mutants have traditionally been obtained using random mutagenesis or retroviral insertions, methods that cannot be targeted to a specific gene and require laborious gene mapping and sequencing. Recently, we and others have shown that customized zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can introduce targeted frame-shift mutations with high efficiency, thereby enabling directed creation of zebrafish gene mutations. Here we describe a detailed protocol for constructing ZFN expression vectors, for generating and introducing ZFN-encoding RNAs into zebrafish embryos, and for identifying ZFN-generated mutations in targeted genomic sites. All of our vectors and methods are compatible with previously described Zinc Finger Consortium reagents for constructing engineered zinc finger arrays. Using these methods, zebrafish founders carrying targeted mutations can be identified within four months. PMID:20010934

  20. Fingering Instabilities in Dewetting Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauliac-Vaujour, E.; Stannard, A.; Martin, C. P.; Blunt, M. O.; Notingher, I.; Moriarty, P. J.; Vancea, I.; Thiele, U.

    2008-05-01

    The growth of fingering patterns in dewetting nanofluids (colloidal solutions of thiol-passivated gold nanoparticles) has been followed in real time using contrast-enhanced video microscopy. The fingering instability on which we focus here arises from evaporatively driven nucleation and growth in a nanoscopically thin precursor solvent film behind the macroscopic contact line. We find that well-developed isotropic fingering structures only form for a narrow range of experimental parameters. Numerical simulations, based on a modification of the Monte Carlo approach introduced by Rabani et al. [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 426, 271 (2003)10.1038/nature02087], reproduce the patterns we observe experimentally.

  1. Fingering instabilities in dewetting nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Pauliac-Vaujour, E; Stannard, A; Martin, C P; Blunt, M O; Notingher, I; Moriarty, P J; Vancea, I; Thiele, U

    2008-05-01

    The growth of fingering patterns in dewetting nanofluids (colloidal solutions of thiol-passivated gold nanoparticles) has been followed in real time using contrast-enhanced video microscopy. The fingering instability on which we focus here arises from evaporatively driven nucleation and growth in a nanoscopically thin precursor solvent film behind the macroscopic contact line. We find that well-developed isotropic fingering structures only form for a narrow range of experimental parameters. Numerical simulations, based on a modification of the Monte Carlo approach introduced by Rabani et al. [Nature (London) 426, 271 (2003)10.1038/nature02087], reproduce the patterns we observe experimentally. PMID:18518311

  2. Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Suy

    1995-01-01

    Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

  3. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Alex; Goebl, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17) and professional clarinettists (N = 6) were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 × 2 × 2 design (register: low-high; tempo: slow-fast, dynamics: soft-loud). There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low-high) of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions). The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast) in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (F mean ) and peak force (F max ) were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (F mean = 1.17 N, F max = 3.05 N) compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g., guitar). Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (F mean = 1.21 N). For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (F mean = 0.54 N). Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  4. Neural correlates of finger gnosis.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Elena; Tamè, Luigi; Furlan, Michele; Haggard, Patrick; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Adriani, Michela; Ferrari, Paolo; Braun, Christoph; Schwarzbach, Jens

    2014-07-01

    Neuropsychological studies have described patients with a selective impairment of finger identification in association with posterior parietal lesions. However, evidence of the role of these areas in finger gnosis from studies of the healthy human brain is still scarce. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the brain network engaged in a novel finger gnosis task, the intermanual in-between task (IIBT), in healthy participants. Several brain regions exhibited a stronger blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response in IIBT than in a control task that did not explicitly rely on finger gnosis but used identical stimuli and motor responses as the IIBT. The IIBT involved stronger signal in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), bilateral precuneus (PCN), bilateral premotor cortex, and left inferior frontal gyrus. In all regions, stimulation of nonhomologous fingers of the two hands elicited higher BOLD signal than stimulation of homologous fingers. Only in the left anteromedial IPL (a-mIPL) and left PCN did signal strength decrease parametrically from nonhomology, through partial homology, to total homology with stimulation delivered synchronously to the two hands. With asynchronous stimulation, the signal was stronger in the left a-mIPL than in any other region, possibly indicating retention of task-relevant information. We suggest that the left PCN may contribute a supporting visuospatial representation via its functional connection to the right PCN. The a-mIPL may instead provide the core substrate of an explicit bilateral body structure representation for the fingers that when disrupted can produce the typical symptoms of finger agnosia. PMID:24990921

  5. Role of zinc finger structure in nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Azumano, Makiko; Uwatoko, Chisana; Itoh, Kohji Kuwahara, Jun

    2009-02-27

    Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates gene expression. Our previous study demonstrated that the carboxyl terminal region of Sp1 containing 3-zinc finger region as DNA binding domain can also serve as nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 has not been well understood. In this study, we performed a gene expression study on mutant Sp1 genes causing a set of amino acid substitutions in zinc finger domains to elucidate nuclear import activity. Nuclear localization of the GFP-fused mutant Sp1 proteins bearing concomitant substitutions in the first and third zinc fingers was highly inhibited. These mutant Sp1 proteins had also lost the binding ability as to the GC box sequence. The results suggest that the overall tertiary structure formed by the three zinc fingers is essential for nuclear localization of Sp1 as well as dispersed basic amino acids within the zinc fingers region.

  6. Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes

    PubMed Central

    Pahari, Susanta; Bickford, David; Fry, Bryan G; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2007-01-01

    Background Snake venom composition varies widely both among closely related species and within the same species, based on ecological variables. In terrestrial snakes, such variation has been proposed to be due to snakes' diet. Land snakes target various prey species including insects (arthropods), lizards (reptiles), frogs and toads (amphibians), birds (aves), and rodents (mammals), whereas sea snakes target a single vertebrate class (fishes) and often specialize on specific types of fish. It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in sea snake venoms compared to that of land snakes. Results Here we describe the expression of toxin genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus (Spine-bellied Sea Snake) and Acalyptophis peronii (Horned Sea Snake), two members of a large adaptive radiation which occupy very different ecological niches. We constructed cDNA libraries from their venom glands and sequenced 214 and 192 clones, respectively. Our data show that despite their explosive evolutionary radiation, there is very little variability in the three-finger toxin (3FTx) as well as the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes, the two main constituents of Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii venom. To understand the evolutionary trends among land snakes, sea snakes and sea kraits, pairwise genetic distances (intraspecific and interspecific) of 3FTx and PLA2 sequences were calculated. Results show that these proteins appear to be highly conserved in sea snakes in contrast to land snakes or sea kraits, despite their extremely divergent and adaptive ecological radiation. Conclusion Based on these results, we suggest that streamlining in habitat and diet in sea snakes has possibly kept their toxin genes conserved, suggesting the idea that prey composition and diet breadth may contribute to the diversity and evolution of venom components. PMID:17900344

  7. Multi-finger interaction during involuntary and voluntary single finger force changes

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J.R.; Zatsiorsky, V.M.; Latash, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Two types of finger interaction are characterized by positive co-variation (enslaving) or negative co-variation (error compensation) of finger forces. Enslaving reflects mechanical and neural connections among fingers, while error compensation results from synergic control of fingers to stabilize their net output. Involuntary and voluntary force changes by a finger were used to explore these patterns. We hypothesized that synergic mechanisms will dominate during involuntary force changes, while enslaving will dominate during voluntary finger force changes. Subjects pressed with all four fingers to match a target force that was 10% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). One of the fingers was unexpectedly raised 5.0 mm at a speed of 30.0 mm/s. During finger raising the subject was instructed “not to intervene voluntarily”. After the finger was passively lifted and a new steady-state achieved, subjects pressed down with the lifted finger, producing a pulse of force voluntarily. The data were analyzed in terms of finger forces and finger modes (hypothetical commands to fingers reflecting their intended involvement). The target finger showed an increase in force during both phases. In the involuntary phase, the target finger force changes ranged between 10.71 ± 1.89% MVC (I-finger) and 16.60 ± 2.26% MVC (L-finger). Generally, non-target fingers displayed a force decrease with a maximum amplitude of −1.49 ± 0.43% MVC (L-finger). Thus, during the involuntary phase, error compensation was observed – non-lifted fingers showed a decrease in force (as well as in mode magnitude). During the voluntary phase, enslaving was observed – non-target fingers showed an increase in force and only minor changes in mode magnitude. The average change in force of non-target fingers ranged from 21.83 ± 4.47% MVC for R-finger (M-finger task) to 0.71 ± 1.10 % MVC for L-finger (I-finger task). The average change in mode of non-target fingers was between −7.34 ± 19

  8. Maternal Diets Trigger Sex-Specific Divergent Trajectories of Gene Expression and Epigenetic Systems in Mouse Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gabory, Anne; Ferry, Laure; Fajardy, Isabelle; Jouneau, Luc; Gothié, Jean-David; Vigé, Alexandre; Fleur, Cécile; Mayeur, Sylvain; Gallou-Kabani, Catherine; Gross, Marie-Sylvie; Attig, Linda; Vambergue, Anne; Lesage, Jean; Reusens, Brigitte; Vieau, Didier; Remacle, Claude; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Junien, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    Males and females responses to gestational overnutrition set the stage for subsequent sex-specific differences in adult onset non communicable diseases. Placenta, as a widely recognized programming agent, contibutes to the underlying processes. According to our previous findings, a high-fat diet during gestation triggers sex-specific epigenetic alterations within CpG and throughout the genome, together with the deregulation of clusters of imprinted genes. We further investigated the impact of diet and sex on placental histology, transcriptomic and epigenetic signatures in mice. Both basal gene expression and response to maternal high-fat diet were sexually dimorphic in whole placentas. Numerous genes showed sexually dimorphic expression, but only 11 genes regardless of the diet. In line with the key role of genes belonging to the sex chromosomes, 3 of these genes were Y-specific and 3 were X-specific. Amongst all the genes that were differentially expressed under a high-fat diet, only 16 genes were consistently affected in both males and females. The differences were not only quantitative but remarkably qualitative. The biological functions and networks of genes dysregulated differed markedly between the sexes. Seven genes of the epigenetic machinery were dysregulated, due to effects of diet, sex or both, including the Y- and X-linked histone demethylase paralogues Kdm5c and Kdm5d, which could mark differently male and female epigenomes. The DNA methyltransferase cofactor Dnmt3l gene expression was affected, reminiscent of our previous observation of changes in global DNA methylation. Overall, this striking sexual dimorphism of programming trajectories impose a considerable revision of the current dietary interventions protocols. PMID:23144842

  9. Correlation between functional and binding activities of designer zinc-finger proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jong Seok

    2006-01-01

    Rapid progress in the ability to develop and utilize zinc-finger proteins with customized sequence specificity have led to their increasing use as tools for modulation of target gene transcription in the post-genomic era. In the present paper, a series of in vitro binding assays and in vivo reporter analyses were used to demonstrate that a zinc-finger protein can effectively specify a base at each position of the target site in vivo and that functional activity of the zinc-finger protein as either a transcriptional repressor or activator is positively correlated with its binding affinity. In addition, this correlation can be extended to artificial engineered zinc-finger proteins. These data suggest that the binding affinity of designer zinc-finger proteins with novel specificity might be a determinant for their ability to regulate transcription of a gene of interest. PMID:17176251

  10. Fluid mixing from viscous fingering.

    PubMed

    Jha, Birendra; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2011-05-13

    Mixing efficiency at low Reynolds numbers can be enhanced by exploiting hydrodynamic instabilities that induce heterogeneity and disorder in the flow. The unstable displacement of fluids with different viscosities, or viscous fingering, provides a powerful mechanism to increase fluid-fluid interfacial area and enhance mixing. Here we describe the dissipative structure of miscible viscous fingering, and propose a two-equation model for the scalar variance and its dissipation rate. Our analysis predicts the optimum range of viscosity contrasts that, for a given Péclet number, maximizes interfacial area and minimizes mixing time. In the spirit of turbulence modeling, the proposed two-equation model permits upscaling dissipation due to fingering at unresolved scales. PMID:21668165

  11. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  12. Cadmium down-regulation of kidney Sp1 binding to mouse SGLT1 and SGLT2 gene promoters: Possible reaction of cadmium with the zinc finger domain of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Kothinti, Rajendra K.; Blodgett, Amy B.; Petering, David H.; Tabatabai, Niloofar M.

    2010-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure causes glucosuria (glucose in the urine). Previously, it was shown that Cd exposure of primary cultures of mouse kidney cells (PMKC) decreased mRNA levels of the glucose transporters, SGLT1 and SGLT2 and that Sp1 from Cd-exposed cells displayed reduced binding to the GC boxes of the mouse SGLT1 promoter in vitro. Here, we identified a GC box upstream of mouse SGLT2 gene. ChIP assays on PMKC revealed that exposure to 5 muM Cd abolished Sp1 binding to SGLT1 GC box while it decreased Sp1 binding to SGLT2 GC sequence by 30% in vivo. The in vitro DNA binding assay, EMSA, demonstrated that binding of Sp1 from Cd (7.5 muM)-treated PMKC to the SGLT2 GC probe was 86% lower than in untreated cells. Sp1 is a zinc finger protein. Compared to PMKC exposed to 5 muM Cd alone, inclusion of 5 muM Zn restored SGLT1 and 2 mRNA levels by 15% and 30%, respectively. Cd (10 muM) decreased the binding of recombinant Sp1 (rhSp1) to SGLT1 and SGLT2 GC probes to 12% and 8% of untreated controls. Cd exerted no effect on GC-bound rhSp1. Co-treatment with Cd and Zn showed that added Zn significantly restored rhSp1 binding to the SGLT1 and SGLT2. Addition of Zn post Cd treatment was not stimulatory. We conclude that Cd can replace Zn in Sp1 DNA binding domain to reduce its binding to GC sites in mouse SGLT1 and SGLT2 promoters.

  13. Long-finger pollicization for macrodactyly of the thumb and index finger.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Kenneth W; Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2014-01-01

    Pollicization of the long finger is rarely performed, and previously described for treating traumatic thumb and index finger loss. Because the long finger lacks the independence of motion and muscular attachments of the index finger, pollicization of the long finger requires modifications of the technique. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with progressive macrodactyly of the thumb and index finger associated with a lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve. The involved digits were severely enlarged, stiff, and nonfunctional. The child was treated with first and second ray resection followed by long-finger pollicization. Surgical pearls and pitfalls are discussed. PMID:24919138

  14. From viscous fingering to bulk elastic fingering in soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saintyves, Baudouin; Biggins, John; Wei, Zhiyan; Mora, Serge; Dauchot, Olivier; Mahadevan, L.; Bouchaud, Elisabeth

    2014-03-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed in purely elastic polyacrylamide gels in Hele-Shaw cells. We have shown that a bulk fingering instability arises in the highly deformable confined elastomers. It shares some similarities with the famous Saffman-Taylor instability, but a systematic study shows that surface tension is not relevant. This instability is sub-critical, with a clear hysteretic behavior. Our experimental observations have been compared very favorably to theoretical and finite element simulations results. In particular, the instability wavelength and the critical front advance have been shown to be proportional to the distance between the two glass plates constituting the cell. We have also shown that in Maxwell viscoelastic fluids, one crosses over continuously from a viscous to an elastic fingering instability.

  15. Characterization of the differentially methylated region of the Impact gene that exhibits Glires-specific imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Kohji; Wintle, Richard F; Scherer, Stephen W

    2008-01-01

    Background Imprinted genes are exclusively expressed from one of the two parental alleles in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. In mammals, nearly 100 genes are documented to be imprinted. To understand the mechanism behind this gene regulation and to identify novel imprinted genes, common features of DNA sequences have been analyzed; however, the general features required for genomic imprinting have not yet been identified, possibly due to variability in underlying molecular mechanisms from locus to locus. Results We performed a thorough comparative genomic analysis of a single locus, Impact, which is imprinted only in Glires (rodents and lagomorphs). The fact that Glires and primates diverged from each other as recent as 70 million years ago makes comparisons between imprinted and non-imprinted orthologues relatively reliable. In species from the Glires clade, Impact bears a differentially methylated region, whereby the maternal allele is hypermethylated. Analysis of this region demonstrated that imprinting was not associated with the presence of direct tandem repeats nor with CpG dinucleotide density. In contrast, a CpG periodicity of 8 bp was observed in this region in species of the Glires clade compared to those of carnivores, artiodactyls, and primates. Conclusions We show that tandem repeats are dispensable, establishment of the differentially methylated region does not rely on G+C content and CpG density, and the CpG periodicity of 8 bp is meaningful to the imprinting. This interval has recently been reported to be optimal for de novo methylation by the Dnmt3a-Dnmt3L complex, suggesting its importance in the establishment of imprinting in Impact and other genes. PMID:19014519

  16. Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    1992-09-01

    Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

  17. The PHD fingers of MLL block MLL fusion protein–mediated transformation

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Andrew G.; Giannola, Diane; Udager, Aaron M.

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene are associated with aggressive acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. These translocations are restricted to an 8.3-kb breakpoint region resulting in fusion of amino terminal MLL sequences in frame to 1 of more than 60 different translocation partners. The translocations consistently delete the plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers and more carboxyl terminal MLL sequences. The function of the PHD fingers is obscure and their specific role in transformation has not been explored. Here we show that inclusion of the PHD fingers in the MLL fusion protein MLL-AF9 blocked immortalization of hematopoietic progenitors. Inclusion of 2 or more PHD fingers reduced association with the Hoxa9 locus and suppressed Hoxa9 up-regulation in hematopoietic progenitors. These data provide an explanation for why MLL translocation breakpoints exclude the PHD fingers and suggest a possible role for these domains in regulating the function of wild-type MLL. PMID:18796627

  18. Mechanical model of a single tendon finger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Cesare; Savino, Sergio

    2013-10-01

    The mechanical model of a single tendon three phalanxes finger is presented. By means of the model both kinematic and dynamical behavior of the finger itself can be studied. This finger is a part of a more complex mechanical system that consists in a four finger grasping device for robots or in a five finger human hand prosthesis. A first prototype has been realized in our department in order to verify the real behavior of the model. Some results of both kinematic and dynamical behavior are presented.

  19. Impact of Finger Type in Fingerprint Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Bours, Patrick; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph

    Nowadays fingerprint verification system is the most widespread and accepted biometric technology that explores various features of the human fingers for this purpose. In general, every normal person has 10 fingers with different size. Although it is claimed that recognition performance with little fingers can be less accurate compared to other finger types, to our best knowledge, this has not been investigated yet. This paper presents our study on the topic of influence of the finger type into fingerprint recognition performance. For analysis we employ two fingerprint verification software packages (one public and one commercial). We conduct test on GUC100 multi sensor fingerprint database which contains fingerprint images of all 10 fingers from 100 subjects. Our analysis indeed confirms that performance with small fingers is less accurate than performance with the others fingers of the hand. It also appears that best performance is being obtained with thumb or index fingers. For example, performance deterioration from the best finger (i.e. index or thumb) to the worst fingers (i.e. small ones) can be in the range of 184%-1352%.

  20. Does finger sense predict addition performance?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of fingers on numerical and mathematical cognition has received a great deal of attention recently. However, the precise role that fingers play in numerical cognition is unknown. The current study explores the relationship between finger sense, arithmetic and general cognitive ability. Seventy-six children between the ages of 5 and 12 participated in the study. The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that while general cognitive ability including language processing was a predictor of addition performance, finger sense was not. The impact of age on the relationship between finger sense, and addition was further examined. The participants were separated into two groups based on age. The results showed that finger gnosia score impacted addition performance in the older group but not the younger group. These results appear to support the hypothesis that fingers provide a scaffold for calculation and that if that scaffold is not properly built, it has continued differential consequences to mathematical cognition. PMID:26993292

  1. The interaction of DNA with multi-Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Heermann, Dieter W.

    2015-02-01

    The multi-Cys2His2 (mC2H2) zinc finger protein, like CTCF, plays a central role in the three-dimensional organization of chromatin and gene regulation. The interaction between DNA and mC2H2 zinc finger proteins becomes crucial to better understand how CTCF dynamically shapes the chromatin structure. Here, we study a coarse-grained model of the mC2H2 zinc finger proteins in complexes with DNA, and in particular, we study how a mC2H2 zinc finger protein binds to and searches for its target DNA loci. On the basis of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we present several interesting kinetic conformational properties of the proteins, such as the rotation-coupled sliding, the asymmetrical roles of different zinc fingers and the partial binding partial dangling mode. In addition, two kinds of studied mC2H2 zinc finger proteins, of CG-rich and AT-rich binding motif each, were able to recognize their target sites and slide away from their non-target sites, which shows a proper sequence specificity in our model and the derived force field for mC2H2-DNA interaction. A further application to CTCF shows that the protein binds to a specific DNA duplex only with its central zinc fingers. The zinc finger domains of CTCF asymmetrically bend the DNA, but do not form a DNA loop alone in our simulations.

  2. [Breeding of robust industrial ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain by artificial zinc finger protein library].

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Zhao, Xinqing; Li, Qian; Zhang, Mingming; Kim, Jin Soo; Bai, Fengwu

    2013-05-01

    Breeding of robust industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high ethanol tolerance is of great significance for efficient fuel ethanol production. Zinc finger proteins play important roles in gene transcription and translation, and exerting control on the regulation of multiple genes. The sequence and localization of the zinc finger motif can be designed and engineered, and the artificial zinc finger protein can be used to regulate celluar metabolism. Stress tolerance of microbial strains is related to multiple genes. Therefore, it is possible to use artificially-designed zinc finger proteins to breed stress tolerant strains. In this study, a library containing artificial zinc finger protein encoding genes was transformed into the model yeast strain S288c. A recombinant strain named M01 with improved ethanol tolerance was obtained. The plasmid in M01 was isolated, and then transformed into the industrial yeast strain Sc4126. Ethanol tolerance of the recombinant strain of Sc4126 were significantly improved. When high gravity ethanol fermentation using 250 g/L glucose was performed, comparing with the wild-type strain, fermentation time of the recombinant strain was decreased by 24 h and the final ethanol concentration was enhanced by 6.3%. The results of this study demonstrate that artificial zinc finger proteins are able to exert control on stress tolerance of yeast strains, and these results provide basis to construct robust industrial yeast strains for efficient ethanol fermentation. PMID:24010359

  3. Current status of ultrasonography of the finger

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of advanced high-resolution transducers has enabled the fast, easy, and dynamic ultrasonographic evaluation of small, superficial structures such as the finger. In order to best exploit these advances, it is important to understand the normal anatomy and the basic pathologies of the finger, as exemplified by the following conditions involving the dorsal, volar, and lateral sections of the finger: sagittal band injuries, mallet finger, and Boutonnière deformity (dorsal aspect); flexor tendon tears, trigger finger, and volar plate injuries (volar aspect); gamekeeper’s thumb (Stener lesions) and other collateral ligament tears (lateral aspect); and other lesions. This review provides a basis for understanding the ultrasonography of the finger and will therefore be useful for radiologists. PMID:26753604

  4. On the fly finger knuckle print authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Narishige; Shinzaki, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Finger knuckle print authentication has been researched not only as a supplemental authentication modality to fingerprint recognition but also as a method for logging into a PC or entering a building. However, in previous works, some specific devices were necessary to capture a finger knuckle print and users had to keep their fingers perfectly still to capture their finger knuckle. In this paper, we propose a new on the fly finger knuckle print authentication system using a general web camera. In our proposed authentication system, users can input their finger knuckle prints without needing their hand to remain motionless during image capture. We also evaluate the authentication accuracy of the proposed system, achieving an 7% EER under best conditions.

  5. Comparative analysis of zinc finger proteins involved in plant disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Rai, Amit Kumar; Kanwar, Shamsher Singh; Sharma, Tilak R

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to understand the role of zinc finger domains in proteins of resistance (R) genes cloned from different crops. We analyzed protein sequences of seventy R genes of various crops in which twenty six proteins were found to have zinc finger domains along with nucleotide binding sites - leucine rice repeats (NBS-LRR) domains. We identified thirty four zinc finger domains in the R proteins of nine crops and were grouped into 19 types of zinc fingers. The size of individual zinc finger domain within the R genes varied from 11 to 84 amino acids, whereas the size of proteins containing these domains varied from 263 to 1305 amino acids. The biophysical analysis revealed that molecular weight of Pi54 zinc finger was lowest whereas the highest one was found in rice Pib zinc finger named as Transposes Transcription Factor (TTF). The instability (R(2) =0.95) and the aliphatic (R(2) =0.94) indices profile of zinc finger domains follows the polynomial distribution pattern. The pairwise identity analysis showed that the Lin11, Isl-1 & Mec-3 (LIM) zinc finger domain of rice blast resistance protein pi21 have 12.3% similarity with the nuclear transcription factor, X-box binding-like 1 (NFX) type zinc finger domain of Pi54 protein. For the first time, we reported that Pi54 (Pi-k(h)-Tetep), a rice blast resistance (R) protein have a small zinc finger domain of NFX type located on the C-terminal in between NBS and LRR domains of the R-protein. Compositional analysis depicted by the helical wheel diagram revealed the presence of a hydrophobic region within this domain which might help in exposing the LRR region for a possible R-Avr interaction. This domain is unique among all other cloned plant disease resistance genes and might play an important role in broad-spectrum nature of rice blast resistance gene Pi54. PMID:22916136

  6. Comparative Analysis of Zinc Finger Proteins Involved in Plant Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Rai, Amit Kumar; Kanwar, Shamsher Singh; Sharma, Tilak R.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to understand the role of zinc finger domains in proteins of resistance (R) genes cloned from different crops. We analyzed protein sequences of seventy R genes of various crops in which twenty six proteins were found to have zinc finger domains along with nucleotide binding sites - leucine rice repeats (NBS-LRR) domains. We identified thirty four zinc finger domains in the R proteins of nine crops and were grouped into 19 types of zinc fingers. The size of individual zinc finger domain within the R genes varied from 11 to 84 amino acids, whereas the size of proteins containing these domains varied from 263 to 1305 amino acids. The biophysical analysis revealed that molecular weight of Pi54 zinc finger was lowest whereas the highest one was found in rice Pib zinc finger named as Transposes Transcription Factor (TTF). The instability (R2 = 0.95) and the aliphatic (R2 = 0.94) indices profile of zinc finger domains follows the polynomial distribution pattern. The pairwise identity analysis showed that the Lin11, Isl-1 & Mec-3 (LIM) zinc finger domain of rice blast resistance protein pi21 have 12.3% similarity with the nuclear transcription factor, X-box binding-like 1 (NFX) type zinc finger domain of Pi54 protein. For the first time, we reported that Pi54 (Pi-kh-Tetep), a rice blast resistance (R) protein have a small zinc finger domain of NFX type located on the C-terminal in between NBS and LRR domains of the R-protein. Compositional analysis depicted by the helical wheel diagram revealed the presence of a hydrophobic region within this domain which might help in exposing the LRR region for a possible R-Avr interaction. This domain is unique among all other cloned plant disease resistance genes and might play an important role in broad-spectrum nature of rice blast resistance gene Pi54. PMID:22916136

  7. Piezoelectric Actuators On A Cold Finger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Chin-Po; Garba, John A.; Glaser, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Developmental system for active suppression of vibrations of cold finger includes three piezoelectric actuators bonded to outer surface. Actuators used to suppress longitudinal and lateral vibrations of upper end of cold finger by applying opposing vibrations. Cold finger in question is part of a cryogenic system associated with an infrared imaging detector. When fully developed, system would be feedback sensor/control/actuator system automatically adapting to changing vibrational environment and suppresses pressure-induced vibrations by imposing compensatory vibrations via actuators.

  8. Prosthetic Hand With Two Gripping Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell B.; Vest, Thomas W.; Carden, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Prosthetic hand developed for amputee who retains significant portion of forearm. Outer end of device is end effector including two fingers, one moved by rotating remaining part of forearm about its longitudinal axis. Main body of end effector is end member supporting fingers, roller bearing assembly, and rack-and-pinion mechanism. Advantage of rack-and-pinion mechanism enables user to open or close gap between fingers with precision and force.

  9. Error compensation during finger force production after one- and four-finger voluntarily fatiguing exercise.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Eric S; Hoopes, Josh A; Cordial, Rory J; Li, Sheng

    2007-08-01

    The effect of muscle fatigue on error compensation strategies during multi-finger ramp force production tasks was investigated. Thirteen young, healthy subjects were instructed to produce a total force with four fingers of the right hand to accurately match a visually displayed template. The template consisted of a 3-s waiting period, a 3-s ramp force production [from 0 to 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)], and a 3-s constant force production. A series of 12 ramp trials was performed before and after fatigue. Fatigue was induced by a 60-s maximal isometric force production with either the index-finger only or with all four fingers during two separate testing sessions. The average percent of drop was 38.2% in the MVC of the index finger after index-finger fatiguing exercise and 38.3% in the MVC of all fingers after four-finger fatiguing exercise. The ability of individual fingers to compensate for each other's errors in order for the total force to match the preset template was quantified as the error compensation index (ECI), i.e., the ratio of the sum of variances of individual finger forces and the variance of the total force. By comparing pre- and post-fatigue performance during four-finger ramp force production, we observed that the variance of the total force was not significantly changed after one- or four-finger fatiguing exercise. The ECI significantly decreased after four-finger fatiguing exercise, especially during the last second of the ramp; while the ECI remained unchanged after index finger single-finger fatiguing exercise. These results suggest that the central nervous system is able to utilize the abundant degrees of freedom to compensate for partial impairment of the motor apparatus induced by muscle fatigue to maintain the desired performance. However, this ability is significantly decreased when all elements of the motor apparatus are impaired. PMID:17443316

  10. Creating Number Semantics through Finger Movement Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badets, Arnaud; Pesenti, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Communication, language and conceptual knowledge related to concrete objects may rely on the sensory-motor systems from which they emerge. How abstract concepts can emerge from these systems is however still unknown. Here we report a functional interaction between a specific meaningful finger movement, such as a finger grip closing, and a concept…

  11. Analysis and treatment of finger sucking.

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, S A; Miltenberger, R G; Stricker, J M; Garlinghouse, M A; Roberts, J; Galensky, T L; Rapp, J T

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed and treated the finger sucking of 2 developmentally typical children aged 7 and 10 years. The functional analysis revealed that the finger sucking of both children was exhibited primarily during alone conditions, suggesting that the behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. An extended analysis provided support for this hypothesis and demonstrated that attenuation of stimulation produced by the finger sucking resulted in behavior reductions for both children. Treatment consisted of having each child wear a glove on the relevant hand during periods when he or she was alone. Use of the glove produced zero levels of finger sucking for 1 participant, whereas only moderate reductions were obtained for the other. Subsequently, an awareness enhancement device was used that produced an immediate reduction in finger sucking. PMID:10738951

  12. The Zn-finger domain of RIZ protein promotes MCF-7 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mariangela; Abbondanza, Ciro; D'Arcangelo, Andrea; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Medici, Nicola; Moncharmont, Bruno; Puca, Giovanni Alfredo

    2004-11-25

    In order to understand the oncogenic properties of retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger (RIZ) gene products, we produced an MCF-7-derived cell line expressing a fusion protein containing the zinc-finger (aa 359-497) domain of RIZ protein (MCF-7/znf). The Zn-finger domain contains three of the eight putative Zn-finger motifs and is located in proximity of the E1A-like domain containing the Rb protein-binding motif. The MCF-7/znf cells showed a higher growth rate than the parental or the control cell lines, both in hormone-deprived conditions or upon estrogen stimulation. Furthermore, they were less sensitive to the growth inhibitory effect of anti-estrogens and showed a higher level of expression of cyclin D1 and A. The expressed Zn-finger domain recombinant product was localized in the nucleus and in the nucleoli and its expression modified the pattern of actin staining in the cytoplasm. In conclusion the presented results indicated that the Zn-finger domain could be endowed with the putative oncogenic activity of RIZ2 gene product. PMID:15488642

  13. Fingering in Stochastic Growth Models

    PubMed Central

    Aristotelous, Andreas C.; Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the widespread use of hybrid-discrete cellular automata in modeling cancer, two simple growth models are studied on the two dimensional lattice that incorporate a nutrient, assumed to be oxygen. In the first model the oxygen concentration u(x, t) is computed based on the geometry of the growing blob, while in the second one u(x, t) satisfies a reaction-diffusion equation. A threshold θ value exists such that cells give birth at rate β(u(x, t) − θ)+ and die at rate δ(θ − u(x, t)+. In the first model, a phase transition was found between growth as a solid blob and “fingering” at a threshold θc = 0.5, while in the second case fingering always occurs, i.e., θc = 0. PMID:26430353

  14. Differing Dynamics of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Coordination: Two-finger and Four-Finger Tapping Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Kentaro; Furuyama, Nobuhiro; Inamura, Tetsunari

    2015-01-01

    Finger-tapping experiments were conducted to examine whether the dynamics of intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems can be described equally by the Haken—Kelso—Bunz model, which describes inter-limb coordination dynamics. This article reports the results of finger-tapping experiments conducted in both systems. Two within-subject factors were investigated: the phase mode and the number of fingers. In the intrapersonal experiment (Experiment 1), the participants were asked to tap, paced by a gradually hastening auditory metronome, looking at their fingers moving, using the index finger in the two finger condition, or the index and middle finger in the four-finger condition. In the interpersonal experiment (Experiment 2), pairs of participants performed the task while each participant used the outside hand, tapping with the index finger in the two finger condition, or the index and middle finger in the four-finger condition. Some results did not agree with the HKB model predictions. First, from Experiment 1, no significant difference was observed in the movement stability between the in-phase and anti-phase modes in the two finger condition. Second, from Experiment 2, no significant difference was found in the movement stability between the in-phase and anti-phase mode in the four-finger condition. From these findings, different coordination dynamics were inferred between intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems against prediction from the previous studies. Results were discussed according to differences between intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems in the availability of perceptual information and the complexity in the interaction between limbs derived from a nested structure. PMID:26070119

  15. Finger wear detection for production line battery tester

    DOEpatents

    Depiante, Eduardo V.

    1997-01-01

    A method for detecting wear in a battery tester probe. The method includes providing a battery tester unit having at least one tester finger, generating a tester signal using the tester fingers and battery tester unit with the signal characteristic of the electrochemical condition of the battery and the tester finger, applying wavelet transformation to the tester signal including computing a mother wavelet to produce finger wear indicator signals, analyzing the signals to create a finger wear index, comparing the wear index for the tester finger with the index for a new tester finger and generating a tester finger signal change signal to indicate achieving a threshold wear change.

  16. Finger wear detection for production line battery tester

    DOEpatents

    Depiante, E.V.

    1997-11-18

    A method is described for detecting wear in a battery tester probe. The method includes providing a battery tester unit having at least one tester finger, generating a tester signal using the tester fingers and battery tester unit with the signal characteristic of the electrochemical condition of the battery and the tester finger, applying wavelet transformation to the tester signal including computing a mother wavelet to produce finger wear indicator signals, analyzing the signals to create a finger wear index, comparing the wear index for the tester finger with the index for a new tester finger and generating a tester finger signal change signal to indicate achieving a threshold wear change. 9 figs.

  17. Fingered core structure of nematic boojums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj, Samo; Rosso, Riccardo; Virga, Epifanio G.

    2008-09-01

    Using the Landau-de Gennes phenomenological approach, we study the fine biaxial core structure of a boojum residing on the surface of a nematic liquid crystal phase. The core is formed by a negatively uniaxial finger, surrounded by a shell with maximal biaxiality. The characteristic finger’s length and the shell’s width are comparable to the biaxial correlation length. The finger tip is melted for topological reasons. Upon decreasing the surface anchoring strength below a critical value, the finger gradually leaves the bulk and it is expelled through the surface.

  18. Haematopoietic malignancies caused by dysregulation of a chromatin-binding PHD finger

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang G.; Song, Jikui; Wang, Zhanxin; Dormann, Holger L.; Casadio, Fabio; Li, Haitao; Luo, Jun-Li; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Allis, C. David

    2009-01-01

    Histone H3 Lys4 methylation (H3K4me) was proposed as a critical component in regulating the gene expression, epigenetic states, and cellular identities1. The biological meaning of H3K4me is interpreted via conserved modules including plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers that recognize varied H3K4me states1,2. The dysregulation of PHD finger has been implicated in a variety of human diseases including cancers and immune or neurological disorders3. Here we report that fusing an H3K4-trimethylation (H3K4me3)-binding PHD finger, such as the C-terminal PHD finger of JARID1A or PHF23 (JARID1APHD3, PHF23PHD), to a common fusion partner nucleoporin-98 (NUP98) as identified in human leukemias4,5, generated potent oncoproteins that arrested hematopoietic differentiation and induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In these processes, a PHD finger that specifically recognizes H3K4me3/2 marks was essential for leukemogenesis. Mutations in PHD fingers that abrogated H3K4me3-binding also abolished leukemic transformation. NUP98-PHD fusion prevented the differentiation-associated removal of H3K4me3 at many loci encoding lineage-specific transcription factors (Hox(s), Gata3, Meis1, Eya1, Pbx1), and enforced their active gene transcription. Mechanistically, NUP98-PHD fusions act as ‘chromatin boundary factors’, dominating over polycomb-mediated gene silencing to ‘lock’ developmentally crucial loci into an active chromatin state (H3K4me3 with induced histone acetylation), a state that defined leukemia stem cells. Collectively, our studies represent the first report wherein the deregulation of PHD finger, ‘effector’ of specific histone modification, perturbs the epigenetic dynamics on developmentally critical loci, catastrophizes cellular fate decision-making, and even causes oncogenesis during development. PMID:19430464

  19. Haematopoietic malignancies caused by dysregulation of a chromatin-binding PHD finger

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gang G.; Song, Jikui; Wang, Zhanxin; Dormann, Holger L.; Casadio, Fabio; Li, Haitao; Luo, Jun-Li; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Allis, C. David

    2009-07-21

    Histone H3 lysine4 methylation (H3K4me) has been proposed as a critical component in regulating gene expression, epigenetic states, and cellular identities. The biological meaning of H3K4me is interpreted by conserved modules including plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers that recognize varied H3K4me states. The dysregulation of PHD fingers has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancers and immune or neurological disorders. Here we report that fusing an H3K4-trimethylation (H3K4me3)-binding PHD finger, such as the carboxy-terminal PHD finger of PHF23 or JARID1A (also known as KDM5A or RBBP2), to a common fusion partner nucleoporin-98 (NUP98) as identified in human leukaemias, generated potent oncoproteins that arrested haematopoietic differentiation and induced acute myeloid leukaemia in murine models. In these processes, a PHD finger that specifically recognizes H3K4me3/2 marks was essential for leukaemogenesis. Mutations in PHD fingers that abrogated H3K4me3 binding also abolished leukaemic transformation. NUP98-PHD fusion prevented the differentiation-associated removal of H3K4me3 at many loci encoding lineage-specific transcription factors (Hox(s), Gata3, Meis1, Eya1 and Pbx1), and enforced their active gene transcription in murine haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Mechanistically, NUP98-PHD fusions act as 'chromatin boundary factors', dominating over polycomb-mediated gene silencing to 'lock' developmentally critical loci into an active chromatin state (H3K4me3 with induced histone acetylation), a state that defined leukaemia stem cells. Collectively, our studies represent, to our knowledge, the first report that deregulation of the PHD finger, an 'effector' of specific histone modification, perturbs the epigenetic dynamics on developmentally critical loci, catastrophizes cellular fate decision-making, and even causes oncogenesis during mammalian development.

