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Sample records for finite density qcd

  1. LATTICE QCD AT FINITE DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMIDT, C.

    2006-07-23

    I discuss different approaches to finite density lattice QCD. In particular, I focus on the structure of the phase diagram and discuss attempts to determine the location of the critical end-point. Recent results on the transition line as function of the chemical potential (T{sub c}({mu}{sub q})) are reviewed. Along the transition line, hadronic fluctuations have been calculated; which can be used to characterize properties of the Quark Gluon plasma and eventually can also help to identify the location of the critical end-point in the QCD phase diagram on the lattice and in heavy ion experiments. Furthermore, I comment on the structure of the phase diagram at large {mu}{sub q}.

  2. LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUM,T.; CREUTZ,M.; PETRECZKY,P.

    2004-02-24

    With the operation of the RHIC heavy ion program, the theoretical understanding of QCD at finite temperature and density has become increasingly important. Though QCD at finite temperature has been extensively studied using lattice Monte-Carlo simulations over the past twenty years, most physical questions relevant for RHIC (and future) heavy ion experiments remain open. In lattice QCD at finite temperature and density there have been at least two major advances in recent years. First, for the first time calculations of real time quantities, like meson spectral functions have become available. Second, the lattice study of the QCD phase diagram and equation of state have been extended to finite baryon density by several groups. Both issues were extensively discussed in the course of the workshop. A real highlight was the study of the QCD phase diagram in (T, {mu})-plane by Z. Fodor and S. Katz and the determination of the critical end-point for the physical value of the pion mass. This was the first time such lattice calculations at, the physical pion mass have been performed. Results by Z Fodor and S. Katz were obtained using a multi-parameter re-weighting method. Other determinations of the critical end point were also presented, in particular using a Taylor expansion around {mu} = 0 (Bielefeld group, Ejiri et al.) and using analytic continuation from imaginary chemical potential (Ph. de Forcrand and O. Philipsen). The result based on Taylor expansion agrees within errors with the new prediction of Z. Fodor and S. Katz, while methods based on analytic continuation still predict a higher value for the critical baryon density. Most of the thermodynamics studies in full QCD (including those presented at this workshop) have been performed using quite coarse lattices, a = 0.2-0.3 fm. Therefore one may worry about cutoff effects in different thermodynamic quantities, like the transition temperature T{sub tr}. At the workshop U. Heller presented a study of the transition

  3. Dynamical instability of holographic QCD at finite density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Wu-Yen; Dai, Shou-Huang; Kawamoto, Shoichi; Lin, Feng-Li; Yeh, Chen-Pin

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we study the dynamical instability of Sakai-Sugimoto’s holographic QCD model at finite baryon density. In this model, the baryon density, represented by the smeared instanton on the world volume of the probe D8-D8¯ mesonic brane, sources the world-volume electric field, and through the Chern-Simons term it will induce the instability to form a chiral helical wave at sufficient high density. Our results show that this kind of instability occurs for sufficiently high baryon number densities. The phase diagram of holographic QCD will thus be changed from the one which is based only on thermodynamics.

  4. Dynamical instability of holographic QCD at finite density

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Wu-Yen; Dai, Shou-Huang; Kawamoto, Shoichi; Lin, Feng-Li; Yeh, Chen-Pin

    2011-05-15

    In this paper we study the dynamical instability of Sakai-Sugimoto's holographic QCD model at finite baryon density. In this model, the baryon density, represented by the smeared instanton on the world volume of the probe D8-D8 mesonic brane, sources the world-volume electric field, and through the Chern-Simons term it will induce the instability to form a chiral helical wave at sufficient high density. Our results show that this kind of instability occurs for sufficiently high baryon number densities. The phase diagram of holographic QCD will thus be changed from the one which is based only on thermodynamics.

  5. Phase transition in finite density and temperature lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Ying; Gong, Ming; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Liu, Zhao-Feng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Bo

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the behavior of the chiral condensate in lattice QCD at finite temperature and finite chemical potential. The study was done using two flavors of light quarks and with a series of β and ma at the lattice size 24 × 122 × 6. The calculation was done in the Taylor expansion formalism. We are able to calculate the first and second order derivatives of ≤ft< {\\bar{\\psi} \\psi } \\right> in both isoscalar and isovector channels. With the first derivatives being small, we find that the second derivatives are sizable close to the phase transition and that the magnitude of \\bar{\\psi} \\psi decreases under the influence of finite chemical potential in both channels. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335001, 11105153, 11405178), Projects of International Cooperation and Exchanges NSFC (11261130311)

  6. Simple QED- and QCD-like models at finite density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, Jan M.; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu; Zielinski, Christian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we discuss one-dimensional models reproducing some features of quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics at nonzero density and temperature. Since a severe sign problem makes a numerical treatment of QED and QCD at high density difficult, such models help to explore various effects peculiar to the full theory. Studying them gives insights into the large density behavior of the Polyakov loop by taking both bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom into account, although in one dimension only the implementation of a global gauge symmetry is possible. For these models we evaluate the respective partition functions and discuss several observables as well as the Silver Blaze phenomenon.

  7. Complex spectrum of finite-density lattice QCD with static quarks at strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Hiromichi; Ogilvie, Michael C.; Pangeni, Kamal

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the spectrum of transfer matrix eigenvalues associated with Polyakov loops in finite-density lattice QCD with static quarks. These eigenvalues determine the spatial behavior of Polyakov loop correlation functions. Our results are valid for all values of the gauge coupling in 1 +1 dimensions and in the strong-coupling region for any number of dimensions. When the quark chemical potential μ is nonzero, the spatial transfer matrix Ts is non-Hermitian. The appearance of complex eigenvalues in Ts is a manifestation of the sign problem in finite-density QCD. The invariance of finite-density QCD under the combined action of charge conjugation C and complex conjugation K implies that the eigenvalues of Ts are either real or part of a complex pair. Calculation of the spectrum confirms the existence of complex pairs in much of the temperature-chemical potential plane. Many features of the spectrum for static quarks are determined by a particle-hole symmetry. For μ that is small compared to the quark mass M , we typically find real eigenvalues for the lowest-lying states. At somewhat larger values of μ , pairs of eigenvalues may form complex-conjugate pairs, leading to damped oscillatory behavior in Polyakov loop correlation functions. However, near μ =M , the low-lying spectrum becomes real again. This is a direct consequence of the approximate particle-hole symmetry at μ =M for heavy quarks. This behavior of the eigenvalues should be observable in lattice simulations and can be used as a test of lattice algorithms. Our results provide independent confirmation of results we have previously obtained in Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using complex saddle points.

  8. Lattice QCD at finite temperature and density in the phase-quenched approximation.

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, J. B.; Sinclair, D. K.; High Energy Physics; Univ Maryland

    2008-06-01

    QCD at a finite quark-number chemical potential {mu} has a complex fermion determinant, which precludes its study by standard lattice QCD simulations. We therefore simulate lattice QCD at finite {mu} in the phase-quenched approximation, replacing the fermion determinant with its magnitude. (The phase-quenched approximation can be considered as simulating at finite isospin chemical potential 2{mu} for N{sub f}/2 u-type and N{sub F}/2 d-type quark flavors.) These simulations are used to study the finite-temperature transition for small {mu}, where there is some evidence that the position (and possibly the nature) of this transition is unchanged by this approximation. We look for the expected critical endpoint for 3-flavor QCD. Here, it has been argued that the critical point at zero {mu} would become the critical endpoint at small {mu}, for quark masses just above the critical mass. Our simulations indicate that this does not happen, and there is no such critical endpoint for small {mu}. We discuss how we might adapt techniques used for imaginary {mu} to improve the signal/noise ratio and strengthen our conclusions, using results from relatively low statistics studies.