  20. Evaluation and application of modularly assembled zinc-finger nucleases in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cong; Smith, Tom; McNulty, Joseph; Rayla, Amy L.; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Siekmann, Arndt F.; Buffardi, Matthew; Meng, Xiangdong; Shin, Jimann; Padmanabhan, Arun; Cifuentes, Daniel; Giraldez, Antonio J.; Look, A. Thomas; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Lawson, Nathan D.; Wolfe, Scot A.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) allow targeted gene inactivation in a wide range of model organisms. However, construction of target-specific ZFNs is technically challenging. Here, we evaluate a straightforward modular assembly-based approach for ZFN construction and gene inactivation in zebrafish. From an archive of 27 different zinc-finger modules, we assembled more than 70 different zinc-finger cassettes and evaluated their specificity using a bacterial one-hybrid assay. In parallel, we constructed ZFNs from these cassettes and tested their ability to induce lesions in zebrafish embryos. We found that the majority of zinc-finger proteins assembled from these modules have favorable specificities and nearly one-third of modular ZFNs generated lesions at their targets in the zebrafish genome. To facilitate the application of ZFNs within the zebrafish community we constructed a public database of sites in the zebrafish genome that can be targeted using this archive. Importantly, we generated new germline mutations in eight different genes, confirming that this is a viable platform for heritable gene inactivation in vertebrates. Characterization of one of these mutants, gata2a, revealed an unexpected role for this transcription factor in vascular development. This work provides a resource to allow targeted germline gene inactivation in zebrafish and highlights the benefit of a definitive reverse genetic strategy to reveal gene function. PMID:21937602

  1. Aesthetic finger prosthesis with silicone biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Raghu, K M; Gururaju, C R; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of finger prosthesis is as much an art as it is science. The ideally constructed prosthesis must duplicate the missing structures so precisely that patients can appear in public without fear of attracting unwanted attraction. A 65-years-old patient reported with loss of his right index finger up to the second phalanx and wanted to get it replaced. An impression of the amputated finger and donor were made. A wax pattern of the prosthesis was fabricated using the donor impression; a trial was performed and flasked. Medical grade silicone was intrinsically stained to match the skin tone, following which it was packed, processed and finished. This clinical report describes a method of attaining retention by selective scoring of the master cast of partially amputated finger to enhance the vacuum effect at par with the proportional distribution of the positive forces on the tissues exerted by the prosthesis. PMID:23975917

  2. Finger Cooling During Cold Air Exposure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikuisis, Peter

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the onset of finger freezing. It is an extension of a tissue-cooling model originally developed to predict the onset of cheek freezing. The extension to the finger is presented as a more conservative warning of wind chill. Indeed, guidance on the risk of finger freezing is important not only to safeguard the finger, but also because it pertains more closely to susceptible facial features, such as the nose, than if only the risk of cheek freezing was provided. The importance of blood flow to the finger and the modeling of vaso-constriction are demonstrated through cooling predictions that agree reasonably well with several reported observations. Differences in the prediction between the present physiologic-based model and the engineering model used to develop the wind chill index are also discussed. New wind chill charts are presented that tabulate the mean cooling rates and corresponding onset times to freezing of the finger for various combinations of air temperature and wind speed. Results indicate that the surface of the finger cools to its freezing point in approximately one-eighth of the time predicted for the cheek. For combinations that result in the same wind chill temperature (WCT), the rate of finger cooling is faster at the higher wind speed. This asymmetry was previously disclosed through the application of the model to cheek cooling, and it reiterates the ambiguity associated with the reporting of WCT. It is further emphasized that the reporting of onset times to freezing, or safe exposure limits, is a more logical and meaningful alternative to the WCT.

  3. Somatic human ZBTB7A zinc finger mutations promote cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Liu, X-S; Liu, Z; Gerarduzzi, C; Choi, D E; Ganapathy, S; Pandolfi, P P; Yuan, Z-M

    2016-06-01

    We recently reported that ZBTB7A is a bona fide transcription repressor of key glycolytic genes and its downregulation in human cancer contributes to tumor metabolism. As reduced expression of ZBTB7A is found only in a subset of human cancers, we explored alternative mechanisms of its inactivation by mining human cancer genome databases. We discovered recurrent somatic mutations of ZBTB7A in multiple types of human cancers with a marked enrichment of mutations within the zinc finger domain. Functional characterization of the mutants demonstrated that mutations within the zinc finger region of ZBTB7A invariably resulted in loss of function. As a consequence, the glycolytic genes were markedly upregulated in cancer cells harboring ZBTB7A zinc finger mutation, leading to increased glycolysis and proliferation. Our study uncovers the loss-of-function mutation in ZBTB7A as a novel mechanism causing elevated glycolysis in human cancer, which carries important therapeutic implication. PMID:26455326

  4. New Finger Biometric Method Using Near Infrared Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eui Chul; Jung, Hyunwoo; Kim, Daeyeoul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new finger biometric method. Infrared finger images are first captured, and then feature extraction is performed using a modified Gaussian high-pass filter through binarization, local binary pattern (LBP), and local derivative pattern (LDP) methods. Infrared finger images include the multimodal features of finger veins and finger geometries. Instead of extracting each feature using different methods, the modified Gaussian high-pass filter is fully convolved. Therefore, the extracted binary patterns of finger images include the multimodal features of veins and finger geometries. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an error rate of 0.13%. PMID:22163741

  5. Finger multibiometric cryptosystems: fusion strategy and template security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jialiang; Li, Qiong; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu

    2014-03-01

    We address two critical issues in the design of a finger multibiometric system, i.e., fusion strategy and template security. First, three fusion strategies (feature-level, score-level, and decision-level fusions) with the corresponding template protection technique are proposed as the finger multibiometric cryptosystems to protect multiple finger biometric templates of fingerprint, finger vein, finger knuckle print, and finger shape modalities. Second, we theoretically analyze different fusion strategies for finger multibiometric cryptosystems with respect to their impact on security and recognition accuracy. Finally, the performance of finger multibiometric cryptosystems at different fusion levels is investigated on a merged finger multimodal biometric database. The comparative results suggest that the proposed finger multibiometric cryptosystem at feature-level fusion outperforms other approaches in terms of verification performance and template security.

  6. Scattering Removal for Finger-Vein Image Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy. PMID:22737028

  7. Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy. PMID:22737028

  8. A syndrome of facial dysmorphism, cubital pterygium, short distal phalanges, swan neck deformity of fingers, and scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Girisha, Katta M; Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Shah, Hitesh; Bhavani, Gandham Srilakshmi; Graham, John M; Boggula, Vijay Raju; Phadke, Shubha R; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2014-04-01

    We report on an adolescent girl with sparse scalp hair, wide columella extending below alae nasi, webbing at elbows, broad finger tips, short distal phalanx of fingers, swan neck deformity of fingers, scoliosis, tall vertebrae, short fibulae, short fourth metatarsal bone, abnormal distal humeri, and unilateral clubfoot at birth. The combination of these features represents a novel phenotype. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of the FLNA and FLNB genes and did not observe any pathogenic sequence variation. Chromosomal microarray revealed a de novo copy number variation of uncertain clinical significance on 7p22.3. PMID:24458843

  9. Engineering Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for producing recombinant proteins with simple glycoforms by zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated gene knockout of mannosyl (alpha-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (Mgat1).

    PubMed

    Sealover, Natalie R; Davis, Angela M; Brooks, Jeanne K; George, Henry J; Kayser, Kevin J; Lin, Nan

    2013-08-10

    While complex N-linked glycoforms are often desired in biotherapeutic protein production, proteins with simple, homogeneous glycan structure have implications for X-ray crystallography and for recombinant therapeutics targeted to the mannose receptor of antigen presenting cells. Mannosyl (alpha-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (Mgat1, also called GnTI) adds N-acetylglucosamine to the Man5GlcNAc2 (Man5) N-glycan structure as part of complex N-glycan synthesis. Here, we report the use of zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) genome editing technology to create Mgat1 disrupted Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. These cell lines allow for the production of recombinant proteins with Man5 as the predominant N-linked glycosylation species. This method provides advantages over previously reported methods to create Mgat1-deficient cell lines. The use of ZFN-based genome editing eliminates potential regulatory concerns associated with random chemical mutagenesis, while retaining the robust growth and productivity characteristics of the parental cell lines. These Mgat1 disrupted cell lines may be used to produce mannose receptor-targeted therapeutic proteins. Cell line generation work can be performed in both Mgat1 disrupted and wild-type host cell lines to conduct X-ray crystallography studies of protein therapeutics in the same cell line used for production. PMID:23777858

  10. Anthropomorphic finger antagonistically actuated by SMA plates.

    PubMed

    Engeberg, Erik D; Dilibal, Savas; Vatani, Morteza; Choi, Jae-Won; Lavery, John

    2015-10-01

    Most robotic applications that contain shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators use the SMA in a linear or spring shape. In contrast, a novel robotic finger was designed in this paper using SMA plates that were thermomechanically trained to take the shape of a flexed human finger when Joule heated. This flexor actuator was placed in parallel with an extensor actuator that was designed to straighten when Joule heated. Thus, alternately heating and cooling the flexor and extensor actuators caused the finger to flex and extend. Three different NiTi based SMA plates were evaluated for their ability to apply forces to a rigid and compliant object. The best of these three SMAs was able to apply a maximum fingertip force of 9.01N on average. A 3D CAD model of a human finger was used to create a solid model for the mold of the finger covering skin. Using a 3D printer, inner and outer molds were fabricated to house the actuators and a position sensor, which were assembled using a multi-stage casting process. Next, a nonlinear antagonistic controller was developed using an outer position control loop with two inner MOSFET current control loops. Sine and square wave tracking experiments demonstrated minimal errors within the operational bounds of the finger. The ability of the finger to recover from unexpected disturbances was also shown along with the frequency response up to 7 rad s(-1). The closed loop bandwidth of the system was 6.4 rad s(-1) when operated intermittently and 1.8 rad s(-1) when operated continuously. PMID:26292164

  11. Alteration of zif268 zinc-finger motifs gives rise to non-native zinc-co-ordination sites but preserves wild-type DNA recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A; Sarkar, B

    1998-01-01

    Zinc fingers are among the major structural motifs found in proteins that are involved in eukaryotic gene regulation. Many of these zinc-finger domains are involved in DNA binding. This study investigated whether the zinc-co-ordinating (Cys)2(His)2 motif found in the three zinc fingers of zif268 could be replaced by a (Cys)4 motif while still preserving DNA recognition. (Cys)2(His)2-to-(Cys)4 mutations were generated in each of the three zinc fingers of zif268 individually, as well as in fingers 1 and 3, and fingers 2 and 3 together. Whereas finger 1 and finger 3 tolerate the switch, such an alteration in finger 2 renders the polypeptide incapable of DNA recognition. The protein-DNA interaction was examined in greater detail by using a methylation-interference assay. The mutant polypeptides containing the (Cys)4 motif in fingers 1 or 3 recognize DNA in a manner identical to the wild-type protein, suggesting that the (Cys)4 motif appears to give rise to a properly folded finger. Additional results indicate that a zif268 variant containing a (Cys)2(His)(Ala) arrangement in finger 1 is also capable of DNA recognition in a manner identical to the wild-type polypeptide. This appears to be the first time that such alterations, in the context of an intact DNA-binding domain, have still allowed for specific DNA recognition. Taken together, the work presented here enhances our understanding of the relationship between metal ligation and DNA-binding by zinc fingers. PMID:9639566

  12. Design and preliminary evaluation of the FINGER rehabilitation robot: controlling challenge and quantifying finger individuation during musical computer game play

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of FINGER (Finger Individuating Grasp Exercise Robot), a device for assisting in finger rehabilitation after neurologic injury. We developed FINGER to assist stroke patients in moving their fingers individually in a naturalistic curling motion while playing a game similar to Guitar Hero®a. The goal was to make FINGER capable of assisting with motions where precise timing is important. Methods FINGER consists of a pair of stacked single degree-of-freedom 8-bar mechanisms, one for the index and one for the middle finger. Each 8-bar mechanism was designed to control the angle and position of the proximal phalanx and the position of the middle phalanx. Target positions for the mechanism optimization were determined from trajectory data collected from 7 healthy subjects using color-based motion capture. The resulting robotic device was built to accommodate multiple finger sizes and finger-to-finger widths. For initial evaluation, we asked individuals with a stroke (n = 16) and without impairment (n = 4) to play a game similar to Guitar Hero® while connected to FINGER. Results Precision design, low friction bearings, and separate high speed linear actuators allowed FINGER to individually actuate the fingers with a high bandwidth of control (−3 dB at approximately 8 Hz). During the tests, we were able to modulate the subject’s success rate at the game by automatically adjusting the controller gains of FINGER. We also used FINGER to measure subjects’ effort and finger individuation while playing the game. Conclusions Test results demonstrate the ability of FINGER to motivate subjects with an engaging game environment that challenges individuated control of the fingers, automatically control assistance levels, and quantify finger individuation after stroke. PMID:24495432

  13. Ultrafast High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Finger Pore Imaging in Latent Finger Prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Christian; Abel, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Latent finger prints (LFPs) are deposits of sweat components in ridge and groove patterns, left after human fingers contact with a surface. Being important targets in biometry and forensic investigations they contain more information than topological patterns. With laser desorption mass spectrometry imaging (LD-MSI) we record `three-dimensional' finger prints with additional chemical information as the third dimension. Here we show the potential of fast finger pore imaging (FPI) in latent finger prints employing LD-MSI without a classical matrix in a high- spatial resolution mode. Thin films of gold rapidly sputtered on top of the sample are used for desorption. FPI employing an optical image for rapid spatial orientation and guiding of the desorption laser enables the rapid analysis of individual finger pores, and the chemical composition of their excretions. With this approach we rapidly detect metabolites, drugs, and characteristic excretions from the inside of the human organism by a minimally-invasive strategy, and distinguish them from chemicals in contact with fingers without any labeling. The fast finger pore imaging, analysis, and screening approach opens the door for a vast number of novel applications in such different fields as forensics, doping and medication control, therapy, as well as rapid profiling of individuals.

  14. Ultrafast High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Finger Pore Imaging in Latent Finger Prints

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, Christian; Abel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Latent finger prints (LFPs) are deposits of sweat components in ridge and groove patterns, left after human fingers contact with a surface. Being important targets in biometry and forensic investigations they contain more information than topological patterns. With laser desorption mass spectrometry imaging (LD-MSI) we record ‘three-dimensional' finger prints with additional chemical information as the third dimension. Here we show the potential of fast finger pore imaging (FPI) in latent finger prints employing LD-MSI without a classical matrix in a high- spatial resolution mode. Thin films of gold rapidly sputtered on top of the sample are used for desorption. FPI employing an optical image for rapid spatial orientation and guiding of the desorption laser enables the rapid analysis of individual finger pores, and the chemical composition of their excretions. With this approach we rapidly detect metabolites, drugs, and characteristic excretions from the inside of the human organism by a minimally-invasive strategy, and distinguish them from chemicals in contact with fingers without any labeling. The fast finger pore imaging, analysis, and screening approach opens the door for a vast number of novel applications in such different fields as forensics, doping and medication control, therapy, as well as rapid profiling of individuals. PMID:25366032

  15. Ultrafast high-resolution mass spectrometric finger pore imaging in latent finger prints.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Christian; Abel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Latent finger prints (LFPs) are deposits of sweat components in ridge and groove patterns, left after human fingers contact with a surface. Being important targets in biometry and forensic investigations they contain more information than topological patterns. With laser desorption mass spectrometry imaging (LD-MSI) we record 'three-dimensional' finger prints with additional chemical information as the third dimension. Here we show the potential of fast finger pore imaging (FPI) in latent finger prints employing LD-MSI without a classical matrix in a high- spatial resolution mode. Thin films of gold rapidly sputtered on top of the sample are used for desorption. FPI employing an optical image for rapid spatial orientation and guiding of the desorption laser enables the rapid analysis of individual finger pores, and the chemical composition of their excretions. With this approach we rapidly detect metabolites, drugs, and characteristic excretions from the inside of the human organism by a minimally-invasive strategy, and distinguish them from chemicals in contact with fingers without any labeling. The fast finger pore imaging, analysis, and screening approach opens the door for a vast number of novel applications in such different fields as forensics, doping and medication control, therapy, as well as rapid profiling of individuals. PMID:25366032

  16. Loss of MLL PHD-finger-3 is necessary for MLL-ENL-induced hematopoietic stem cell immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Santillan, Donna A.; Koonce, Mark; Wei, Wei; Luo, Roger; Thirman, Michael J.; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J.; Diaz, Manuel O.

    2009-01-01

    Reciprocal chromosomal translocations at the MLL gene locus result in expression of novel fusion proteins such as MLL-ENL associated with leukemia. The three PHD finger cassette, one of the highly conserved domains in MLL, is absent in all fusion proteins. This domain has been shown to interact with Cyp33, a cyclophilin which enhances the recruitment of HDACs to the MLL repression domain and mediates HOX gene repression. Insertion of the third PHD finger of MLL, into MLL-ENL allows the recruitment of Cyp33, and subsequently HDAC1, to the fusion protein. Furthermore, expression of the fusion protein with the PHD finger insertion mediates the down-regulation of the HOXC8 gene expression in a Cyp33 dependent manner. Finally, the addition of the PHD finger domain or the 3rd PHD finger alone, into MLL-ENL, blocks the hematopoietic-stem-cell immortalization potential of the fusion protein in serial plating colony assays. Insertion of only the 1st and 2nd PHD fingers has no such effect. These data support the hypothesis that the binding of Cyp33 to the MLL 3rd PHD finger switches the MLL function from trans-activation to repression. In the immortalizing MLL fusion protein, the loss of the PHD fingers, in combination with the gain of the activation domain of ENL, or of other partner proteins, makes the fusion protein a constitutive trans-activator. This leads to constitutive over expression of MLL target genes that block stem cell commitment and promote stem cell renewal, probably the first step in MLL-related leukemogenesis. PMID:18676843

  17. Reconstruction of Extensive Volar Finger Defects with Double Cross-Finger Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Buehrer, Gregor; Arkudas, Andreas; Ludolph, Ingo; Horch, Raymund E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Cross-finger flaps still represent a viable option to reconstruct small- to medium-sized full-thickness finger defects but they are not commonly used if larger areas have to be covered. We present 2 cases showing a simple and pragmatic approach with homodigital double cross-finger flaps to reconstruct extensive volar finger soft-tissue defects. We observed very low donor-site morbidity and excellent functional and aesthetic outcomes. Furthermore, there is no need for microsurgical techniques or equipment when using this method. Although this case report only addresses volar defects, one might also think of applying this concept to dorsal defects using reversed double cross-finger flaps. PMID:27200255

  18. Perceiving fingers in single-digit arithmetic problems.

    PubMed

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Booth, James R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate in children the neural underpinnings of finger representation and finger movement involved in single-digit arithmetic problems. Evidence suggests that finger representation and finger-based strategies play an important role in learning and understanding arithmetic. Because different operations rely on different networks, we compared activation for subtraction and multiplication problems in independently localized finger somatosensory and motor areas and tested whether activation was related to skill. Brain activations from children between 8 and 13 years of age revealed that only subtraction problems significantly activated finger motor areas, suggesting reliance on finger-based strategies. In addition, larger subtraction problems yielded greater somatosensory activation than smaller problems, suggesting a greater reliance on finger representation for larger numerical values. Interestingly, better performance in subtraction problems was associated with lower activation in the finger somatosensory area. Our results support the importance of fine-grained finger representation in arithmetical skill and are the first neurological evidence for a functional role of the somatosensory finger area in proficient arithmetical problem solving, in particular for those problems requiring quantity manipulation. From an educational perspective, these results encourage investigating whether different finger-based strategies facilitate arithmetical understanding and encourage educational practices aiming at integrating finger representation and finger-based strategies as a tool for instilling stronger numerical sense. PMID:25852582

  19. Axon reflexes in human cold exposed fingers.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A; Ducharme, M B

    2000-02-01

    Exposure of fingers to severe cold induces cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD). The mechanism of CIVD is still debated. The original theory states that an axon reflex causes CIVD. To test this hypothesis, axon reflexes were evoked by electrical stimulation of the middle fingers of hands immersed in water at either 5 degrees C or 35 degrees C. Axon reflexes were pronounced in the middle finger of the hand in warm water, but absent from the hand in cold water, even though the stimulation was rated as "rather painful" to "painful". These results showed that axon reflexes do not occur in a cold-exposed hand and thus are unlikely to explain the CIVD phenomenon. PMID:10638384

  20. EOR-2 Is an Obligate Binding Partner of the BTB–Zinc Finger Protein EOR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Howell , Kelly; Arur , Swathi; Schedl , Tim; Sundaram , Meera V.

    2010-01-01

    BTB-zinc finger transcription factors play many important roles in metazoan development. In these proteins, the BTB domain is critical for dimerization and for recruiting cofactors to target genes. Identification of these cofactors is important for understanding how BTB-zinc finger proteins influence transcription. Here we show that the novel but conserved protein EOR-2 is an obligate binding partner of the BTB-zinc finger protein EOR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. EOR-1 and EOR-2 function together to promote multiple Ras/ERK-dependent cell fates during development, and we show that EOR-1 is a robust substrate of ERK in vitro. A point mutation (L81F) in the EOR-1 BTB domain reduces both ERK phosphorylation and EOR-2 binding and eliminates all detectable biological function without affecting EOR-1 expression levels, localization, or dimerization. This point mutation lies near the predicted charged pocket region of the EOR-1 BTB dimer, a region that, in other BTB-zinc finger proteins, has been proposed to interact with corepressors or coactivators. We also show that a conserved zinc finger-like motif in EOR-2 is required for binding to EOR-1, that the interaction between EOR-1 and EOR-2 is direct, and that EOR-2 can bind to the human BTB-zinc finger protein PLZF. We propose that EOR-2 defines a new family of cofactors for BTB-zinc finger transcription factors that may have conserved roles in other organisms. PMID:20065070

  1. A reverse flow cross finger pedicle skin flap from hemidorsum of finger.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Satyanarayan; Manisundaram, S

    2010-04-01

    A reverse-flow cross-finger pedicle skin flap raised from the hemidorsum has been used, which is a modification of the distally based dorsal cross-finger flap. The flap is raised from the hemidorsum at a plane above the paratenon, the distal-most location of the base being at the level of the distal interphalangeal joint. Thirty-two flaps were used from as many fingers of as many patients. Of these, 31 (97%) flaps survived fully; there was stiffness of finger in one (3%) patient and the two-point discrimination was 4-8mm (n=14). Follow-up period was 2 months to 3 years, the median being 1 year and 3 months. The advantages of this flap are that there is less disruption of veins and less visible disfigurement of the dorsum of the finger when compared to other pedicled cross-finger skin flaps. The disadvantage of this flap is its restricted width. It is recommended as the cross-finger pedicle skin flap of choice when the defect is not wide. PMID:19386561

  2. Thermoregulatory control of finger blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1975-01-01

    In the present experiment, exercise was used to vary internal temperature and ambient air heat control was used to vary skin temperature. Finger temperature was fixed at about 35.7 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at different skin sites. Finger blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. An equation in these quantities is given which accounts for the data garnered.

  3. Identification and preliminary characterization of a protein motif related to the zinc finger.

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, R; Hanson, I M; Borden, K L; Martin, S; O'Reilly, N J; Evan, G I; Rahman, D; Pappin, D J; Trowsdale, J; Freemont, P S

    1993-01-01

    We have identified a protein motif, related to the zinc finger, which defines a newly discovered family of proteins. The motif was found in the sequence of the human RING1 gene, which is proximal to the major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome six. We propose naming this motif the "RING finger" and it is found in 27 proteins, all of which have putative DNA binding functions. We have synthesized a peptide corresponding to the RING1 motif and examined a number of properties, including metal and DNA binding. We provide evidence to support the suggestion that the RING finger motif is the DNA binding domain of this newly defined family of proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7681583

  4. DUF581 Is Plant Specific FCS-Like Zinc Finger Involved in Protein-Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    K, Muhammed Jamsheer; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2014-01-01

    Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction. PMID:24901469

  5. Interaction of finger enslaving and error compensation in multiple finger force production

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joel R.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have documented two patterns of finger interaction during multi-finger pressing tasks, enslaving and error compensation, which do not agree with each other. Enslaving is characterized by positive correlation between instructed (master) and non-instructed (slave) finger(s) while error compensation can be described as a pattern of negative correlation between master and slave fingers. We hypothesize that pattern of finger interaction, enslaving or compensation, depends on the initial force level and the magnitude of the targeted force change. Subjects were instructed to press with four fingers (I - index, M - middle, R - ring, and L - little) from a specified initial force to a target forces following a ramp target line. Force-force relations between master and each of three slave fingers were analyzed during the ramp phase of trials by calculating correlation coefficients within each master-slave pair and then 2-factor ANOVA was performed to determine effect of initial force and force increase on the correlation coefficients. It was found that, as initial force increased, the value of the correlation coefficient decreased and in some cases became negative, i.e. the enslaving transformed into error compensation. Force increase magnitude had a smaller effect on the correlation coefficients. The observations support the hypothesis that the pattern of inter-finger interaction—enslaving or compensation—depends on the initial force level and, to a smaller degree, on the targeted magnitude of the force increase. They suggest that the controller views tasks with higher steady-state forces and smaller force changes as implying a requirement to avoid large changes in the total force. PMID:18985331

  6. DELLA Proteins and Their Interacting RING Finger Proteins Repress Gibberellin Responses by Binding to the Promoters of a Subset of Gibberellin-Responsive Genes in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongmoo; Nguyen, Khoa Thi; Park, Eunae; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Choi, Giltsu

    2013-01-01

    DELLA proteins, consisting of GA INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR OF GA1-3, RGA-LIKE1 (RGL1), RGL2, and RGL3, are central repressors of gibberellin (GA) responses, but their molecular functions are not fully understood. We isolated four DELLA-interacting RING domain proteins, previously designated as BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 INTERACTOR (BOI), BOI-RELATED GENE1 (BRG1), BRG2, and BRG3 (collectively referred to as BOIs). Single mutants of each BOI gene failed to significantly alter GA responses, but the boi quadruple mutant (boiQ) showed a higher seed germination frequency in the presence of paclobutrazol, precocious juvenile-to-adult phase transition, and early flowering, all of which are consistent with enhanced GA signaling. By contrast, BOI overexpression lines displayed phenotypes consistent with reduced GA signaling. Analysis of a gai-1 boiQ pentuple mutant further indicated that the GAI protein requires BOIs to inhibit a subset of GA responses. At the molecular level, BOIs did not significantly alter the stability of a DELLA protein. Instead, BOI and DELLA proteins are targeted to the promoters of a subset of GA-responsive genes and repress their expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the DELLA and BOI proteins inhibit GA responses by interacting with each other, binding to the same promoters of GA-responsive genes, and repressing these genes. PMID:23482857

  7. Fingerspell: Let Your Fingers Do the Talking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarlatos, Tony; Nesterenko, Dmitri

    2004-01-01

    In this article we discuss an application that translates hand gestures of the American Sign Language (ASL) alphabet and converts them to text. The FingerSpell application addresses the communication barrier of the deaf and the hearing-impaired by eliminating the need for a third party with knowledge of the American Sign Language, allowing a user…

  8. Fingers Make a Comeback in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Andree

    1978-01-01

    Describes a new idea in finger-counting developed by 31 year old Hang Young Pai, a Korean teacher living in New York. It is called Chisanbop and it comes from a more advanced hand-calculation system used in the Orient in conjunction with the abacus. It is applicable for both elementary students and for more advanced mathematical applications, such…

  9. Finger arterial pressure measurement with Finapres.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, K H

    1996-01-01

    Finger arterial pressure measurement with Finapres has been available since a decade. Its availability has promoted at least 300 methodological and research papers over these years, outlining the usefulness and the limitations of the method and the device. Finapres is based on the volume clamp method of Peñáz and the Physiocal criteria of Wesseling. Tracking of intraarterial pressure is usually satisfactory even under conditions of strongly changing hemodynamics and high and very low blood pressures. Finapres accuracy is similar to that of other non-invasive methods. Systolic pressure levels scatter more than mean and diastolic levels. One source of error is physiologic and determined by the peripheral measurement site of the finger, causing pulse waveform distortion and a pressure gradient. The Finapres waveform can be filtered, however, to obtain a brachial pressure wave. This decreases systolic scatter under vaso-constrictive drug infusion and dynamic exercise to exhaustion, conditions where precision of systolic tracking has been criticized in the literature. Recently, level correction techniques were found which shift finger pressure up or down based on a regression equation with finger systolic and diastolic pressures. This procedure requires no additional measurements yet improves systolic, diastolic and mean level accuracy and precision remarkably. Finally, we show how to judge the quality of a Finapres recording from the behavior of Physiocal. PMID:8896298

  10. Viscous fingering with partial miscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    When a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the contrast in viscosity destabilizes the interface between the two fluids, leading to the formation of fingers. Studies of viscous fingering have focused on fluids that are either fully miscible or perfectly immiscible. In practice, however, the miscibility of two fluids can change appreciably with temperature and pressure, and often falls into the case of partial miscibility, where two fluids have limited solubility in each other. Following our recent work for miscible (Jha et al., PRL 2011, 2013) and immiscible systems (Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, PRL 2012, JFM 2014), here we propose a phase-field model for fluid-fluid displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell, when the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility in one another. Partial miscibility is characterized through the design of thermodynamic free energy of the two-fluid system. We elucidate the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model applied to the viscous fingering problem. On one hand, we demonstrate the effect of partial miscibility on the hydrodynamic instability. On the other, we elucidate the role of the degree of fingering on the rate of mutual fluid dissolution.

  11. Fjord geometry observed in viscous fingering*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrasher, Matt; Ristroph, Leif; Swinney, Harry L.; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark

    2004-11-01

    Injecting a less viscous fluid (air) into a more viscous fluid (oil) produces an unstable finger of air penetrating into the oil. For sufficiently large forcing, the tip of a finger splits. The region of oil left between adjacent fingers is called a fjord. We characterize the width, widening, and bending of fjords in experiments in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell. The channel confines air and 50 cS silicone oil between two glass plates, which are 2500 mm long and 250 mm wide with a separation of 0.5 mm. The width of the base of a fjord is found to be approximately one-half of the capillary length scale. From this base, the fjords open with a distribution of angles having a mean of about 9 ^rc, which contradicts theoretical predictions of an opening angle of 0 ^rc (parallel sides). Finally, the centerline of a fjord bends. Lajeunesse and Couder [1] account for the bending of a fjord on a single, one-half width finger. We test the validity of their idea on the tip-splitting of more complicated interfaces and on the widening of fjords. *Supported by ONR [1] E. Lajeunesse and Y. Couder, J. Fluid. Mech. 419, 125 (2000).

  12. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  13. Compact Tactile Sensors for Robot Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Toby B.; Lussy, David; Gaudiano, Frank; Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.; Rodriguez, Dagoberto; Bielski, Paul; Butzer, Melisa

    2004-01-01

    Compact transducer arrays that measure spatial distributions of force or pressure have been demonstrated as prototypes of tactile sensors to be mounted on fingers and palms of dexterous robot hands. The pressure- or force-distribution feedback provided by these sensors is essential for the further development and implementation of robot-control capabilities for humanlike grasping and manipulation.

  14. Sticky fingers: Adhesive properties of human fingertips.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Marlene; Wiechert, Anke B; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-02-29

    Fingertip friction is a rather well studied subject. Although the phenomenon of finger stickiness is known as well, the pull-off force and the adhesive strength of human finger tips have never been previously quantified. For the first time, we provided here characterization of adhesive properties of human fingers under natural conditions. Human fingers can generate a maximum adhesive force of 15mN on a smooth surface of epoxy resin. A weak correlation of the adhesive force and the normal force was found on all test surfaces. Up to 300mN load, an increase of the normal force leads to an increase of the adhesive force. On rough surfaces, the adhesive strength is significantly reduced. Our data collected from untreated hands give also an impression of an enormous scattering of digital adhesion depending on a large set of inter-subject variability and time-dependent individual factors (skin texture, moisture level, perspiration). The wide inter- and intra-individual range of digital adhesion should be considered in developing of technical and medical products. PMID:26892897

  15. Finger force perception during ipsilateral and contralateral force matching tasks

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo-Hyung; Leonard, Charles T.; Li, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare matching performance between ipsilateral and contralateral finger force matching tasks and to examine the effect of handedness on finger force perception. Eleven subjects were instructed to produce reference forces by an instructed finger (index – I or little – L finger) and to reproduce the same amount force by the same or a different finger within the hand (i.e., ipsilateral matching task), or by a finger of the other hand (i.e., contralateral matching task). The results of the ipsilateral and contralateral tasks in the present study commonly showed that 1) the reference and matching forces were matched closely when the two forces were produced by the same or homologous finger(s) such as I/I task; 2) the weaker little finger underestimated the magnitude of reference force of the index finger (I/L task), even with the higher level of effort (relative force), but the two forces were matched when considering total finger forces; 3) the stronger index finger closely matched the reference force of the little finger with the lower level of relative force (i.e., L/I task); 4) when considering the constant errors, I/L tasks showed an underestimation and L/I tasks showed an overestimation compared to I/I tasks. There was no handedness effect during ipsilateral tasks. During the contralateral task, the dominant hand overestimated the force of the non-dominant hand, while the non-dominant hand attempted to match the absolute force of the dominant hand. The overall results support the notion that the absolute, rather than relative, finger force is perceived and reproduced during ipsilateral and contralateral finger force matching tasks, indicating the uniqueness of finger force perception. PMID:18488212

  16. Deep Vertebrate Roots for Mammalian Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Subfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Li-Hsin; Sun, Younguk; Lu, Xiaochen; Stubbs, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    While many vertebrate transcription factor (TF) families are conserved, the C2H2 zinc finger (ZNF) family stands out as a notable exception. In particular, novel ZNF gene types have arisen, duplicated, and diverged independently throughout evolution to yield many lineage-specific TF genes. This evolutionary dynamic not only raises many intriguing questions but also severely complicates identification of those ZNF genes that remain functionally conserved. To address this problem, we searched for vertebrate “DNA binding orthologs” by mining ZNF loci from eight sequenced genomes and then aligning the patterns of DNA-binding amino acids, or “fingerprints,” extracted from the encoded ZNF motifs. Using this approach, we found hundreds of lineage-specific genes in each species and also hundreds of orthologous groups. Most groups of orthologs displayed some degree of fingerprint divergence between species, but 174 groups showed fingerprint patterns that have been very rigidly conserved. Focusing on the dynamic KRAB-ZNF subfamily—including nearly 400 human genes thought to possess potent KRAB-mediated epigenetic silencing activities—we found only three genes conserved between mammals and nonmammalian groups. These three genes, members of an ancient familial cluster, encode an unusual KRAB domain that functions as a transcriptional activator. Evolutionary analysis confirms the ancient provenance of this activating KRAB and reveals the independent expansion of KRAB-ZNFs in every vertebrate lineage. Most human ZNF genes, from the most deeply conserved to the primate-specific genes, are highly expressed in immune and reproductive tissues, indicating that they have been enlisted to regulate evolutionarily divergent biological traits. PMID:24534434

  17. Setting tool with retractable torque fingers

    SciTech Connect

    Nevels, D.L.; Baugh, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A method is described of setting a liner in a well bore using a setting tool of the type adapted to be made up in a pipe string for releasably engaging a setting sleeve in a well bore, comprising the steps of: connecting a mandrel in the pipe string which has a setting nut with external connecting threads for engaging mating connecting threads located on the interior of a setting sleeve disposed about the mandrel, the mandrel being slidably disposed within the setting nut when the setting nut is engaging the setting sleeve, the mandrel being slidable between an extended, running-in position and a weight set-down position; mounting a torque collar on the mandrel exterior, the torque collar having at least one torque finger mounted thereon which is axially slidable on an external surface of the torque collar in a plane which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tool, the setting sleeve having at least one end notch adapted to receive the axially slidable torque finger; initially latching the mandrel to the setting sleeve with each torque finger received within its respective end notch; setting weight down on the pipe string from the well surface to release the latch and allow relative movement between the connecting threads of the setting nut and setting sleeve; applying right hand torque to the pipe string to release the connecting threads of the setting nut from the setting sleeve; temporarily lifting the pipe string and setting tool to test the disengagement of the setting nut; again resting the setting tool on the setting sleeve; rotating the pipe string to realign the torque finger and the setting sleeve end notch and reengage the torque finger with the end notch; and continuing to rotate to the right to rotate the setting sleeve during subsequent well bore operations.