  9. Lattice QCD at finite temperature and density in the phase-quenched approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, J. B.; Sinclair, D. K.

    2008-06-01

    QCD at a finite quark-number chemical potential {mu} has a complex fermion determinant, which precludes its study by standard lattice QCD simulations. We therefore simulate lattice QCD at finite {mu} in the phase-quenched approximation, replacing the fermion determinant with its magnitude. (The phase-quenched approximation can be considered as simulating at finite isospin chemical potential 2{mu} for N{sub f}/2 u-type and N{sub f}/2 d-type quark flavors.) These simulations are used to study the finite-temperature transition for small {mu}, where there is some evidence that the position (and possibly the nature) of this transition is unchanged by this approximation. We look for the expected critical endpoint for 3-flavor QCD. Here, it has been argued that the critical point at zero {mu} would become the critical endpoint at small {mu}, for quark masses just above the critical mass. Our simulations indicate that this does not happen, and there is no such critical endpoint for small {mu}. We discuss how we might adapt techniques used for imaginary {mu} to improve the signal/noise ratio and strengthen our conclusions, using results from relatively low statistics studies.

  10. Vacuum Energy, EoS, and the Gluon Condensate at Finite Baryon Density in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2007-02-27

    The Equation of States (EoS) plays the crucial role in all studies of neutron star properties. Still, a microscopical understanding of EoS remains largely an unresolved problem. We use 2-color QCD as a model to study the dependence of vacuum energy (gluon condensate in QCD) as function of chemical potential {mu} << {lambda}QCD where we find very strong and unexpected dependence on {mu}. We present the arguments suggesting that similar behavior may occur in 3-color QCD in the color superconducting phases. Such a study may be of importance for analysis of EoS when phenomenologically relevant parameters (within such models as MIT Bag model or NJL model) are fixed at zero density while the region of study lies at much higher densities not available for terrestrial tests.

  11. A holographic model for QCD in the Veneziano limit at finite temperature and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alho, T.; Järvinen, M.; Kajantie, K.; Kiritsis, E.; Rosen, C.; Tuominen, K.

    2014-04-01

    A holographic model of QCD in the limit of large number of colors, N c , and massless fermion flavors, N f , but constant ratio x f = N f /N c is analyzed at finite temperature and chemical potential. The five dimensional gravity model contains three bulk fields: a scalar dilaton sourcing Tr F 2, a scalar tachyon dual to and a 4-vector dual to the baryon current γ μ q. The main result is the μ, T phase diagram of the holographic theory. A first order deconfining transition along T h ( μ) and a chiral transition at T χ ( μ) > T h ( μ) are found. The chiral transition is of second order for small μ and becomes of first order at larger μ. The two regimes are separated by a tricritical point. The dependence of thermodynamical quantities including the speed of sound and susceptibilities on the chemical potential and temperature is computed. A new quantum critical regime is found at zero temperature and finite chemical potential. It is controlled by an AdS2 × R 3 geometry and displays semi-local criticality.

  12. RECENT LATTICE RESULTS ON FINITE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY QCD, PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    KARSCH,F.

    2007-07-09

    We discuss recent progress in studies of QCD thermodynamics with almost physical light quark masses and a physical value of the strange quark mass. We summarize results on the transition temperature in QCD and analyze the relation between deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration.

  13. Mass modification of /D-meson at finite density in QCD sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashigaki1, A.

    2000-08-01

    We evaluate the mass shift of isospin-averaged /D-meson in the nuclear medium. Borel-transformed QCD sum rules are used to describe an interaction between the /D-meson and a nucleon by taking into account all the lowest dimension-4 operators in the operator product expansion (OPE). We find at normal matter density the /D-meson mass shift is about /10 times (/~50 MeV) larger than that of /J/ψ. This originates from the fact that the dominant contribution in the OPE for the /D-meson is the nucleon matrix element of mcq¯q, where mc is the charm-quark mass and /q denotes light quarks. We also discuss that the mass shift of the /D-meson in nuclear matter may cause the level crossings of the charmonium states and the /DD¯ threshold. This suggests an additional mechanism of the /J/ψ suppression in high energy heavy-ion collisions.

  14. RECENT LATTICE RESULTS ON FINITE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY QCD, PART 1.

    SciTech Connect

    KARSCH,F.

    2007-07-09

    We discuss recent progress made studies of bulk thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter through lattice simulations of QCD with an almost physical light and strange quark mass spectrum. We present results on the QCD equation of state at vanishing and non-vanishing quark chemical potential and show first results on baryon number and strangeness fluctuations, which might be measured in event-by-event fluctuations in low energy runs at RHIC as well as at FAIR.

  15. Lattice QCD and High Baryon Density State

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nakamura, Atsushi; Motoki, Shinji; Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Takuya

    2011-10-21

    We report our recent studies on the finite density QCD obtained from lattice QCD simulation with clover-improved Wilson fermions of two flavor and RG-improved gauge action. We approach the subject from two paths, i.e., the imaginary and chemical potentials.

  16. Finite density phase transition of QCD with N{sub f}=4 and N{sub f}=2 using canonical ensemble method

    SciTech Connect

    Li Anyi; Alexandru, Andrei; Liu, Keh-Fei; Meng Xiangfei

    2010-09-01

    In a progress toward searching for the QCD critical point, we study the finite density phase transition of N{sub f}=4 and 2 lattice QCD at finite temperature with the canonical ensemble approach. We develop a winding number expansion method to accurately project out the particle number from the fermion determinant which greatly extends the applicable range of baryon number sectors to make the study feasible. Our lattice simulation was carried out with the clover fermions and improved gauge action. For a given temperature, we calculate the baryon-chemical potential from the canonical approach to look for the mixed phase as a signal for the first-order phase transition. In the case of N{sub f}=4, we observe an 'S-shape' structure in the chemical potential-density plane due to the surface tension of the mixed phase in a finite volume which is a signal for the first-order phase transition. We use the Maxwell construction to determine the phase boundaries for three temperatures below T{sub c}. The intersecting point of the two extrapolated boundaries turns out to be at the expected first-order transition point at T{sub c} with {mu}=0. This serves as a check for our method of identifying the critical point. We also studied the N{sub f}=2 case, but do not see a signal of the mixed phase for temperature as low as 0.83T{sub c}.

  17. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method — a test in Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a generalized Banks-Casher relation as we confirm explicitly.

  18. Two-color QCD at high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boz, Tamer; Giudice, Pietro; Hands, Simon; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Williams, Anthony G.

    2016-01-01

    QCD at high chemical potential has interesting properties such as deconfinement of quarks. Two-color QCD, which enables numerical simulations on the lattice, constitutes a laboratory to study QCD at high chemical potential. Among the interesting properties of two-color QCD at high density is the diquark condensation, for which we present recent results obtained on a finer lattice compared to previous studies. The quark propagator in two-color QCD at non-zero chemical potential is referred to as the Gor'kov propagator. We express the Gor'kov propagator in terms of form factors and present recent lattice simulation results.