  18. Recognition of unmodified histone H3 by the first PHD finger of bromodomain-PHD finger protein 2 provides insights into the regulation of histone acetyltransferases monocytic leukemic zinc-finger protein (MOZ) and MOZ-related factor (MORF).

    PubMed

    Qin, Su; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Jiahai; Liu, Lei; Ji, Peng; Wu, Mian; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2011-10-21

    MOZ (monocytic leukemic zinc-finger protein) and MORF (MOZ-related factor) are histone acetyltransferases important for HOX gene expression as well as embryo and postnatal development. They form complexes with other regulatory subunits through the scaffold proteins BRPF1/2/3 (bromodomain-PHD (plant homeodomain) finger proteins 1, 2, or 3). BRPF proteins have multiple domains, including two PHD fingers, for potential interactions with histones. Here we show that the first PHD finger of BRPF2 specifically recognizes the N-terminal tail of unmodified histone H3 (unH3) and report the solution structures of this PHD finger both free and in complex with the unH3 peptide. Structural analysis revealed that the unH3 peptide forms a third antiparallel β-strand that pairs with the PHD1 two-stranded antiparallel β-sheet. The binding specificity was determined primarily through the recognition of arginine 2 and lysine 4 of the unH3 by conserved aspartic acids of PHD1 and of threonine 6 of the unH3 by a conserved asparagine. Isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR assays showed that post-translational modifications such as H3R2me2as, H3T3ph, H3K4me, H3K4ac, and H3T6ph antagonized the interaction between histone H3 and PHD1. Furthermore, histone binding by PHD1 was important for BRPF2 to localize to the HOXA9 locus in vivo. PHD1 is highly conserved in yeast NuA3 and other histone acetyltransferase complexes, so the results reported here also shed light on the function and regulation of these complexes. PMID:21880731

  19. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  1. A dowel exercise tool to improve finger range of motion.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A new clinical and home dowel exercise tool to reduce joint stiffness of the fingers is introduced, along with the fabrication and the exercises that are used with it. Patients may utilize it to improve their finger joint range of motion, and facilitate tendon glide by isolating the targeted stiff joints of the fingers. PMID:24044953

  2. Robot-assisted Guitar Hero for finger rehabilitation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Hossein; Rowe, Justin B; Gardner, David; Chan, Vicky; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Wolbrecht, Eric T

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a robotic device for finger therapy after stroke: FINGER (Finger Individuating Grasp Exercise Robot). FINGER makes use of stacked single degree-of-freedom mechanisms to assist subjects in moving individual fingers in a naturalistic grasping pattern through much of their full range of motion. The device has a high bandwidth of control (-3dB at approximately 8 Hz) and is backdriveable. These characteristics make it capable of assisting in grasping tasks that require precise timing. We therefore used FINGER to assist individuals with a stroke (n= 8) and without impairment (n= 4) in playing a game similar to Guitar Hero©. The subjects attempted to move their fingers to target positions at times specified by notes that were graphically streamed to popular music. We show here that by automatically adjusting the robot gains, it is possible to use FINGER to modulate the subject's success rate at the game, across a range of impairment levels. Modulating success rates did not alter the stroke subject's effort, although the unimpaired subjects exerted more force when they were made less successful. We also present a novel measure of finger individuation that can be assessed as individuals play Guitar Hero with FINGER. The results demonstrate the ability of FINGER to provide controlled levels of assistance during an engaging computer game, and to quantify finger individuation after stroke. PMID:23366783

  3. Pressure Balanced, Low Hysteresis Finger Seal Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arora, Gul K.; Proctor, Margaret; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate: low cost photoetching fabrication technique; pressure balanced finger seal design; and finger seal operation. The tests and analyses includes: finger seal air leakage analysis; rotor-run out and endurance tests; and extensive analytical work and rig testing.

  4. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  6. Left hand finger force in violin playing: tempo, loudness, and finger differences.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    A three-dimensional force transducer was installed in the neck of a violin under the A string at the D5 position in order to study the force with which the violinist clamps the string against the fingerboard under normal playing conditions. Violinists performed repetitive sequences of open A- and fingered D-tones using the ring finger at tempi of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 notes/s at mezzo-forte. At selected tempi, the effects of dynamic level and the use of different fingers were investigated as well. The force profiles were clearly dependent on tempo and dynamic level. At slow tempi, the force profiles were characterized by an initial pulse followed by a level force to the end of the finger contact period. At tempi higher than 2 Hz, only pulsed profiles were observed. The peak force exceeded 4.5 N at 1 and 2 Hz and decreased to 1.7 N at 16 Hz. All force and impulse values were lower at softer dynamic levels, and when using the ring or little finger compared to the index finger. PMID:19603895

  7. Crystal Structure of an Unusual Thioredoxin Protein with a Zinc Finger Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, J.; Cho, S; Fuselier, J; Li, W; Beckwith, J; Rapoport, T

    2007-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria have two cytoplasmic thioredoxins, thioredoxin-1 and -2, encoded by the trxA and trxC genes, respectively. Both thioredoxins have the highly conserved WCGPC motif and function as disulfide-bond reductases. However, thioredoxin-2 has unique features: it has an N-terminal motif that binds a zinc ion, and its transcription is under the control of OxyR, which allows it to be up-regulated under oxidative stress. Here, we report the crystal structure of thioredoxin-2 from Rhodobacter capsulatus. The C-terminal region of thioredoxin-2 forms a canonical thioredoxin fold with a central {beta}-sheet consisting of five strands and four flanking {alpha}-helices on either side. The N-terminal zinc finger is composed of four short {beta}-strands (S1-S4) connected by three short loops (L1-L3). The four cysteines are at loops L1 and L3 and form a tetragonal binding site for a zinc ion. The zinc finger is close to the first {beta}-strand and first {alpha}-helix of the thioredoxin fold. Nevertheless, the zinc finger may not directly affect the oxidoreductase activity of thioredoxin-2 because the zinc finger is not near the active site of a protomer and because thioredoxin-2 is a monomer in solution. On the basis of structural similarity to the zinc fingers in Npl4 and Vps36, we propose that the N-terminal zinc finger of thioredoxin-2 mediates protein-protein interactions, possibly with its substrates or chaperones.

  8. Generation of albino Xenopus tropicalis using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Takase, Minoru; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    To generate albino lines of Xenopus tropicalis, we injected fertilized eggs with mRNAs encoding zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting the tyrosinase coding region. Surprisingly, vitiligo was observed on the skin of F0 frogs that had been injected with ZFN mRNAs, indicating that both tyrosinase genes in the genome were disrupted in all melanocytes within the vitiligo patches. Mutation analysis using genomic DNA from the skin revealed that two mosaic F0 frogs underwent spatially complex tyrosinase gene mutations. The data implies that the ZFN-induced tyrosinase gene ablations occurred randomly over space and time throughout the entire body, possibly until the young tadpole stage, and that melanocyte precursors lacking functional tyrosinase proliferated and formed vitiligo patches. Several albino X. tropicalis, which are compound heterozygotes for biallelic tyrosinase mutations, were obtained by mating the mosaic F0 frogs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the albino vertebrates generated by the targeted gene knockout. PMID:23106502

  9. Fingering dynamics driven by a precipitation reaction: Nonlinear simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Priyanka; De Wit, A.

    2016-02-01

    A fingering instability can develop at the interface between two fluids when the more mobile fluid is injected into the less-mobile one. For example, viscous fingering appears when a less viscous (i.e., more mobile) fluid displaces a more viscous (and hence less mobile) one in a porous medium. Fingering can also be due to a local change in mobility arising when a precipitation reaction locally decreases the permeability. We numerically analyze the properties of the related precipitation fingering patterns occurring when an A +B →C chemical reaction takes place, where A and B are reactants in solution and C is a solid product. We show that, similarly to reactive viscous fingering patterns, the precipitation fingering structures differ depending on whether A invades B or vice versa. This asymmetry can be related to underlying asymmetric concentration profiles developing when diffusion coefficients or initial concentrations of the reactants differ. In contrast to reactive viscous fingering, however, precipitation fingering patterns appear at shorter time scales than viscous fingers because the solid product C has a diffusivity tending to zero which destabilizes the displacement. Moreover, contrary to reactive viscous fingering, the system is more unstable with regard to precipitation fingering when the high-concentrated solution is injected into the low-concentrated one or when the faster diffusing reactant displaces the slower diffusing one.

  10. The Shape of a Gravity Finger

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lang; Yortsos, Yanis

    2000-09-11

    A new gravity finger model was proposed in this report in the absence of interfacial tension but in the presence of gravities. This model considered differences in density and viscosity of the two fluids. Thus, it was able to represent both stable and unstable displacements, and the finger development along either the upper or the bottom walls of a channel. This solution recovers the Saffman - Taylar solution if gravity is neglected. The results of the solution are very similar to the solutions proposed by Brener et al. for the gravity number up to 10. The solution provided in this work only has one free parameter while the solution of Brener et al. has three.

  11. Nylon-muscle-actuated robotic finger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lianjun; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Rome, Richard S.; Haines, Carter; Lima, Marcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Tadesse, Yonas

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the design and experimental analysis of novel artificial muscles, made of twisted and coiled nylon fibers, for powering a biomimetic robotic hand. The design is based on circulating hot and cold water to actuate the artificial muscles and obtain fast finger movements. The actuation system consists of a spring and a coiled muscle within a compliant silicone tube. The silicone tube provides a watertight, expansible compartment within which the coiled muscle contracts when heated and expands when cooled. The fabrication and characterization of the actuating system are discussed in detail. The performance of the coiled muscle fiber in embedded conditions and the related characteristics of the actuated robotic finger are described.

  12. Articular synovial chondromatosis of the finger.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazufumi; Hashimoto, Tomohisa; Kimura, Kazumasa; Ozeki, Satoru

    2014-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of synovial chondromatosis of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the right ring finger, which was resected through both dorsal and volar incisions. To our knowledge there have been only 17 reported cases of articular synovial chondromatosis of the digital joint so far. We present a case affecting the metacarpophalangeal joint with a review of scattered information found in other 17 reports. PMID:23596991

  13. Low-Friction Joint for Robot Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical linkage allows adjacent parts to move relative to each other with low friction and with no chatter, slipping, or backlash. Low-friction joint of two surfaces in rolling contact, held in alinement by taut flexible bands. No sliding friction or "stick-slip" motion: Only rolling-contact and bending friction within bands. Proposed linkage intended for finger joints in mechanical hands for robots and manipulators.

  14. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  15. The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN protein is able to specifically bind DNA through its single Cys2-His2 zinc finger motif.

    PubMed

    Dathan, Nina; Zaccaro, Laura; Esposito, Sabrina; Isernia, Carla; Omichinski, James G; Riccio, Andrea; Pedone, Carlo; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V

    2002-11-15

    The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN (SUP) gene has been shown to be important in maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels, and is presumed to act by regulating cell proliferation. In this work, we show that the SUP protein, which contains a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger domain including the QALGGH sequence, highly conserved in the plant zinc finger proteins, binds DNA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was determined that the minimal domain required for specific DNA binding (residues 15-78) includes the single zinc finger and two basic regions located on either side of this motif. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions in the zinc finger or in the basic regions, including a mutation that knocks out the function of the SUP protein in vivo (glycine 63 to aspartate), have been found to abolish the activity of the SUP DNA-binding domain. These results strongly suggest that the SUP protein functions in vivo by acting as a DNA-binding protein, likely involved in transcriptional regulation. The association of both an N-terminal and a C-terminal basic region with a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger represents a novel DNA-binding motif suggesting that the mechanism of DNA recognition adopted by the SUP protein is different from that described so far in other zinc finger proteins. PMID:12433998

  16. Vibration white finger: a follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Ekenvall, L; Carlsson, A

    1987-01-01

    To study the course of vibration white finger (VWF) 55 men were re-examined three and a half to six years after the first examination. The patients were interviewed and finger systolic pressure after general body and local finger cooling was measured. The test results at the two examinations were compared. At the follow up examination some patients experienced a subjective improvement of VWF symptoms but not until more than three years had passed after they had stopped working with vibrating tools. To study the effect of diminished cold exposure on subjective symptoms, vibration exposed outdoor workers who changed to unexposed indoor work were studied separately. In this subgroup also improvement was reported only when more than three years has passed after the change of work, indicating that diminished cold exposure is not the primary explanation for the improvement. The cold provocation test, however, showed no tendency towards a diminished reaction of the vessels to cooling. Patients who continue to work with vibrating tools report a subjective increase in symptoms. This subjective impairment was reflected in an increased reaction to cold as measured in the cold provocation test. PMID:3620371

  17. Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Ian M.; Smith, Irene J.; Chetverikov, Andrey; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-01-01

    A popular model of the function of selective visual attention involves search where a single target is to be found among distractors. For many scenarios, a more realistic model involves search for multiple targets of various types, since natural tasks typically do not involve a single target. Here we present results from a novel multiple-target foraging paradigm. We compare finger foraging where observers cancel a set of predesignated targets by tapping them, to gaze foraging where observers cancel items by fixating them for 100 ms. During finger foraging, for most observers, there was a large difference between foraging based on a single feature, where observers switch easily between target types, and foraging based on a conjunction of features where observers tended to stick to one target type. The pattern was notably different during gaze foraging where these condition differences were smaller. Two conclusions follow: (a) The fact that a sizeable number of observers (in particular during gaze foraging) had little trouble switching between different target types raises challenges for many prominent theoretical accounts of visual attention and working memory. (b) While caveats must be noted for the comparison of gaze and finger foraging, the results suggest that selection mechanisms for gaze and pointing have different operational constraints. PMID:27433323

  18. Pacifier Use, Finger Sucking, and Infant Sleep.

    PubMed

    Butler, Rachel; Moore, Melisa; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between pacifier use or finger sucking and infant sleep. One hundred and four mothers of infants (ages 0-11 months) completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ). Infants who engaged in finger sucking had fewer night wakings and longer stretches of nighttime sleep, although less daytime sleep. There were no significant differences in sleep patterns between pacifier users and infants who did not engage in nonnutritive sucking. Furthermore, no significant differences were found across groups for sleep ecology, including parental involvement at bedtime and following night wakings. Finally, infants were consistently able to retrieve their pacifiers independently by 7 months of age, although this did not appear to be associated with sleep outcomes. Results suggest that when parents are deciding whether to give their infant a pacifier, sleep may not be a critical factor. In contrast, parents of finger and thumb suckers should be reassured that this nonnutritive sucking is beneficial to sleep, at least in the first year of life. PMID:26548755

  19. Multi-finger Prehension: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the available experimental evidence on what people do when they grasp an object with several digits and then manipulate it. In addition to the Introduction, the paper includes three parts each addressing a specific aspect of multi-finger prehension. Part II discusses manipulation forces, i.e. the resultant force and moment of force exerted on the object, and the digits contribution to such force production. Part III deals with internal forces defined as forces that cancel each other and do not disturb object equilibrium. The role of the internal forces in maintaining the object stability is discussed with respect to such issues as slip prevention, tilt prevention and resistance to perturbations. Part IV is devoted to the motor control of prehension. It covers such topics as prehension synergies, chain effects, the principle of superposition, inter-finger connection matrices and reconstruction of neural commands, mechanical advantage of the fingers, and the simultaneous digit adjustment to several mutually reinforcing or conflicting demands. PMID:18782719

  20. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW. PMID:26788268

  1. The creation of the artificial RING finger from the cross-brace zinc finger by {alpha}-helical region substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2010-04-16

    The creation of the artificial RING finger as ubiquitin-ligating enzyme (E3) has been demonstrated. In this study, by the {alpha}-helical region substitution between the EL5 RING finger and the Williams-Beuren syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) PHD finger, the artificial E3 (WSTF PHD{sub R}ING finger) was newly created. The experiments of the chemical modification of residues Cys and the circular dichroism spectra revealed that the WSTF PHD{sub R}ING finger binds two zinc atoms and adopts the zinc-dependent ordered-structure. In the substrate-independent ubiquitination assay, the WSTF PHD{sub R}ING finger functions as E3 and was poly- or mono-ubiquitinated. The present strategy is very simple and convenient, and consequently it might be widely applicable to the creation of various artificial E3 RING fingers with the specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-binding capability.

  2. Human Intelligence and Polymorphisms in the DNA Methyltransferase Genes Involved in Epigenetic Marking

    PubMed Central

    Haggarty, Paul; Hoad, Gwen; Harris, Sarah E.; Starr, John M.; Fox, Helen C.

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in syndromes associated with mental impairment but little is known about the role of epigenetics in determining the normal variation in human intelligence. We measured polymorphisms in four DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L) involved in epigenetic marking and related these to childhood and adult general intelligence in a population (n = 1542) consisting of two Scottish cohorts born in 1936 and residing in Lothian (n = 1075) or Aberdeen (n = 467). All subjects had taken the same test of intelligence at age 11yrs. The Lothian cohort took the test again at age 70yrs. The minor T allele of DNMT3L SNP 11330C>T (rs7354779) allele was associated with a higher standardised childhood intelligence score; greatest effect in the dominant analysis but also significant in the additive model (coefficient = 1.40additive; 95%CI 0.22,2.59; p = 0.020 and 1.99dominant; 95%CI 0.55,3.43; p = 0.007). The DNMT3L C allele was associated with an increased risk of being below average intelligence (OR 1.25additive; 95%CI 1.05,1.51; p = 0.011 and OR 1.37dominant; 95%CI 1.11,1.68; p = 0.003), and being in the lowest 40th (padditive = 0.009; pdominant = 0.002) and lowest 30th (padditive = 0.004; pdominant = 0.002) centiles for intelligence. After Bonferroni correction for the number variants tested the link between DNMT3L 11330C>T and childhood intelligence remained significant by linear regression and centile analysis; only the additive regression model was borderline significant. Adult intelligence was similarly linked to the DNMT3L variant but this analysis was limited by the numbers studied and nature of the test and the association was not significant after Bonferroni correction. We believe that the role of epigenetics in the normal variation in human intelligence merits further study and that this novel finding should be tested in other cohorts. PMID:20593030

  3. Proteomic analysis of MCF-7 cell lines expressing the zinc-finger or the proline-rich domain of retinoblastoma-interacting-zinc-finger protein.

    PubMed

    Chambery, Angela; Farina, Annarita; Di Maro, Antimo; Rossi, Mariangela; Abbondanza, Ciro; Moncharmont, Bruno; Malorni, Livia; Cacace, Giuseppina; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Malorni, Antonio; Parente, Augusto

    2006-05-01

    To identify a growth-promoting activity related to retinoblastoma-interacting-zinc-finger (RIZ) protein, differential protein expression of MCF-7 cell lines expressing the zinc-finger or the proline-rich domain of RIZ protein was analyzed by a robust bottom-up mass-spectrometry proteomic approach. Spots corresponding to qualitative and quantitative differences in protein expression have been selected and identified. Some of these proteins have been previously reported as being associated with different types of carcinomas or involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Knowledge of specific differentially expressed proteins by MCF-7-derived cell lines expressing RIZ different domains will provide the basis for identifying a growth-promoting activity related to RIZ gene products. PMID:16674107

  4. Viscous fingering with partially miscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    When a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the contrast in viscosity destabilizes the interface between the two fluids, leading to the formation of fingers. Experimental and numerical studies of viscous fingering have focused on fluids that are either fully miscible (e.g. water and glycerol) or perfectly immiscible (e.g. water and oil). In practice, however, the miscibility of two fluids can change appreciably with temperature and pressure, and often falls into the case of partial miscibility, where two fluids have limited solubility in each other (e.g. CO2 and water). Following our recent work for miscible systems (Jha et al., PRL 2011, 2013) and immiscible systems (Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, PRL 2012, JFM 2014), here we propose a phase-field model for fluid-fluid displacements in a porous medium, when the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility in one another. In our model, partial miscibility is characterized through the design of the thermodynamic free energy of the two-fluid system. We express the model in dimensionless form and elucidate the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model applied to the viscous fingering problem. On one hand, we demonstrate the effect of partial miscibility on the hydrodynamic instability. On the other, we elucidate the role of the degree of fingering on the rate of mutual fluid dissolution. Figure caption: final snapshots in simulations of viscous fingering with a two-fluid system mimicking that of CO2 and water. The colormap corresponds to the concentration of CO2. A band of less viscous gas phase rich in CO2 (red) displaces through the more viscous liquid phase that is undersaturated with CO2 (blue). At the fluid interface, an exchange of CO2 occurs as a result of local chemical potentials that drives the system towards thermodynamic equilibrium. This results in a shrinkage of gas phase as well as a local increase in

  5. Speed invariance of independent control of finger movements in pianists

    PubMed Central

    Soechting, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Independent control of finger movements characterizes skilled motor behaviors such as tool use and musical performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of movement frequency (tempo) on individuated finger movements in piano playing. Joint motion at the digits was recorded while 5 expert pianists were playing 30 excerpts from musical pieces with different fingering and key locations either at a predetermined normal tempo or as fast as possible. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm determined three distinct patterns of finger movement coordination for a keypress with each of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers at each of the two tempi. The finger kinematics of each coordination pattern was overall similar across the tempi. Tone sequences assigned into each cluster were also similar for both tempi. A linear regression analysis determined no apparent difference in the amount of movement covariation between the striking and nonstriking fingers at both metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal joints across the two tempi, which indicated no effect of tempo on independent finger movements in piano playing. In addition, the standard deviation of interkeystroke interval across strokes did not differ between the two tempi, indicating maintenance of rhythmic accuracy of keystrokes. Strong temporal constraints on finger movements during piano playing may underlie the maintained independent control of fingers over a wider range of tempi, a feature being likely to be specific to skilled pianists. PMID:22815403

  6. Investigation on a three-cold-finger pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qingjun; Chen, Houlei; Cai, Jinghui

    2015-09-01

    This paper introduces a new type of pulse tube cryocooler, three-cold-finger pulse tube cryocooler (TCFPTC), which consists of one linear compressor and three cold fingers, i.e., CFA, CFB and CFC. Those three cold fingers are driven by the linear compressor simultaneously. This paper investigates two aspects. First, it studies the mass flow distribution among the three cold fingers by varying the input electrical power. The cooling powers of the three cold fingers at constant cooling temperatures and the cooling temperatures of the three cold fingers at constant cooling powers with various input electrical powers are investigated. Secondly, the interaction among the three cold fingers is investigated by varying the heating power of any one cold finger. Generally, if the heating power applied on one cold finger increases, with its cold head temperature rising up, the cold head temperatures of the others will decrease. But, when the cooling power of CFC has been 4 W, the cold head temperature of whichever cold finger increases, the cold head temperature of CFA or CFB will seldom change if its heating power keeps constant.

  7. Does finger training increase young children's numerical performance?

    PubMed

    Gracia-Bafalluy, Maria; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2008-04-01

    Butterworth (1999) suggested that fingers are important in representing numerosities. Furthermore, scores on a finger gnosis test are a better predictor of numerical performance up to 3 years later than intellectual measures (Marinthe et al., 2001; Noël, 2005). We hypothesised that training in finger differentiation would increase finger gnosis and might also improve numerical performance. Accordingly, 47 first-grade children were selected and divided into 3 groups: children with poor finger gnosis who followed the finger-differentiation training programme (G1), a control-intervention who were trained in story comprehension (G2), and a group with high finger gnosis scores who just continued with normal school lessons (G3). The finger training consisted of 2 weekly sessions of half an hour each, for 8 weeks. Before the training period, children in G3 performed better in finger gnosis and enumeration than children in the two other groups. After the training period this pattern remained for the children in G2 and G3, but the children in G1 were significantly better than those in G2 at finger gnosis, representation of numerosities with fingers, and quantification tasks; they also tended to be better at the processing of Arabic digits. These results indicate that improving finger gnosis in young children is possible and that it can provide a useful support to learning mathematics. Such an approach could be particularly appropriate for children with a developmental Gerstmann syndrome. Theoretically, these results are important because they suggest a functional link between finger gnosis and number skills. PMID:18387567

  8. HRT, a novel zinc finger, transcriptional repressor from barley.

    PubMed

    Raventós, D; Skriver, K; Schlein, M; Karnahl, K; Rogers, S W; Rogers, J C; Mundy, J

    1998-09-01

    A barley gene encoding a novel DNA-binding protein (HRT) was identified by southwestern screening with baits containing a gibberellin phytohormone response element from an alpha-amylase promoter. The HRT gene contains two introns, the larger of which (5722 base pairs (bp)) contains a 3094-bp LINE-like element with homology to maize Colonist1. In vitro mutagenesis and zinc- and DNA-binding assays demonstrate that HRT contains three unusual zinc fingers with a CX8-9CX10CX2H consensus sequence. HRT is targeted to nuclei, and homologues are expressed in other plants. In vivo, functional tests in plant cells indicate that full-length HRT can repress expression from certain promoters including the Amy1/6-4 and Amy2/32 alpha-amylase promoters. In contrast, truncated forms of HRT containing DNA-binding domains can activate, or derepress, transcription from these promoters. Northern hybridizations indicate that HRT mRNA accumulates to low levels in various tissues. Roles for HRT in mediating developmental and phytohormone-responsive gene expression are discussed. PMID:9722564

  9. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP

  10. Finger synergies during multi-finger cyclic production of moment of force

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated multi-finger synergies stabilizing the total moment of force and the total force when the subjects produced a quick cyclic change in the total moment of force. The seated subjects performed the task with the fingers of the dominant arm while paced by the metronome at 1.33 Hz. They were required to produce a rhythmic, sine-like change in the total pronation–supination moment of force computed with respect to the midpoint between the middle and ring fingers. The framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis was used to compute indices of stabilization of the total moment and of the total force across 20 cycles. Variance of the total moment showed a cyclic pattern with peaks close to the peak rate of the moment change. Variance of the total force was maximal close to peak moment into supination. Higher magnitudes of the moment directed against the required moment direction (antagonist moment) were produced by individual fingers during supination efforts as compared to pronation efforts. Indices of multi-finger synergies showed across-trials stabilization of the total moment over the whole cycle but not of the total force. These indices were smaller during supination efforts. We conclude that the central nervous system facilitates multi-finger synergies stabilizing the total rotational action across a variety of tasks. Synergies stabilizing the total force are not seen in tasks that do not explicitly require accurate force control. Pronation efforts are performed more efficiently and with better stabilization of the action. PMID:16944107

  11. High-frequency genome editing using ssDNA oligonucleotides with zinc-finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fuqiang; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M; Huang, Yuping; Gjoka, Monika; Duda, Katarzyna; Taunton, Jack; Collingwood, Trevor N; Frodin, Morten; Davis, Gregory D

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have enabled highly efficient gene targeting in multiple cell types and organisms. Here we describe methods for using simple ssDNA oligonucleotides in tandem with ZFNs to efficiently produce human cell lines with three distinct genetic outcomes: (i) targeted point mutation, (ii) targeted genomic deletion of up to 100 kb and (iii) targeted insertion of small genetic elements concomitant with large genomic deletions. PMID:21765410

  12. Crooked fingers and sparse hair: an interesting case of trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ramakrishna; Chennareddy, Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 is a rare skeletal dysplasia of autosomal-dominant inheritance due to defects in the TRPS-1 gene. The syndrome is characterised by sparse slow-growing hair, a bulbous pear-shaped nose, cone-shaped epiphyses and deformities of the interphalangeal joints resembling those in rheumatoid arthritis. We present a case of trichorhinophalangeal syndrome in a 23-year-old man who presented with symmetrical painless progressive deformity of the fingers in both hands. PMID:25628322

  13. The Role of Vision in the Development of Finger-Number Interactions: Finger-Counting and Finger-Montring in Blind Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crollen, Virginie; Mahe, Rachel; Collignon, Olivier; Seron, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the use of the fingers may play a functional role in the development of a mature counting system. However, the role of developmental vision in the elaboration of a finger numeral representation remains unexplored. In the current study, 14 congenitally blind children and 14 matched sighted controls undertook…

  14. Mechanism and Regulation of Acetylated Histone Binding by the Tandem PHD Finger of DPF3b

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lei; Zhang, Qiang; Li, SiDe; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Walsh, Martin J.; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Histone lysine acetylation and methylation are important during gene transcription in a chromatin context1,2. Our knowledge about the types of protein modules that can interact with acetyl-lysine has so far been limited to bromodomains1. Recently, a tandem PHD (plant homeodomain) finger3 (PHD12) of human DPF3b, which functions in association with the BAF chromatin remodelling complex to initiate transcription in the heart and muscle development, was reported to bind histones H3 and H4 in an acetylation sensitive manner4, making it a first alternative to bromodomains for acetyl-lysine binding5. Here, we report the structural mechanism of acetylated histone binding by the double PHD fingers of DPF3b. Our three-dimensional solution structures and biochemical analysis of DPF3b illuminate the molecular basis of the integrated tandem PHD finger, which acts as one functional unit in the sequence-specific recognition of lysine 14-acetylated histone H3 (H3K14ac). Whereas the interaction with H3 is promoted by acetylation at lysine 14, it is inhibited by methylation at lysine 4, and these opposing influences are important during transcriptional activation of DPF3b target genes Pitx2 and Jmjd1c. Binding of this tandem protein module to chromatin can thus be regulated by different histone modifications during the initiation of gene transcription. PMID:20613843

  15. Torque Control of Underactuated Tendon-driven Robotic Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Wampler, Charles W. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having a total number of degrees of freedom (DOF) equal to at least n, an underactuated tendon-driven finger driven by n tendons and n DOF, the finger having at least two joints, being characterized by an asymmetrical joint radius in one embodiment. A controller is in communication with the robot, and controls actuation of the tendon-driven finger using force control. Operating the finger with force control on the tendons, rather than position control, eliminates the unconstrained slack-space that would have otherwise existed. The controller may utilize the asymmetrical joint radii to independently command joint torques. A method of controlling the finger includes commanding either independent or parameterized joint torques to the controller to actuate the fingers via force control on the tendons.

  16. Mutations in zinc finger 407 [ZNF407] cause a unique autosomal recessive cognitive impairment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A consanguineous Arab family is affected by an apparently novel autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cognitive impairment, failure-to-thrive, hypotonia and dysmorphic features including bilateral ptosis and epicanthic folds, synophrys, midface hypoplasia, downturned mouth corners, thin upper vermillion border and prominent ears, bilateral 5th finger camptodactyly, bilateral short 4th metatarsal bones, and limited knee mobility bilaterally. Methods The family was studied by homozygosity mapping, candidate gene mutation screening and whole Exome Next Generation Sequencing of a single affected member to identify the offending gene and mutation. The mutated gene product was studied by structural bioinformatics methods. Results A damaging c.C5054G mutation affecting an evolutionary highly conserved amino acid p.S1685W was identified in the ZNF407 gene at 18q23. The Serine to Tryptophane mutation affects two of the three ZNF407 isoforms and is located in the last third of the protein, in a linker peptide adjoining two zinc-finger domains. Structural analyses of this mutation shows disruption of an H-bond that locks the relative spatial position of the two fingers, leading to a higher flexibility of the linker and thus to a decreased probability of binding to the target DNA sequence essentially eliminating the functionality of downstream domains and interfering with the expression of various genes under ZNF407 control during fetal brain development. Conclusions ZNF407 is a transcription factor with an essential role in brain development. When specific and limited in number homozygosity intervals exist that harbor the offending gene in consanguineous families, Whole Exome Sequencing of a single affected individual is an efficient approach to gene mapping and mutation identification. PMID:24907849

  17. [Cloning and functional analysis of SCTF-1 encoding a C2H2-type Zinc finger protein from soybean].

    PubMed

    Song, Bing; Wang, Pi-Wu; Fu, Yong-Ping; Fan, Xu-Hong; Xia, Hai-Feng; Gao, Wei; Hong, Yang; Wang, He; Zhang, Zhuo; Ma, Jian

    2012-06-01

    The zinc finger protein is one of the proteins with finger-like domain. Some of them are transcription factors which play important role in plant growth and plant resistance to abiotic stresses. In this paper, a novel C2H2-type zinc finger protein gene SCTF-1 (GenBank accession number JQ692081) was isolated from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) This gene has a 699 bp ORF (open reading frame) with no intron and encodes a 24.9 kDa protein with 233 amino acids. Its isoelectric point (pI) is 8.33. The SCTF-1 protein contains two typical C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Both of them have highly conserved amino acid sequence-QALGGH which is a particular characteristic of plant. Transient expression of the GFP-SCTF-1 protein in onion epidermal cell showed that SCTF-1 was localized in cell nuclei. RT-PCR results showed that SCTF-1 gene was expressed with high levels in flowers and leaves in soybean, but low in roots and stems. The expression of SCTF-1 gene was strongly induced by low temperature in the soybean seedlings. Overexpression of SCTF-1 enhanced cold tolerance of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) compared to the control. PMID:22698747

  18. Visualization and Quantification of Fingering Flow Using Light Transmission Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Roth, K.

    2007-12-01

    With the aim of studying the physical process concerning the unstable fingering phenomena in two dimensions, experiments of vertical infiltration through layered sand were carried out in the laboratory using Hele-Shaw cells. We developed a light transmission method to measure the dynamics of water saturation within flow fingers in great detail with high spatial and temporal resolution. The method was calibrated using X-ray absorption. We improved the measured light transmission with correction for scattering effects through deconvolution with a point spread function which allows us to obtain quantitative high spatial resolution measurements. After fingers had fully developed, we added a dye tracer in order to distinguish mobile and immobile water fractions. Fully developed fingers consist of a tip, a core with mobile water, and a hull with immobile water. We analyzed the dynamics of water saturation within the finger tip, along the finger core behind the tip, and within the fringe of the fingers during radial growth. Our results confirm previous findings of saturation overshoot in the finger tips and revealed a saturation minimum behind the tip as a new feature. The finger development was characterized by a gradual increase in water content within the core of the finger behind this minimum and a gradual widening of the fingers to a quasi-stable state which evolves at time scales that are orders of magnitude longer than those of fingers' evolution. In this state, a sharp separation into a core with fast convective flow and a fringe with exceedingly slow flow was detected. All observed phenomena, with the exception of saturation overshoot, could be consistently explained based on the hysteretic behavior of the soil-water characteristic.

  19. Experimental study of fingered flow through initially dry sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Vogel, H.-J.; Roth, K.

    2006-08-01

    Water infiltration into coarse textured dry porous media becomes instable depending on flow conditions characterized through dimensionless quantities, i.e. the Bond number and the Capillary number. Instable infiltration fronts break into flow fingers which we investigate experimentally using Hele-Shaw cells. We further developed a light transmission method to measure the dynamics of water within flow fingers in great detail with high spatial and temporal resolution. The method was calibrated using x-ray absorption and the measured light transmission was corrected for scattering effects through deconvolution with a point spread function. Additionally we applied a dye tracer to visualize the velocity field within flow fingers. We analyzed the dynamics of water within the finger tips, along the finger core behind the tip, and within the fringe of the fingers during radial growth. Our results confirm previous findings of saturation overshoot in the finger tips and revealed a saturation minimum behind the tip as a new feature. The finger development was characterized by a gradual increase in water content within the core of the finger behind this minimum and a gradual widening of the fingers to a quasi-stable state which evolves on time scales that are orders of magnitudes longer than those of fingers' evolution. In this state, a sharp separation into a core with fast convective flow and a fringe with exceedingly slow flow was detected. All observed phenomena could by consistently explained based on the hysteretic behavior of the soil- water characteristic and on the positive pressure induced at the finger tip by the high flow velocity.

  20. Fingering instabilities in Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Kristi E.

    Fingering has been studied in different fluid systems. Viscous fingering, which is driven by a difference in viscosity between fluids, has been studied by both experiments and numerical simulations. We used a single fluid with a temperature-dependent viscosity and studied the instability for a range of inlet pressures and viscosity ratios. The spreading and fingering of a fluid drop subjected to a centrifugal force, known as spin coating, has also been studied for a range of drop volumes and rotation speeds, both for a Newtonian and a non-Newtonian fluid. Experiments on viscous fingering with a single fluid, glycerine, show that an instability occurs at the boundary separating hot and cold fluid. The results indicate that the instability is similar to that which occurs between two miscible fluids. Fingering only occurs for high enough values of the inlet pressure and viscosity ratio. The wavelength of the fingering pattern is found to be proportional to the cell width for the two smallest cell widths used. The fingering patterns seen in the simulations are very similar to the experimental patterns, although there are some quantitative differences. In particular, the wavelength of the instability is seen to depend only weakly on the cell width. The spreading of silicone oil, a Newtonian fluid, during spin coating follows the time dependence predicted theoretically, although with a shift in the scaled time variable. Once the radius of the spreading silicone oil drop becomes large enough, fingers form around the perimeter of the drop for all experimental conditions studied. The number of fingers and the growth rate of the fingers are in agreement with theoretical predictions. Fingers are also observed to form for high enough drop volumes and rotation speeds during the spinning of a non-Newtonian fluid drop, Carbopol, which possesses a yield stress. In this case the fingering is a localized effect, occuring once the stress on the drop exceeds the yield stress, rather

  1. Simultaneous dislocation of both interphalangeal joints in the middle finger.

    PubMed

    Hester, Thomas; Mahmood, Shoib; Morar, Yateen; Singh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous dorsal dislocation of both interphalangeal joints (IPJs) in one finger is an uncommon injury. This injury usually occurs on the ulnar side of the hand involving ring and little fingers. We report a case of simultaneous dislocation of both IPJs in the middle finger. Closed reduction and splinting with the IPJs in extension provided a good result with full range of motion at the patient's final follow-up. PMID:25979959

  2. Bilateral Volleyball-Related Deformity of the Little Fingers: Mallet Finger and Clinodactyly Mimic

    PubMed Central

    Uslu, Mustafa; Solak, Kazim; Ozsahin, Mustafa; Uzun, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    A 14-year-old male high school volleyball player was seen to evaluate right- and left-hand little-finger distal interphalangeal joint deformity and pain. His symptoms began during his second season of competitive play. The distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the little fingers flexed 20-30°, and a 10-15° valgus deformity was seen at the same joints. Pain was relieved with rest but returned immediately after playing volleyball, so plain radiographs were obtained. The flexion and valgus deformity was obvious on plain radiographs and through a clinical examination. Thus, a bilateral little-finger distal phalanx base epiphysis injury was seen. This injury is characterized by a biplanar Salter Harris physeal injury; type 5 on anteroposterior radiographs and type 2 on lateral plain radiographs. The deformity occurred as a result of competitive volleyball play. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a bilateral biplanar physial injury of the base of distal phalanges of the little fingers. Flexion and valgus deformities of DIP joints are a result of repeated micro traumas around the physis. Key points As a result of repeated micro traumas to the physial region, flexion and valgus deformities of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints should be occurred. Sports injuries to the hand often require treatment in orthopedic departments to avoid permanent deformities. Short- or long-term functional results can be gained by simple splinting procedures and abstention from play. PMID:24149318

  3. Stick-slip instability for viscous fingering in a gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puff, N.; Debrégeas, G.; di Meglio, J.-M.; Higgins, D.; Bonn, D.; Wagner, C.