  19. QCD THERMODYNAMICS AT ZERO AND NON-ZERO DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMIDT, C.

    2007-07-03

    We present recent results on thermodynamics of QCD with almost physical light quark masses and a physical strange quark mass value. These calculations have been performed with an improved staggered action especially designed for finite temperature lattice QCD. In detail we present a calculation of the transition temperature, using a combined chiral and continuum extrapolation. Furthermore we present preliminary results on the interaction measure and energy density at almost realistic quark masses. Finally we discuss the response of the pressure to a finite quark chemical potential. Within the Taylor expansion formalism we calculate quark number susceptibilities and leading order corrections to finite chemical potential. This is particularly useful for mapping out the critical region in the QCD phase diagram.

  20. QCD nature of dark energy at finite temperature: Cosmological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, K.; Katırcı, N.

    2016-05-01

    The Veneziano ghost field has been proposed as an alternative source of dark energy, whose energy density is consistent with the cosmological observations. In this model, the energy density of the QCD ghost field is expressed in terms of QCD degrees of freedom at zero temperature. We extend this model to finite temperature to search the model predictions from late time to early universe. We depict the variations of QCD parameters entering the calculations, dark energy density, equation of state, Hubble and deceleration parameters on temperature from zero to a critical temperature. We compare our results with the observations and theoretical predictions existing at different eras. It is found that this model safely defines the universe from quark condensation up to now and its predictions are not in tension with those of the standard cosmology. The EoS parameter of dark energy is dynamical and evolves from -1/3 in the presence of radiation to -1 at late time. The finite temperature ghost dark energy predictions on the Hubble parameter well fit to those of Λ CDM and observations at late time.

  1. Recent progress in lattice QCD at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Petreczky,P.

    2009-02-01

    I review recent progress in finite temperature lattice calculations,including the study of the nature of the deconfinement transition in QCD, equation of state, screening of static quarks and meson spectral functions.

  2. Two-flavor lattice QCD with a finite density of heavy quarks: heavy-dense limit and "particle-hole" symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of the half-filling point in lattice QCD (LQCD), in particular the disappearance of the sign problem and the emergence of an apparent particle-hole symmetry, and try to understand where these properties come from by studying the heavy-dense fermion determinant and the corresponding strong-coupling partition function (which can be integrated analytically). We then add in a first step an effective Polyakov loop gauge action (which reproduces the leading terms in the character expansion of the Wilson gauge action) to the heavy-dense partition function and try to analyze how some of the properties of the half-filling point change when leaving the strong coupling limit. In a second step, we take also the leading nearest-neighbor fermion hopping terms into account (including gauge interactions in the fundamental representation) and mention how the method could be improved further to incorporate the full set of nearest-neighbor fermion hoppings. Using our mean-field method, we also obtain an approximate ( μ, T) phase diagram for heavy-dense LQCD at finite inverse gauge coupling β. Finally, we propose a simple criterion to identify the chemical potential beyond which lattice artifacts become dominant.

  3. QCD AT HIGH PARTON DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    KOVCHEGOV,Y.V.

    2000-04-25

    The authors derive an equation determining the small-x evolution of the F{sub 2} structure function of a large nucleus which resumes a cascade of gluons in the leading logarithmic approximation using Mueller's color dipole model. In the traditional language it corresponds to resummation of the pomeron fan diagrams, originally conjectured in the GLR equation. The authors show that the solution of the equation describes the physics of structure functions at high partonic densities, thus allowing them to gain some understanding of the most interesting and challenging phenomena in small-x physics--saturation.

  4. Quark screening lengths in finite temperature QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gocksch, A. California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA . Inst. for Theoretical Physics)

    1990-11-01

    We have computed Landau gauge quark propagators in both the confined and deconfined phase of QCD. I discuss the magnitude of the resulting screening lengths as well as aspects of chiral symmetry relevant to the quark propagator. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. QCD Phase Diagram at Finite Baryon and Isospin Chemical Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yahiro, M.; Kouno, H.

    2011-10-21

    The phase structure of two-flavor QCD is explored for finite temperature T and finite baryon- and isospin-chemical potentials, {mu}{sub B} and {mu}{sub I}, by using the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. The PNJL model with the scalar-type eight-quark interaction can reproduce lattice QCD data in the {mu}{sub I}-T plane at {mu}{sub B} = 0. In the {mu}{sub I}-{mu}{sub B}-T space, the critical endpoint of the chiral phase transition in the {mu}{sub B}-T plane at {mu}{sub I} = 0 moves to the tricritical point of the pion-superfluidity phase transition in the {mu}{sub I}-T plane at {mu}{sub B} = 0 as {mu}{sub I} increases.

  6. Calculation of the equation of state of QCD at finite chemical and zero temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zong Hongshi; Sun Weimin

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we give a direct method for calculating the partition function, and hence the equation of state (EOS) of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite chemical potential and zero temperature. In the EOS derived in this paper the pressure density is the sum of two terms: the first term P({mu})|{sub {mu}}{sub =0} (the pressure density at {mu}=0) is a {mu}-independent constant; the second term, which is totally determined by G{sub R}[{mu}](p) (the renormalized dressed quark propagator at finite {mu}), contains all the nontrivial {mu}-dependence. By applying a general result in the rainbow-ladder approximation of the Dyson-Schwinger approach obtained in our previous study [Phys. Rev. C 71, 015205 (2005)], G{sub R}[{mu}](p) is calculated from the meromorphic quark propagator proposed in [Phys. Rev. D 70, 014014 (2004)]. From this the full analytic expression of the EOS of QCD at finite {mu} and zero T is obtained (apart from the constant term P({mu})|{sub {mu}}{sub =0} which can in principle be calculated from the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective action). A comparison between our EOS and the cold, perturbative EOS of QCD of Fraga, Pisarski, and Schaffner-Bielich is made. It is expected that our EOS can provide a possible new approach for the study of neutron stars.

  7. Stringy holography at finite density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goykhman, Mikhail; Parnachev, Andrei

    2013-09-01

    We consider an exactly solvable worldsheet string theory in the background of a black brane with a gauge field flux. Holographically, such a system can be interpreted as a field theory with finite number of degrees of freedom at finite temperature and density. This is to be contrasted with more conventional holographic models which involve gravity in the bulk and possess infinite number of degrees of freedom and mean field critical exponents. We construct closed string vertex operators which holographically represent the U(1) gauge field and the stress-energy tensor and compute their two-point functions. At finite temperature and vanishing charge density the low-energy excitations are described by hydrodynamics. As the density is raised, the system behaves like a sum of two non-interacting fluids. We find low-energy excitations in the shear and sound channels of each fluid. We thank A. Giveon for pointing out to us the role of this equation in the 2d charged black hole solution of type-II superstring theory.

  8. On aspects of holographic thermal QCD at finite coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Karunava; Misra, Aalok

    2016-09-01

    In the context of string theoretic dual of thermal QCD-like theories at finite gauge/string coupling of [1] (as part of the 'MQGP' limit of [2]), we obtain the QCD deconfinement temperature compatible with lattice results for the right number of light flavors Nf = 3, and the correct mass scale of the light (first generation) quarks. The type IIB background of [1] is also shown to be thermodynamically stable. Further, we show that the temperature dependence of DC electrical conductivity mimics a one-dimensional Luttinger liquid, and the requirement of the Einstein relation (ratio of electrical conductivity and charge susceptibility equal to the diffusion constant) to be satisfied requires a specific dependence of the Ouyang embedding parameter on the horizon radius. These results arise due to the non-Kählerity and non-conformality of the type IIB background. On the geometrical side we quantify the former (non-Kählerity) by evaluating the SU (3) /G2-structure torsion classes of the local type IIA mirror/M-theory uplift. Analogous to what was shown for the type IIB background in [5], we first show that the type IIA delocalized SYZ mirror (after fine tuning) can also be approximately supersymmetric. We then work out the G2-structure torsion classes of the local M-theory uplift of the mirror type IIA metric - in the large-N limit at finite coupling, G2 structure approaches G2 holonomy.