    2002-05-01

    The growth dynamics of an air finger injected in a visco-elastic gel (a PVA/borax aqueous solution) is studied in a linear Hele-Shaw cell. Besides the standard Saffman-Taylor instability, we observe—with increasing finger velocities—the existence of two new regimes: (a) a stick-slip regime for which the finger tip velocity oscillates between 2 different values, producing local pinching of the finger at regular intervals; (b) a "tadpole" regime where a fracture-type propagation is observed. A scaling argument is proposed to interpret the dependence of the stick-slip frequency with the measured rheological properties of the gel.

  4. Multiple trigger fingers in a musician: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Masoud; Hassanpour, Seyed Esmail; Mosavizadeh, Seyed Mehdi

    2010-05-01

    Trigger finger is a common disease which particularly occurs in middle-aged women. We present a rare case of a male musician with six trigger fingers (five in the left hand and one in the right hand). Mostly these fingers had been used for playing the guitar. The patient had previously been treated with local steroid injections in his fingers, however no response was seen. Therefore, we performed a surgical procedure. Four weeks after surgery, the patient could play the guitar without discomfort in his hands. PMID:20433233

  5. Vibration white finger and digital systolic pressure during cooling.

    PubMed Central

    Ekenvall, L; Lindblad, L E

    1986-01-01

    A cold provocation test (measurement of finger systolic pressure during combined body and local finger cooling) was performed on 111 male patients exposed to vibration and with a typical history of cold induced white finger. A new method of calculating the test result is described--namely, digital systolic blood pressure in the cooled test finger as a percentage of the systolic pressure in the arm (DP%). The conventional way of calculating the result, the systolic pressure in the cooled test finger as a percentage of the systolic pressure in the test finger when heated to 30 degrees C, corrected for changes in systemic pressure by the use of a reference finger (FSP%), requires the measurement of the systolic pressure in a reference finger. The two ways of calculating the test results give a similar sensitivity (74% for FSP%, 79% for DP% if all histories are regarded as true) but the new method does not require pressure measurements in a reference finger. This makes the test easier to perform and the result easier to understand. PMID:3964577

  6. Numerical Simulations and an Experimental Investigation of a Finger Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Minel; Pierson, Hazel; Li, H.; Dong, Dingeng

    2006-01-01

    Besides sealing, the other main goal of a successful finger seal design is to exhibit appropriate compliance to outside forces. The ability of the seal to ride or float along the rotor without rubbing or excessive heating is essential to the successful operation of the seal. The compliance of the finger must only occur in the radial plane; The seal needs to be as sturdy as possible in the axial direction. The compliant finger that moves radially outward with rotor growth and motion has to be able to ride the rotor back down as the rotor diameter recovers or the rotor moves "away". Thus there is an optimum stiffness for the finger.

  7. Extrinsic versus intrinsic hand muscle dominance in finger flexion.

    PubMed

    Al-Sukaini, A; Singh, H P; Dias, J J

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns of dominance of extrinsic or intrinsic muscles in finger flexion during initiation of finger curl and mid-finger flexion. We recorded 82 hands of healthy individuals (18-74 years) while flexing their fingers and tracked the finger joint angles of the little finger using video motion tracking. A total of 57 hands (69.5%) were classified as extrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 25 (30.5%) were classified as intrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at the metacarpophalangeal joint. The distribution of age, sex, dominance, handedness and body mass index was similar in the two groups. This knowledge may allow clinicians to develop more efficient rehabilitation regimes, since intrinsic dominant individuals would not initiate extrinsic muscle contraction till later in finger flexion, and might therefore be allowed limited early active motion. For extrinsic dominant individuals, by contrast, initial contraction of extrinsic muscles would place increased stress on the tendon repair site if early motion were permitted. PMID:26744509

  8. Impact of artificial "gummy" fingers on fingerprint systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Koji; Hoshino, Satoshi

    2002-04-01

    Potential threats caused by something like real fingers, which are called fake or artificial fingers, should be crucial for authentication based on fingerprint systems. Security evaluation against attacks using such artificial fingers has been rarely disclosed. Only in patent literature, measures, such as live and well detection, against fake fingers have been proposed. However, the providers of fingerprint systems usually do not mention whether or not these measures are actually implemented in emerging fingerprint systems for PCs or smart cards or portable terminals, which are expected to enhance the grade of personal authentication necessary for digital transactions. As researchers who are pursuing secure systems, we would like to discuss attacks using artificial fingers and conduct experimental research to clarify the reality. This paper reports that gummy fingers, namely artificial fingers that are easily made of cheap and readily available gelatin, were accepted by extremely high rates by 11 particular fingerprint devices with optical or capacitive sensors. We have used the molds, which we made by pressing our live fingers against them or by processing fingerprint images from prints on glass surfaces, etc. We describe how to make the molds, and then show that the gummy fingers, which are made with these molds, can fool the fingerprint devices.

  9. The design and development of a finger joint simulator.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Artificial finger joints lack the long-term clinical success seen with hip and knee prostheses. In part, this can be explained by the challenges of rheumatoid arthritis, a progressive disease which attacks surrounding tissues as well as the joint itself. Therefore, the natural finger joints' biomechanics are adversely affected, and consequently, this imbalance due to subluxing forces further challenges any prosthesis. Many different designs of finger prosthesis have been offered over a period of greater than 50 years. Most of these designs have failed, and it is likely that many of these failures could have been identified had the prostheses been appropriately tested prior to implantation into patients. While finger joint simulators have been designed, arguably only those from a single centre have been able to reproduce clinical-type failures of the finger prostheses tested in them. This article describes the design and development of a finger simulator at Durham University, UK. It explains and justifies the engineering decisions made and thus the evolution of the finger simulator. In vitro results and their linkage to clinical-type failures are outlined to help to show the effectiveness of the simulator. Failures of finger implants in vivo continue to occur, and the need for appropriate in vitro testing of finger prostheses remains strong. PMID:26833697

  10. Finger-Vein Verification Based on Multi-Features Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Huafeng; Qin, Lan; Xue, Lian; He, Xiping; Yu, Chengbo; Liang, Xinyuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new scheme to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems. Firstly, a vein pattern extraction method to extract the finger-vein shape and orientation features is proposed. Secondly, to accommodate the potential local and global variations at the same time, a region-based matching scheme is investigated by employing the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) matching method. Finally, the finger-vein shape, orientation and SIFT features are combined to further enhance the performance. The experimental results on databases of 426 and 170 fingers demonstrate the consistent superiority of the proposed approach. PMID:24196433

  11. Interaction between the transcription factor SPBP and the positive cofactor RNF4. An interplay between protein binding zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    Lyngsø, C; Bouteiller, G; Damgaard, C K; Ryom, D; Sanchez-Muñoz, S; Nørby, P L; Bonven, B J; Jørgensen, P

    2000-08-25

    The activator of stromelysin 1 gene transcription, SPBP, interacts with the RING finger protein RNF4. Both proteins are ubiquitously expressed and localized in the nucleus. RNF4 facilitates accumulation of specific SPBP-DNA complexes in vitro and acts as a positive cofactor in SPBP-mediated transactivation. SPBP harbors an internal zinc finger of the PHD/LAP type. This domain can form intra-chain protein-protein contacts in SPBP resulting in negative modulation of SPBP-RNF4 interaction. PMID:10849425

  12. Population differences in finger-length ratios: ethnicity or latitude?

    PubMed

    Loehlin, John C; McFadden, Dennis; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G

    2006-12-01

    The relative length of the second and fourth fingers (the 2D:4D ratio) has been taken to be an indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and hence possibly relevant to sexual orientation and other sex-differentiated behaviors. Studies have reported a difference in this ratio between Caucasian males in Britain and in the U.S.: higher average 2D:4D ratios were obtained in Britain. This raises the question of whether differences among different Caucasian gene pools were responsible or whether some environmental variable associated with latitude might be involved (e.g., exposure to sunlight or different day-length patterns). This question was explored by examining 2D:4D ratios for an Australian adolescent sample. The Australians were predominantly of British ancestry, but lived at distances from the equator more like those of the U.S. studies. The Australian 2D:4D ratios resembled those in Britain rather than those in the U.S., tending to exclude hypotheses related to latitude and making differences in gene pools a plausible explanation. PMID:16688484

  13. Comprehensive analysis of CCCH zinc finger family in poplar (Populus trichocarpa)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background CCCH zinc finger proteins contain a typical motif of three cysteines and one histidine residues and serve regulatory functions at all stages of mRNA metabolism. In plants, CCCH type zinc finger proteins comprise a large gene family represented by 68 members in Arabidopsis and 67 in rice. These CCCH proteins have been shown to play diverse roles in plant developmental processes and environmental responses. However, this family has not been studied in the model tree species Populus to date. Results In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the genes encoding CCCH zinc finger family in Populus was performed. Using a thorough annotation approach, a total of 91 full-length CCCH genes were identified in Populus, of which most contained more than one CCCH motif and a type of non-conventional C-X11-C-X6-C-X3-H motif was unique for Populus. All of the Populus CCCH genes were phylogeneticly clustered into 13 distinct subfamilies. In each subfamily, the gene structure and motif composition were relatively conserved. Chromosomal localization of these genes revealed that most of the CCCHs (81 of 90, 90 %) are physically distributed on the duplicated blocks. Thirty-four paralogous pairs were identified in Populus, of which 22 pairs (64.7 %) might be created by the whole genome segment duplication, whereas 4 pairs seem to be resulted from tandem duplications. In 91 CCCH proteins, we also identified 63 putative nucleon-cytoplasm shuttling proteins and 3 typical RNA-binding proteins. The expression profiles of all Populus CCCH genes have been digitally analyzed in six tissues across different developmental stages, and under various drought stress conditions. A variety of expression patterns of CCCH genes were observed during Populus development, of which 34 genes highly express in root and 22 genes show the highest level of transcript abundance in differentiating xylem. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was further performed to confirm the tissue

  14. Teleoperation of Robonaut Using Finger Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champoux, Rachel G.; Luo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of new finger tracking systems, the idea of a more expressive and intuitive user interface is being explored and implemented. One practical application for this new kind of interface is that of teleoperating a robot. For humanoid robots, a finger tracking interface is required due to the level of complexity in a human-like hand, where a joystick isn't accurate. Moreover, for some tasks, using one's own hands allows the user to communicate their intentions more effectively than other input. The purpose of this project was to develop a natural user interface for someone to teleoperate a robot that is elsewhere. Specifically, this was designed to control Robonaut on the international space station to do tasks too dangerous and/or too trivial for human astronauts. This interface was developed by integrating and modifying 3Gear's software, which includes a library of gestures and the ability to track hands. The end result is an interface in which the user can manipulate objects in real time in the user interface. then, the information is relayed to a simulator, the stand in for Robonaut, at a slight delay.

  15. Rehabilitation for bilateral amputation of fingers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Stapanian, Adrienne M.P.; Staley, Keith E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe reconstructive surgeries, therapy, prostheses, and adaptations for a patient who experienced bilateral amputation of all five fingers of both hands through the proximal phalanges in January 1992. The patient made considerable progress in the use of his hands in the 10 mo after amputation, including nearly a 120% increase in the active range of flexion of metacarpophalangeal joints. In late 1992 and early 1993, the patient had "on-top plasty" surgeries, in which the index finger remnants were transferred onto the thumb stumps, performed on both hands. The increased web space and functional pinch resulting from these procedures made many tasks much easier. The patient and occupational therapists set challenging goals at all times. Moreover, the patient was actively involved in the design and fabrication of all prostheses and adaptations or he developed them himself. Although he was discharged from occupational therapy in 1997, the patient continues to actively find new solutions for prehension and grip strength 18 yr after amputation.

  16. Lipid Gymnastics: Tethers and Fingers in membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Lobat; Miller, Gregory; Parikh, Atul

    2009-03-01

    A significant body of evidence now links local mesoscopic structure (e.g., shape and composition) of the cell membrane with its function; the mechanisms by which cellular membranes adopt the specific shapes remain poorly understood. Among all the different structures adopted by cellular membranes, the tubular shape is one of the most surprising one. While their formation is typically attributed to the reorganization of membrane cytoskeleton, many exceptions exist. We report the instantaneous formation of tubular membrane mesophases following the hydration under specific thermal conditions. The shapes emerge in a bimodal way where we have two distinct diameter ranges for tubes, ˜20μm and ˜1μm, namely fat fingers and narrow tethers. We study the roughening of hydrated drops of 3 lipids in 3 different spontaneous curvatures at various temp. and ionic strength to figure out the dominant effect in selection of tethers and fingers. Dynamics of the tubes are of particular interest where we observe four distinct steps of birth, coiling, uncoiling and retraction with different lifetime on different thermal condition. These dynamics appear to reflect interplay between membrane elasticity, surface adhesion, and thermal or hydrodynamic gradient.

  17. A new family of zinc finger proteins in petunia: structure, DNA sequence recognition, and floral organ-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Takatsuji, H; Nakamura, N; Katsumoto, Y

    1994-07-01

    We have previously cloned a gene for a zinc finger protein (EPF1) that is expressed specifically in petals and interacts with the promoter region of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene in petunia. In an attempt to isolate genes encoding additional factors that interact with this promoter, we cloned four novel genes encoding zinc finger proteins (EPF2-5a, EPF2-5b, EPF2-4, and EPF2-7). Sequence analyses revealed that overall similarity between the EPF1 and the EPF2 protein family, except in the zinc finger motifs and the basic amino acid cluster, was very low, suggesting that the two groups belong to different subfamilies. DNA binding specificities of EPF1, EPF2-5, and EPF2-4 were very similar, as expected from the conserved zinc finger motifs. However, EPF2-7 showed no binding to the probes tested in spite of having the conserved motifs. DNA binding studies using a series of spacing mutant probes suggested a binding mechanism in which the EPF proteins recognize spacings in target DNA. RNA gel blot analyses and histochemical analyses with a promoter and beta-glucuronidase fusion revealed that expression of the EPF2-5 gene (EPF2-5) was petal and stamen specific. Expression of the EPF2-7 gene (EPF2-7) was sepal and petal specific and localized in vascular tissues. The preferential expression in two adjacent floral organs raises the possibility that these genes are downstream transcription factors of floral homeotic genes. PMID:8069106

  18. The Zinc Finger of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein 2 Is Essential for Efficient Hydroxylation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Patrick R; Song, Daisheng; Chung, Yu Jin; Khurana, Tejvir S; Lee, Frank S

    2016-09-15

    Prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) (also known as EGLN1) is a key oxygen sensor in mammals that posttranslationally modifies hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) and targets it for degradation. In addition to its catalytic domain, PHD2 contains an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger domain, which we have previously proposed recruits PHD2 to the HSP90 pathway to promote HIF-α hydroxylation. Here, we provide evidence that this recruitment is critical both in vitro and in vivo We show that in vitro, the zinc finger can function as an autonomous recruitment domain to facilitate interaction with HIF-α. In vivo, ablation of zinc finger function by a C36S/C42S Egln1 knock-in mutation results in upregulation of the erythropoietin gene, erythrocytosis, and augmented hypoxic ventilatory response, all hallmarks of Egln1 loss of function and HIF stabilization. Hence, the zinc finger ordinarily performs a critical positive regulatory function. Intriguingly, the function of this zinc finger is impaired in high-altitude-adapted Tibetans, suggesting that their adaptation to high altitude may, in part, be due to a loss-of-function EGLN1 allele. Thus, these findings have important implications for understanding both the molecular mechanism of the hypoxic response and human adaptation to high altitude. PMID:27325674

  19. Characterization of Drosophila OVO protein DNA binding specificity using random DNA oligomer selection suggests zinc finger degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Garfinkel, M D

    2000-02-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster ovo locus codes for several tissue- and stage-specific proteins that all possess a common C-terminal array of four C(2)H(2)zinc fingers. Three fingers conform to the motif framework and are evolutionarily conserved; the fourth diverges considerably. The ovo genetic function affects germ cell viability, sex identity and oogenesis, while the overlapping svb function is a key selector for epidermal structures under the control of wnt and EGF receptor signaling. We isolated synthetic DNA oligomers bound by the OVO zinc finger array from a high complexity starting population and derived a statistically significant 9 bp long DNA consensus sequence, which is nearly identical to a consensus derived from several Drosophila genes known or suspected of being regulated by the ovo function in vivo. The DNA consensus recognized by Drosophila OVO protein is atypical for zinc finger proteins in that it does not conform to many of the 'rules' for the interaction of amino acid contact residues and DNA bases. Additionally, our results suggest that only three of the OVO zinc fingers contribute to DNA-binding specificity. PMID:10637336

  20. The Electronic Behavior of Zinc-Finger Protein Binding Sites in the Context of the DNA Extended Ladder Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwa, Nestor; Cordeiro, Claudette; Heermann, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    Instead of ATCG letter alignments, typically used in bioinformatics, we propose a new alignment method using the probability distribution function of the bottom of the occupied molecular orbital (BOMO), highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied orbital (LUMO). We apply the technique to transcription factors with Cys2His2 zinc fingers. These transcription factors search for binding sites, probing for the electronic patterns at the minor and major DNA groves. The eukaryotic Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins bind to DNA ubiquitously at highly conserved domains. They are responsible for gene regulation and the spatial organization of DNA. To study and understand these zinc finger DNA-protein interactions, we use the extended ladder in the DNA model proposed by Zhu, Rasmussen, Balatsky & Bishop (2007) te{Zhu-2007}. Considering one single spinless electron in each nucleotide π-orbital along a double DNA chain (dDNA), we find a typical pattern for the bottom of BOMO, HOMO and LUMO along the binding sites. We specifically looked at two members of zinc finger protein family: specificity protein 1 (SP1) and early grown response 1 transcription factors (EGR1). When the valence band is filled, we find electrons in the purines along the nucleotide sequence, compatible with the electric charges of the binding amino acids in SP1 and EGR1 zinc finger.

  1. Zinc fingers as protein recognition motifs: Structural basis for the GATA-1/Friend of GATA interaction

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Chu Kong; Simpson, Raina J. Y.; Kwan, Ann H. Y.; Crofts, Linda A.; Loughlin, Fionna E.; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Crossley, Merlin; Mackay, Joel P.

    2005-01-01

    GATA-1 and friend of GATA (FOG) are zinc-finger transcription factors that physically interact to play essential roles in erythroid and megakaryocytic development. Several naturally occurring mutations in the GATA-1 gene that alter the FOG-binding domain have been reported. The mutations are associated with familial anemias and thrombocytopenias of differing severity. To elucidate the molecular basis for the GATA-1/FOG interaction, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of a complex comprising the interaction domains of these proteins. The structure reveals how zinc fingers can act as protein recognition motifs. Details of the architecture of the contact domains and their physical properties provide a molecular explanation for how the GATA-1 mutations contribute to distinct but related genetic diseases. PMID:15644435

  2. Senseless, a Zn finger transcription factor, is necessary and sufficient for sensory organ development in Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolo, R.; Abbott, L. A.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The senseless (sens) gene is required for proper development of most cell types of the embryonic and adult peripheral nervous system (PNS) of Drosophila. Sens is a nuclear protein with four Zn fingers that is expressed and required in the sensory organ precursors (SOP) for proper proneural gene expression. Ectopic expression of Sens in many ectodermal cells causes induction of PNS external sensory organ formation and is able to recreate an ectopic proneural field. Hence, sens is both necessary and sufficient for PNS development. Our data indicate that proneural genes activate sens expression. Sens is then in turn required to further activate and maintain proneural gene expression. This feedback mechanism is essential for selective enhancement and maintenance of proneural gene expression in the SOPs.

  3. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3230 Section 888.3230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  4. Handedness and index finger movements performed on a small touchscreen.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tomoko; Rivlis, Gil; Schieber, Marc H

    2016-02-01

    Many studies of right/left differences in motor performance related to handedness have employed tasks that use arm movements or combined arm and hand movements rather than movements of the fingers per se, the well-known exception being rhythmic finger tapping. We therefore explored four simple tasks performed on a small touchscreen with relatively isolated movements of the index finger. Each task revealed a different right/left performance asymmetry. In a step-tracking Target Task, left-handed subjects showed greater accuracy with the index finger of the dominant left hand than with the nondominant right hand. In a Center-Out Task, right-handed subjects produced trajectories with the nondominant left hand that had greater curvature than those produced with the dominant right hand. In a continuous Circle Tracking Task, slips of the nondominant left index finger showed higher jerk than slips of the dominant right index finger. And in a continuous Complex Tracking Task, the nondominant left index finger showed shorter time lags in tracking the relatively unpredictable target than the dominant right index finger. Our findings are broadly consistent with previous studies indicating left hemisphere specialization for dynamic control and predictable situations vs. right hemisphere specialization for impedance control and unpredictable situations, the specialized contributions of the two hemispheres being combined to different degrees in the right vs. left hands of right-handed vs. left-handed individuals. PMID:26683065

  5. Toward a Phonetic Representation of Hand Configuration: The Fingers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe a componential, articulatory approach to the phonetic description of the configuration of the four fingers. Abandoning the traditional holistic, perceptual approach, we propose a system of notational devices and distinctive features for the description of the four fingers proper (index, middle, ring, and pinky).…

  6. Rediscovering Ruth Faison Shaw and Her Finger-Painting Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Ruth Faison Shaw was an art educator who developed a nontraditional educational perspective of teaching and a different vision about children's art. As such, she is considered by some to be the initiator of finger-painting in America (The History of Art Education Timeline 1930-1939, 2002.) Shaw developed the technique of finger-painting and a…

  7. Robust Finger Vein ROI Localization Based on Flexible Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yu; Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2013-01-01

    Finger veins have been proved to be an effective biometric for personal identification in the recent years. However, finger vein images are easily affected by influences such as image translation, orientation, scale, scattering, finger structure, complicated background, uneven illumination, and collection posture. All these factors may contribute to inaccurate region of interest (ROI) definition, and so degrade the performance of finger vein identification system. To improve this problem, in this paper, we propose a finger vein ROI localization method that has high effectiveness and robustness against the above factors. The proposed method consists of a set of steps to localize ROIs accurately, namely segmentation, orientation correction, and ROI detection. Accurate finger region segmentation and correct calculated orientation can support each other to produce higher accuracy in localizing ROIs. Extensive experiments have been performed on the finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, to verify the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method shows the segmentation accuracy of 100%. Furthermore, the average processing time of the proposed method is 22 ms for an acquired image, which satisfies the criterion of a real-time finger vein identification system. PMID:24284769

  8. Population Structure and Diversity in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) Germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genotypic analysis of 79 finger millet accessions (E. coracana subsp. coracana) from 11 African and 5 Asian countries, plus 14 wild E. coracana subsp. africana lines collected in Uganda and Kenya was conducted with 45 SSR markers distributed across the finger millet genome. Phylogenetic and popula...

  9. Finger vein extraction using gradient normalization and principal curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joon Hwan; Song, Wonseok; Kim, Taejeong; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Finger vein authentication is a personal identification technology using finger vein images acquired by infrared imaging. It is one of the newest technologies in biometrics. Its main advantage over other biometrics is the low risk of forgery or theft, due to the fact that finger veins are not normally visible to others. Extracting finger vein patterns from infrared images is the most difficult part in finger vein authentication. Uneven illumination, varying tissues and bones, and changes in the physical conditions and the blood flow make the thickness and brightness of the same vein different in each acquisition. Accordingly, extracting finger veins at their accurate positions regardless of their thickness and brightness is necessary for accurate personal identification. For this purpose, we propose a new finger vein extraction method which is composed of gradient normalization, principal curvature calculation, and binarization. As local brightness variation has little effect on the curvature and as gradient normalization makes the curvature fairly uniform at vein pixels, our method effectively extracts finger vein patterns regardless of the vein thickness or brightness. In our experiment, the proposed method showed notable improvement as compared with the existing methods.

  10. Coordination of bowing and fingering in violin playing.

    PubMed

    Baader, Andreas P; Kazennikov, Oleg; Wiesendanger, Mario

    2005-05-01

    Playing string instruments implies motor skills including asymmetrical interlimb coordination. How special is musical skill as compared to other bimanually coordinated, non-musical skillful performances? We succeeded for the first time to measure quantitatively bimanual coordination in violinists playing repeatedly a simple tone sequence. A motion analysis system was used to record finger and bow trajectories for assessing the temporal structure of finger-press, finger-lift (left hand), and bow stroke reversals (right arm). The main results were: (1) fingering consisted of serial and parallel (anticipatory) mechanisms; (2) synchronization between finger and bow actions varied from -12 ms to 60 ms, but these 'errors' were not perceived. The results suggest that (1) bow-finger synchronization varied by about 50 ms from perfect simultaneity, but without impairing auditory perception; (2) the temporal structure depends on a number of combinatorial mechanisms of bowing and fingering. These basic mechanisms were observed in all players, including all amateurs. The successful biomechanical measures of fingering and bowing open a vast practical field of assessing motor skills. Thus, objective assessment of larger groups of string players with varying musical proficiency, or of professional string players developing movement disorders, may be helpful in music education. PMID:15820650

  11. [The mallet finger in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B; Weinberg, A; Friedrich, H

    2008-06-01

    The "mallet finger" in childhood and adolescence differs from the "mallet finger" in adults because of an open or gradually closing epiphysial plate. Thus, our results of conservative and operative treatment were evaluated particularly in consideration of an open growth plate. We analysed retrospectively the data of all patients who suffered a lesion at the extensor tendon insertion between 1996 and 2005 and were treated at our hospital. The coding was done according to age, sex, localisation, typing by Doyle, therapy and functional outcome. The typing by Doyle was extended through dividing type IV A into A1 (=Aitken I) and A2 (=Aitken II). Depending on extension deficits, the results were evaluated as very good (0 degrees ), medium (<15 degrees) and bad (>15 degrees). 76 patients, 45 boys and 31 girls aged 1 to 17 years (average age: 11.3) were studied. In consideration of the modified typing by Doyle, following distribution arose: type I (n=16), type II (n=14), type III (n=0), type IV A1 (n=17), type IV A2 (n=6), type IV B (n=21) and type IV C (n=2). A total of 50 patients was treated conservatively. Out of 26 operatively treated patients, 4 could be classified as type I, 12 as type II, 1 as type IV A1, 2 as type IV A2, 5 as type IV B, and 2 as type IV C. In 81.5 % of all patients no functional extension deficit was seen at the end of treatment; in patients treated conservatively, the percentage rate was 94 %. 6 patients, who were treated primarily operatively, showed poor functional outcome. 2 of these developed a suture track infection, in 2 cases chondral and osseous damage in the joint existed additionally, in one patient there was a comminuted fracture and in one patient a technical operative problem. Even in adolescence, conservative treatment of types I, IV A1 and A2, as well as IV B injuries is promising. A prerequisite is a consequent splint treatment and strict regular lateral X-ray control of the fracture fragment. At the beginning of treatment, we

  12. PHD fingers in human diseases: disorders arising from misinterpreting epigenetic marks

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Allis, C. David; Wang, Gang G.

    2008-01-01

    Histone covalent modifications regulate many, if not all, DNA-templated processes, including gene expression and DNA damage response. The biological consequences of histone modifications are mediated partially by evolutionarily conserved “reader/effector” modules that bind to histone marks in a modification- and context-specific fashion and subsequently enact chromatin changes or recruit other proteins to do so. Recently, the Plant Homeodomain (PHD) finger has emerged as a class of specialized “reader” modules that, in some instances, recognize the methylation status of histone lysine residues, such as histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4). While mutations in catalytic enzymes that mediate the addition or removal of histone modifications (i.e., “writers” and “erasers”) are already known to be involved in various human diseases, mutations in the modification-specific “reader” proteins are only beginning to be recognized as contributing to human diseases. For instance, point mutations, deletions or chromosomal translocations that target PHD fingers encoded by many genes (such as RAG2, ING, NSD1 and ATRX) have been associated with a wide range of human pathologies including immunological disorders, cancers, and neurological diseases. In this review, we will discuss the structural features of PHD fingers as well as the diseases for which direct mutation or dysregulation of the PHD finger has been reported. We propose that misinterpretation of the epigenetic marks may serve as a general mechanism for human diseases of this category. Determining the regulatory roles of histone covalent modifications in the context of human disease will allow for a more thorough understanding of normal and pathological development, and may provide innovative therapeutic strategies wherein “chromatin readers” stand as potential drug targets. PMID:18682256

  13. Finger vein image quality evaluation using support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2013-02-01

    In an automatic finger-vein recognition system, finger-vein image quality is significant for segmentation, enhancement, and matching processes. In this paper, we propose a finger-vein image quality evaluation method using support vector machines (SVMs). We extract three features including the gradient, image contrast, and information capacity from the input image. An SVM model is built on the training images with annotated quality labels (i.e., high/low) and then applied to unseen images for quality evaluation. To resolve the class-imbalance problem in the training data, we perform oversampling for the minority class with random-synthetic minority oversampling technique. Cross-validation is also employed to verify the reliability and stability of the learned model. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our method in evaluating the quality of finger-vein images, and by discarding low-quality images detected by our method, the overall finger-vein recognition performance is considerably improved.

  14. A new algorithmic approach for fingers detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubashar Khan, Arslan; Umar, Waqas; Choudhary, Taimoor; Hussain, Fawad; Haroon Yousaf, Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    Gesture recognition is concerned with the goal of interpreting human gestures through mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Hand gesture detection in a real time environment, where the time and memory are important issues, is a critical operation. Hand gesture recognition largely depends on the accurate detection of the fingers. This paper presents a new algorithmic approach to detect and identify fingers of human hand. The proposed algorithm does not depend upon the prior knowledge of the scene. It detects the active fingers and Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) of the inactive fingers from an already detected hand. Dynamic thresholding technique and connected component labeling scheme are employed for background elimination and hand detection respectively. Algorithm proposed a new approach for finger identification in real time environment keeping the memory and time constraint as low as possible.

  15. Bulk elastic fingering in soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saintyves, Baudouin; Biggins, John; Wei, Zhiyan; Bouchaud, Elisabeth; Mahadevan, L.; Harvard University Team; Ec2M/Espci Collaboration; Cambridge University Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed in purely elastic polyacrylamide gels in Hele-Shaw cells. We have shown that a bulk fingering instability arises in the highly deformable confined elastomers. A systematic study shows that surface tension is not relevant. This instability is sub-critical, with a clear hysteretic behavior. Our experimental observations have been compared very favorably to theoretical and finite element simulations results. In particular, the instability wavelength and the critical front advance have been shown to be proportional to the distance between the two glass plates constituting the cell. A very important feature is that elasticity doesn't influence this lengthscale, making this instability very generic. We will also show some new results about an elastic counterpart experiment of the famous Saffman-Taylor experiment, where we push a soft gel in a stiff one.

  16. Task specificity of finger dexterity tests.

    PubMed

    Berger, Monique A M; Krul, Arno J; Daanen, Hein A M

    2009-01-01

    Finger dexterity tests are generally used to assess performance decrease due to gloves, cold and pathology. It is generally assumed that the O'Connor and Purdue Pegboard test yield similar results. In this experiment we compared these two tests for dry conditions without gloves, and for dry and wet conditions with two types of Nytril gloves. In line with previous observations, wearing gloves caused a decrease in performance of about 12% for the O'Connor test and 9% for the Purdue test. Wetting the gloves prior to the test had no effect on the Purdue score. However, wetting the gloves increased the O'Connor performance significantly by 11%. The results show that the O'Connor and Purdue tests do not yield similar results and should be used selectively for specific tasks. PMID:18339353

  17. Bulk Elastic Fingering in Soft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saintyves, Baudouin; Biggins, John; Wei, Zhiyan; Mora, Serge; Mahadevan, L.; Bouchaud, Elisabeth; Harvard University Team; Espci-Paristech Collaboration; Cambridge University Collaboration; Montpellier 2 University Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed in purely elastic polyacrylamide gels in Hele-Shaw cells. We have shown that a bulk fingering instability arises in the highly deformable confined elastomers. A systematic study shows that surface tension is not relevant. This instability is sub-critical, with a clear hysteretic behavior. Our experimental observations have been compared very favorably to theoretical and finite element simulations results. In particular, the instability wavelength and the critical front advance have been shown to be proportional to the distance between the two glass plates constituting the cell. A very important feature is that elasticity doesn't influence this lengthscale, making this instability very generic. We will also show some new results about an elastic counterpart experiment of the famous Saffman-Taylor experiment, where we push a soft gel in a stiff one.

  18. Mechanics of finger-tip electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yewang; Li, Rui; Cheng, Huanyu; Ying, Ming; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang

    2013-10-01

    Tactile sensors and electrotactile stimulators can provide important links between humans and virtual environments, through the sensation of touch. Soft materials, such as low modulus silicones, are attractive as platforms and support matrices for arrays sensors and actuators that laminate directly onto the fingertips. Analytic models for the mechanics of three dimensional, form-fitting finger cuffs based on such designs are presented here, along with quantitative validation using the finite element method. The results indicate that the maximum strains in the silicone and the embedded devices are inversely proportional to the square root of radius of curvature of the cuff. These and other findings can be useful in formulating designs for these and related classes of body-worn, three dimensional devices.

  19. Surface Tension and Fingering of Miscible Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abib, Mohammed; Liu, Jian-Bang; Ronney, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments on miscible, buoyantly unstable reaction-diffusion fronts and non-reacting displacement fronts in Hele-Shaw cells show a fingering-type instability whose wavelengths (lambda*) are consistent with an interfacial tension (sigma) at the front caused by the change in chemical composition, even though the solutions are miscible in all proportions. In conjunction with the Saffman-Taylor model, the relation sigma = K/tau, where tau is the interface thickness and K approximately equal 4 +/- 2 x 10(exp -6) dyne, enables prediction of our measured values of lambda* as well as results from prior experiments on miscible interfaces. These results indicate that even for miscible fluids, surface tension is generally a more significant factor than diffusion in interfacial stability and flow characteristics.

  20. Finger movements and fingers postures in pre-term infants are not a good indicator of brain damage.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Y; Prechtl, H F

    1994-02-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse, with a more detailed classification the occurrence of movements and postures of the fingers in normal and brain damaged pre-term infants. To this end the same videorecordings of normal subjects of the study described by Cioni and Prechtl and those with defined brain lesions from the investigation by Ferrari et al. have been reanalysed. In three general movements, selected randomly from each infant, we assessed the finger movement. There was no systematic trend with age and the repertoire of finger patterns per observation varied between different individuals. Only one or two finger(s) move (pattern B) and synchronized finger opening-closing (pattern D) and the complex and variable movement of three or more fingers (pattern E) are all more often or even only seen during arm movements. Fisting without arm movement (pattern A-) was only seen less frequently in the control cases, in the infants with flares and one-sided lesions. On the other hand, the two latter groups had more often pattern C+ (opening of all fingers with arm movement) while B+ (only one or two fingers move with arm movement) and E+ (three or more fingers move variably with arm movement) was less frequent in the severely damaged infants. Albeit significant differences, the plotted data immediately show the large overlap of the findings between the groups. There was no difference in the fisting between low-risk and neurologically abnormal pre-term infants. These findings corroborate the conclusions that abnormal movements and postures are not useful in the diagnosis of pre-term infants with confirmed brain lesions because of the wide overlap between the values for normal and brain damaged infants. PMID:8200324

  1. Dopamine receptor regulating factor, DRRF: a zinc finger transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C K; D'Souza, U M; Eisch, A J; Yajima, S; Lammers, C H; Yang, Y; Lee, S H; Kim, Y M; Nestler, E J; Mouradian, M M

    2001-06-19

    Dopamine receptor genes are under complex transcription control, determining their unique regional distribution in the brain. We describe here a zinc finger type transcription factor, designated dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF), which binds to GC and GT boxes in the D1A and D2 dopamine receptor promoters and effectively displaces Sp1 and Sp3 from these sequences. Consequently, DRRF can modulate the activity of these dopamine receptor promoters. Highest DRRF mRNA levels are found in brain with a specific regional distribution including olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal cortex. Many of these brain regions also express abundant levels of various dopamine receptors. In vivo, DRRF itself can be regulated by manipulations of dopaminergic transmission. Mice treated with drugs that increase extracellular striatal dopamine levels (cocaine), block dopamine receptors (haloperidol), or destroy dopamine terminals (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) show significant alterations in DRRF mRNA. The latter observations provide a basis for dopamine receptor regulation after these manipulations. We conclude that DRRF is important for modulating dopaminergic transmission in the brain. PMID:11390978

  2. Targeted chromosomal deletions in human cells using zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach for generating targeted deletions of genomic segments in human and other eukaryotic cells using engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs). We found that ZFNs designed to target two different sites in a human chromosome could introduce two concurrent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the chromosome and give rise to targeted deletions of the genomic segment between the two sites. Using this method in human cells, we were able to delete predetermined genomic DNA segments in the range of several-hundred base pairs (bp) to 15 mega-bp at frequencies of 10(-3) to 10(-1). These high frequencies allowed us to isolate clonal populations of cells, in which the target chromosomal segments were deleted, by limiting dilution. Sequence analysis revealed that many of the deletion junctions contained small insertions or deletions and microhomologies, indicative of DNA repair via nonhomologous end-joining. Unlike other genome engineering tools such as recombinases and meganucleases, ZFNs do not require preinsertion of target sites into the genome and allow precise manipulation of endogenous genomic scripts in animal and plant cells. Thus, ZFN-induced genomic deletions should be broadly useful as a novel method in biomedical research, biotechnology, and gene therapy. PMID:19952142

  3. Fluctuations in Saffman-Taylor fingers with quenched disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torralba, M.; Ortín, J.; Hernández-Machado, A.; Corvera Poiré, E.