  9. Understanding QCD at high density from a Z3 -symmetric QCD-like theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouno, Hiroaki; Kashiwa, Kouji; Takahashi, Junichi; Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2016-03-01

    We investigate QCD at large μ /T by using Z3-symmetric S U (3 ) gauge theory, where μ is the quark-number chemical potential and T is temperature. We impose the flavor-dependent twist boundary condition on quarks in QCD. This QCD-like theory has the twist angle θ as a parameter, and agrees with QCD when θ =0 and becomes symmetric when θ =2 π /3 . For both QCD and the Z3-symmetric S U (3 ) gauge theory, the phase diagram is drawn in μ -T plane with the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In the Z3-symmetric S U (3 ) gauge theory, the Polyakov loop φ is zero in the confined phase appearing at T ≲200 MeV and μ ≲300 MeV . The perfectly confined phase never coexists with the color superconducting (CSC) phase, since finite diquark condensate in the CSC phase breaks Z3 symmetry and then makes φ finite. When μ ≳300 MeV , the CSC phase is more stable than the perfectly confined phase at T ≲100 MeV . Meanwhile, the chiral symmetry can be broken in the perfectly confined phase, since the chiral condensate is Z3 invariant. Consequently, the perfectly confined phase is divided into the perfectly confined phase without chiral symmetry restoration in a region of μ ≲300 MeV and T ≲200 MeV and the perfectly confined phase with chiral symmetry restoration in a region of μ ≳300 MeV and 100 ≲T ≲200 MeV . At low temperature, the basic phase structure of Z3-symmetric QCD-like theory remains in QCD. Properties of the sign problem in Z3-symmetric theory are also discussed. We discuss a numerical framework to evaluate observables at θ =0 from those at θ =2 π /3 .

  10. QCD phase diagram at finite baryon and isospin chemical potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Takahiro; Sakai, Yuji; Yahiro, Masanobu; Kouno, Hiroaki

    2010-12-01

    The phase structure of two-flavor QCD is explored for thermal systems with finite baryon- and isospin-chemical potentials, {mu}{sub B} and {mu}{sub iso}, by using the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. The PNJL model with the scalar-type eight-quark interaction can reproduce lattice QCD data at not only {mu}{sub iso}={mu}{sub B}=0, but also {mu}{sub iso}>0 and {mu}{sub B}=0. In the {mu}{sub iso}-{mu}{sub B}-T space, where T is temperature, the critical endpoint of the chiral phase transition in the {mu}{sub B}-T plane at {mu}{sub iso}=0 moves to the tricritical point of the pion-superfluidity phase transition in the {mu}{sub iso}-T plane at {mu}{sub B}=0 as {mu}{sub iso} increases. The thermodynamics at small T is controlled by {radical}({sigma}{sup 2}+{pi}{sup 2}) defined by the chiral and pion condensates, {sigma} and {pi}.

  11. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladrem, M.; Ahmed, M. A. A.; Alfull, Z. Z.; Cherif, S.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T0(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L_{mn}-method. The first six cumulants C_{1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ kurtosis κ , pentosis \\varPi _{± }, and hexosis {H}_{1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, ({O}={{σ }2 {κ } }{{Σ }^{-1} }, {U} ={{σ }^{-2} {Σ }^{-1} }, {N} = {σ }2 {κ }) are calculated and studied as functions of ( T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed. A numerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T0(V) agrees with that expected T0N(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ T( T,V) , according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2 %. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable.

  12. Global QCD Analysis of Polarized Parton Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, Marco

    2009-08-04

    We focus on some highlights of a recent, first global Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) analysis of the helicity parton distributions of the nucleon, mainly the evidence for a rather small gluon polarization over a limited region of momentum fraction and for interesting flavor patterns in the polarized sea. It is examined how the various sets of data obtained in inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and polarized proton-proton collisions help to constrain different aspects of the quark, antiquark, and gluon helicity distributions. Uncertainty estimates are performed using both the robust Lagrange multiplier technique and the standard Hessian approach.

  13. Transverse momentum dependent quark densities from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Musch, B. U.; Haegler, Ph.; Negele, J. W.; Schaefer, A.

    2011-10-24

    We study transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) with non-local operators in lattice QCD, using MILC/LHPC lattices. We discuss the basic concepts of the method, including renormalization of the gauge link. Results obtained with a simplified operator geometry show visible dipole deformations of spin-dependent quark momentum densities.

  14. Transverse momentum dependent quark densities from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Musch,Philipp Hagler,John Negele,Andreas Schafer

    2011-10-01

    We study transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) with non-local operators in lattice QCD, using MILC/LHPC lattices. We discuss the basic concepts of the method, including renormalization of the gauge link. Results obtained with a simplified operator geometry show visible dipole deformations of spin-dependent quark momentum densities.

  15. REMARKS ON THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD APPLIED TO FINITE TEMPERATURE LATTICE QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    UMEDA, T.; MATSUFURU, H.

    2005-07-25

    We make remarks on the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) for studies of the spectral function of hadronic correlators in finite temperature lattice QCD. We discuss the virtues and subtlety of MEM in the cases that one does not have enough number of data points such as at finite temperature. Taking these points into account, we suggest several tests which one should examine to keep the reliability for the results, and also apply them using mock and lattice QCD data.

  16. Numerical study of QCD phase diagram at high temperature and density by a histogram method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Shinji; Aoki, Sinya; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Hiroshi; Saito, Hana; Umeda, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    We study the QCD phase structure at high temperature and density adopting a histogram method. Because the quark determinant is complex at finite density, the Monte-Carlo method cannot be applied directly. We use a reweighting method and try to solve the problems which arise in the reweighting method, i.e. the sign problem and the overlap problem. We discuss the chemical potential dependence of the probability distribution function in the heavy quark mass region and examine the applicability of the approach in the light quark region.

  17. Chirally Symmetric but Confined Hadrons at Finite Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya. Glozman, L.; Wagenbrunn, R. F.

    At a critical finite chemical potential and low temperature QCD undergoes the chiral restoration phase transition. The folklore tradition is that simultaneously hadrons are deconfined and there appears the quark matter. We demonstrate that it is possible to have confined but chirally symmetric hadrons at a finite chemical potential and hence beyond the chiral restoration point at a finite chemical potential and low temperature there could exist a chirally symmetric matter consisting of chirally symmetric but confined hadrons. If it does happen in QCD, then the QCD phase diagram should be reconsidered with obvious implications for heavy ion programs and astrophysics.

  18. Transverse momentum dependent quark densities from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Musch,Philipp Hagler,John Negele,Andreas Schafer

    2011-02-01

    We study transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) with non-local operators in lattice QCD, using MILC/LHPC lattices. Results obtained with a simpli?ed operator geometry show visible dipole de- formations of spin-dependent quark momentum densities. We discuss the basic concepts of the method, including renormalization of the gauge link, and an ex- tension to a more elaborate operator geometry that would allow us to analyze process-dependent TMDs such as the Sivers-function.

  19. Thermodynamics of Hot Hadronic Gases at Finite Baryon Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, Michael Glenn

    In this thesis we investigate equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) matter at finite baryon densities. We begin by constructing crossover models for the thermodynamic equation of state. These use switching functions to smoothly interpolate between a hadronic gas model at low energy densities to a perturbative QCD equation of state at high energy densities. We carefully design the switching function to avoid introducing first-, second-, or higher-order phase transitions which lattice QCD indicates are not present at small baryon chemical potentials. We employ three kinds of hadronic models in the crossover constructions, two of which include repulsive interactions via an excluded volume approximation while one model does not. We find that the three crossover models are in excellent agreement with accurate lattice QCD calculations of the equation of state over a wide range of temperatures and baryon chemical potentials. Hence, the crossover models should be very useful for parameterizing the equation of state at finite baryon densities, which is needed to build next-generation hydrodynamic simulations of heavy-ion collisions. We next calculate the speed of sound and baryon number fluctuations predicted by the crossover models. We find that crossover models with hadronic repulsion are most successful at reproducing the lattice results, while the model without repulsion is less successful, and hadron (only) models show poor agreement. We then compare the crossover models to net-proton fluctuation measurements from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The comparisons suggest baryon number fluctuations freeze-out well below the chemical freeze-out temperature. We also search for signs of critical fluctuations in the STAR data, but we find no evidence for them at this time. Finally, we derive kinetic theory formulas for the shear and bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity of hot hadronic

  20. Calculation of equation of state of QCD at zero temperature and finite chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Ning; Sun, Wei-Min; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we calculate the equation of state (EOS) of QCD at zero temperature and finite chemical potential by using several models of quark propagators including the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) model, the hard-dense-loop (HDL) approximation and the quasi-particle model. The results are analyzed and compared with the known results in the literature.

  1. Order of the Roberge-Weiss endpoint (finite size transition) in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    D'Elia, Massimo; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    We consider the endpoint of the Roberge-Weiss (RW) first order transition line present for imaginary baryon chemical potentials. We remark that it coincides with the finite size transition relevant in the context of large N{sub c} QCD and study its order in the theory with two degenerate flavors. The RW endpoint is first order in the limit of large and small quark masses, while it weakens for intermediate masses where it is likely in the Ising 3D universality class. Phenomenological implications and further speculations about the QCD phase diagram are discuss0008.

  2. Order of the Roberge-Weiss endpoint (finite size transition) in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, Massimo; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    We consider the endpoint of the Roberge-Weiss (RW) first order transition line present for imaginary baryon chemical potentials. We remark that it coincides with the finite size transition relevant in the context of large Nc QCD and study its order in the theory with two degenerate flavors. The RW endpoint is first order in the limit of large and small quark masses, while it weakens for intermediate masses where it is likely in the Ising 3D universality class. Phenomenological implications and further speculations about the QCD phase diagram are discussed.

  3. Finite temperature QCD with two flavors of nonperturbatively improved Wilson fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Chernodub, M.N.; Ichie, H.; Mori, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Koma, Y.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Uvarov, P.V.; Veselov, A.I.; Schierholz, G.; Slavnov, A. A.; Stueben, H.

    2005-06-01

    We study QCD with two flavors of nonperturbatively improved Wilson fermions at finite temperature on the 16{sup 3}8 lattice. We determine the transition temperature at lattice spacing as small as a{approx}0.12 fm, and study string breaking below the finite temperature transition. We find that the static potential can be fitted by a two-state ansatz, including a string state and a two-meson state. We investigate the role of Abelian monopoles at finite temperature.

  4. Noncommutativity of the zero chemical potential limit and the thermodynamic limit in finite density systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Nishimura, J.; Verbaarschot, J. J.

    2004-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of finite density systems are often plagued by the complex action problem. We point out that there exists certain noncommutativity in the zero chemical potential limit and the thermodynamic limit when one tries to study such systems by reweighting techniques. This is demonstrated by explicit calculations in a Random Matrix Theory, which is thought to be a simple qualitative model for finite density QCD. The factorization method allows us to understand how the noncommutativity, which appears at the intermediate steps, cancels in the end results for physical observables. In the recent reweighting type of approaches to QCD in the small μ regime, we expect a transition when the volume reaches Vtr≃const./μ2, which however may not be in the range of current lattice calculations.

  5. Finite Volume Dependence of Hadron Properties and Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony W. Thomas; Jonathan D. Ashley; Derek B. Leinweber; Ross D. Young

    2005-02-01

    Because the time needed for a simulation in lattice QCD varies at a rate exceeding the fourth power of the lattice size, it is important to understand how small one can make a lattice without altering the physics beyond recognition. It is common to use a rule of thumb that the pion mass times the lattice size should be greater than (ideally much greater than) four (i.e., m{sub {pi}} L >> 4). By considering a relatively simple chiral quark model we are led to suggest that a more realistic constraint would be m{sub {pi}} (L - 2R) >> 4, where R is the radius of the confinement region, which for these purposes could be taken to be around 0.8-1.0 fm. Within the model we demonstrate that violating the second condition can lead to unphysical behavior of hadronic properties as a function of pion mass. In particular, the axial charge of the nucleon is found to decrease quite rapidly as the chiral limit is approached.

  6. An exact, finite, gauge-invariant, non-perturbative approach to QCD renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, H. M.; Tsang, P. H.; Gabellini, Y.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.

    2015-08-01

    A particular choice of renormalization, within the simplifications provided by the non-perturbative property of Effective Locality, leads to a completely finite, non-perturbative approach to renormalized QCD, in which all correlation functions can, in principle, be defined and calculated. In this Model of renormalization, only the Bundle chain-Graphs of the cluster expansion are non-zero. All Bundle graphs connecting to closed quark loops of whatever complexity, and attached to a single quark line, provided no 'self-energy' to that quark line, and hence no effective renormalization. However, the exchange of momentum between one quark line and another, involves only the cluster-expansion's chain graphs, and yields a set of contributions which can be summed and provide a finite color-charge renormalization that can be incorporated into all other QCD processes. An application to High Energy elastic pp scattering is now underway.

  7. An exact, finite, gauge-invariant, non-perturbative approach to QCD renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, H.M.; Tsang, P.H.; Gabellini, Y.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.

    2015-08-15

    A particular choice of renormalization, within the simplifications provided by the non-perturbative property of Effective Locality, leads to a completely finite, non-perturbative approach to renormalized QCD, in which all correlation functions can, in principle, be defined and calculated. In this Model of renormalization, only the Bundle chain-Graphs of the cluster expansion are non-zero. All Bundle graphs connecting to closed quark loops of whatever complexity, and attached to a single quark line, provided no ‘self-energy’ to that quark line, and hence no effective renormalization. However, the exchange of momentum between one quark line and another, involves only the cluster-expansion’s chain graphs, and yields a set of contributions which can be summed and provide a finite color-charge renormalization that can be incorporated into all other QCD processes. An application to High Energy elastic pp scattering is now underway.