    2006-04-01

    We make an experimental characterization of the effect that static disorder has on the shape of a normal Saffman-Taylor finger. We find that static noise induces a small amplitude and long wavelength instability on the sides of the finger. Fluctuations on the finger sides have a dominant wavelength, indicating that the system acts as a selective amplifier of static noise. The dominant wavelength does not seem to be very sensitive to the intensity of static noise present in the system. On the other hand, at a given flow rate, rms fluctuations of the finger width, decrease with decreasing intensity of static noise. This might explain why the sides of the fingers are flat for typical Saffman-Taylor experiments. Comparison with previous numerical studies of the effect that temporal noise has on the Saffman-Taylor finger, leads to conclude that the effect of temporal noise and static noise are similar. The behavior of fluctuations of the finger width found in our experiments, is qualitatively similar to one recently reported, in the sense that, the magnitude of the width fluctuations decays as a power law of the capillary number, at low flow rates, and increases with capillary number for larger flow rates.

  4. Response to reflected-force feedback to fingers in teleoperations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, P. H.; Iatridis, J. C.; Thakor, N. V.

    1989-01-01

    Reflected-force feedback is an important aspect of teleoperations. The objective is to determine the ability of the human operator to respond to that force. Telerobotics operation is simulated by computer control of a motor-driven device with capabilities for programmable force feedback and force measurement. A computer-controlled motor drive is developed that provides forces against the fingers as well as (angular) position control. A load cell moves in a circular arc as it is pushed by a finger and measures reaction forces on the finger. The force exerted by the finger on the load cell and the angular position are digitized and recorded as a function of time by the computer. Flexure forces of the index, long and ring fingers of the human hand in opposition to the motor driven load cell are investigated. Results of the following experiments are presented: (1) Exertion of maximum finger force as a function of angle; (2) Exertion of target finger force against a computer controlled force; and (3) Test of the ability to move to a target force against a force that is a function of position. Averaged over ten individuals, the maximum force that could be exerted by the index or long finger is about 50 Newtons, while that of the ring finger is about 40 Newtons. From the tests of the ability of a subject to exert a target force, it was concluded that reflected-force feedback can be achieved with the direct kinesthetic perception of force without the use of tactile or visual clues.

  5. Multiple bacteria encode metallothioneins and SmtA-like zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    Blindauer, Claudia A; Harrison, Mark D; Robinson, Andrea K; Parkinson, John A; Bowness, Peter W; Sadler, Peter J; Robinson, Nigel J

    2002-09-01

    Zinc is essential but toxic in excess. Bacterial metallothionein, SmtA from Synechococcus PCC 7942, sequesters and detoxifies four zinc ions per molecule and contains a zinc finger structurally similar to eukaryotic GATA. The dearth of other reported bacterial metallothioneins has been surprising. Here we describe related bacterial metallothioneins (BmtA) from Anabaena PCC 7120, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida that bind multiple zinc ions with high stability towards protons. Thiol modification demonstrates that cysteine coordinates zinc in all of these proteins. Additionally, (111)Cd-NMR, and (111)Cd-edited (1)H-NMR, identified histidine ligands in Anabaena PCC 7120 BmtA, analogous to SmtA. A related Escherichia coli protein bound only a single zinc ion, via four cysteine residues, with low stability towards protons; (111)Cd-NMR and (111)Cd-edited (1)H-NMR confirmed exclusive cysteine-coordination, and these cysteine residues reacted rapidly with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). (1)H-NMR of proteins from P. aeruginosa, Anabaena PCC 7120 and E. coli generated fingerprints diagnostic for the GATA-like zinc finger fold of SmtA. These studies reveal first the existence of multiple bacterial metallothioneins, and second proteins with SmtA-like lone zinc fingers, devoid of a cluster,and designated GatA. We have identified 12 smtA-like genes in sequence databases including four of the gatA type. PMID:12207707

  6. Dendrites, viscous fingers, and the theory of pattern formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of pattern formation in dendritic crystal growth and viscous fingering in fluids are reviewed. Consideration is given to the discovery that weak capillary forces act as singular perturbations which lead to selection mechanisms in dendritic crystal growth and fingering patterns. Other topics include the conventional thermodynamic model of the solidification of a pure substance from its melt, fingering instability, pattern selection, the solvability theory, dendritic growth rates, the bubble effect discovered by Couder et al. (1986), the dynamics of pattern-forming systems, and snowflake formation.

  7. Narrow fingers in the Saffman-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couder, Y.; Gerard, N.; Rabaud, M.

    1986-12-01

    Saffman-Taylor fingers with a relative width much smaller than the classical limit lambda = 0.5 are found when a small isolated bubble is located at their tip. These solutions are members of a family found by Saffman and Taylor (1958) neglecting superficial tension. Recent theories have shown that when capillary forces are taken into account an unphysical cusplike singularity would appear at the tip of all the fingers with lambda less than 0.5. Conversely, here the replacement of the tip by a small bubble makes these solutions possible. At large velocity these fingers show dendritic instability.

  8. Plasmonic "nano-fingers on nanowires" as SERS substrates.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Yashna; Dhawan, Anuj

    2016-05-01

    A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on plasmonics-active metallic nano-finger arrays grown on arrays of triangular-shaped metal-coated silicon nanowire arrays is proposed. Finite-difference time-domain modeling is employed to numerically calculate the effect of the inter-finger gap and the growth angle of the nano-fingers on the magnitude of SERS enhancement and the plasmon resonance wavelength. Additionally, the polarization dependence of the SERS signals from these novel substrates has been studied. A protocol for the fabrication of the proposed SERS substrate is also discussed. PMID:27128080

  9. Finger rafting: a generic instability of floating elastic sheets.

    PubMed

    Vella, Dominic; Wettlaufer, J S

    2007-02-23

    Colliding ice floes are often observed to form a series of interlocking fingers. We show that this striking phenomenon is not a result of some peculiar property of ice but rather a general and robust mechanical phenomenon reproducible in the laboratory with other floating materials. We determine the theoretical relationship between the width of the resulting fingers and the material's mechanical properties and present experimental results along with field observations to support the theory. The generality of this "finger rafting" suggests that analogous processes may be responsible for creating the large-scale structures observed at the boundaries between Earth's convergent tectonic plates. PMID:17359135

  10. A hierarchical classification method for finger knuckle print recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Tao; Yang, Gongping; Yang, Lu

    2014-12-01

    Finger knuckle print has recently been seen as an effective biometric technique. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical classification method for finger knuckle print recognition, which is rooted in traditional score-level fusion methods. In the proposed method, we firstly take Gabor feature as the basic feature for finger knuckle print recognition and then a new decision rule is defined based on the predefined threshold. Finally, the minor feature speeded-up robust feature is conducted for these users, who cannot be recognized by the basic feature. Extensive experiments are performed to evaluate the proposed method, and experimental results show that it can achieve a promising performance.

  11. A metallothionein containing a zinc finger within a four-metal cluster protects a bacterium from zinc toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Blindauer, Claudia A.; Harrison, Mark D.; Parkinson, John A.; Robinson, Andrea K.; Cavet, Jennifer S.; Robinson, Nigel J.; Sadler, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Zinc is essential for many cellular processes, including DNA synthesis, transcription, and translation, but excess can be toxic. A zinc-induced gene, smtA, is required for normal zinc-tolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942. Here we report that the protein SmtA contains a cleft lined with Cys-sulfur and His-imidazole ligands that binds four zinc ions in a Zn4Cys9His2 cluster. The thiolate sulfurs of five Cys ligands provide bridges between the two ZnCys4 and two ZnCys3His sites, giving two fused six-membered rings with distorted boat conformations. The inorganic core strongly resembles the Zn4Cys11 cluster of mammalian metallothionein, despite different amino acid sequences, a different linear order of the ligands, and presence of histidine ligands. Also, SmtA contains elements of secondary structure not found in metallothioneins. One of the two Cys4-coordinated zinc ions in SmtA readily exchanges with exogenous metal (111Cd), whereas the other is inert. The thiolate sulfur ligands bound to zinc in this site are buried within the protein. Regions of β-strand and α-helix surround the inert site to form a zinc finger resembling the zinc fingers in GATA and LIM-domain proteins. Eukaryotic zinc fingers interact specifically with other proteins or DNA and an analogous interaction can therefore be anticipated for prokaryotic zinc fingers. SmtA now provides structural proof for the existence of zinc fingers in prokaryotes, and sequences related to the zinc finger motif can be identified in several bacterial genomes. PMID:11493688

  12. Conserved zinc fingers mediate multiple functions of ZFP100, a U7snRNP associated protein

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Eric J.; Ospina, Jason K.; Hu, Yue; Dundr, Miroslav; Matera, A. Gregory; Marzluff, William F.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of the 3′ end of replication-dependent histone mRNAs is most robust during S phase and is mediated by both the stem–loop binding protein (SLBP) and the U7 snRNP. We previously identified a 100-kDa zinc finger protein (ZFP100) as a component of U7 snRNP that interacts with the SLBP/pre-mRNA complex. Here, we show that myc- or GFP-tagged ZFP100 overexpressed after transfection is concentrated in Cajal bodies (CBs), and unlike components of the spliceosomal snRNPs, photobleaching experiments demonstrate that ZFP100 is stably associated with CBs. Of the 18 zinc fingers contained within ZFP100, the region encompassing fingers 2–6 is sufficient to maintain CB localization. Zn fingers 5–10 are required for maximal binding of ZFP100 to a 20-amino-acid region of Lsm11, a U7 snRNP core protein. Expression of ZFP100 stimulates histone mRNA processing in vivo, assayed by activation of a reporter gene that encodes a GFP mRNA ending in a histone 3′ end. Importantly, the domain that is required for CB localization and Lsm11 binding is also sufficient to stimulate histone pre-mRNA processing in vivo. Comparisons with other mammalian ZFP100 orthologs show that the central Zn fingers sufficient for in vivo activity are most highly conserved, whereas the number and sequence of the Zn fingers in the N- and C-terminal domains vary. PMID:16714279

  13. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  14. Finger cold-induced vasodilation: a review.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A M

    2003-06-01

    Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) in the finger tips generally occurs 5-10 min after the start of local cold exposure of the extremities. This phenomenon is believed to reduce the risk of local cold injuries. However, CIVD is almost absent during hypothermia, when survival of the organism takes precedence over the survival of peripheral tissue. Subjects that are often exposed to local cold (e.g. fish filleters) develop an enhanced CIVD response. Also, differences between ethnic groups are obvious, with black people having the weakest CIVD response. Many other factors affect CIVD, such as diet, alcohol consumption, altitude, age and stress. CIVD is probably caused by a sudden decrease in the release of neurotransmitters from the sympathetic nerves to the muscular coat of the arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) due to local cold. AVAs are specific thermoregulatory organs that regulate blood flow in the cold and heat. Their relatively large diameter enables large amounts of blood to pass and convey heat to the surrounding tissue. Unfortunately, information on the quantity of AVAs is lacking, which makes it difficult to estimate the full impact on peripheral blood flow. This review illustrates the thermospecificity of the AVAs and the close link to CIVD. CIVD is influenced by many parameters, but controlled experiments yield information on how CIVD protects the extremities against cold injuries. PMID:12712346

  15. Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals

    PubMed Central

    Vujović, Svetlana; Popović, Srdjan; Mrvošević Marojević, Ljiljana; Ivović, Miomira; Tančić-Gajić, Milina; Stojanović, Miloš; Marina, Ljiljana V.; Barać, Marija; Barać, Branko; Kovačević, Milena; Duišin, Dragana; Barišić, Jasmina; Djordjević, Miroslav L.; Micić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D) associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D : 4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT) and male to female transsexuals (MFT) and controls. We examined 42 MFT, 38 FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D : 4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male's left hand ratio was lower than in control female's left hand. There was no difference in 2D : 4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D : 4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D : 4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism. PMID:24982993

  16. Ubiquitin interactions of NZF zinc fingers

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Steven L; Sun, Ji; Payne, Marielle; Welch, Brett D; Blake, B Kelly; Davis, Darrell R; Meyer, Hemmo H; Emr, Scott D; Sundquist, Wesley I

    2004-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) functions in many different biological pathways, where it typically interacts with proteins that contain modular Ub recognition domains. One such recognition domain is the Npl4 zinc finger (NZF), a compact zinc-binding module found in many proteins that function in Ub-dependent processes. We now report the solution structure of the NZF domain from Npl4 in complex with Ub. The structure reveals that three key NZF residues (13TF14/M25) surrounding the zinc coordination site bind the hydrophobic ‘Ile44' surface of Ub. Mutations in the 13TF14/M25 motif inhibit Ub binding, and naturally occurring NZF domains that lack the motif do not bind Ub. However, substitution of the 13TF14/M25 motif into the nonbinding NZF domain from RanBP2 creates Ub-binding activity, demonstrating the versatility of the NZF scaffold. Finally, NZF mutations that inhibit Ub binding by the NZF domain of Vps36/ESCRT-II also inhibit sorting of ubiquitylated proteins into the yeast vacuole. Thus, the NZF is a versatile protein recognition domain that is used to bind ubiquitylated proteins during vacuolar protein sorting, and probably many other biological processes. PMID:15029239

  17. From frictional fingers to stick slip bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandnes, Bjørnar; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Flekkøy, Eirik; Eriksen, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Gas intrusion into wet porous/deformable/granular media occurs in a wide range of natural and engineered settings. Examples include hydrocarbon recovery, carbon dioxide geo-sequestration, gas venting in sediments and volcanic eruptions. In the case where the intruding gas is able to displace particles and grains, local changes in granular packing fraction govern the evolution of flow paths, resulting in complex pattern formation of the displacement flow. Here we investigate flow patterning as a compressed gas displaces a granular mixture confined in the narrow gap of a Hele-Shaw cell. We find a surprising variety of different pattern formation dynamics, and present a unified phase diagram of the flow morphologies we observe. This talk will focus on one particular transition the system undergoes: from frictional fingers to stick slip bubbles. We show that the frictional fluid flow patterns depend on granular mass loading and system elasticity, analogous to the behaviour of the well-known spring-block sliding friction problem.

  18. Development of Functional Recovery Training Device for Hemiplegic Fingers with Finger-expansion Facilitation Exercise by Stretch Reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yong; Iwashita, Hisashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Hayashi, Ryota

    This paper develops a functional recovery training device to perform repetition facilitating exercise for hemiplegic finger rehabilitation. On the facilitation exercise, automatic finger expansion can be realized and facilitated by stretch reflex, where a stimulation forces is applied instantaneously on flexion finger for making strech reflex and resistance forces are applied for maintaining the strech reflex. In this paper, novel parallel mechanisms, force sensing system with high sensitivity and resistance accompanying cooperation control method are proposed for sensing, controlling and realizing the stimulation force, resistance forces, strech reflex and repetition facilitating exercise. The effectivities and performances of the device are shown by some experiments.

  19. C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors in foxtail millet define response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Khandelwal, Rohit; Khan, Yusuf; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-09-01

    C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant stress response and hormone signal transduction. Hence considering its importance, genome-wide investigation and characterization of C2H2 zinc finger proteins were performed in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar but no such study was conducted in foxtail millet which is a C4 Panicoid model crop well known for its abiotic stress tolerance. The present study identified 124 C2H2-type zinc finger TFs in foxtail millet (SiC2H2) and physically mapped them onto the genome. The gene duplication analysis revealed that SiC2H2s primarily expanded in the genome through tandem duplication. The phylogenetic tree classified these TFs into five groups (I-V). Further, miRNAs targeting SiC2H2 transcripts in foxtail millet were identified. Heat map demonstrated differential and tissue-specific expression patterns of these SiC2H2 genes. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet SiC2H2 genes and its orthologs of sorghum, maize and rice revealed the evolutionary relationships of C2H2 type of zinc finger TFs. The duplication and divergence data provided novel insight into the evolutionary aspects of these TFs in foxtail millet and related grass species. Expression profiling of candidate SiC2H2 genes in response to salinity, dehydration and cold stress showed differential expression pattern of these genes at different time points of stresses. PMID:24915771

  20. The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN protein is able to specifically bind DNA through its single Cys2–His2 zinc finger motif

    PubMed Central

    Dathan, Nina; Zaccaro, Laura; Esposito, Sabrina; Isernia, Carla; Omichinski, James G.; Riccio, Andrea; Pedone, Carlo; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V.

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN (SUP) gene has been shown to be important in maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels, and is presumed to act by regulating cell proliferation. In this work, we show that the SUP protein, which contains a single Cys2–His2 zinc finger domain including the QALGGH sequence, highly conserved in the plant zinc finger proteins, binds DNA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was determined that the minimal domain required for specific DNA binding (residues 15–78) includes the single zinc finger and two basic regions located on either side of this motif. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions in the zinc finger or in the basic regions, including a mutation that knocks out the function of the SUP protein in vivo (glycine 63 to aspartate), have been found to abolish the activity of the SUP DNA-binding domain. These results strongly suggest that the SUP protein functions in vivo by acting as a DNA-binding protein, likely involved in transcriptional regulation. The association of both an N-terminal and a C-terminal basic region with a single Cys2–His2 zinc finger represents a novel DNA-binding motif suggesting that the mechanism of DNA recognition adopted by the SUP protein is different from that described so far in other zinc finger proteins. PMID:12433998

  1. The generation of zinc finger proteins by modular assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bhakta, Mital; Segal, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The modular assembly (MA) method of generating engineered zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) was the first practical method for creating custom DNA-binding proteins. As such, MA has enabled a vast exploration of sequence-specific methods and reagents, ushering in the modern era of zinc finger-based applications that are described in this volume. The first zinc finger nuclease to cleave an endogenous site was created using MA, as was the first artificial transcription factor to enter phase II clinical trials. In recent years, other excellent methods have been developed that improved the affinity and specificity of the engineered ZFPs. However, MA is still used widely for many applications. This chapter will describe methods and give guidance for the creation of ZFPs using MA. Such ZFPs might be useful as starting materials to perform other methods described in this volume. Here, we also describe a single-strand annealing recombination assay for the initial testing of zinc finger nucleases. PMID:20680825

  2. L'index significant (The Pointed Index Finger).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calbris, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of a study of nonverbal communication, the various meanings attached to the pointed index finger are analyzed. The question is raised as to what extent the findings hold for cultures other than French. (AMH)

  3. Seal finger: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    White, Colin P; Jewer, David D

    2009-01-01

    A recent case of seal finger which was misdiagnosed and hence mistreated at the patient’s first presentation is described. The patient was eventually referred to a hand specialist and after the correct treatment with tetracycline, responded well without any long-term sequelae. Seal finger is an occupational injury that occurs to those who work directly or indirectly with seals. The disease entity has been described in both Scandinavian and Canadian literature. The causative microorganism was unknown until 1991, when Mycoplasma phocacerebrale was isolated from both the finger of a patient with seal finger and from the mouth of a seal that bit the patient. Although rare, the disease is not uncommon in marine workers, biologists and veterinarians. Prompt identification based on patient history and treatment with oral tetracycline is pendant to a favourable patient outcome. PMID:21119845

  4. Finger vein recognition based on local directional code.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP. PMID:23202194

  5. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Local Directional Code

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP. PMID:23202194

  6. Finger Growth in Surfactant Solution in Hele-Shaw Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takehiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yousuke; Hashimoto, Takamasa; Mori, Noriyasu

    2006-05-01

    Viscous fingering in surfactant solutions was experimentally studied. Aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with sodium salicylate (NaSal) as a counter ion were used as test fluids. Excess of counter ion was added into a surfactant solution of CTAB to configure network structures of wormlike micelles. The experiments were mainly carried out using a square Hele-Shaw cell. The structure of fingering pattern was dimensionally analyzed to classify the patterns into three types. In addition, growth phenomena distinguishing for the viscous finger in the CTAB/NaSal solutions were observed: surface instabilities with dendrites, and a sudden protrusion from a cuspidate shaped finger tip. The dependence of the sudden protrusion on the shear rate was confirmed by the experiment using a rectangular cell.

  7. Tension Distribution in a Tendon-Driven Robotic Finger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method is provided for distributing tension among tendons of a tendon-driven finger in a robotic system, wherein the finger characterized by n degrees of freedom and n+1 tendons. The method includes determining a maximum functional tension and a minimum functional tension of each tendon of the finger, and then using a controller to distribute tension among the tendons, such that each tendon is assigned a tension value less than the maximum functional tension and greater than or equal to the minimum functional tension. The method satisfies the minimum functional tension while minimizing the internal tension in the robotic system, and satisfies the maximum functional tension without introducing a coupled disturbance to the joint torques. A robotic system includes a robot having at least one tendon-driven finger characterized by n degrees of freedom and n+1 tendons, and a controller having an algorithm for controlling the tendons as set forth above.

  8. Suppression of viscous fingering in nonflat Hele-Shaw cells.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Rodolfo; Fontana, João V; Miranda, José A

    2014-11-01

    Viscous fingering formation in flat Hele-Shaw cells is a classical and widely studied fluid mechanical problem. Recently, instead of focusing on the development of the fingering instability, researchers have devised different strategies aiming to suppress its appearance. In this work, we study a protocol that intends to inhibit the occurrence of fingering instabilities in nonflat (spherical and conical) Hele-Shaw cell geometries. By using a mode-coupling theory to describe interfacial evolution, plus a variational controlling technique, we show that viscous fingering phenomena can be minimized in such a confined, curved environment by properly manipulating a time-dependent injection flow rate Q(t). Explicit expressions for Q(t) are derived for the specific cases of spherical and conical cells. The suitability of the controlling method is verified for linear and weakly nonlinear stages of the flow. PMID:25493877

  9. The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new

  10. Fingered bola body, bola with same, and methods of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzenitis, John M. (Inventor); Billica, Linda W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention discloses bola bodies, bolas, and a snaring method which makes use such devices. A bola body, according to the present invention, is nonspherical or irregular in shape rather than a smooth sphere or ovoid body. One or more fingers extends from the bola body. These fingers may be relatively straight or they may have crooked or bent portions to enhance entanglement with a bola line or lines or with each other. Two or more of such fingers may be used and may be regularly or irregularly spaced apart on a bola body. A bola with such bodies includes lines which are connected to the other bodies. In one particular embodiment of a bola body, according to the present invention, the body has an irregular shape with a bottom rectangular portion and a top pyramid portion forming a nose. A plurality of fingers is extended from the pyramidal top portion with one finger extended up and away from each of four corners of the top portion. Such a bola body tends to be initially oriented with its nose and fingers against an object being snared since the body is pulled nose first when a bola line is secured at the tip of the pyramidal portion of the bola body. With such a bola, an unwrapping bola body can slip around a target member so that two of the rod-shaped fingers catch a bola line and guide it into an area or crook between the fingers and a side of the top pyramidal portion of the bola body. Tension on the bola line maintains the line in the crook and tends to press the fingers against the unwrapped target member to stabilize the wrapping of the line about the target member. With such a bola, it is difficult for two or more lines unwrapping in different directions to move past one another without being forced together by line tension. Also, the fingers of such bola bodies may hook and hold each other. The fingers may also hook or entangle some object on or portion of the target member. A probable known target member has known dimensions and shapes so that

  11. Finger blood content, light transmission, and pulse oximetry errors.

    PubMed

    Craft, T M; Lawson, R A; Young, J D

    1992-01-01

    The changes in light emitting diode current necessary to maintain a constant level of light incident upon a photodetector were measured in 20 volunteers at the two wavelengths employed by pulse oximeters. Three states of finger blood content were assessed; exsanguinated, hyperaemic, and normal. The changes in light emitting diode current with changes in finger blood content were small and are not thought to represent a significant source of error in saturation as measured by pulse oximetry. PMID:1536406

  12. Structure, function and regulation of jade family PHD finger 1 (JADE1).

    PubMed

    Panchenko, Maria V

    2016-09-01

    The family of JADE proteins includes three paralogues encoded by individual genes and designated PHF17 (JADE1), PHF16 (JADE2), and PHF15 (JADE3). All three JADE proteins bear in tandem two Plant Homeo-domains (PHD) which are zinc finger domains. This review focuses on one member of the JADE family, JADE1. Studies addressing the biochemical, cellular and biological role of JADE1 are discussed. Recent discoveries of JADE1 function in the regulation of the epithelial cell cycle with potential relevance to disease are presented. Unresolved questions and future directions are formulated. PMID:27155521

  13. Regulation of early T cell development by the PHD finger of histone lysine methyltransferase ASH1

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yujiro Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaru; Kioussis, Dimitris

    2008-01-18

    We have previously isolated a mammalian homologue of Drosophila discsabsent, small, orhomeotic-1 (ash1) from the murine thymus, and recently shown that its SET domain methylates histone H3 lysine 36 (K36). Expression of ASH1 has been reported to be increased in NOD thymocytes in a BDC2.5 clonotype background, but its function in T cell development has remained elusive. Here we report that the ash1 gene is expressed at high levels in thymocytes of mice deficient for rag1 or tcra genes. ASH1 proteins are present at peri-nuclei and as nuclear speckles in thymocytes. Some of the nuclear ASH1 co-localize with RAG2. Expression of the evolutionarily conserved PHD finger of ASH1 impairs T cell development at the DP stage, and causes increased transcription from the HoxA9 promoter in vitro. Moreover, the C-terminal part of ASH1 interacts with HDAC1 repression complexes, suggesting that the PHD finger of ASH1 may be involved in down-regulation of genes for normal development of {alpha}{beta} T cells.

  14. The zinc finger transcription factor 191 is required for early embryonic development and cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jianzhong; Chen Xia; Yang Hua; Wang Shuiliang; Guo Baoyu; Yu Long; Wang Zhugang; Fu Jiliang . E-mail: fu825@mail.tongji.edu.cn

    2006-12-10

    Human zinc finger protein 191 (ZNF191/ZNF24) was cloned and characterized as a SCAN family member, which shows 94% identity to its mouse homologue zinc finger protein 191 (Zfp191). ZNF191 can specifically interact with an intronic polymorphic TCAT repeat (HUMTH01) in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. Allelic variations of HUMTH01 have been stated to have a quantitative silencing effect on TH gene expression and to correlate with quantitative and qualitative changes in the binding by ZNF191. Zfp191 is widely expressed during embryonic development and in multiple tissues and organs in adult. To investigate the functions of Zfp191 in vivo, we have used homologous recombination to generate mice that are deficient in Zfp191. Heterozygous Zfp191 {sup +/-} mice are normal and fertile. Homozygous Zfp191 {sup -/-} embryos are severely retarded in development and die at approximately 7.5 days post-fertilization. Unexpectedly, in Zfp191 {sup -/-} and Zfp191 {sup +/-} embryos, TH gene expression is not affected. Blastocyst outgrowth experiments and the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of ZNF191 in cultured cells revealed an essential role for Zfp191 in cell proliferation. In further agreement with this function, no viable Zfp191 {sup -/-} cell lines were obtained by derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from blastocysts of Zfp191 {sup +/-} intercrosses or by forced homogenotization of heterozygous ES cells at high concentrations of G418. These data show that Zfp191 is indispensable for early embryonic development and cell proliferation.

  15. Detecting overblown flute fingerings from the residual noise spectrum.

    PubMed

    Verfaille, Vincent; Depalle, Philippe; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2010-01-01

    Producing a tone by increasing the blowing pressure to excite a higher frequency impedance minimum, or overblowing, is widely used in standard flute technique. In this paper, the effect of overblowing a fingering is explored with spectral analysis, and a fingering detector is designed based on acoustical knowledge and pattern classification techniques. The detector performs signal analysis of the strong broadband signal, that is, spectrally shaped by the pipe impedance, and measures the spectral energy during the attack around multiples of the fundamental frequency sub-multiples over the first octave and a half. It is trained and evaluated on sounds recorded with four expert performers. They played six series of tones from overblown and regular fingerings, with frequencies that are octave- and non-octave-related to the playing frequency. The best of the four proposed sound descriptors allows for a detection error below 1.3% for notes with two and three fingerings (C(5), D(5), C(6), and Cmusical sharp(6)) and below 14% for four (E(6)) or five fingerings (G(6)). The error is shown to dramatically increase when two fingerings' impedance become too similar (E(6) and A(4) and G(6) and C(5)). PMID:20058998

  16. Biomechanical Analysis of Force Distribution in Human Finger Extensor Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dan; Ren, Lei; Howard, David; Zong, Changfu

    2014-01-01

    The complexities of the function and structure of human fingers have long been recognised. The in vivo forces in the human finger tendon network during different activities are critical information for clinical diagnosis, surgical treatment, prosthetic finger design, and biomimetic hand development. In this study, we propose a novel method for in vivo force estimation for the finger tendon network by combining a three-dimensional motion analysis technique and a novel biomechanical tendon network model. The extensor mechanism of a human index finger is represented by an interconnected tendinous network moving around the phalanx's dorsum. A novel analytical approach based on the “Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy” is used to calculate the forces and deformations throughout the tendon network of the extensor mechanism when subjected to an external load and with the finger posture defined by measurement data. The predicted deformations and forces in the tendon network are in broad agreement with the results obtained by previous experimental in vitro studies. The proposed methodology provides a promising tool for investigating the biomechanical function of complex interconnected tendon networks in vivo. PMID:25126576

  17. Fluidic Channels Produced by Electro Hydrodynamic Viscous Fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behler, Kristopher; Wetzel, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Viscous fingering is a term describing fingerlike extensions of liquid from a column of low viscosity liquid that has been injected into a more viscous liquid. The modification of viscous fingering, known as electro hydrodynamic viscous fingering (EHVF), utilizes large electrical potentials of 10-60 kV. The fingers see a reduction in size and increase in branching behavior due to the potential applied to the system. The resulting finely structured patterns are analogous to biological systems such as blood vessels and the lymphatic system. In this study silicone oils and water were studied in thin channel Hele-Shaw cells. The interfacial tension was optimized by altering the surfactant concentration in the silicone oils. EHVF of liquid filled packed beds consisting of beads and silicone oils showed retardation of the relaxation of the fingers after the voltage was turned off. Decreased relaxation provides a means to solidify patterns into a curable material, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). After the water is evacuated from the fingers, the cured materials then possess hollow channels that can be refilled and emptied, thus creating an artificial circulatory system.

  18. Integrating optical finger motion tracking with surface touch events.

    PubMed

    MacRitchie, Jennifer; McPherson, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterization of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction. PMID:26082732

  19. Integrating optical finger motion tracking with surface touch events

    PubMed Central

    MacRitchie, Jennifer; McPherson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterization of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction. PMID:26082732

  20. Biomechanical analysis of force distribution in human finger extensor mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Ren, Lei; Howard, David; Zong, Changfu

    2014-01-01

    The complexities of the function and structure of human fingers have long been recognised. The in vivo forces in the human finger tendon network during different activities are critical information for clinical diagnosis, surgical treatment, prosthetic finger design, and biomimetic hand development. In this study, we propose a novel method for in vivo force estimation for the finger tendon network by combining a three-dimensional motion analysis technique and a novel biomechanical tendon network model. The extensor mechanism of a human index finger is represented by an interconnected tendinous network moving around the phalanx's dorsum. A novel analytical approach based on the "Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy" is used to calculate the forces and deformations throughout the tendon network of the extensor mechanism when subjected to an external load and with the finger posture defined by measurement data. The predicted deformations and forces in the tendon network are in broad agreement with the results obtained by previous experimental in vitro studies. The proposed methodology provides a promising tool for investigating the biomechanical function of complex interconnected tendon networks in vivo. PMID:25126576

  1. Viscous Fingering Induced Flow Instability in Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, Kirsty; Shalliker, R. Andrew; Catchpoole, Heather J.; Sweeney, Alan P.; Wong, Victor; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-07-01

    Viscous fingering is a flow instability phenomenon that results in the destabilisation of the interface between two fluids of differing viscosities. The destabilised interface results in a complex mixing of the two fluids in a pattern that resembles fingers. The conditions that enhance this type of flow instability can be found in coupled chromatographic separation systems, even when the solvents used in each of the separation stages have seemingly similar chemical and physical properties (other than viscosity). For example, the viscosities of acetonitrile and methanol are sufficiently different that instability at the interface between these two solvents can be established and viscous fingering results. In coupled chromatographic systems, the volume of solvent transported from one separation dimension to the second often exceeds the injection volume by two or more orders of magnitude. As a consequence, viscous fingering may occur, when otherwise following the injection of normal analytical size injection plugs viscous fingering would not occur. The findings in this study illustrate the onset of viscous fingering in emulated coupled chromatographic systems and show the importance of correct solvent selection for optimum separation performance.

  2. Enhancement of finger motion range with compliant anthropomorphic joint design.

    PubMed

    Çulha, Utku; Iida, Fumiya

    2016-04-01

    Robotic researchers have been greatly inspired by the human hand in the search to design and build adaptive robotic hands. Especially, joints have received a lot of attention upon their role in maintaining the passive compliance that gives the fingers flexibility and extendible motion ranges. Passive compliance, which is the tendency to be employed in motion under the influence of an external force, is the result of the stiffness and the geometrical constraints of the joints that define the direction of the motion. Based on its building elements, human finger joints have multi-directional passive compliance which means that they can move in multiple axis of motion under external force. However, due to their complex anatomy, only simplified biomechanical designs based on physiological analysis are preferred in present day robotics. To imitate the human joints, these designs either use fixed degree of freedom mechanisms which substantially limit the motion axes of compliance, or soft materials that can deform in many directions but hinder the fingers' force exertion capacities. In order to find a solution that lies between these two design approaches, we are using anatomically correct finger bones, elastic ligaments and antagonistic tendons to build anthropomorphic joints with multi-directional passive compliance and strong force exertion capabilities. We use interactions between an index finger and a thumb to show that our joints allow the extension of the range of motion of the fingers up to 245% and gripping size to 63% which can be beneficial for mechanical adaptation in gripping larger objects. PMID:26891473

  3. Rapid functional plasticity of the somatosensory cortex after finger amputation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, T; Miltner, W H; Huonker, R; Friedel, R; Schmidt, I; Taub, E

    2000-09-01

    Recent research indicates that areas of the primary somatosensory (SI) and primary motor cortex show massive cortical reorganization after amputation of the upper arm, forearm or fingers. Most of these studies were carried out months or several years after amputation. In the present study, we describe cortical reorganization of areas in the SI of a patient who underwent amputation of the traumatized middle and ring fingers of his right hand 10 days before cortical magnetic source imaging data were obtained. Somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields (SEF) to mechanical stimuli to the finger tips were recorded and single moving dipoles were calculated using a realistic volume conductor model. Results reveal that the dipoles representing the second and fifth fingers of the affected hand were closer together than the comparable dipoles of the unaffected hand. Our findings demonstrate that neural cell assemblies in SI which formerly represented the right middle and ring fingers of this amputee became reorganized and invaded by neighbouring cell assemblies of the index and little finger of the same hand. These results indicate that functional plasticity occurs within a period of 10 days after amputation. PMID:11037286

  4. C3HC4-Type RING Finger Protein NbZFP1 Is Involved in Growth and Fruit Development in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenxian; Cheng, Zhiwei; Liu, Mengjie; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    C3HC4-type RING finger proteins constitute a large family in the plant kingdom and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, a C3HC4-type zinc finger gene was isolated from Nicotiana benthamiana. Sequence analysis indicated that the gene encodes a 24-kDa protein with 191 amino acids containing one typical C3HC4-type zinc finger domain; this gene was named NbZFP1. Transient expression of pGDG-NbZFP1 demonstrated that NbZFP1 was localized to the chloroplast, especially in the chloroplasts of cells surrounding leaf stomata. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) analysis indicated that silencing of NbZFP1 hampered fruit development, although the height of the plants was normal. An overexpression construct was then designed and transferred into Nicotiana benthamiana, and PCR and Southern blot showed that the NbZFP1 gene was successfully integrated into the Nicotiana benthamiana genome. The transgenic lines showed typical compactness, with a short internode length and sturdy stems. This is the first report describing the function of a C3HC4-type RING finger protein in tobacco. PMID:24901716

  5. Knockout of Myostatin by Zinc-finger Nuclease in Sheep Fibroblasts and Embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Wang, Liqin; Wu, Yangsheng; Li, Wenrong; An, Jing; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Mingjun

    2016-10-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) can negatively regulate the growth and development of skeletal muscle, and natural mutations can cause "double-muscling" trait in animals. In order to block the inhibiting effect of MSTN on muscle growth, we transferred zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN) which targeted sheep MSTN gene into cultured fibroblasts. Gene targeted colonies were isolated from transfected fibroblasts by serial dilution culture and screened by sequencing. Two colonies were identified with mono-allele mutation and one colony with bi-allelic deletion. Further, we introduced the MSTN-ZFN mRNA into sheep embryos by microinjection. Thirteen of thirty-seven parthenogenetic embryos were targeted by ZFN, with the efficiency of 35%. Our work established the technical foundation for generation of MSTN gene editing sheep by somatic cloning and microinjection ZFN into embryos. PMID:27189642

  6. Spectroscopic Elucidation of the Inhibitory Mechanism of Cys2His2 Zinc Finger Transcription Factors by CobaltIII Schiff Base Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Heffern, Marie C.; Kurutz, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors are key regulators in both normal and pathological cell processes. Affecting the activity of these proteins is a promising strategy for understanding gene regulation and developing effective therapeutics. CoIII Schiff base complexes ([Co(acacen)(L)2]+ where L = labile axial ligands) have been shown to be potent inhibitors of a number of zinc metalloproteins including Cys2His2 zinc finger transcription factors. Inhibition by [Co(acacen)(L)2]+ of the target protein is believed to occur through a dissociative exchange of the labile axial ligands for histidine (His) residues essential for function. Here, we report a series of spectroscopic investigations with model peptides of zinc fingers that elucidate the interaction between [Co(acacen)(L)2]+ complexes and zinc finger transcription factors. Observed changes in NMR chemical shifts and 2D 1H-1H NOESY NMR spectra demonstrate the preference of [Co(acacen)(L)2]+ complexes to coordinate His residues over other amino acids. The conformation of [Co(acacen)(L)2]+ upon His-coordination was characterized by 1H NMR, near-UV circular dichroism, and electronic absorption. These studies reveal that the resulting His-coordinated [Co(acacen)(L)2]+ complex possesses an octahedral structure. The effects of [Co(acacen)(L)2]+ complexes on the zinc finger structure were assessed by the degree of hydrogen bonding (probed by 2D NMR) and secondary structure profiles measured by far-UV circular dichroism. These structural studies demonstrate the ability of [Co(acacen)(L)2]+ complexes to disrupt the ββα structure of zinc fingers, resulting in primarily random coil conformations. A mechanism is described wherein [Co(acacen)(L)2]+ complexes inhibit zinc finger transcription factor activity through selectively coordinating His residues in the zinc finger via dissociative ligand exchange and disrupting the ββα structural motif required for gene regulation. PMID:24203451

  7. Intervarietal variations in various oxidative stress markers and antioxidant potential of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) subjected to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Bartwal, Arti; Pande, Anjali; Sharma, Priyadarshini; Arora, Sandeep

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a major form of abiotic stress leading to lower crop productivity. Experiment was carried out for selecting the most tolerant genotype among six different genotypes of finger millet under drought stress. Seeds of six finger millet genotypes were sown in pots and grown for 35 days. After this period, drought was induced by withholding watering for stressed plants while control plants were watered regularly for comparison. Among all six different varieties of finger millet screened (PR202, PES400, PRM6107, VL283, VL328 and VL149) under varying intensities of drought stress,PRM6107 and PR202 showed highest stress tolerance by limiting excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of ROS scavenging antioxidative enzymes. A 200% increase in ascorbate content was recorded in PRM6107 and PR202, while in other varieties limited increase in ascorbate content was observed. Maximum decrease in chlorophyll content was observed in VL328 (83%) while least drop was observed in VL149 (65%). Relative water content indicated that PR202 was able to retain maximum water content under stress, as it recorded least drop in relative water content (55%), contributing to its better survival under stress. In conclusion finger millet genotypes PRM6107 and PR202 possessed maximum drought tolerance potential and thus may be used for allele mining of drought tolerant genes, which can further be employed for the development of more drought stress tolerant staple crops using biotechnological approach. PMID:27498495

  8. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the C2H2-type zinc finger protein transcription factor family in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Minglei, Yang; Jiangtao, Chao; Dawei, Wang; Junhua, Hu; Hua, Wu; Daping, Gong; Guanshan, Liu

    2016-04-01

    C2H2 zinc finger protein transcription factor family members have important biological functions in eukaryotes. They not only bind DNA and RNA, but also interact with proteins. In this study, 118 members of the tobacco C2H2 zinc finger protein transcription factor family were identified from the N. tabacum genome database by using Pfam, SMART and Blastp. The analyses of phylogenetic tree, physical and chemical properties, chromosomal mapping, gene structures, protein three-dimensional structures and tissue expression patterns were performed. The results suggested that the peptide length of different subfamily members is significantly different. Phylogenetic and motif analysis revealed that the C2H2 zinc finger protein transcription factor family members can be divided into 5 subfamilies and each member has at least one C2H2 motif. Genes of the family members are distributed across the 22 chromosomes. C2H2 zinc finger protein transcription factor family members are expressed in different tissues although some have higher expression levels in leaves and roots. This study will be helpful for further analysis of the C2H2 zinc finger family proteins in other plants. PMID:27103457

  9. Muscle ring finger 1 mediates cardiac atrophy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Willis, Monte S; Rojas, Mauricio; Li, Luge; Selzman, Craig H; Tang, Ru-Hang; Stansfield, William E; Rodriguez, Jessica E; Glass, David J; Patterson, Cam

    2009-04-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, induced by various etiologies such as high blood pressure and aortic stenosis, develops in response to increased afterload and represents a common intermediary in the development of heart failure. Understandably then, the reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy is associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular event risk and represents an important, yet underdeveloped, target of therapeutic research. Recently, we determined that muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1), a muscle-specific protein, inhibits the development of experimentally induced pathological; cardiac hypertrophy. We now demonstrate that therapeutic cardiac atrophy induced in patients after left ventricular assist device placement is associated with an increase in cardiac MuRF1 expression. This prompted us to investigate the role of MuRF1 in two independent mouse models of cardiac atrophy: 1) cardiac hypertrophy regression after reversal of transaortic constriction (TAC) reversal and 2) dexamethasone-induced atrophy. Using echocardiographic, histological, and gene expression analyses, we found that upon TAC release, cardiac mass and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas in MuRF1(-/-) mice decreased approximately 70% less than in wild type mice in the 4 wk after release. This was in striking contrast to wild-type mice, who returned to baseline cardiac mass and cardiomyocyte size within 4 days of TAC release. Despite these differences in atrophic remodeling, the transcriptional activation of cardiac hypertrophy measured by beta-myosin heavy chain, smooth muscle actin, and brain natriuretic peptide was attenuated similarly in both MuRF1(-/-) and wild-type hearts after TAC release. In the second model, MuRF1(-/-) mice also displayed resistance to dexamethasone-induced cardiac atrophy, as determined by echocardiographic analysis. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that MuRF1 is essential for cardiac atrophy in vivo, both in the setting of therapeutic

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana tandem zinc finger 1 (AtTZF1) protein in RNA binding and decay

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jie; Kang, Shin Gene; Wang, Wei; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Jang, Jyan-Chyun

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Arabidopsis thaliana Tandem Zinc Finger 1 (AtTZF1) protein is characterized by two tandem-arrayed CCCH type zinc fingers. We have previously found that AtTZF1 affects hormone-mediated growth, stress and gene expression responses. While much has been learned at the genetic and physiological level, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of AtTZF1 on gene expression remain obscure. A human TZF protein, hTTP, is known to bind and trigger the degradation of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs) at the 3′ untranslated regions. However, while the TZF motif of hTTP is characterized by CX8CX5CX3H-X18-CX8CX5CX3H, AtTZF1 contains an atypical motif of CX7CX5CX3H-X16-CX5CX4CX3H. Moreover, the TZF motif of AtTZF1 is preceded by a plant-unique arginine-rich (RR) region. Using fluorescence anisotropy and electrophoretic mobility shift binding assays, we have demonstrated that AtTZF1 binds to RNA molecules with specificity and the interaction is dependent on the presence of zinc. Compared to hTTP in which TZF is solely responsible for RNA binding, both TZF and arginine-rich (RR) regions of AtTZF1 are required to achieve high affinity RNA binding. Moreover, zinc finger integrity is vital for RNA binding. Using a plant protoplast transient expression analysis, we have further revealed that AtTZF1 can trigger the decay of ARE-containing mRNAs in vivo. Taken together, our results support the notion that AtTZF1 is involved in RNA turnover. PMID:24635033

  11. DNA-binding specificity of NGFI-A and related zinc finger transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Swirnoff, A H; Milbrandt, J

    1995-01-01

    NGFI-A is the prototypic member of a family of immediate-early gene-encoded transcription factors which includes NGFI-C, Egr3, and Krox20. These proteins possess highly homologous DNA-binding domains, composed of three Cys2-His2 zinc fingers, and all bind to and activate transcription from the sequence GCGGGGGCG. We used a PCR-mediated random site selection protocol to determine whether other sites could be bound by these proteins and the extent to which their binding site preferences are similar or different. The high-affinity consensus sites generated from the selection data are similar, and the combined consensus sequence is T-G-C-G-T/g-G/A-G-G-C/a/t-G-G/T (lowercase letters indicate bases selected less frequently). Using gel shift assays, we found that sequences that diverge from the consensus were bound by NGFI-A, confirming that there is greater variability in binding sites than has generally been acknowledged. We also provide evidence that protein-DNA interactions not noted, or whose importance was not apparent from the X-ray cocrystal structure of the NGFI-A zinc fingers complexed with DNA, contribute significantly to the binding energy of these proteins and confirm that an optimal site is at least 10 instead of 9 nucleotides in length. In contrast to the similarities in binding specificity among these proteins we found that while NGFI-A, Egr3, and Krox20 have comparable DNA binding affinities and kinetics of dissociation, the affinity of NGFI-C is more than threefold lower. This could result in differential regulation of target genes in cells where NGFI-C and the other proteins are coexpressed. Furthermore, we show that this affinity difference is a property not of the zinc fingers themselves but rather of the protein context of the DNA-binding domain. PMID:7891721

  12. Non-transgenic genome modifications in a hemimetabolous insect using zinc-finger and TAL effector nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takahito; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Horch, Hadley W.; Hamaguchi, Naoya; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2012-01-01

    Hemimetabolous, or incompletely metamorphosing, insects are phylogenetically relatively basal and comprise many pests. However, the absence of a sophisticated genetic model system, or targeted gene-manipulation system, has limited research on hemimetabolous species. Here we use zinc-finger nuclease and transcription activator-like effector nuclease technologies to produce genetic knockouts in the hemimetabolous insect Gryllus bimaculatus. Following the microinjection of mRNAs encoding zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases into cricket embryos, targeting of a transgene or endogenous gene results in sequence-specific mutations. Up to 48% of founder animals transmit disrupted gene alleles after zinc-finger nucleases microinjection compared with 17% after microinjection of transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Heterozygous offspring is selected using mutation detection assays that use a Surveyor (Cel-I) nuclease, and subsequent sibling crosses create homozygous knockout crickets. This approach is independent from a mutant phenotype or the genetic tractability of the organism of interest and can potentially be applied to manage insect pests using a non-transgenic strategy. PMID:22910363

  13. Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot

    PubMed Central

    De La Cruz, Vivian M.; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags) to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting) and linguistic skills (using number words). The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers. PMID:24550795

  14. The Use of an MEG/fMRI-Compatible Finger Motion Sensor in Detecting Different Finger Actions

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Xinyi; Li, Yasong; Menon, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a novel device in detecting different finger actions among healthy individuals and individuals with stroke. The device is magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) compatible. It was prototyped to have four air-filled chambers that are made of silicone elastomer, which contains low magnetizing materials. When an individual compresses the device with his/her fingers, each chamber experiences a change in pressure, which is detected by a pressure sensor. In a previous recent work, our device was shown to be MEG/fMRI compatible. In this study, our research effort focuses on using the device to detect different finger actions (e.g., grasping and pinching) in non-shielded rooms. This is achieved by applying a support vector machine to the sensor data collected from the device when participants are resting and executing the different finger actions. The total number of possible finger actions that can be executed using the device is 31. The healthy participants could perform all the 31 different finger actions and the average classification accuracy achieved is 95.53 ± 2.63%. The stroke participants could perform all the 31 different finger actions with their healthy hand and the average classification accuracy achieved is 83.13 ± 6.69%. Unfortunately, the functions of their affected hands are compromised due to stroke. Thus, the number of finger actions they could perform ranges from 2 to 24, depending on the level of impairments. The average classification accuracy for the affected hand is 83.99 ± 16.38%. The ability to identify different finger actions using the device can provide a mean to researchers to label the data automatically in MEG/fMRI studies. In addition, the sensor data acquired from the device provide sensorimotor-­related information, such as speed and force, when the device is compressed. Thus, brain activations can be correlated with this information during different

  15. Extrinsic Finger and Thumb Muscles Command a Virtual Hand to Allow Individual Finger and Grasp Control

    PubMed Central

    Hargrove, Levi J.; Weir, Richard F. ff.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Fine-wire intramuscular electrodes were used to obtain EMG signals from six extrinsic hand muscles associated with the thumb, index, and middle fingers. Subjects’ EMG activity was used to control a virtual three-DOF hand as they conformed the hand to a sequence of hand postures testing two controllers: direct EMG control and pattern recognition control. Subjects tested two conditions using each controller: starting the hand from a pre-defined neutral posture before each new posture and starting the hand from the previous posture in the sequence. Subjects demonstrated their ability to simultaneously, yet individually, move all three DOFs during the direct EMG control trials, however results showed subjects did not often utilize this feature. Performance metrics such as failure rate and completion time showed no significant difference between the two controllers. PMID:25099395

  16. Magic Ring: A Finger-Worn Device for Multiple Appliances Control Using Static Finger Gestures

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Lei; Zhou, Yinghui; Cheng, Zixue; Huang, Tongjun

    2012-01-01

    An ultimate goal for Ubiquitous Computing is to enable people to interact with the surrounding electrical devices using their habitual body gestures as they communicate with each other. The feasibility of such an idea is demonstrated through a wearable gestural device named Magic Ring (MR), which is an original compact wireless sensing mote in a ring shape that can recognize various finger gestures. A scenario of wireless multiple appliances control is selected as a case study to evaluate the usability of such a gestural interface. Experiments comparing the MR and a Remote Controller (RC) were performed to evaluate the usability. From the results, only with 10 minutes practice, the proposed paradigm of gestural-based control can achieve a performance of completing about six tasks per minute, which is in the same level of the RC-based method. PMID:22778612

  17. A study of white finger in the gas industry.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D D; Jones, B; Ogston, S; Tasker, E G; Robinson, A J

    1985-01-01

    Men engaged in breaking or reinstating road surfaces are exposed to vibration from mechanical tools. In view of the lack of epidemiological information on vibration white finger in such a population, a survey was carried out to identify the prevalence of symptoms of white finger in a sample of men using these tools in the gas industry and to compare the prevalence with that found in a control group not occupationally exposed to vibration. Altogether 905 men (97%) in the gas industry and 552 men (92%) in the control group were interviewed, using a questionnaire from which the presence or absence of white finger symptoms from all causes was noted. The prevalence of white finger was 9.6% in the group exposed to vibration at work compared with 9.5% in the control group. The prevalence in the former group when adjusted for age differences between the survey and control populations was 12.2%, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. In case the approach of comparing prevalences of white finger from all causes might have obscured any contributory effect of vibration, the prevalence of white finger was examined in relation to the number of years vibrating tools had been used, this being the only measure of exposure to vibration available. No direct association was found between the prevalence of symptoms and number of years vibrating tools had been used. In view of this and the absence of a significant excess of white finger symptoms in the group using vibratory tools, the authors conclude that vibration white finger is not a special problem in the gas industry. Nevertheless, experimental tests carried out on the different types of roadbreakers used in the industry and on different road surfaces indicate that the vibration levels exceed the standards advocated in the draft international standard DIS 5349 (1979) at the lower end of the frequency spectrum. That no particular problem has been found may be due to the relatively short exposures to vibration

  18. Targeted genome editing in human cells with zinc finger nucleases constructed via modular assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Joo; Lee, Hyung Joo; Kim, Hyojin; Cho, Seung Woo; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Broad applications of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology—which allows targeted genome editing—in research, medicine, and biotechnology are hampered by the lack of a convenient, rapid, and publicly available method for the synthesis of functional ZFNs. Here we describe an efficient and easy-to-practice modular-assembly method using publicly available zinc fingers to make ZFNs that can modify the DNA sequences of predetermined genomic sites in human cells. We synthesized and tested hundreds of ZFNs to target dozens of different sites in the human CCR5 gene—a co-receptor required for HIV infection—and found that many of these nucleases induced site-specific mutations in the CCR5 sequence. Because human cells that harbor CCR5 null mutations are functional and normal, these ZFNs might be used for (1) knocking out CCR5 to produce T-cells that are resistant to HIV infection in AIDS patients or (2) inserting therapeutic genes at “safe sites” in gene therapy applications. PMID:19470664

  19. Recent developments and clinical studies utilizing engineered zinc finger nuclease technology.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Il; Kim, Hyongbum; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2015-10-01

    Efficient methods for creating targeted genetic modifications have long been sought for the investigation of gene function and the development of therapeutic modalities for various diseases, including genetic disorders. Although such modifications are possible using homologous recombination, the efficiency is extremely low. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are custom-designed artificial nucleases that make double-strand breaks at specific sequences, enabling efficient targeted genetic modifications such as corrections, additions, gene knockouts and structural variations. ZFNs are composed of two domains: (i) a DNA-binding domain comprised of zinc finger modules and (ii) the FokI nuclease domain that cleaves the DNA strand. Over 17 years after ZFNs were initially developed, a number of improvements have been made. Here, we will review the developments and future perspectives of ZFN technology. For example, ZFN activity and specificity have been significantly enhanced by modifying the DNA-binding domain and FokI cleavage domain. Advances in culture methods, such as the application of a cold shock and the use of small molecules that affect ZFN stability, have also increased ZFN activity. Furthermore, ZFN-induced mutant cells can be enriched using episomal surrogate reporters. Additionally, we discuss several ongoing clinical studies that are based on ZFN-mediated genome editing in humans. These breakthroughs have substantially facilitated the use of ZFNs in research, medicine and biotechnology. PMID:26089249

  20. High-Speed, High-Temperature Finger Seal Test Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.

    2003-01-01

    A finger seal, designed and fabricated by Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services, was tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center at surface speeds up to 1200 ft/s, air temperatures up to 1200 F, and pressures across the seal of 75 psid. These are the first test results obtained with NASA s new High-Temperature, High-Speed Turbine Seal Test Rig (see the photograph). The finger seal is an innovative design recently patented by AlliedSignal Engines, which has demonstrated considerably lower leakage than commonly used labyrinth seals and is considerably cheaper than brush seals. The cost to produce finger seals is estimated to be about half of the cost to produce brush seals. Replacing labyrinth seals with fingers seals at locations that have high-pressure drops in gas turbine engines, typically main engine and thrust seals, can reduce air leakage at each location by 50 percent or more. This directly results in a 0.7- to 1.4-percent reduction in specific fuel consumption and a 0.35- to 0.7-percent reduction in direct operating costs . Because the finger seal is a contacting seal, this testing was conducted to address concerns about its heat generation and life capability at the higher speeds and temperatures required for advanced engines. The test results showed that the seal leakage and wear performance are acceptable for advanced engines.

  1. Fluid-driven fingering instability of a confined elastic meniscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggins, John S.; Wei, Z.; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-05-01

    When a fluid is pumped into a cavity in a confined elastic layer, at a critical pressure, destabilizing fingers of fluid invade the elastic solid along its meniscus (Saintyves B. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 111 (2013) 047801). These fingers occur without fracture or loss of adhesion and are reversible, disappearing when the pressure is decreased. We develop an asymptotic theory of pressurized highly elastic layers trapped between rigid bodies in both rectilinear and circular geometries, with predictions for the critical fluid pressure for fingering, and the finger wavelength. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental observations of this elastic interfacial instability in a radial geometry. Our theory also shows that, perhaps surprisingly, this lateral-pressure-driven instability is analogous to a transverse-displacement-driven instability of the elastic layer. We verify these predictions by using non-linear finite-element simulations on the two systems which show that in both cases the fingering transition is first order (sudden) and hence has a region of bistability.

  2. Traumatic Finger Injuries: What the Orthopedic Surgeon Wants to Know.

    PubMed

    Wieschhoff, Ged G; Sheehan, Scott E; Wortman, Jeremy R; Dyer, George S M; Sodickson, Aaron D; Patel, Ketan I; Khurana, Bharti

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic finger injuries account for a substantial number of emergency visits every year. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and in directing management of these injuries. Although many injuries can be managed conservatively, some require more invasive interventions to prevent complications and loss of function. Accurate diagnosis of finger injuries can often be difficult, given the complicated soft-tissue anatomy of the hand and the diverse spectrum of injuries that can occur. To best serve the patient and the treating physician, radiologists must have a working knowledge of finger anatomy, the wide array of injury patterns that can occur, the characteristic imaging findings of different finger injuries, and the most appropriate treatment options for each type of injury. This article details the intricate anatomy of the hand as it relates to common finger injuries, illustrates the imaging findings of a range of injuries, presents optimal imaging modalities and imaging parameters for the diagnosis of different injury types, and addresses which findings have important management implications for the patient and the orthopedic surgeon. With this fund of knowledge, radiologists will be able to recommend the most appropriate imaging studies, make accurate diagnoses, convey clinically relevant imaging findings to the referring physician, and suggest appropriate follow-up examinations. In this way, the radiologist will help improve patient care and outcomes. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27399238

  3. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Personalized Weight Maps

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongping; Xiao, Rongyang; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric recognition technology, which verifies identities via the vein patterns in the fingers. Binary pattern based methods were thoroughly studied in order to cope with the difficulties of extracting the blood vessel network. However, current binary pattern based finger vein matching methods treat every bit of feature codes derived from different image of various individuals as equally important and assign the same weight value to them. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on personalized weight maps (PWMs). The different bits have different weight values according to their stabilities in a certain number of training samples from an individual. Firstly we present the concept of PWM, and then propose the finger vein recognition framework, which mainly consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PWM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PWM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:24025556

  4. The biometric recognition on contactless multi-spectrum finger images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wenxiong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wu, Qiuxia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multimodal biometric system based on contactless multi-spectrum finger images, which aims to deal with the limitations of unimodal biometrics. The chief merits of the system are the richness of the permissible texture and the ease of data access. We constructed a multi-spectrum instrument to simultaneously acquire three different types of biometrics from a finger: contactless fingerprint, finger vein, and knuckleprint. On the basis of the samples with these characteristics, a moderate database was built for the evaluation of our system. Considering the real-time requirements and the respective characteristics of the three biometrics, the block local binary patterns algorithm was used to extract features and match for the fingerprints and finger veins, while the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF algorithm was applied for knuckleprints. Finally, score-level fusion was performed on the matching results from the aforementioned three types of biometrics. The experiments showed that our proposed multimodal biometric recognition system achieves an equal error rate of 0.109%, which is 88.9%, 94.6%, and 89.7% lower than the individual fingerprint, knuckleprint, and finger vein recognitions, respectively. Nevertheless, our proposed system also satisfies the real-time requirements of the applications.

  5. Prior Knowledge Improves Decoding of Finger Flexion from Electrocorticographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Ji, Q.; Miller, K. J.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) use brain signals to convey a user’s intent. Some BCI approaches begin by decoding kinematic parameters of movements from brain signals, and then proceed to using these signals, in absence of movements, to allow a user to control an output. Recent results have shown that electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from the surface of the brain in humans can give information about kinematic parameters (e.g., hand velocity or finger flexion). The decoding approaches in these studies usually employed classical classification/regression algorithms that derive a linear mapping between brain signals and outputs. However, they typically only incorporate little prior information about the target movement parameter. In this paper, we incorporate prior knowledge using a Bayesian decoding method, and use it to decode finger flexion from ECoG signals. Specifically, we exploit the constraints that govern finger flexion and incorporate these constraints in the construction, structure, and the probabilistic functions of the prior model of a switched non-parametric dynamic system (SNDS). Given a measurement model resulting from a traditional linear regression method, we decoded finger flexion using posterior estimation that combined the prior and measurement models. Our results show that the application of the Bayesian decoding model, which incorporates prior knowledge, improves decoding performance compared to the application of a linear regression model, which does not incorporate prior knowledge. Thus, the results presented in this paper may ultimately lead to neurally controlled hand prostheses with full fine-grained finger articulation. PMID:22144944

  6. Review of Acute Traumatic Closed Mallet Finger Injuries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salazar Botero, Santiago; Hidalgo Diaz, Juan Jose; Benaïda, Anissa; Collon, Sylvie; Facca, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    In adults, mallet finger is a traumatic zone I lesion of the extensor tendon with either tendon rupture or bony avulsion at the base of the distal phalanx. High-energy mechanisms of injury generally occur in young men, whereas lower energy mechanisms are observed in elderly women. The mechanism of injury is an axial load applied to a straight digit tip, which is then followed by passive extreme distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) hyperextension or hyperflexion. Mallet finger is diagnosed clinically, but an X-ray should always be performed. Tubiana's classification takes into account the size of the bony articular fragment and DIPJ subluxation. We propose to stage subluxated fractures as stage III if the subluxation is reducible with a splint and as stage IV if not. Left untreated, mallet finger becomes chronic and leads to a swan-neck deformity and DIPJ osteoarthritis. The goal of treatment is to restore active DIPJ extension. The results of a six- to eight-week conservative course of treatment with a DIPJ splint in slight hyperextension for tendon lesions or straight for bony avulsions depends on patient compliance. Surgical treatments vary in terms of the approach, the reduction technique, and the means of fixation. The risks involved are stiffness, septic arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Given the lack of consensus regarding indications for treatment, we propose to treat all cases of mallet finger with a dorsal glued splint except for stage IV mallet finger, which we treat with extra-articular pinning. PMID:27019806

  7. Prediction of contact forces of underactuated finger by adaptive neuro fuzzy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Abbasi, Almas; Kiani, Kourosh; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah

    2015-12-01

    To obtain adaptive finger passive underactuation can be used. Underactuation principle can be used to adapt shapes of the fingers for grasping objects. The fingers with underactuation do not require control algorithm. In this study a kinetostatic model of the underactuated finger mechanism was analyzed. The underactuation is achieved by adding the compliance in every finger joint. Since the contact forces of the finger depend on contact position of the finger and object, it is suitable to make a prediction model for the contact forces in function of contact positions of the finger and grasping objects. In this study prediction of the contact forces was established by a soft computing approach. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied as the soft computing method to perform the prediction of the finger contact forces.

  8. Development of cylindrical-type finger force measuring system using force sensors and its characteristics evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeon-Min; Yoon, Joungwon; Shin, Hee-Suk; Kim, Gab-Soon

    2012-02-01

    Some patients cannot use their hands because of the paralysis of their fingers. Their fingers can recover with rehabilitative training, and the extent of rehabilitation can be judged by grasping a cylindrical-object with their fingers. At present, the cylindrical-object used in hospitals is only a plastic cylinder, which cannot measure grasping force of the fingers. Therefore, doctors must judge the extent of rehabilitation by watching patients' fingers as they grasp the plastic cylinder. In this paper, the development of two cylindrical-type finger force measuring systems with four force sensors for left hand and right hand were developed. The developed finger force measuring system can measure the grasping force of patients' each finger (forefinger, middle finger, ring finger and little finger), and the measured results could be used to judge the rehabilitation extent of a finger patient. The grasping force tests of men and women were performed using the developed cylindrical-type finger force measuring systems. The tests confirm that the average finger forces of right hand and left hand for men were about 194 N and 179 N, and for women, 108 N and 95 N.

  9. Index and ring finger ratio--a morphologic sex determinant in South-Indian children.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Pradeep Kumar, G

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the sexual dimorphism of index and ring finger ratio in South Indian children. The index finger length (IFL) and the ring finger length (RFL) were measured in 350 subjects aged between 2 and 12 years using a steel measuring tape. The index and ring finger ratio was computed by dividing index finger length by ring finger length. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using SPSS, version 11.0. Mean RFL was greater than mean IFL in both males and females. The mean ring finger length was longer in males than females and mean index finger length longer in females than males. However, these sex differences observed for index and ring finger length were not significant in both hands. Statistically significant sex differences were observed from the derived index and ring finger ratio. The mean index and ring finger ratio was found to be higher in females than males. Significant correlation was found between age and index and ring finger lengths. Index and ring finger ratio however, did not show any significant correlation with age. This study suggests that among South-Indian children, the index and ring finger ratio of 0.97 and less is indicative of male, and a ratio of more than 0.97 is indicative of female sex. The ratio can be a useful sex indicator irrespective of the age of the individual. PMID:20369311

  10. Asymmetrical roles of zinc fingers in dynamic DNA-scanning process by the inducible transcription factor Egr-1.

    PubMed

    Zandarashvili, Levani; Vuzman, Dana; Esadze, Alexandre; Takayama, Yuki; Sahu, Debashish; Levy, Yaakov; Iwahara, Junji

    2012-06-26

    Egr-1 is an inducible transcription factor that recognizes 9-bp target DNA sites via three zinc finger domains and activates genes in response to cellular stimuli such as synaptic signals and vascular stresses. Using spectroscopic and computational approaches, we have studied structural, dynamic, and kinetic aspects of the DNA-scanning process in which Egr-1 is nonspecifically bound to DNA and perpetually changes its location on DNA. Our NMR data indicate that Egr-1 undergoes highly dynamic domain motions when scanning DNA. In particular, the zinc finger 1 (ZF1) of Egr-1 in the nonspecific complex is mainly dissociated from DNA and undergoes collective motions on a nanosecond timescale, whereas zinc fingers 2 and 3 (ZF2 and ZF3, respectively) are bound to DNA. This was totally unexpected because the previous crystallographic studies of the specific complex indicated that all of Egr-1's three zinc fingers are equally involved in binding to a target DNA site. Mutations that are expected to enhance ZF1's interactions with DNA and with ZF2 were found to reduce ZF1's domain motions in the nonspecific complex suggesting that these interactions dictate the dynamic behavior of ZF1. By experiment and computation, we have also investigated kinetics of Egr-1's translocation between two nonspecific DNA duplexes. Our data on the wild type and mutant proteins suggest that the domain dynamics facilitate Egr-1's intersegment transfer that involves transient bridging of two DNA sites. These results shed light on asymmetrical roles of the zinc finger domains for Egr-1 to scan DNA efficiently in the nucleus. PMID:22675124

  11. Fifth finger camptodactyly maps to chromosome 3q11.2-q13.12 in a large German kindred.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sajid; Schott, Jörg; Schiller, Julia; Junge, Anna; Baum, Erika; Koch, Manuela C

    2008-02-01

    Camptodactyly (MIM 114200) is a digit deformity characterised by permanent flexion contracture of fifth fingers at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints. The sporadic cases are common but a familial occurrence is not much appreciated. In an attempt to identify the genetic basis of camptodactyly, we have analysed a large German family with camptodactyly segregating in an autosomal dominant fashion. The affected family members exhibited clinical features of fifth finger camptodactyly and knuckle pads on the crooked fifth finger and on fingers 2-3. Typically, women were more severely affected than men. Microsatellite analyses of five candidate loci known to be associated with camptodactyly-like phenotypes did not show co-segregation with the phenotype in our family. A genome-wide linkage scan using a total of 414 microsatellite markers gave significant evidence of linkage between the familial phenotype and chromosomal locus 3q11.2-q13.12 (maximum two-point LOD score 3.04). The key recombination events showed that the phenotype localises between markers D3S2465 and D3S3044, spanning an interval of approximately 15 cM. This study reports the first genetic locus linked to isolated autosomal dominant fifth finger camptodactyly with knuckle pads and proves the hypothesis that camptodactyly is distinct from camptodactyly-associated phenotypes including Dupuytren contracture. Additional studies of other families will be necessary to determine the existence of genetic homogeneity or heterogeneity of the anomaly and to narrow down the genetic interval to identify the responsible gene. Since genetic heterogeneity for isolated camptodactyly is likely, we propose to designate the 3q11.2-q13.12 locus as CAMPD1 (ie, camptodactyly 1). PMID:18000522

  12. Initial results of finger imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Es, Peter; Biswas, Samir K.; Moens, Hein J. Bernelot; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2014-06-01

    We present a photoacoustic computed tomography investigation on a healthy human finger, to image blood vessels with a focus on vascularity across the interphalangeal joints. The cross-sectional images were acquired using an imager specifically developed for this purpose. The images show rich detail of the digital blood vessels with diameters between 100 μm and 1.5 mm in various orientations and at various depths. Different vascular layers in the skin including the subpapillary plexus could also be visualized. Acoustic reflections on the finger bone of photoacoustic signals from skin were visible in sequential slice images along the finger except at the location of the joint gaps. Not unexpectedly, the healthy synovial membrane at the joint gaps was not detected due to its small size and normal vascularization. Future research will concentrate on studying digits afflicted with rheumatoid arthritis to detect the inflamed synovium with its heightened vascularization, whose characteristics are potential markers for disease activity.

  13. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  14. Arthropathy, ankylosing spondylitis, and clubbing of fingers in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jalan, K. N.; Prescott, R. J.; Walker, R. J.; Sircus, W.; McManus, J. P. A.; Card, W. I.

    1970-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 399 patients with ulcerative colitis, 27 patients had colitic arthritis, 17 had ankylosing spondylitis, and 20 had clubbing of the fingers. Colitic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis were not related to severity, extent of involvement, or duration of colitis. A significant association between colitic arthropathy and other complications of ulcerative colitis, such as pseudopolyposis, perianal disease, eye lesions, skin eruptions, aphthous ulceration, and liver disease has been demonstrated. The outcome of the first referred attack of colitis in the presence of colitic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis remained uninfluenced. Clubbing of fingers was related to severity, extent of involvement, and length of the history of colitis. A significant association between clubbing of the fingers and carcinoma of the colon, pseudopolyposis, toxic dilatation, and arthropathy has been shown. The frequency of surgical intervention in patients with clubbing was higher but the overall mortality was not significantly different from the patients without clubbing. PMID:5473606

  15. High-Speed, High-Temperature Finger Seal Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Kumar, Arun; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2002-01-01

    Finger seals have significantly lower leakage rates than conventional labyrinth seals used in gas turbine engines and are expected to decrease specific fuel consumption by over 1 percent and to decrease direct operating cost by over 0.5 percent. Their compliant design accommodates shaft growth and motion due to thermal and dynamic loads with minimal wear. The cost to fabricate these finger seals is estimated to be about half the cost to fabricate brush seals. A finger seal has been tested in NASA's High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Rig at operating conditions up to 1200 F, 1200 ft/s, and 75 psid. Static, performance and endurance test results are presented. While seal leakage and wear performance are acceptable, further design improvements are needed to reduce the seal power loss.

  16. Regulation of cancer stem cells by RING finger ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Like normal stem cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are capable of self-renewal, either by symmetric or asymmetric cell division. They have the exclusive ability to reproduce malignant tumors indefinitely, and to confer resistance in response to radiation or chemotherapy. The ubiquitin modification system plays various roles in physiology and pathology. The key component for the specificity of this system is ubiquitin ligases (E3s). Of these E3s, the majority are RING finger proteins. Many RING finger E3s, such as the Cullin1-Skp1-F-box protein (SCF) E3s, CBL, BRCA1, MDM2 and von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL), are crucial in the regulation of cell-cycle progression and cell differentiation. As a result, many RING finger E3s are implicated in the positive and negative regulation of CSC maintenance. This review summarizes current knowledge in this research field. PMID:27358852

  17. Finger Pricking and Pain: A Never Ending Story

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Without finger pricking, no self-measurement of blood glucose (SMBG) is possible. However, the number of scientific studies dealing with this topic, which is highly relevant for patients, is surprisingly small. This is in sharp contrast to the number of papers about blood glucose meters and SMBG in general. This article highlights a number of aspects that are relevant when it comes to finger pricking and pain. There is a clear improvement in the technology employed in the many different lancing devices that are on the market nowadays; however, no good head-to-head comparison study has been performed to date. The invention of novel devices for finger pricking will most likely bring more attention to this topic. PMID:19885279

  18. Finger sudorometry and assessment of the sudomotor drive.

    PubMed

    Satchell, P; Ware, S; Barron, J; Tuck, R

    1994-08-01

    Sudorometry of the finger was carried out using the ventilated capsule method, the aim being to use the level of relative humidity within the sudorometer as an indirect measure of the sudomotor drive. Subjects inserted a finger through a diaphragm of a finger-shaped, temperature-controlled chamber which also contained the humidity sensor. Manoeuvres known to alter the sudomotor drive produced changes in chamber humidity. The relative humidity within the sudorometer became constant after local anaesthesia of the digital nerves and after upper limb sympathectomy, suggesting that fluctuations in the sudorometer output were dependent upon an intact autonomic nervous system. In an environment in which temperature was controlled and arousal effects from the process of measurement were minimised, chamber humidity always increased during a Stroop test, providing a rapid means of indirectly assessing sudomotor drive mechanisms. PMID:7823624

  19. Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on force of finger pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odagaki, Masato; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hiwaki, Osamu

    2009-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to explore many aspects of brain function, and to treat neurological disorders. Cortical motor neuronal activation by TMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) produces efferent signals that pass through the corticospinal tracts. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) are observed in muscles innervated by the stimulated motor cortex. TMS can cause a silent period (SP) following MEP in voluntary electromyography (EMG). The present study examined the effects of TMS eliciting MEP and SP on the force of pinching using two fingers. Subjects pinched a wooden block with the thumb and index finger. TMS was applied to M1 during the pinch task. EMG of first dorsal interosseous muscles and pinch forces were measured. Force output increased after the TMS, and then oscillated. The results indicated that the motor control system to keep isotonic forces of the muscles participated in the finger pinch was disrupted by the TMS.