  8. On the Baryonic Density and Susceptibilities in a Holographic Model of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Keun-young; Liao, Jinfeng

    2009-06-16

    In this paper, we calculate analytically the baryonic density and susceptibilities, which are sensitive probes to the fermionic degrees of freedom, in a holographic model of QCD both in its hot QGP phase and in its cold dense phase. Interesting patterns due to strong coupling dynamics will be shown and valuable lessons for QCD will be discussed.

  9. Equation of state in two-, three-, and four-color QCD at nonzero temperature and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorda, Tyler; Romatschke, Paul

    2015-07-01

    We calculate the equation of state at nonzero temperature and density from first principles in two-, three-, and four-color QCD with two fermion flavors in the fundamental and two-index, antisymmetric representation. By matching low-energy results (from a "hadron resonance gas") to high-energy results from (resummed) perturbative QCD, we obtain results for the pressure and trace anomaly that are in quantitative agreement with full lattice-QCD studies for three colors at zero chemical potential. Our results for nonzero chemical potential at zero temperature constitute predictions for the equation of state in QCD-like theories that can be tested by traditional lattice studies for two-color QCD with two fundamental fermions and four-color QCD with two two-index, antisymmetric fermions. We find that the speed of sound squared at zero temperature can exceed 1 /3 , which may be relevant for the phenomenology of high-mass neutron stars.

  10. Up- and down-quark masses from finite-energy QCD sum rules to five loops

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, C. A.; Nasrallah, N. F.; Roentsch, R. H.; Schilcher, K.

    2009-01-01

    The up- and down-quark masses are determined from an optimized QCD finite-energy sum rule involving the correlator of axial-vector divergences, to five-loop order in perturbative QCD, and including leading nonperturbative QCD and higher order quark-mass corrections. This finite-energy sum rule is designed to reduce considerably the systematic uncertainties arising from the (unmeasured) hadronic resonance sector, which in this framework contributes less than 3-4% to the quark mass. This is achieved by introducing an integration kernel in the form of a second degree polynomial, restricted to vanish at the peak of the two lowest lying resonances. The driving hadronic contribution is then the pion pole, with parameters well known from experiment. The determination is done in the framework of contour improved perturbation theory, which exhibits a very good convergence, leading to a remarkably stable result in the unusually wide window s{sub 0}=1.0-4.0 GeV{sup 2}, where s{sub 0} is the radius of the integration contour in the complex energy (squared) plane. The results are m{sub u}(Q=2 GeV)=2.9{+-}0.2 MeV, m{sub d}(Q=2 GeV)=5.3{+-}0.4 MeV, and (m{sub u}+m{sub d})/2=4.1{+-}0.2 MeV (at a scale Q=2 GeV)

  11. QCD string tension curve, the ferromagnetic magnetization, and the quark-antiquark confining potential at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bicudo, P.

    2010-08-01

    We study the string tension as a function of temperature, fitting the SU(3) lattice QCD finite temperature free energy potentials computed by the Bielefeld group. We compare the string tension points with order parameter curves of ferromagnets, superconductors, or string models, all related to confinement. We also compare the SU(3) string tension with the one of SU(2) lattice QCD. With the curve providing the best fit to the finite temperature string tensions, the spontaneous magnetization curve, we then show how to include finite temperature, in the state of the art confining and chiral invariant quark models.

  12. Phase structure of two-flavor QCD at finite chemical potential.

    PubMed

    Braun, Jens; Haas, Lisa M; Marhauser, Florian; Pawlowski, Jan M

    2011-01-14

    We study the phase diagram of two-flavor QCD at imaginary chemical potentials in the chiral limit. To this end we compute order parameters for chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement. The interrelation of quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking is analyzed with a new order parameter for the confinement phase transition. We show that it is directly related to both the quark density as well as the Polyakov loop expectation value. Our analytical and numerical results suggest a close relation between the chiral and the confinement phase transition. PMID:21405221

  13. QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Sean

    In this talk I review recent experimental and theoretical results in QCD. Since the topic is too vast to cover within given time constraints I choose to highlight some of the subjects that I find particularly exciting. On the experimental side I focus on measurements made at the Tevatron. Specifically jet production rates, and the cross section for B meson production. In addition I discuss an interesting measurement made by the Belle collaboration of double exclusive charmonium production. On the theory side I quickly review recent advances in computing hadronic cross sections at subleading order in perturbation theory. I then move on to soft-collinear effective theory. After a lightning review of the formalism I discuss recently published results on color-suppressed B → D decays.

  14. B to D(D*)e{nu}{sub e} transitions at finite temperature in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, K.; Er, N.

    2010-05-01

    In this article, we work out the properties of the B, D, and D* mesons as well as the B{yields}D(D*)e{nu}{sub e} decay properties at finite temperature QCD. The behavior of the masses, decay constants and widths of the B, D, and D* mesons in terms of the temperature is studied. The temperature dependency of the form factors responsible for such decays are also obtained. These temperature-dependent form factors are used to investigate the variation of the branching ratios with respect to the temperature. It is shown that the branching ratios do not change up to T/T{sub c}=0.3, however they start to diminish with increasing the temperature after this region and vanish at the critical or deconfinement temperature.

  15. Dynamical simulations of QCD at finite temperature with a truncated perfect action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheredin, Stanislav

    2006-12-01

    The Hypercube operator determines a variant of the approximate, truncated perfect fermion ac- tion. In this pilot study we are going to report on first experiences in dynamical QCD simulations with the Hypercube fermions. We apply this formulation in an investigation of the finite tempera- ture transition for two flavours. On lattices of size 83 × 4 we explore the phase diagram. Physical scales are estimated from pseudoscalar and vector meson masses obtained on 83 × 16 lattices. We observe the presence of a metastability region but do not find evidence for an Aoki phase. The Hypercube operator allows us to simulate at ratios of pseudoscalar to vector meson masses at least as small as 0.8 at the thermal crossover at Nt = 4, which renders this formulation cheaper than the Wilson like fermions.

  16. QCD bound states and their response to extremes of temperature and density.

    SciTech Connect

    Maris, P.

    1998-06-09

    We describe the application of Dyson-Schwinger equations to the calculation of hadron observable. The studies at zero temperature (T) and quark chemical potential ({mu}) provide a springboard for the extension to finite-(T, {mu}). Our exemplars highlight that much of hadronic physics can be understood as simply a manifestation of the nonperturbative, momentum-dependent dressing of the elementary Schwinger functions in QCD.

  17. Magnetic susceptibility of QCD at zero and at finite temperature from the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, G. S.; Bruckmann, F.; Constantinou, M.; Costa, M.; Endrődi, G.; Katz, S. D.; Panagopoulos, H.; Schäfer, A.

    2012-11-01

    The response of the QCD vacuum to a constant external (electro)magnetic field is studied through the tensor polarization of the chiral condensate and the magnetic susceptibility at zero and at finite temperature. We determine these quantities using lattice configurations generated with the tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and Nf=1+1+1 flavors of stout smeared staggered quarks with physical masses. We carry out the renormalization of the observables under study and perform the continuum limit both at T>0 and at T=0, using different lattice spacings. Finite size effects are studied by using various spatial lattice volumes. The magnetic susceptibilities χf reveal a spin-diamagnetic behavior; we obtain at zero temperature χu=-(2.08±0.08)GeV-2, χd=-(2.02±0.09)GeV-2 and χs=-(3.4±1.4)GeV-2 for the up, down and strange quarks, respectively, in the MS¯ scheme at a renormalization scale of 2 GeV. We also find the polarization to change smoothly with the temperature in the confinement phase and then to drastically reduce around the transition region.