  20. Finger Vein Recognition Based on a Personalized Best Bit Map

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns have recently been recognized as an effective biometric identifier. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on a personalized best bit map (PBBM). Our method is rooted in a local binary pattern based method and then inclined to use the best bits only for matching. We first present the concept of PBBM and the generating algorithm. Then we propose the finger vein recognition framework, which consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PBBM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PBBM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:22438735

  1. Interfacial instabilities and fingering formation in Hele-Shaw flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian-Jun

    1996-10-01

    The interfacial instability of Hele-Shaw flow has been a crucial issue for the understanding of the pattern formation of viscous fingers in a Hele-Shaw cell. By using a unified asymptotic approach, we derive two different types of instability mechanisms for slightly' time-dependent finger solutions; namely, (i) the global-trapped-wave (GTW) instability; and (ii) the zero-frequency (null-f) instability. On the basis of these instability mechanisms, the selection of viscous finger formation is clarified; the apparent contradiction between the previous linearstability analysis by Tanveer (1987, Phys. Fluid 30, 1589) and others and the numerical simulations by DeGregoria & Schwartz (1986, J. Fluid Mech. 164, 383)and the experimental evidence is reconciled.

  2. Custom-Made Finger Guard to Prevent Wire-Stick Injury to the Operator's Finger while Performing Intermaxillary Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, Ramesh; Ponnusami, Karthikeyan; Karthikeyan, Priyadarshini

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of maxillofacial fractures involves different methods from bandages and splinting to methods of open reduction and internal fixation and usually requires control of the dental occlusion with the help of intermaxillary fixation (IMF). Different wiring techniques have been used to aid in IMF including placement of custom-made arch bars, eyelet etc. However, these wiring techniques are with a constant danger of trauma to the surgeon's fingers by their sharp ends. Though there exist a variety of commercially available barrier products and customized techniques to prevent wire-stick injury, cost factor, touch sensitivity, and comfort aspect restrain their acquirement and exploit. This technical note describes the construction of a simple and economical finger guard made of soft thermoplastic material that provides an added protection to fingers from wire-stick type injuries, and its flexible nature permits a comfortable finger flexion movement and acceptable touch sensitivity. This is a simple, economical, reusable puncture, and cut-resistance figure guard by which we can avoid wire-stick type injury to the operator's fingers during wiring technique. PMID:25383158

  3. Targeted integration in rat and mouse embryos with zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoxia; Ji, Diana; Fisher, Daniel A; Wu, Yumei; Briner, David M; Weinstein, Edward J

    2011-01-01

    Gene targeting is indispensible for reverse genetics and the generation of animal models of disease. The mouse has become the most commonly used animal model system owing to the success of embryonic stem cell-based targeting technology, whereas other mammalian species lack convenient tools for genome modification. Recently, microinjection of engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) in embryos was used to generate gene knockouts in the rat and the mouse by introducing nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated deletions or insertions at the target site. Here we use ZFN technology in embryos to introduce sequence-specific modifications (knock-ins) by means of homologous recombination in Sprague Dawley and Long-Evans hooded rats and FVB mice. This approach enables precise genome engineering to generate modifications such as point mutations, accurate insertions and deletions, and conditional knockouts and knock-ins. The same strategy can potentially be applied to many other species for which genetic engineering tools are needed. PMID:21151125

  4. Computing with liquid crystal fingers: models of geometric and logical computation.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kitson, Stephen; Costello, Ben De Lacy; Matranga, Mario Ariosto; Younger, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    When a voltage is applied across a thin layer of cholesteric liquid crystal, fingers of cholesteric alignment can form and propagate in the layer. In computer simulation, based on experimental laboratory results, we demonstrate that these cholesteric fingers can solve selected problems of computational geometry, logic, and arithmetics. We show that branching fingers approximate a planar Voronoi diagram, and nonbranching fingers produce a convex subdivision of concave polygons. We also provide a detailed blueprint and simulation of a one-bit half-adder functioning on the principles of collision-based computing, where the implementation is via collision of liquid crystal fingers with obstacles and other fingers. PMID:22304104

  5. Continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring in children.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Thulesius, O; Yamaguchi, H; Mino, M; Konishi, K

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure measurement using the volume-clamp technique (Finapres). This study was designed to compare finger arterial pressure with brachial blood pressure estimated by the auscultatory method in 217 children (90 boys and 127 girls) aged 4-16 years and in 38 adults (aged 18-45 years). Finger and brachial artery pressure readings were obtained consecutively from the ipsilateral side in the supine position. Finger arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in all children except 4 with small and thin fingers. There was good agreement for systolic pressure with only a slight underestimation of 1.9 mmHg and 5.1 mmHg lower for diastolic pressure. This difference most probably reflects inaccuracy of the auscultatory cuff method rather than an error in the Finapres. There was large inter-individual variability in Finapres recordings which might be due to differences in vasomotor tone, as demonstrated by systolic amplification in 5 patients with anorexia. However, Finapres showed a small within-subject variability (3.8 mmHg for systolic and 4.1 mmHg for diastolic pressure) determined in 5 patients during phenylephrine infusion, and as good reproducibility as the auscultatory method. These results suggest that finger arterial pressure measurement in children older than 6 years of age has similar accuracy as that in adults, and that this method is useful for clinical applications in children, especially for the non-invasive evaluation of autonomic control and cardiovascular reflexes involving transient and rapid blood pressure changes. PMID:7919764

  6. Finger Tendon Travel Associated with Sequential Trigger Nail Gun Use

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen; Krieg, Edward

    2015-01-01

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT Background Pneumatic nail guns used in wood framing are equipped with one of two triggering mechanisms. Sequential actuation triggers have been shown to be a safer alternative to contact actuation triggers because they reduce traumatic injury risk. However, the sequential actuation trigger must be depressed for each individual nail fired as opposed to the contact actuation trigger, which allows the trigger to be held depressed as nails are fired repeatedly by bumping the safety tip against the workpiece. As such, concerns have been raised about risks for cumulative trauma injury, and reduced productivity, due to repetitive finger motion with the sequential actuation trigger. Purpose This study developed a method to predict cumulative finger flexor tendon travel associated with the sequential actuation trigger nail gun from finger joint kinematics measured in the trigger actuation and productivity standards for wood-frame construction tasks. Methods Finger motions were measured from six users wearing an instrumented electrogoniometer glove in a simulation of two common framing tasks–wall building and flat nailing of material. Flexor tendon travel was calculated from the ensemble average kinematics for an individual nail fired. Results Finger flexor tendon travel was attributable mostly to proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint motion. Tendon travel per nail fired appeared to be slightly greater for a wall-building task than a flat nailing task. The present study data, in combination with construction industry productivity standards, suggest that a high-production workday would be associated with less than 60 m/day cumulative tendon travel per worker (based on 1700 trigger presses/day). Conclusion and Applications These results suggest that exposure to finger tendon travel from sequential actuation trigger nail gun use may be below levels that have been previously associated with high musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID

  7. Motor equivalence during multi-finger accurate force production

    PubMed Central

    Mattos, Daniela; Schöner, Gregor; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored stability of multi-finger cyclical accurate force production action by analysis of responses to small perturbations applied to one of the fingers and inter-cycle analysis of variance. Healthy subjects performed two versions of the cyclical task, with and without an explicit target. The “inverse piano” apparatus was used to lift/lower a finger by 1 cm over 0.5 s; the subjects were always instructed to perform the task as accurate as they could at all times. Deviations in the spaces of finger forces and modes (hypothetical commands to individual fingers) were quantified in directions that did not change total force (motor equivalent) and in directions that changed the total force (non-motor equivalent). Motor equivalent deviations started immediately with the perturbation and increased progressively with time. After a sequence of lifting-lowering perturbations leading to the initial conditions, motor equivalent deviations were dominating. These phenomena were less pronounced for analysis performed with respect to the total moment of force with respect to an axis parallel to the forearm/hand. Analysis of inter-cycle variance showed consistently higher variance in a subspace that did not change the total force as compared to the variance that affected total force. We interpret the results as reflections of task-specific stability of the redundant multi-finger system. Large motor equivalent deviations suggest that reactions of the neuromotor system to a perturbation involve large changes of neural commands that do not affect salient performance variables, even during actions with the purpose to correct those salient variables. Consistency of the analyses of motor equivalence and variance analysis provides additional support for the idea of task-specific stability ensured at a neural level. PMID:25344311

  8. [Seal finger in Denmark diagnosed by PCR-technique].

    PubMed

    Jansen, Louise Charlotte; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Roos, Signe Moeslund; Dargis, Rimtas; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Kemp, Michael

    2012-02-13

    Seal finger is an unusual infection in Denmark but is seen quite often in Greenland. A 69 year-old Danish man developed severe infection after cutting his finger on a sea urchin while handling a fishing net. Treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics had no effect. Standard culture from the lesion was negative. A Mycoplasma species was detected by PCR and DNA sequencing and subsequently cultured on special media. Specifically asked about exposure to sea mammals the patient could inform that a dead seal had also been trapped in the fishing net. PMID:22331047

  9. Fjords in viscous fingering: selection of width and opening scale

    SciTech Connect

    Mineev-weinstein, Mark; Ristroph, Leif; Thrasher, Matthew; Swinney, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Our experiments on viscous fingering of air into oil contained between closely spaced plates reveal two selection rules for the fjords of oil that separate fingers of air. (Fjords are the building blocks of solutions of the zero-surface-tension Laplacian growth equation.) Experiments in rectangular and circular geometries yield fjords with base widths {lambda}{sub c}/2, where {lambda}{sub c} is the most unstable wavelength from a linear stability analysis. Further, fjords open at an angle of 8.0{sup o}{+-}1.0{sup o}. These selection rules hold for a wide range of pumping rates and fjord lengths, widths, and directions.

  10. GCT of proximal phalanx of ring finger: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khare, Pratima; Kishore, Bimal; Gupta, Rashmi Jain; Vanita; Dhal, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Giant-cell tumor (GCT) of bone arising from phalanx of a finger is extremely rare. Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute in their study on 900 treated cases of GCT from 1947-1997 reported only 0.9% incidence of GCT in bones of the hand. There was no case of GCT of the phalanges in that series. We report here a case of GCT of bone arising from phalanx of finger because of its very unusual location. The tumor was diagnosed on the basis of fine-needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathology. PMID:21656700

  11. Controlling and minimizing fingering instabilities in non-Newtonian fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, João V.; Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, José A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells has great practical and scientific importance. Recently, researchers have proposed different strategies to control the number of interfacial fingering structures, or to minimize as much as possible the amplitude of interfacial disturbances. Most existing studies address the situation in which an inviscid fluid displaces a viscous Newtonian fluid. In this work, we report on controlling and minimizing protocols considering the situation in which the displaced fluid is a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid. The necessary changes on the controlling schemes due to the shear-thinning and shear thickening nature of the displaced fluid are calculated analytically and discussed.

  12. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP). PMID:22247670

  13. Simultaneous closed dislocation of both interphalangeal joints in one finger.

    PubMed

    Ron, D; Alkalay, D; Torok, G

    1983-01-01

    A rare case of simultaneous dislocation of both interphalangeal joints in one finger in a table-tennis player is presented. The second dislocation took place when the first dislocated joint became the fixed part of the finger as it hit a wall. Treatment was, first, hyperextension to unlock the base of the phalanx, then traction along the phalanx: its base was then pushed into contact with the head of the proximal phalanx. Splinting was applied with the joint in slight flexion. PMID:6823005

  14. The transition to endoreduplication in trophoblast giant cells is regulated by the mSNA zinc finger transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, H; Scott, I C; Cross, J C

    1998-07-01

    Terminal cell differentiation is usually associated with cell cycle exit. In some lineages, however, cells undergo continued rounds of DNA synthesis without intervening mitoses (endoreduplication) resulting in polyploid nuclei. This is striking in rodent trophoblast giant cells which contain up to 1000N of DNA. In Drosophila, the Escargot gene has been implicated in regulating the transition from mitotic cell cycles to endocycles during development. We found that a murine homologue, mSna, was expressed in mouse trophoblast and was downregulated during giant cell differentiation. The mSNA zinc finger protein bound to E-box DNA elements and, in transfected C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts, acted as a transcriptional repressor. The maximal repressive effect was dependent on both the zinc finger DNA-binding domain and the N-terminal, seven-amino-acid SNAG domain. Misexpression experiments in Rcho-1 trophoblast cells revealed that mSna regulates the transition from replicating precursor cells to committed giant cells: overexpression blocked, whereas antisense RNA-mediated underexpression promoted trophoblast giant cell differentiation. Overexpression of mSna in precursor cells had no effect on cell cycle kinetics, but did increase cyclin A and B levels, implying actions during G2. These effects were dependent on both the zinc finger and SNAG domains. Together, these data suggest that mSNA has an ESCARGOT-like function to repress the transcription of genes that promote the transition from mitotic to endoreduplicative cell cycles in rodent trophoblast. PMID:9676199

  15. A Zinc Finger Motif-Containing Protein Is Essential for Chloroplast RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Shi, Xiaowen; Friso, Giulia; Van Wijk, Klaas; Bentolila, Stephane; Hanson, Maureen R.

    2015-01-01

    C-to-U editing of transcripts in plant organelles is carried out by small (<400 kD) protein complexes called editosomes. Recognition of the proper C target for editing is mediated by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing proteins that recognize cis-elements. Members of two additional gene families, the RIP/MORF and ORRM families, have each been found to be required for editing of particular sets of Cs in mitochondria and/or chloroplasts. By co-immunoprecipitation of the chloroplast editing factor ORRM1, followed by mass spectrometry, we have now identified a member of the RanBP2 type zinc fingers (pFAM00641) protein family that is required for editing of 14 sites in chloroplasts and affects editing efficiency of another 16 chloroplast C targets. In yeast two-hybrid assays, OZ1 (Organelle Zinc finger 1) interacts with PPR site recognition factors whose cognate sites are affected when OZ1 is mutated. No interaction of OZ1 with the chloroplast editing factors RIP2 and RIP9 was detected; however, OZ1 interacts with ORRM1, which binds to RIP proteins, allowing us to build a model for the chloroplast RNA editosome. The RNA editosomes that act upon most chloroplast C targets are likely to contain a PPR protein recognition factor, either RIP2 or RIP9, ORRM1, and OZ1. The organelle zinc finger editing factor family (OZ) contains 4 members in Arabidopsis, three that are predicted to be targeted to chloroplasts and one to mitochondria. With the identification of OZ1, there are now 4 nuclear-encoded protein families known to be essential for plant organelle RNA editing. PMID:25768119

  16. A novel zinc-finger HIT protein with an additional PAPA-1-like region from Suaeda liaotungensis K. enhanced transgenic Arabidopsis drought and salt stresses tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lan; Hu, Yu-Xin; Yang, Xing; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Qiu-Li

    2014-12-01

    Zinc-finger HIT belongs to the cross-brace zinc finger protein family and is involved in the regulation of plant defense and stress responses. In this study, we cloned a full-length zinc-finger HIT gene (1,377 bp) named SlPAPA1 using polymerase chain reaction from Suaeda liaotungensis K. and investigated its function by overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis. SlPAPA1 contains a zinc-finger HIT domain and a Pim-1-associated protein-1 (PAP-1)-associated protein-1-like (PAPA-1-like) conserved region. Its expression in S. liaotungensis was induced by drought, high-salt, and cold (4 °C) stresses and by abscisic acid (ABA). Subcellular localization experiments in onion epidermal cells indicated that SlPAPA1 is localized in the nucleus. Yeast-one hybrid assays showed that SlPAPA1 functions as a transcriptional activator. SlPAPA1 transgenic Arabidopsis displayed a higher survival ratio and lower rate of water loss under drought stress; a higher germination ratio, higher survival ratio, and lower root inhibition rate under salt stress; and a lower germination ratio and root inhibition rate under ABA treatment, compared with wild-type Arabidopsis. These results suggested that SlPAPA1 functions as a stress-responsive zinc-finger HIT protein involved in the ABA-dependent signaling pathway and may have potential applications in transgenic breeding to enhance crops abiotic stress tolerances. PMID:25119646

  17. Load-induced changes in older individual's hand-finger tremor are ameliorated with targeting.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Justin J; Cross, Troy J; Newell, Karl M; Morrison, Steven

    2014-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hand-finger tremor dynamics when a load was applied to the finger in a group of healthy older adults. Moreover, we sought to determine if projecting a representation of the subject's finger tremor on a target was capable of overcoming the effects of loading so that hand-finger interactions returned to a state that was similar to normal tremor. Eight healthy older males (67 ± 1 year) performed a postural pointing task, where tremor was assessed using lightweight accelerometers attached to the hand and finger. Tremor was then assessed when a laser pointer was attached to the finger and switched off (the load), and then with the laser pointer attached and switched on pointing at targets of 40 mm and 20mm in diameter. The main findings of this study were that 1) loading the finger resulted in a reduction in finger tremor amplitude and increased finger tremor regularity, but no change in hand tremor, 2) loading caused increased hand-finger 8-12 Hz cross wavelet coherence and phase synchrony, and 3) pointing at different targets while the finger was loaded resulted in an increase in finger tremor amplitude, and changes in inter-segmental coupling to the extent that hand-finger dynamics reflected normal unloaded conditions. Overall, these results illustrate that the damping effects of limb loading can be offset, in part, by altering the accuracy demands of the task to make the pointing action more challenging. PMID:24503237

  18. Bromodomain-PHD finger protein 1 is critical for leukemogenesis associated with MOZ-TIF2 fusion.

    PubMed

    Shima, Haruko; Yamagata, Kazutsune; Aikawa, Yukiko; Shino, Mika; Koseki, Haruhiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Kitabayashi, Issay

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations that involve the monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ) gene are typically associated with human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and often predict a poor prognosis. Overexpression of HOXA9, HOXA10, and MEIS1 was observed in AML patients with MOZ fusions. To assess the functional role of HOX upregulation in leukemogenesis by MOZ-TIF2, we focused on bromodomain-PHD finger protein 1 (BRPF1), a component of the MOZ complex that carries out histone acetylation for generating and maintaining proper epigenetic programs in hematopoietic cells. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MOZ-TIF2 forms a stable complex with BRPF1, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MOZ-TIF2 and BRPF1 interact with HOX genes in MOZ-TIF2-induced AML cells. Depletion of BRPF1 decreased the MOZ localization on HOX genes, resulting in loss of transformation ability induced by MOZ-TIF2. Furthermore, mutant MOZ-TIF2 engineered to lack histone acetyltransferase activity was incapable of deregulating HOX genes as well as initiating leukemia. These data indicate that MOZ-TIF2/BRPF1 complex upregulates HOX genes mediated by MOZ-dependent histone acetylation, leading to the development of leukemia. We suggest that activation of BRPF1/HOX pathway through MOZ HAT activity is critical for MOZ-TIF2 to induce AML. PMID:24258712

  19. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, M; Antony Ceasar, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Vinod, K K; Kalpana, Krishnan; Al-Dhabi, N A; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal

  20. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Antony Ceasar, S.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Vinod, K. K.; Kalpana, Krishnan; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Ignacimuthu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal

  1. Intensity Variation Normalization for Finger Vein Recognition Using Guided Filter Based Singe Scale Retinex

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shan Juan; Lu, Yu; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Finger vein recognition has been considered one of the most promising biometrics for personal authentication. However, the capacities and percentages of finger tissues (e.g., bone, muscle, ligament, water, fat, etc.) vary person by person. This usually causes poor quality of finger vein images, therefore degrading the performance of finger vein recognition systems (FVRSs). In this paper, the intrinsic factors of finger tissue causing poor quality of finger vein images are analyzed, and an intensity variation (IV) normalization method using guided filter based single scale retinex (GFSSR) is proposed for finger vein image enhancement. The experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in enhancing the image quality and finger vein recognition accuracy. PMID:26184226

  2. An Annotated Bibliography of the Chisanbop Method of Finger Calculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Mary K.

    The term Chisanbop is the trademark for the finger calculation method originally developed by a Korean, Sung Jin Pai. It was refined and simplified by his son, Hang Young Pai, who introduced the technique to the United States in 1976. This annotated bibliography has been organized in five categories. Readings in the first category, Historical…

  3. 21 CFR 890.5410 - Powered finger exerciser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered finger exerciser. 890.5410 Section 890.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5410 Powered...

  4. 21 CFR 890.5410 - Powered finger exerciser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered finger exerciser. 890.5410 Section 890.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5410 Powered...

  5. 21 CFR 890.5410 - Powered finger exerciser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered finger exerciser. 890.5410 Section 890.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5410 Powered...

  6. 21 CFR 890.5410 - Powered finger exerciser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered finger exerciser. 890.5410 Section 890.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5410 Powered...

  7. Singing Greeting Card Beeper as a Finger Pulse Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belusic, Gregor; Zupancic, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a robust and low-priced finger pulse sensor from a singing greeting card beeper. The beeper outputs the plethysmographic signal, which is indistinguishable from that of commercial grade sensors. The sensor can be used in school for a number of experiments in human cardiovascular physiology.

  8. Movement Kinematics of the Braille-Reading Finger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Barry

    2011-01-01

    A new means of measuring the movement properties of the braille-reading finger is described and exemplified in an experiment in which experienced readers of braille encountered sentences comprised of keywords in which word and orthographic frequencies were manipulated. These new data are considered in theoretical and practical terms. (Contains 2…

  9. Some Numerical Simulations and an Experimental Investigation of Finger Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Minel J.; Smith, Ian; Marie, Hazel

    2007-01-01

    All seal types have been shown to lift effectively, and experience only minor wear during startup. .. The double pad design outperforms previous seals, providing lower operating temperatures, and less leakage at higher pressures. .. Future experimentation at higher pressures, temperatures, and operating speeds will show the full potential of finger sealing technology.

  10. 21 CFR 890.5410 - Powered finger exerciser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered finger exerciser. 890.5410 Section 890.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5410 Powered...

  11. Finger stiffness or edema as presenting symptoms of eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shingo; Noda, Kazutaka; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Shikino, Kiyoshi; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the clinical features and finger symptoms of eosinophilic fasciitis (EF), we reviewed five patients with EF. The chief complaint was pain, edema and/or stiffness of the extremities. The distal extremities were affected in all patients, and there was also proximal involvement in one patient. One patient had asymmetrical symptoms. All four patients with upper limb involvement had limited range of motion of the wrist joints, and three of them complained of finger symptoms. Two of these three patients showed slight non-pitting edema of the hands, and the other one had subcutaneous induration of the forearm. All four patients with lower limb symptoms had limited range of motion of the ankle joints, and two showed edema or induration of the legs. Inflammatory changes in the joints were not detected in any of the patients. Two patients displayed neither objective induration nor edema, and two patients had muscle tenderness. In conclusion, finger symptoms of patients with EF might be caused by fasciitis of the forearms, which leads to dysfunction of the long finger flexors and extensors as well as slight edema of hands. Limited range of motion of wrist and/or ankle joints indicates sensitively distal muscle dysfunction caused by fasciitis. PMID:26248532

  12. The Three-Fingers Technique: Does It Reduce Test Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maycock, George

    The utility of brief exposure to a mental focusing aid, the Three-Fingers Technique (TFT), in reducing test anxiety was studied for 15 college students. One week before their final examination, the students were given a 15-minute classroom introduction to the TFT, part of the Silva Mental Training Method (1983). After the introduction to this…

  13. Viscous and gravitational fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moortgat, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for (1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and (2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, which can either enhance or mitigate viscous and gravitational instabilities. This work presents a detailed study of fingering behavior in compositional multiphase flow in two and three dimensions and considers the effects of (1) Fickian diffusion, (2) mechanical dispersion, (3) flow rates, (4) domain size and geometry, (5) formation heterogeneities, (6) gravity, and (7) relative permeabilities. Results show that fingering in compositional multiphase flow is profoundly different from miscible conditions and upscaling techniques used for the latter case are unlikely to be generalizable to the former.

  14. Moving Fingers under a Stick: A Laboratory Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massalha, Taha; Lanir, Yuval; Gluck, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We consider a demonstration in which pupils alternately slide and stop their fingers under a long horizontal rod which they support. The changeover is described in terms of the relevant kinetic and static friction. We present a model calculation, performed on a spreadsheet, which clarifies the process and describes graphically the stepwise…

  15. Modification of the Internal Suture Technique for Mallet Finger

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bo; Wang, Peiji; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Jiaju; Dong, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article describes a treatment of tendinous mallet finger deformities using a modified internal suture technique for the stable fixation of the terminal extensor tendon and bone. Between March 2011 and July 2013, 15 patients with mallet fingers who had been treated using this modification were included in this study. The patients included 10 men and 5 women with a mean age of 33 years (range, 19–50 years). Of these patients, 9 had chronic mallet fingers, 3 were unable to comply with a splinting regimen, and 3 had a history of unsuccessful splinting therapy. The mean time between the injury and surgery was 5.5 months (range, 1–15 months). We graded the results using Crawford criteria. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (range, 9–16 months). The mean final active range of motion of the distal interphalangeal joint flexion was 73° (range, 60°–90°). Based on Crawford evaluation criteria, 8 patients were graded as excellent, 6 were graded as good, and 1 was graded as fair. Apart from 2 documented mild nail deformities, no complications were encountered. This modified technique should be considered for the management of a tendinous mallet finger deformity when the internal suture technique is planned. PMID:25674757

  16. Science Fair Report: Flight of the Split-Fingered Fastball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on the results of an eighth grade student's experiments, conducted with a moving car, concerning the aerodynamics of a baseball in flight. Describes the peculiar diving ability of the split-fingered fastball, as well as the dancing and weaving effect of the knuckleball. (JJK)

  17. Dorsal finger joint soft tissue loss: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Bervar, M

    2003-01-01

    This article brings our experience, standpoints and management guidelines for early reconstruction of traumatic soft tissue loss on the dorsal aspect of the finger joints, with the aim of preserving acceptable late functional ability of the hand. Two interesting and unusual cases of reconstruction are presented. PMID:14989334

  18. Cloning and characterization of a novel RING finger protein that interacts with class V myosins.

    PubMed

    El-Husseini, A E; Vincent, S R

    1999-07-01

    We have identified a novel protein (BERP) that is a specific partner for the tail domain of myosin V. Class V myosins are a family of molecular motors thought to interact via their unique C-terminal tails with specific proteins for the targeted transport of organelles. BERP is highly expressed in brain and contains an N-terminal RING finger, followed by a B-box zinc finger, a coiled-coil (RBCC domain), and a unique C-terminal beta-propeller domain. A yeast two-hybrid screening indicated that the C-terminal beta-propeller domain mediates binding to the tail of the class V myosin myr6 (myosin Vb). This interaction was confirmed by immunoprecipitation, which also demonstrated that BERP could associate with myosin Va, the product of the dilute gene. Like myosin Va, BERP is expressed in a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm as well as in the neurites and growth cones of PC12 cells. We also found that the RBCC domain of BERP is involved in protein dimerization. Stable expression of a mutant form of BERP lacking the myosin-binding domain but containing the dimerization domain resulted in defective PC12 cell spreading and prevented neurite outgrowth in response to nerve growth factor. Our studies present a novel interaction for the beta-propeller domain and provide evidence for a role for BERP in myosin V-mediated cargo transport. PMID:10391919

  19. Expression of Zinc Finger Protein 105 in the Testis and its Role in Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaxin; Liu, Lan-Hsin; Zhang, Heng; Lei, Zhenmin; Lan, Zi-Jian

    2011-01-01

    Using an in silico approach, we identified a putative zinc finger domain-containing transcription factor (zinc finger protein 105, ZFP105) that was enriched in the adult mouse testis. RT-PCR analyses showed that Zfp105 was indeed highly expressed in adult mouse testis and that its expression was regulated during postnatal development. To further characterize Zfp105 expression, we generated a Zfp105:β-galactosidase (LacZ) knock-in reporter mouse line (Zfp105LacZ/+) in which a Zfp105:LacZ fusion gene was expressed. Whole-mount LacZ analyses of adult Zfp105LacZ/+ tissues showed robust LacZ staining in the testis, very weak staining in the ovary and no staining in the spleen, liver, kidney, heart, lung, thymus, adrenal gland, uterus or oviduct. Sectional LacZ staining showed that ZFP105 was highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes. ZNF35, the human ortholog of ZFP105, was also expressed in male germ cells of normal human testis. More importantly, reduced male fertility and sloughed spermatogenic cells were observed in adult Zfp105LacZ/LacZ mice. Taken together, our results suggest that ZFP105 is a male germ-cell factor and plays a role in male reproduction. PMID:20186958

  20. Characterization of the tandem CWCH2 sequence motif: a hallmark of inter-zinc finger interactions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The C2H2 zinc finger (ZF) domain is widely conserved among eukaryotic proteins. In Zic/Gli/Zap1 C2H2 ZF proteins, the two N-terminal ZFs form a single structural unit by sharing a hydrophobic core. This structural unit defines a new motif comprised of two tryptophan side chains at the center of the hydrophobic core. Because each tryptophan residue is located between the two cysteine residues of the C2H2 motif, we have named this structure the tandem CWCH2 (tCWCH2) motif. Results Here, we characterized 587 tCWCH2-containing genes using data derived from public databases. We categorized genes into 11 classes including Zic/Gli/Glis, Arid2/Rsc9, PacC, Mizf, Aebp2, Zap1/ZafA, Fungl, Zfp106, Twincl, Clr1, and Fungl-4ZF, based on sequence similarity, domain organization, and functional similarities. tCWCH2 motifs are mostly found in organisms belonging to the Opisthokonta (metazoa, fungi, and choanoflagellates) and Amoebozoa (amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum). By comparison, the C2H2 ZF motif is distributed widely among the eukaryotes. The structure and organization of the tCWCH2 motif, its phylogenetic distribution, and molecular phylogenetic analysis suggest that prototypical tCWCH2 genes existed in the Opisthokonta ancestor. Within-group or between-group comparisons of the tCWCH2 amino acid sequence identified three additional sequence features (site-specific amino acid frequencies, longer linker sequence between two C2H2 ZFs, and frequent extra-sequences within C2H2 ZF motifs). Conclusion These features suggest that the tCWCH2 motif is a specialized motif involved in inter-zinc finger interactions. PMID:20167128

  1. Trainability of cold induced vasodilatation in fingers and toes.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Koedam, Jens; Cheung, Stephen S

    2012-07-01

    Subjects that repeatedly have to expose the extremities to cold may benefit from a high peripheral temperature to maintain dexterity and tissue integrity. Therefore, we investigated if repeated immersions of a hand and a foot in cold water resulted in increased skin temperatures. Nine male and seven female subjects (mean 20.4; SD 2.2 years) immersed their right (trained) hand and foot simultaneously in 8°C water, 30 min daily for 15 days. During the pre and post-test (days 1 and 15, respectively) the left (untrained) hand and foot were immersed as well. Pain, tactile sensitivity and skin temperatures were measured every day. Mean (SD) toe temperature of the trained foot increased from 9.49°C (0.89) to 10.03°C (1.38) (p < 0.05). The trained hand, however, showed a drop in mean finger temperature from 9.28°C (0.54) to 8.91°C (0.44) (p < 0.001) and the number of cold induced vasodilation (CIVD) reactions decreased from 52% during the first test to 24% during the last test. No significant differences occurred in the untrained extremities. Pain diminished over time and tactile sensitivity decreased with skin temperature. The combination of less CIVD responses in the fingers after training, reduced finger skin temperatures in subjects that did show CIVD and the reduced pain and tactile sensitivity over time may lead to an increased risk for finger cold injuries. It is concluded that repeated cold exposure of the fingers does not lead to favorable adaptations, but may instead increase the injury risk. PMID:22081047

  2. Finger Seal: A Novel Approach to Air to Air Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arora, Gul; Steinetz, Bruce; Proctor, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    The gas turbine industry used a variety of sealing mechanisms to contain and direct secondary flows into and around components for cooling, and to limit leakage into and from bearing and disk cavities. The function of these seals is very important to the component efficiencies and attendant engine performance. Most of these seals are labyrinth seals, which are high-leakage seals that are costly to manufacture. In recent years, brush seals have been introduced which have demonstrated significantly reduced leakage, although they are still expensive and have exhibited wear and hysteresis difficulties. A new innovative concept called finger seal, patented by AlliedSignal, has demonstrated leakage similar to brush seals and is cheaper. The finger seal is comprised of a stack of precision photo-etched sheet metal elements, which allows intricate features to be made at very low cost and with the potential to resist wear and provide the compliance necessary to accomodate rotor excursions. Initial testing in the high-speed/high-temperature seal test facility, at the NASA Lewis Research Center, has corroborated the finger seal performance. The testing also revealed hysteresis problems with the current design. A NASA funded research project is in progress to correct the functional deficiencies of the finger seal and to refine its features to provide sufficient seal life for commercial transport engines and other long-life applications. This research will benefit the aeronautical gas turbine industry as a whole in terms of fuel consumption, operational characteristics, and cost. The first phase of this research to reduce finger seal hysteresis has been in progress for the last one year. This paper presents the results of this research to date. In future the research program will address seal performance, manufacturing, cost and life issues. The research program is expected to be completed by December 1998.

  3. Improving Finger Coordination in Young and Elderly Persons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yen-Hsun; Pazin, Nemanja; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of a single practice session of a variable task with subject specific adjustments of task difficulty (instability) on indices of multi-finger coordination in young and elderly persons. The main hypothesis was that practicing such a task would lead to contrasting changes in the amounts of two components of variance estimated across repetitive trials within the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis: VUCM that had no effect on total force and VORT that affected total force. In addition, we also expected to see strong transfer effects to a different task. A variable task with graded instability was designed to encourage use of variable solutions during the accurate production of total force with two fingers. The subjects practiced with the index and middle fingers pressing on individual force sensors. Overall, the older subjects showed lower indices of performance and higher indices of both VUCM and VORT. After about one hour of practice, both groups showed an increase in the index of involuntary force production by non-task fingers (enslaving). Both groups improved the indices of performance. The two variance indices showed opposite effects of practice: VORT dropped with practice while VUCM increased leading to an increase in the total amount of variance in the space of commands to fingers and in the index of force-stabilizing synergy. Performance in a simpler, non-practiced task improved, but there was no transfer of the changes in the structure of variance. Specifically, both variance components, VORT and VUCM, dropped in the non-practiced task. The results show that the neural system responsible for synergies stabilizing important features of performance is highly adaptable to practice of tasks designed to encourage use of variable solutions. We view the results as highly promising for future use in populations with impaired coordination characterized by low synergy indices. PMID:23411675

  4. Multi-finger prehension: control of a redundant mechanical system.

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2009-01-01

    The human hand has been a fascinating object of study for researchers in both biomechanics and motor control. Studies of human prehension have contributed significantly to the progress in addressing the famous problem of motor redundancy. After a brief review of the hand mechanics, we present results of recent studies that support a general view that the apparently redundant design of the hand is not a source of computational problems but a rich apparatus that allows performing a variety of tasks in a reliable and flexible way (the principle of abundance). Multi-digit synergies have been analyzed at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in the control of prehensile actions. At the upper level, forces and moments produced by the thumb and virtual finger (an imagined finger with a mechanical action equal to the combined mechanical action of all four fingers of the hand) co-vary to stabilize the gripping action and the orientation of the hand-held object. These results support the principle of superposition suggested earlier in robotics with respect to the control of artificial grippers. At the lower level of the hierarchy, forces and moments produced by individual fingers co-vary to stabilize the magnitude and direction of the force vector and the moment of force produced by the virtual finger. Adjustments to changes in task constraints (such as, for example, friction under individual digits) may be local and synergic. The latter reflect multi-digit prehension synergies and may be analyzed with the so-called chain effects: Sequences of relatively straightforward cause-effect links directly related to mechanical constraints leading to non-trivial strong co-variation between pairs of elemental variables. Analysis of grip force adjustments during motion of hand-held objects suggests that the central nervous system adjusts to gravitational and inertial loads differently. The human hand is a gold mine for researchers interested in the control of natural human

  5. Preliminary Test Results of a Non-Contacting Finger Seal on a Herringbone-Grooved Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2009-01-01

    The baseline non-contacting finger seal is a NASA patented design. The primary difference between it and Gul Aroras design patented by AlliedSignal is that there are no lift pads on the high pressure fingers. The baseline non-contacting finger seal is comprised of a back plate, aft spacer, aft (or low pressure) finger element, forward (or high pressure) finger element, forward spacer, and front plate. The components are held together with 20 flat head screws. A typical seal would have a back plate of approximately the same thickness as the front plate and would be riveted together. The thicker back plate allows use of threaded fasteners so that different finger elements can be tested without having to replace all the individual seal components. The finger elements are essentially washers made of thin sheet stock with multiple curved slots machined around the inner diameter to form the fingers. They are clocked so that the fingers of one cover the slots of the other. The aft finger element fingers have axial extensions or "lift pads" at the seal id that are concentric to the rotor. The fingers act as cantilever beams and flex in response to rotor dynamic motion and radial growth of the rotor due to centrifugal or thermal forces.

  6. 21 CFR 888.3200 - Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3200 Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3220 - Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3220 Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3220 - Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3220 Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint...

  9. 40 CFR 81.128 - Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.128 Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  10. 40 CFR 81.128 - Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.128 Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3200 - Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3200 Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3200 - Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3200 Finger joint metal/metal constrained uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3210 - Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3210 Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint metal/metal...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3220 - Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3220 Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint...

  15. An Experimental Study on Preventing First Graders from Finger Counting in Basic Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albayrak, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: When counting is taught to students at primary stage of schooling, they are generally allowed to use their fingers as a counting tool. Therefore, some students continue using their fingers to count, while others stop this habit later. The students who have the habit of using their fingers to count have difficulty when their fingers…

  16. 40 CFR 81.128 - Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.128 Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  17. 76 FR 77769 - North Finger Grazing Authorization Project, Malheur National Forest, Grant County, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Forest Service North Finger Grazing Authorization Project, Malheur National Forest, Grant County, OR... North Finger Landscape. These allotments are within the Upper Deer Creek, Basin Creek, Upper Long Creek, Lower Fox Creek, Upper Fox Creek, and Upper Cottonwood Creek subwatersheds. The North Finger...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3210 - Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3210 Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint metal/metal...

  19. 40 CFR 81.128 - Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.128 Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3210 - Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3210 Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint metal/metal...

  1. 40 CFR 81.128 - Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.128 Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Genesee-Finger Lakes Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  2. 78 FR 35098 - Proposed Information Collection (Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Hand or Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any.... Title: Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-7. OMB Control Number:...

  3. 21 CFR 888.3220 - Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented... metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint metal/polymer..., 1996 for any finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis that was in...

  4. 21 CFR 888.3220 - Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented... metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint metal/polymer..., 1996 for any finger joint metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis that was in...

  5. A palindromic regulatory site within vertebrate GATA-1 promoters requires both zinc fingers of the GATA-1 DNA-binding domain for high-affinity interaction.

    PubMed

    Trainor, C D; Omichinski, J G; Vandergon, T L; Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M; Felsenfeld, G

    1996-05-01

    GATA-1, a transcription factor essential for the development of the erythroid lineage, contains two adjacent highly conserved zinc finger motifs. The carboxy-terminal finger is necessary and sufficient for specific binding to the consensus GATA recognition sequence: mutant proteins containing only the amino-terminal finger do not bind. Here we identify a DNA sequence (GATApal) for which the GATA-1 amino-terminal finger makes a critical contribution to the strength of binding. The site occurs in the GATA-1 gene promoters of chickens, mice, and humans but occurs very infrequently in other vertebrate genes known to be regulated by GATA proteins. GATApal is a palindromic site composed of one complete [(A/T)GATA(A/G)] and one partial (GAT) canonical motif. Deletion of the partial motif changes the site to a normal GATA site and also reduces by as much as eightfold the activity of the GATA-1 promoter in an erythroid precursor cell. We propose that GATApal is important for positive regulation of GATA-1 expression in erythroid cells. PMID:8628290

  6. Transfer of tactile perceptual learning to untrained neighboring fingers reflects natural use relationships

    PubMed Central

    Harrar, Vanessa; Oliver, Jonathan; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Tactile learning transfers from trained to untrained fingers in a pattern that reflects overlap between the representations of fingers in the somatosensory system (e.g., neurons with multifinger receptive fields). While physical proximity on the body is known to determine the topography of somatosensory representations, tactile coactivation is also an established organizing principle of somatosensory topography. In this study we investigated whether tactile coactivation, induced by habitual inter-finger cooperative use (use pattern), shapes inter-finger overlap. To this end, we used psychophysics to compare the transfer of tactile learning from the middle finger to its adjacent fingers. This allowed us to compare transfer to two fingers that are both physically and cortically adjacent to the middle finger but have differing use patterns. Specifically, the middle finger is used more frequently with the ring than with the index finger. We predicted this should lead to greater representational overlap between the former than the latter pair. Furthermore, this difference in overlap should be reflected in differential learning transfer from the middle to index vs. ring fingers. Subsequently, we predicted temporary learning-related changes in the middle finger's representation (e.g., cortical magnification) would cause transient interference in perceptual thresholds of the ring, but not the index, finger. Supporting this, longitudinal analysis revealed a divergence where learning transfer was fast to the index finger but relatively delayed to the ring finger. Our results support the theory that tactile coactivation patterns between digits affect their topographic relationships. Our findings emphasize how action shapes perception and somatosensory organization. PMID:26631145

  7. Transfer of tactile perceptual learning to untrained neighboring fingers reflects natural use relationships.

    PubMed

    Dempsey-Jones, Harriet; Harrar, Vanessa; Oliver, Jonathan; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Spence, Charles; Makin, Tamar R

    2016-03-01

    Tactile learning transfers from trained to untrained fingers in a pattern that reflects overlap between the representations of fingers in the somatosensory system (e.g., neurons with multifinger receptive fields). While physical proximity on the body is known to determine the topography of somatosensory representations, tactile coactivation is also an established organizing principle of somatosensory topography. In this study we investigated whether tactile coactivation, induced by habitual inter-finger cooperative use (use pattern), shapes inter-finger overlap. To this end, we used psychophysics to compare the transfer of tactile learning from the middle finger to its adjacent fingers. This allowed us to compare transfer to two fingers that are both physically and cortically adjacent to the middle finger but have differing use patterns. Specifically, the middle finger is used more frequently with the ring than with the index finger. We predicted this should lead to greater representational overlap between the former than the latter pair. Furthermore, this difference in overlap should be reflected in differential learning transfer from the middle to index vs. ring fingers. Subsequently, we predicted temporary learning-related changes in the middle finger's representation (e.g., cortical magnification) would cause transient interference in perceptual thresholds of the ring, but not the index, finger. Supporting this, longitudinal analysis revealed a divergence where learning transfer was fast to the index finger but relatively delayed to the ring finger. Our results support the theory that tactile coactivation patterns between digits affect their topographic relationships. Our findings emphasize how action shapes perception and somatosensory organization. PMID:26631145

  8. Induction and repair of zinc-finger nuclease-targeted double-strand breaks in Caenorhabditis elegans somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Jason; Davis, M. Wayne; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Carroll, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases are chimeric proteins consisting of engineered zinc-finger DNA-binding motifs attached to an endonuclease domain. These proteins can induce site-specific DNA double-strand breaks in genomic DNA, which are then substrates for cellular repair mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that engineered zinc-finger nucleases function effectively in somatic cells of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Although gene-conversion events were indistinguishable from uncut DNA in our assay, nonhomologous end joining resulted in mutations at the target site. A synthetic target on an extrachromosomal array was targeted with a previously characterized nuclease, and an endogenous genomic sequence was targeted with a pair of specifically designed nucleases. In both cases, ≈20% of the target sites were mutated after induction of the corresponding nucleases. Alterations in the extrachromosomal targets were largely products of end-filling and blunt ligation. By contrast, alterations in the chromosomal target were mostly deletions. We interpret these differences to reflect the abundance of homologous templates present in the extrachromosomal arrays versus the paucity of such templates for repair of chromosomal breaks. In addition, we find evidence for the involvement of error-prone DNA synthesis in both homologous and nonhomologous pathways of repair. DNA ligase IV is required for efficient end joining, particularly of blunt ends. In its absence, a secondary end-joining pathway relies more heavily on microhomologies in producing deletions. PMID:17060623

  9. Analysis and optimal design of an underactuated finger mechanism for LARM hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shuangji; Ceccarelli, Marco; Carbone, Giuseppe; Zhan, Qiang; Lu, Zhen

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to present general design considerations and optimality criteria for underactuated mechanisms in finger designs. Design issues related to grasping task of robotic fingers are discussed. Performance characteristics are outlined as referring to several aspects of finger mechanisms. Optimality criteria of the finger performances are formulated after careful analysis. A general design algorithm is summarized and formulated as a suitable multi-objective optimization problem. A numerical case of an underactuated robot finger design for Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics (LARM) hand is illustrated with the aim to show the practical feasibility of the proposed concepts and computations.

  10. Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein Regulates Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dakang; Holko, Michelle; Sadler, Anthony J.; Scott, Bernadette; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Berkofsky-Fessler, Windy; McConnell, Melanie J.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Licht, Jonathan D.; Williams, Bryan R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Interferons (IFNs) direct innate and acquired immune responses and, accordingly, are used therapeutically to treat a number of diseases, yet the diverse effects they elicit are not fully understood. Here we identify the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein as a previously unrecognized component of the IFN response. IFN stimulates an association between PLZF, the promyelocytic leukemia protein and histone deacetylase 1, to induce a decisive subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Consequently, PLZF-deficient mice have a specific ISG defect and as a result are more susceptible to viral infection. This susceptibility correlates with a marked decrease in the expression of the key antiviral mediators and an impaired IFN-mediated induction of natural killer cell function. These results provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of IFN signaling and the induction of innate antiviral immunity. PMID:19523849

  11. Control of a neuronal morphology program by an RNA-binding zinc finger protein, Unkempt

    PubMed Central

    Zarnack, Kathi; Durak, Omer; Murphy, Elisabeth A.; Cheloufi, Sihem; Gonzalez, Dilenny M.; Teplova, Marianna; Curk, Tomaž; Zuber, Johannes; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Ule, Jernej; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Tsai, Li-Huei; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular morphology is an essential determinant of cellular function in all kingdoms of life, yet little is known about how cell shape is controlled. Here we describe a molecular program that controls the early morphology of neurons through a metazoan-specific zinc finger protein, Unkempt. Depletion of Unkempt in mouse embryos disrupts the shape of migrating neurons, while ectopic expression confers neuronal-like morphology to cells of different nonneuronal lineages. We found that Unkempt is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein and identified its precise binding sites within coding regions of mRNAs linked to protein metabolism and trafficking. RNA binding is required for Unkempt-induced remodeling of cellular shape and is directly coupled to a reduced production of the encoded proteins. These findings link post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression with cellular shape and have general implications for the development and disease of multicellular organisms. PMID:25737280

  12. Recognition of distinct RNA motifs by the clustered CCCH zinc fingers of neuronal protein Unkempt

    PubMed Central

    Zarnack, Kathi; Shi, Yang; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-01-01

    Unkempt is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates translation of its target genes and is required for the establishment of the early bipolar neuronal morphology. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of mouse Unkempt and show that its six CCCH zinc fingers (ZnFs) form two compact clusters, ZnF–3 and ZnF4–6, that recognize distinct trinucleotide RNA substrates. Both ZnF clusters adopt a similar overall topology and use distinct recognition principles to target specific RNA sequences. Structure-guided point mutations reduce the RNA binding affinity of Unkempt both in vitro and in vivo, ablate Unkempt’s translational control and impair the ability of Unkempt to induce a bipolar cellular morphology. Our study unravels a new mode of RNA sequence recognition by clusters of CCCH ZnFs that is critical for post-transcriptional control of neuronal morphology. PMID:26641712

  13. Control of a neuronal morphology program by an RNA-binding zinc finger protein, Unkempt.

    PubMed

    Murn, Jernej; Zarnack, Kathi; Yang, Yawei J; Durak, Omer; Murphy, Elisabeth A; Cheloufi, Sihem; Gonzalez, Dilenny M; Teplova, Marianna; Curk, Tomaž; Zuber, Johannes; Patel, Dinshaw J; Ule, Jernej; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Tsai, Li-Huei; Walsh, Christopher A; Shi, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Cellular morphology is an essential determinant of cellular function in all kingdoms of life, yet little is known about how cell shape is controlled. Here we describe a molecular program that controls the early morphology of neurons through a metazoan-specific zinc finger protein, Unkempt. Depletion of Unkempt in mouse embryos disrupts the shape of migrating neurons, while ectopic expression confers neuronal-like morphology to cells of different nonneuronal lineages. We found that Unkempt is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein and identified its precise binding sites within coding regions of mRNAs linked to protein metabolism and trafficking. RNA binding is required for Unkempt-induced remodeling of cellular shape and is directly coupled to a reduced production of the encoded proteins. These findings link post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression with cellular shape and have general implications for the development and disease of multicellular organisms. PMID:25737280

  14. Recognition of distinct RNA motifs by the clustered CCCH zinc fingers of neuronal protein Unkempt.

    PubMed

    Murn, Jernej; Teplova, Marianna; Zarnack, Kathi; Shi, Yang; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2016-01-01

    Unkempt is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates translation of its target genes and is required for the establishment of the early bipolar neuronal morphology. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of mouse Unkempt and show that its six CCCH zinc fingers (ZnFs) form two compact clusters, ZnF1-3 and ZnF4-6, that recognize distinct trinucleotide RNA substrates. Both ZnF clusters adopt a similar overall topology and use distinct recognition principles to target specific RNA sequences. Structure-guided point mutations reduce the RNA binding affinity of Unkempt both in vitro and in vivo, ablate Unkempt's translational control and impair the ability of Unkempt to induce a bipolar cellular morphology. Our study unravels a new mode of RNA sequence recognition by clusters of CCCH ZnFs that is critical for post-transcriptional control of neuronal morphology. PMID:26641712

  15. The Zn finger protein Iguana impacts Hedgehog signaling by promoting ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Andrew M; Wilkinson, Alex W; Backer, Chelsea B; Lapan, Sylvain W; Gutzman, Jennifer H; Cheeseman, Iain M; Reddien, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is critical for metazoan development and requires cilia for pathway activity. The gene iguana was discovered in zebrafish as required for Hedgehog signaling, and encodes a novel Zn finger protein. Planarians are flatworms with robust regenerative capacities and utilize epidermal cilia for locomotion. RNA interference of Smed-iguana in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea caused cilia loss and failure to regenerate new cilia, but did not cause defects similar to those observed in hedgehog(RNAi) animals. Smed-iguana gene expression was also similar in pattern to the expression of multiple other ciliogenesis genes, but was not required for expression of these ciliogenesis genes. iguana-defective zebrafish had too few motile cilia in pronephric ducts and in Kupffer's vesicle. Kupffer's vesicle promotes left-right asymmetry and iguana mutant embryos had left-right asymmetry defects. Finally, human Iguana proteins (dZIP1 and dZIP1L) localize to the basal bodies of primary cilia and, together, are required for primary cilia formation. Our results indicate that a critical and broadly conserved function for Iguana is in ciliogenesis and that this function has come to be required for Hedgehog signaling in vertebrates. PMID:19852954

  16. Snail-type zinc finger proteins prevent neurogenesis in Scutoid and transgenic animals of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fuse, N; Matakatsu, H; Taniguchi, M; Hayashi, S

    1999-10-01

    Scutoid is a classical dominant gain-of-function mutation of Drosophila, causing a loss of bristles and roughening of the compound eye. Previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that Scutoid is associated with a chromosomal transposition resulting in a fusion of no-oceli and snail genes. How this gene fusion event leads to the defects in neurogenesis was not known until now. Here have found that snail is ectopically expressed in the eye-antennal and wing imaginal discs in Scutoid larvae, and that this expression is reduced in Scutoid revertants. We have also shown that the expressivity of Scutoid is enhanced by zeste mutations. snail and escargot encode evolutionarily conserved zinc-finger proteins involved in the development of mesoderm and limbs. Snail and Escargot proteins share a common target DNA sequence with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type proneural gene products. When expressed in the developing external sense organ precursors of the thorax and the eye, these proteins cause a loss of mechanosensory bristles in the thorax and perturbed the development of the compound eye. Such phenotypes resemble those associated with Scutoid. Furthermore, the effect of ectopic Escargot on bristle development is antagonized by coexpression of the bHLH gene asense. Thus, our results suggest that the Scutoid phenotype is due to an ectopic snail expression under the control of no-oceli enhancer, antagonizing neurogenesis through its inhibitory interaction with bHLH proteins. PMID:10552298

  17. The zinc finger protein ZNF297B interacts with BDP1, a subunit of TFIIIB.

    PubMed

    Schoenen, Frank; Wirth, Brunhilde

    2006-03-01

    The human gene BDP1, localized on chromosome 5q13 in close proximity to the spinal muscular atrophy determining gene SMN, encodes a large protein consisting of 2254 amino acids (aa). In the first third of the gene, the subunit of the RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription factor complex (TFIIIB alpha/beta) is encoded. To further characterize the function of BDP1, we carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen using various parts of BDP1. With the clone BDP1-(1-640) we identified a novel interaction partner, ZNF297B. The ZNF297B gene is localized on chromosome 9q24 and encodes a zinc finger protein of 467 aa possessing the typical structure of a transcription factor. The interaction found in yeast was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and refined to the N-terminal region of ZNF297B-(1-127) containing the BTB/POZ domain and the N-terminal end of BDP1-(1-299). The ZNF297B transcript is 5.7 kb in length and ubiquitously expressed, with highest levels found in muscles. Immunofluorescence staining revealed a speckled pattern in the nuclei of HEK293 cells. Due to the essential role of BDP1 in Pol III transcription, we propose that ZNF297B may also regulate these transcriptional pathways. PMID:16542149

  18. Finger-vein and fingerprint recognition based on a feature-level fusion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinfeng; Hong, Bofeng

    2013-07-01

    Multimodal biometrics based on the finger identification is a hot topic in recent years. In this paper, a novel fingerprint-vein based biometric method is proposed to improve the reliability and accuracy of the finger recognition system. First, the second order steerable filters are used here to enhance and extract the minutiae features of the fingerprint (FP) and finger-vein (FV). Second, the texture features of fingerprint and finger-vein are extracted by a bank of Gabor filter. Third, a new triangle-region fusion method is proposed to integrate all the fingerprint and finger-vein features in feature-level. Thus, the fusion features contain both the finger texture-information and the minutiae triangular geometry structure. Finally, experimental results performed on the self-constructed finger-vein and fingerprint databases are shown that the proposed method is reliable and precise in personal identification.

  19. Development of a finger biomechanical model and its considerations.

    PubMed

    Fok, Kim Seng; Chou, Siaw Meng

    2010-03-01

    The development of a biomechanical model for a human finger is faced with many challenges, such as extensor mechanism complexity, statistical indeterminacy and suitability of computational processes. Motivation for this work was to develop a computer model that is able to predict the internal loading patterns of tendons and joint surfaces experienced by the human finger, while mitigating these challenges. Proposed methodology was based on a non-linear optimising mathematical technique with a criterion of boundary conditions and equality equations, maximised against unknown parameters to reduce statistical indeterminacy. Initial validation was performed via the simulation of one dynamic and two static postures case studies. Past models and experiments were used, based on published literature, to verify the proposed model's methodology and results. The feasibility of the proposed methodology was deemed satisfactory as the simulated results were concordant with in-vivo results for the extrinsic flexors. PMID:19962148

  20. Automatic finger joint synovitis localization in ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurzynska, Karolina; Smolka, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    A long-lasting inflammation of joints results between others in many arthritis diseases. When not cured, it may influence other organs and general patients' health. Therefore, early detection and running proper medical treatment are of big value. The patients' organs are scanned with high frequency acoustic waves, which enable visualization of interior body structures through an ultrasound sonography (USG) image. However, the procedure is standardized, different projections result in a variety of possible data, which should be analyzed in short period of time by a physician, who is using medical atlases as a guidance. This work introduces an efficient framework based on statistical approach to the finger joint USG image, which enables automatic localization of skin and bone regions, which are then used for localization of the finger joint synovitis area. The processing pipeline realizes the task in real-time and proves high accuracy when compared to annotation prepared by the expert.

  1. Hamiltonian formulation towards minimization of viscous fluid fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Carlos; Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, José A.

    2016-07-01

    A variational approach has been recently employed to determine the ideal time-dependent injection rate Q (t ) that minimizes fingering formation when a fluid is injected in a Hele-Shaw cell filled with another fluid of much greater viscosity. However, such a calculation is approximate in nature, since it has been performed by assuming a high capillary number regime. In this work, we go one step further, and utilize a Hamiltonian formulation to obtain an analytical exact solution for Q (t ) , now valid for arbitrary values of the capillary number. Moreover, this Hamiltonian scheme is applied to calculate the corresponding injection rate that minimizes fingering formation in a uniform three-dimensional porous media. An analysis of the improvement offered by these exact injection rate expressions in comparison with previous approximate results is also provided.

  2. Hamiltonian formulation towards minimization of viscous fluid fingering.

    PubMed

    Batista, Carlos; Dias, Eduardo O; Miranda, José A

    2016-07-01

    A variational approach has been recently employed to determine the ideal time-dependent injection rate Q(t) that minimizes fingering formation when a fluid is injected in a Hele-Shaw cell filled with another fluid of much greater viscosity. However, such a calculation is approximate in nature, since it has been performed by assuming a high capillary number regime. In this work, we go one step further, and utilize a Hamiltonian formulation to obtain an analytical exact solution for Q(t), now valid for arbitrary values of the capillary number. Moreover, this Hamiltonian scheme is applied to calculate the corresponding injection rate that minimizes fingering formation in a uniform three-dimensional porous media. An analysis of the improvement offered by these exact injection rate expressions in comparison with previous approximate results is also provided. PMID:27575219

  3. Novel titanium-aluminum joints for cryogenic cold finger structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, H. M.; Sweet, R. C.

    For optimum performance, the sensors employed in airborne detection and surveillance systems must be maintained at low temperatures. The containing wall of the expansion volume of a Stirling cycle cooler may provide the low temperature surface for mounting the sensors. IR detectors are commonly mounted on copper heat exchanger surfaces. A stainless steel member is employed to thermally isolate and structurally stabilize such surfaces. It is pointed out that the use of an aluminum-titanium cold finger results in a considerable weight reduction. The present investigation is concerned with an attempt to obtain such structures with the aid of a technique involving the casting of molten aluminum onto an appropriately dimensioned and positioned titanium member, taking into account the fact that aluminum readily wets and bonds to clean titanium surfaces. The casting is then machined to provide the form and structure desired. It is concluded that aluminum-titanium cast structures offer good potential for use as cryogenic cold finger assemblies.

  4. Emerging roles of zinc finger proteins in regulating adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zhang, Lifan; Zhou, Xiang; Du, Min; Jiang, Zhihua; Hausman, Gary J.; Bergen, Werner G.; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins containing the zinc finger domain(s) are named zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), which are one of the largest classes of transcription factors in eukaryotic genomes. A large number of ZFPs have been studied and many of them were found to be involved regulating normal growth and development of cells and tissues through diverse signal transduction pathways. Recent studies revealed that a small but increasing number of ZFPs could function as key transcriptional regulators involved in adipogenesis. As the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders, the investigation of molecular regulatory mechanisms of adipocyte development must be more completely understood to develop novel and long term impact strategies for ameliorating obesity. In this review, we discuss recent work which has documented that ZFPs are important functional contributors to the regulation of adipogenesis. Taken altogether these data lead to the conclusion that ZFPs may become promising targets to combat human obesity. PMID:23760207

  5. Controlling and minimizing fingering instabilities in non-Newtonian fluids.

    PubMed

    Fontana, João V; Dias, Eduardo O; Miranda, José A

    2014-01-01

    The development of the viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells has great practical and scientific importance. Recently, researchers have proposed different strategies to control the number of interfacial fingering structures, or to minimize as much as possible the amplitude of interfacial disturbances. Most existing studies address the situation in which an inviscid fluid displaces a viscous Newtonian fluid. In this work, we report on controlling and minimizing protocols considering the situation in which the displaced fluid is a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid. The necessary changes on the controlling schemes due to the shear-thinning and shear thickening nature of the displaced fluid are calculated analytically and discussed. PMID:24580329

  6. New Optical Methods for Liveness Detection on Fingers

    PubMed Central

    Dolezel, Michal; Vana, Jan; Brezinova, Eva; Yim, Jaegeol; Shim, Kyubark

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to new optical methods, which are supposed to be used for liveness detection on fingers. First we describe the basics about fake finger use in fingerprint recognition process and the possibilities of liveness detection. Then we continue with introducing three new liveness detection methods, which we developed and tested in the scope of our research activities—the first one is based on measurement of the pulse, the second one on variations of optical characteristics caused by pressure change, and the last one is based on reaction of skin to illumination with different wavelengths. The last part deals with the influence of skin diseases on fingerprint recognition, especially on liveness detection. PMID:24151584

  7. Finger tips detection for two handed gesture recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, M. K.; Kar, Mithun Kumar; Neog, Debanga Raj

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed for fingertips detection in view of two-handed static hand pose recognition. In our method, finger tips of both hands are detected after detecting hand regions by skin color-based segmentation. At first, the face is removed in the image by using Haar classifier and subsequently, the regions corresponding to the gesturing hands are isolated by a region labeling technique. Next, the key geometric features characterizing gesturing hands are extracted for two hands. Finally, for all possible/allowable finger movements, a probabilistic model is developed for pose recognition. Proposed method can be employed in a variety of applications like sign language recognition and human-robot-interactions etc.

  8. [Congenital Fibrosarcoma of the Left Index Finger - An Unusual Case].

    PubMed

    Mailänder, L; Piza-Katzer, H

    2016-02-01

    Congenital fibrosarcoma is a rare mesenchymal soft tissue tumour, which most commonly develops in the peripheral extremities during infancy. Diagnostic work-up is a challenge for clinicians and pathologists alike, because in many cases the lesion initially resembles a haemangioma on macroscopic inspection. A 4-month-old boy presented with a strongly vascularised tumour of the left index finger, which had been diagnosed as a capillary haemangioma by means of a biopsy performed in another facility. The lesion had been treated with systemic and intralesional cortisone injections. Due to ulceration and the risk of infection, the tumour mass was resected with the index finger being preserved. The histological appearance was inconclusive. PCR revealed a congenital fibrosarcoma. 2 years after surgery, the boy is free from recurrence. PMID:26895521

  9. When pliers become fingers in the monkey motor system

    PubMed Central

    Umiltà, M. A.; Escola, L.; Intskirveli, I.; Grammont, F.; Rochat, M.; Caruana, F.; Jezzini, A.; Gallese, V.; Rizzolatti, G.

    2008-01-01

    The capacity to use tools is a fundamental evolutionary achievement. Its essence stands in the capacity to transfer a proximal goal (grasp a tool) to a distal goal (e.g., grasp food). Where and how does this goal transfer occur? Here, we show that, in monkeys trained to use tools, cortical motor neurons, active during hand grasping, also become active during grasping with pliers, as if the pliers were now the hand fingers. This motor embodiment occurs both for normal pliers and for “reverse pliers,” an implement that requires finger opening, instead of their closing, to grasp an object. We conclude that the capacity to use tools is based on an inherently goal-centered functional organization of primate cortical motor areas. PMID:18238904

  10. Computer-based automatic finger- and speech-tracking system.

    PubMed

    Breidegard, Björn

    2007-11-01

    This article presents the first technology ever for online registration and interactive and automatic analysis of finger movements during tactile reading (Braille and tactile pictures). Interactive software has been developed for registration (with two cameras and a microphone), MPEG-2 video compression and storage on disk or DVD as well as an interactive analysis program to aid human analysis. An automatic finger-tracking system has been implemented which also semiautomatically tracks the reading aloud speech on the syllable level. This set of tools opens the way for large scale studies of blind people reading Braille or tactile images. It has been tested in a pilot project involving congenitally blind subjects reading texts and pictures. PMID:18183897

  11. The N-terminal zinc finger domain of Tgf2 transposase contributes to DNA binding and to transposition activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia-Yun; Hou, Fei; Shen, Xiao-Dan; Du, Xue-Di; Xu, Hai-Li; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Active Hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposable elements are rarely found in vertebrates. Previously, goldfish Tgf2 was found to be an autonomously active vertebrate transposon that is efficient at gene-transfer in teleost fish. However, little is known about Tgf2 functional domains required for transposition. To explore this, we first predicted in silico a zinc finger domain in the N-terminus of full length Tgf2 transposase (L-Tgf2TPase). Two truncated recombinant Tgf2 transposases with deletions in the N-terminal zinc finger domain, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPase, were expressed in bacteria from goldfish cDNAs. Both truncated Tgf2TPases lost their DNA-binding ability in vitro, specifically at the ends of Tgf2 transposon than native L-Tgf2TPase. Consequently, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPases mediated gene transfer in the zebrafish genome in vivo at a significantly (p < 0.01) lower efficiency (21%-25%), in comparison with L-Tgf2TPase (56% efficiency). Compared to L-Tgf2TPase, truncated Tgf2TPases catalyzed imprecise excisions with partial deletion of TE ends and/or plasmid backbone insertion/deletion. The gene integration into the zebrafish genome mediated by truncated Tgf2TPases was imperfect, creating incomplete 8-bp target site duplications at the insertion sites. These results indicate that the zinc finger domain in Tgf2 transposase is involved in binding to Tgf2 terminal sequences, and loss of those domains has effects on TE transposition. PMID:27251101

  12. The N-terminal zinc finger domain of Tgf2 transposase contributes to DNA binding and to transposition activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia-Yun; Hou, Fei; Shen, Xiao-Dan; Du, Xue-Di; Xu, Hai-Li; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Active Hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposable elements are rarely found in vertebrates. Previously, goldfish Tgf2 was found to be an autonomously active vertebrate transposon that is efficient at gene-transfer in teleost fish. However, little is known about Tgf2 functional domains required for transposition. To explore this, we first predicted in silico a zinc finger domain in the N-terminus of full length Tgf2 transposase (L-Tgf2TPase). Two truncated recombinant Tgf2 transposases with deletions in the N-terminal zinc finger domain, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPase, were expressed in bacteria from goldfish cDNAs. Both truncated Tgf2TPases lost their DNA-binding ability in vitro, specifically at the ends of Tgf2 transposon than native L-Tgf2TPase. Consequently, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPases mediated gene transfer in the zebrafish genome in vivo at a significantly (p < 0.01) lower efficiency (21%–25%), in comparison with L-Tgf2TPase (56% efficiency). Compared to L-Tgf2TPase, truncated Tgf2TPases catalyzed imprecise excisions with partial deletion of TE ends and/or plasmid backbone insertion/deletion. The gene integration into the zebrafish genome mediated by truncated Tgf2TPases was imperfect, creating incomplete 8-bp target site duplications at the insertion sites. These results indicate that the zinc finger domain in Tgf2 transposase is involved in binding to Tgf2 terminal sequences, and loss of those domains has effects on TE transposition. PMID:27251101

  13. Connective tissue adaptations in the fingers of performance sport climbers.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Tonja; Allenspach, Philippe; Seifert, Burkhardt; Schweizer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the changes of the connective tissue in the fingers of performance sport climbers resulting after a minimum of 15 years of climbing. Evaluation was performed by ultrasonography on the palmar side of the fingers (Dig) II-V to measure the thickness of the A2 and A4 annular pulleys, the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and profundus (FDP) tendons and the palmar plates (PP's) of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) as well as distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint in sagittal and axial direction. Totally, 31 experienced male sport climbers (mean age 37y, 30-48y grade French scale median 8b, range 7b+ to 9a+) participated in the study. The control-group consisted of 20 male non-climbers (age 37y, 30-51y). The A2 and A4 pulleys in climbers were all significantly thicker (A2 Dig III 62%, Dig IV 69%; A4 Dig III 69%, Dig IV 76%) as compared to non-climbers pulleys. All PP's of the DIP joints were also significantly thicker, particularly at Dig III and IV (76 and 67%), whereas the PP's at PIP joints were only scarce significant for three joints. Differences of the diameter of the flexor tendons were less distinct (1-21%) being significant only over the middle phalanx. High load to the fingers of rock climbers after a minimum of 15 years of climbing years induced considerable connective tissue adaptions in the fingers, most distinct at the flexor tendon pulleys and joint capsule (PP) of the DIP joints and well detectable by ultrasound. PMID:26267120

  14. Mechanism of Hot Finger Formation in Mantle Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, M. Y.; Tamura, Y.; Sakaguchi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Processes of mantle melting and volcanic eruptions along subduction zones are often illustrated by the use of two-dimensional cross-section models of convergent margins. However, Quaternary volcanoes in the NE Japan arc could be grouped into ten volcano clusters striking transverse to the arc; these have an average width of ~ 50 km, and are separated by parallel gaps 30-75 km wide (Tamura et al., 2002). Moreover, the structure of the mantle wedge and arc crust beneath the NE Japan arc and the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, respectively, suggest that the third dimension, lying along the strike of the arc, is necessary to understand the actual production of magmas in subduction zones (e.g., Nakajima et al., 2001; Hasegawa & Nakajima, 2004; Kodaira et al., 2007; Kodaira et al., 2008). Common periodic structural variations, having wavelengths of 80-100 km, can be observed in both areas. This grouping of volcanoes and the structural variations may be related to locally developed hot regions within the mantle wedge that have the form of inclined, 50 km-wide fingers (hot fingers). The 'hot fingers' models (Tamura et al., 2002) may play an important role in linking the 3D structures within the mantle wedge and overlying arc crust to volcanic eruptions at the surface. To explore a physical and mathematical mechanism to produce a hot finger pattern, we develop a hydrodynamic model of mantle convection in mantle wedge. A hypothesis incorporated in our model is a double diffusive mechanism of mantle materials; diffusion of composition of mantle materials is much weaker than temperature diffusion. We show that our model shows a spatiotemporal pattern in a mantle material composition, temperature, and velocity that are similar to the spatiotemporal patterns observed in the NE Japan arc.

  15. The EpiPen and the ischaemic finger.

    PubMed

    Singh, Talvinder; Randhawa, Susheelwant; Khanna, Rakesh

    2007-08-01

    We present a case of a 24-year-old with a history of accidental injection of adrenaline from an EpiPen into the proximal aspect of her left index finger. Various methods were advocated to treat digital ischaemia but were of no benefit. Topical infiltration of phentolamine in 1 ml of lignocaine 2% was given at the puncture site with immediate results of resolution of digital ischaemia. PMID:17620915

  16. Fingering in a driven hele-shaw cell

    PubMed

    Rauseo

    2000-12-01

    A modified Hele-Shaw cell in which the plate gap can be modulated in time was constructed. Highly nonlinear fingers on the interface between air and water in the cell were observed as the plate gap was driven at a variety of frequencies, but typically near 60 Hz. Modified equations to describe the flow in a periodically driven cell were derived and the linear stability analysis of waves on a circular fluid-fluid interface was performed. PMID:11138089

  17. Numerical simulation of immiscible viscous fingering using adaptive unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, A.; Salinas, P.; Percival, J. R.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Displacement of one fluid by another in porous media occurs in various settings including hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 storage and water purification. When the invading fluid is of lower viscosity than the resident fluid, the displacement front is subject to a Saffman-Taylor instability and is unstable to transverse perturbations. These instabilities can grow, leading to fingering of the invading fluid. Numerical simulation of viscous fingering is challenging. The physics is controlled by a complex interplay of viscous and diffusive forces and it is necessary to ensure physical diffusion dominates numerical diffusion to obtain converged solutions. This typically requires the use of high mesh resolution and high order numerical methods. This is computationally expensive. We demonstrate here the use of a novel control volume - finite element (CVFE) method along with dynamic unstructured mesh adaptivity to simulate viscous fingering with higher accuracy and lower computational cost than conventional methods. Our CVFE method employs a discontinuous representation for both pressure and velocity, allowing the use of smaller control volumes (CVs). This yields higher resolution of the saturation field which is represented CV-wise. Moreover, dynamic mesh adaptivity allows high mesh resolution to be employed where it is required to resolve the fingers and lower resolution elsewhere. We use our results to re-examine the existing criteria that have been proposed to govern the onset of instability.Mesh adaptivity requires the mapping of data from one mesh to another. Conventional methods such as consistent interpolation do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields and are non-conservative. We further contribute a general framework for interpolation of CV fields by Galerkin projection. The method is conservative, higher order and yields improved results, particularly with higher order or discontinuous elements where existing approaches are often excessively diffusive.

  18. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  19. Which Fingers Should We Perform Two-Finger Chest Compression Technique with When Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on an Infant in Cardiac Arrest?

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Sinn; Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Dong Hoon; Hong, Jun Young

    2016-06-01

    This study compared the effectiveness two-finger chest compression technique (TFCC) performed using the right vs. left hand and the index-middle vs. middle-ring fingers. Four different finger/hand combinations were tested randomly in 30 healthcare providers performing TFCC (Test 1: the right index-middle fingers; Test 2: the left index-middle fingers; Test 3: the right middle-ring fingers; Test 4: the left middle-ring fingers) using two cross-over trials. The "patient" was a 3-month-old-infant-sized manikin. Each experiment consisted of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) consisting of 2 minutes of 30:2 compression: ventilation performed by one rescuer on a manikin lying on the floor as if in cardiac arrest. Ventilations were performed using the mouth-to-mouth method. Compression and ventilation data were collected during the tests. The mean compression depth (MCD) was significantly greater in TFCC performed with the index-middle fingers than with the middle-ring fingers regardless of the hand (95% confidence intervals; right hand: 37.8-40.2 vs. 35.2-38.6 mm, P = 0.002; left hand: 36.9-39.2 vs. 35.5-38.1 mm, P = 0.003). A deeper MCD was achieved with the index-middle fingers of the right versus the left hand (P = 0.004). The ratio of sufficiently deep compressions showed the same patterns. There were no significant differences in the other data. The best performance of TFCC in simulated 30:2 compression: ventilation CPR performed by one rescuer on an infant in cardiac arrest lying on the floor was obtained using the index-middle fingers of the right hand. Clinical Trial Registry at the Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001515). PMID:27247512

  20. Which Fingers Should We Perform Two-Finger Chest Compression Technique with When Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on an Infant in Cardiac Arrest?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness two-finger chest compression technique (TFCC) performed using the right vs. left hand and the index-middle vs. middle-ring fingers. Four different finger/hand combinations were tested randomly in 30 healthcare providers performing TFCC (Test 1: the right index-middle fingers; Test 2: the left index-middle fingers; Test 3: the right middle-ring fingers; Test 4: the left middle-ring fingers) using two cross-over trials. The “patient” was a 3-month-old-infant-sized manikin. Each experiment consisted of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) consisting of 2 minutes of 30:2 compression: ventilation performed by one rescuer on a manikin lying on the floor as if in cardiac arrest. Ventilations were performed using the mouth-to-mouth method. Compression and ventilation data were collected during the tests. The mean compression depth (MCD) was significantly greater in TFCC performed with the index-middle fingers than with the middle-ring fingers regardless of the hand (95% confidence intervals; right hand: 37.8–40.2 vs. 35.2–38.6 mm, P = 0.002; left hand: 36.9–39.2 vs. 35.5–38.1 mm, P = 0.003). A deeper MCD was achieved with the index-middle fingers of the right versus the left hand (P = 0.004). The ratio of sufficiently deep compressions showed the same patterns. There were no significant differences in the other data. The best performance of TFCC in simulated 30:2 compression: ventilation CPR performed by one rescuer on an infant in cardiac arrest lying on the floor was obtained using the index-middle fingers of the right hand. Clinical Trial Registry at the Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001515). PMID:27247512