  18. Charged hadrons in local finite-volume QED+QCD with C⋆ boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucini, B.; Patella, A.; Ramos, A.; Tantalo, N.

    2016-02-01

    In order to calculate QED corrections to hadronic physical quantities by means of lattice simulations, a coherent description of electrically-charged states in finite volume is needed. In the usual periodic setup, Gauss's law and large gauge transformations forbid the propagation of electrically-charged states. A possible solution to this problem, which does not violate the axioms of local quantum field theory, has been proposed by Wiese and Polley, and is based on the use of C⋆ boundary conditions. We present a thorough analysis of the properties and symmetries of QED in isolation and QED coupled to QCD, with C⋆ boundary conditions. In particular we learn that a certain class of electrically-charged states can be constructed in a fully consistent fashion without relying on gauge fixing and without peculiar complications. This class includes single particle states of most stable hadrons. We also calculate finite-volume corrections to the mass of stable charged particles and show that these are much smaller than in non-local formulations of QED.

  19. THERMODYNAMICS OF TWO-FLAVOR LATTICE QCD WITH AN IMPROVED WILSON QUARK ACTION AT NON-ZERO TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    MAEZAWA,Y.; AOKI, S.; EJIRI, S.; HATSUDA, T.; ISHII, N.; KANAYA, K.; UKITA, N.

    2006-11-14

    The authors report the current status of the systematic studies of the QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with two flavors of improved Wilson quarks. They evaluate the critical temperature of two flavor QCD in the chiral limit at zero chemical potential and show the preliminary result. Also they discuss fluctuations at none-zero temperature and density by calculating the quark number and isospin susceptibilities and their derivatives with respect to chemical potential.

  20. Finiteness of the vacuum energy density in quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoukian, Edward B.

    1983-03-01

    Recent interest in the finiteness problem of the vacuum energy density (VED) in finite QED has motivated us to reexamine this problem in the light of an analysis we have carried out earlier. By a loopwise summation procedure, supplemented by a renormalization-group analysis, we study the finiteness of the VED with α, the renormalized fine-structure constant, fixed in the process as the (infinite order) zero of the eigenvalue condition F[1](x)|x=α=0∞, and with the electron mass totally dynamical of origin. We propose a possible finite solution for the VED in QED which may require only one additional eigenvalue condition for α.

  1. A study on the optimization of finite volume effects of B K in lattice QCD by using the CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jangho; Cho, Kihyeon

    2015-07-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the non-perturbative implementation of field theory to solve the QCD theory of quarks and gluons by using the Feynman path integral approach. We calculate the kaon CP (charge-parity) violation parameter B K generally arising in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. Because lattice simulations are performed on finite volume lattices, the finite volume effects must be considered to exactly estimate the systematic error. The computational cost of numerical simulations may increase dramatically as the lattice spacing is decreased. Therefore, lattice QCD calculations must be optimized to account for the finite volume effects. The methodology used in this study was to develop an algorithm to parallelize the code by using a graphic processing unit (GPU) and to optimize the code to achieve as close to the theoretical peak performance as possible. The results revealed that the calculation speed of the newly-developed algorithm is significantly improved compared with that of the current algorithm for the finite volume effects.

  2. Tests of QCD at HERA: determination of the gluon density

    SciTech Connect

    Repond, J.

    1996-12-31

    An overview is given of the various methods available to the colliding beam experiments at HERA to determine the gluon density of the proton. The article includes a description of fits to the structure function F{sub 2}, of studies of dijet and open charm production in deep inelastic scattering, of elastic and inelastic {psi} photoproduction, and of inclusive diffractive scattering. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  3. QCD at zero baryon density and the Polyakov loop paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvila, Slavo; Forcrand, Philippe de

    2006-06-01

    We compare the grand-canonical partition function at fixed chemical potential {mu} with the canonical partition function at fixed baryon number B, formally and by numerical simulations at {mu}=0 and B=0 with four flavors of staggered quarks. We verify that the free energy densities are equal in the thermodynamic limit, and show that they can be well described by the hadron resonance gas at TT{sub c}. Small differences between the two ensembles, for thermodynamic observables characterizing the deconfinement phase transition, vanish with increasing lattice size. These differences are solely caused by contributions of nonzero baryon density sectors, which are exponentially suppressed with increasing volume. The Polyakov loop shows a different behavior: for all temperatures and volumes, its expectation value is exactly zero in the canonical formulation, whereas it is always nonzero in the commonly used grand-canonical formulation. We clarify this paradoxical difference, and show that the nonvanishing Polyakov loop expectation value is due to contributions of nonzero triality states, which are not physical, because they give zero contribution to the partition function.

  4. Holographic vector mesons from spectral functions at finite baryon or isospin density

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Kaminski, Matthias; Rust, Felix

    2008-02-15

    We consider gauge/gravity duality with flavor for the finite-temperature field theory dual of the AdS-Schwarzschild black hole background with embedded D7-brane probes. In particular, we investigate spectral functions at finite baryon density in the black hole phase. We determine the resonance frequencies corresponding to meson-mass peaks as function of the quark mass over temperature ratio. We find that these frequencies have a minimum for a finite value of the quark mass. If the quotient of quark mass and temperature is increased further, the peaks move to larger frequencies. At the same time the peaks narrow, in agreement with the formation of nearly stable vector meson states which exactly reproduce the meson-mass spectrum found at zero temperature. We also calculate the diffusion coefficient, which has finite value for all quark mass to temperature ratios, and exhibits a first-order phase transition. Finally we consider an isospin chemical potential and find that the spectral functions display a resonance peak splitting, similar to the isospin meson-mass splitting observed in effective QCD models.

  5. Finite temperature effect in infrared-improved AdS/QCD model with back reaction of bulk vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ling-Xiao; Fang, Zhen; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Based on an IR-improved soft-wall AdS/QCD model for mesons, which provides a consistent prediction for the mass spectra of resonance scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons, we investigate its finite temperature effect. By analyzing the spectral function of mesons and fitting it with a Breit-Wigner form, we perform an analysis for the critical temperature of mesons. The back-reaction effects of bulk vacuum are considered and the thermal mass spectral function of resonance mesons is calculated based on the back-reaction improved action. A reasonable melting temperature is found to be T c ≈ 150 ± 7 MeV, which is consistent with the recent results from lattice QCD simulations. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC)(10975170, 10905084, 10821504), and Project of Knowledge Innovation Program (PKIP) of Chinese Academy of Science

  6. On criticality and the equation of state of QCD at finite chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sourendu; Karthik, Nikhil; Majumdar, Pushan

    2014-08-01

    We obtain the baryon number density, n, and the excess contribution to the pressure, ΔP, at finite chemical potential, μB, and temperature, T, by resumming the Taylor series expansion in a lattice computation with lattice spacing of 1/(4T) and two flavors of quarks at three different quark masses. The method proceeds by giving a critical μB and limits on the critical exponent, and permits reliable estimations of the errors in resummed quantities. We find that n and ΔP are insensitive to the quark mass. We also report the bulk isothermal compressibility, κ, over a range of T and μB.

  7. Finite-size scaling as a tool for the search of the critical endpoint of QCD in heavy-ion data

    SciTech Connect

    Palhares, L. F.; Fraga, E. S.

    2012-07-15

    We briefly discuss the role played by the finiteness of the system created in high-energy heavyion collisions (HIC's) in the experimental search of the QCD critical endpoint and, in particular, the applicability of the predicting power of finite-size scaling plots in data analysis of current HIC's.

  8. SUPPRESSION OF DIELECTRONIC RECOMBINATION DUE TO FINITE DENSITY EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, D.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Korista, K. T.; Ferland, G. J.; Badnell, N. R.

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a general model for determining density-dependent effective dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients in order to explore finite-density effects on the ionization balance of plasmas. Our model consists of multiplying by a suppression factor those highly-accurate total zero-density DR rate coefficients which have been produced from state-of-the-art theoretical calculations and which have been benchmarked by experiment. The suppression factor is based upon earlier detailed collision-radiative calculations which were made for a wide range of ions at various densities and temperatures, but used a simplified treatment of DR. A general suppression formula is then developed as a function of isoelectronic sequence, charge, density, and temperature. These density-dependent effective DR rate coefficients are then used in the plasma simulation code Cloudy to compute ionization balance curves for both collisionally ionized and photoionized plasmas at very low (n{sub e} = 1 cm{sup -3}) and finite (n{sub e} = 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) densities. We find that the denser case is significantly more ionized due to suppression of DR, warranting further studies of density effects on DR by detailed collisional-radiative calculations which utilize state-of-the-art partial DR rate coefficients. This is expected to impact the predictions of the ionization balance in denser cosmic gases such as those found in nova and supernova shells, accretion disks, and the broad emission line regions in active galactic nuclei.

  9. A model for QCD at high density and large quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    De Pietri, Roberto; Feo, Alessandra; Seiler, Erhard; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2007-12-01

    We study the high density region of QCD within an effective model obtained in the frame of the hopping parameter expansion and choosing Polyakov-type loops as the main dynamical variables representing the fermionic matter. To get a first idea of the phase structure, the model is analyzed in strong coupling expansion and using a mean field approximation. In numerical simulations, the model still shows the so-called sign problem, a difficulty peculiar to nonzero chemical potential, but it permits the development of algorithms which ensure a good overlap of the Monte Carlo ensemble with the true one. We review the main features of the model and present calculations concerning the dependence of various observables on the chemical potential and on the temperature, in particular, of the charge density and the diquark susceptibility, which may be used to characterize the various phases expected at high baryonic density. We obtain in this way information about the phase structure of the model and the corresponding phase transitions and crossover regions, which can be considered as hints for the behavior of nonzero density QCD.

  10. Gauge invariance and anomalous theories at finite fermionic density

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, A. )

    1990-04-15

    We investigate the issue of stability of anomalous matter at finite fermionic density using a two-dimensional toy model. In particular, we pay careful attention to the issue of gauge invariance. We find that, contrary to some recent claims, the effective free energy (obtained by integrating out the fermions) cannot be obtained by the simple inclusion of a Chern-Simons term multiplying the fermionic chemical potential. We obtain some conditions for stability of anomalous charges when some finite density of conserved charge is present as well as for the neutral case. We also show that, under reasonable conditions, no sphaleron-type solution can exist in the toy model unless the anomalous charge density vanishes. We argue that this could be the case for more realistic models as well.

  11. The effects of QCD equation of state on the relic density of WIMP dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, Manuel; Hajkarim, Fazlollah; Schmitz, Ernany Rossi

    2015-06-12

    Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs) are the most widely studied candidate particles forming the cold dark matter (CDM) whose existence can be inferred from a wealth of astrophysical and cosmological observations. In the framework of the minimal cosmological model detailed measurements on the cosmic microwave background by the PLANCK collaboration fix the scaled CDM relic density to Ω{sub c}h{sup 2}=0.1193±0.0014, with an error of less than 1.5%. In order to fully exploit this observational precision, theoretical calculations should have a comparable or smaller error. In this paper we use recent lattice QCD calculations to improve the description of the thermal plasma. This affects the predicted relic density of “thermal WIMPs”, which once were in chemical equilibrium with Standard Model particles. For WIMP masses between 3 and 15 GeV, where QCD effects are most important, our predictions differ from earlier results by up to 9% (12%) for pure S-wave (P-wave) annihilation. We use these results to compute the thermally averaged WIMP annihilation cross section that reproduces the correct CDM relic density, for WIMP masses between 0.1 GeV and 10 TeV.

  12. QCD Chiral Restoration at Finite T Under the Magnetic Field. Studies Based on the Instanton Vacuum Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chung Wen; Nam, Seung-il

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the chiral restoration at finite temperature ( T) under the strong external magnetic field {{B}=B0hat{z}} of the SU(2) light-flavor QCD matter. We employ the instanton-liquid QCD vacuum configuration accompanied with the linear Schwinger method for inducing the magnetic field. The Harrington-Shepard caloron solution is used to modify the instanton parameters, i.e. the average instanton size {(bar{ρ})} and inter-instanton distance {(bar{R})}, as functions of T. In addition, we include the meson-loop corrections as the large- N c corrections because they are critical for reproducing the universal chiral restoration pattern. We present the numerical results for the constituent-quark mass as well as chiral condensate which signal the spontaneous breakdown of chiral-symmetry (SBχS), as functions of T and B. Besides we find that the changes for the F π and m π due to the magnetic field is relatively small, in comparison to those caused by the finite T effect.

  13. Quarkyonic Matter and the Phase Diagram of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2008-05-15

    Quarkyonic matter is a new phase of QCD at finite temperature and density which is distinct from the confined and de-confined phases. Its existence is unambiguously argued in the large numbers of colors limit, N{sub c} {yields} {infinity}, of QCD. Hints of its existence for QCD, N{sub c} = 3, are shown in lattice Monte-Carlo data and in heavy ion experiments.

  14. Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Finite Bias Conductances.

    PubMed

    Stefanucci, G; Kurth, S

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of density functional theory, a formalism to describe electronic transport in the steady state is proposed which uses the density on the junction and the steady current as basic variables. We prove that, in a finite window around zero bias, there is a one-to-one map between the basic variables and both local potential on as well as bias across the junction. The resulting Kohn-Sham system features two exchange-correlation (xc) potentials, a local xc potential, and an xc contribution to the bias. For weakly coupled junctions the xc potentials exhibit steps in the density-current plane which are shown to be crucial to describe the Coulomb blockade diamonds. At small currents these steps emerge as the equilibrium xc discontinuity bifurcates. The formalism is applied to a model benzene junction, finding perfect agreement with the orthodox theory of Coulomb blockade. PMID:26571349

  15. Hill Stability in the Finite Density N-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-05-01

    A Celestial Mechanics system is Hill Stable if its components cannot escape from each other. Such stability is difficult to prove for general Celestial Mechanics problems with N ≥ 3 bodies interacting with each other. This is in part due to the ability of two bodies to come arbitrarily close to each other, freeing kinetic energy that can be used for an additional body to escape. When considering bodies with finite density, meaning that they have finite sizes and their mass centers cannot come arbitrarily close to each other, this pathway to escape has specific limits that make the determination of Hill Stability feasible. This opens up new definitions of Hill Stability that can be used to determine energetic thresholds at which a rubble pile body with sufficient angular momentum can shed mass components of various sizes. This talk will review recent advances in Hill Stability with direct application to the interaction of self-gravitating rubble pile bodies.

  16. Standing Wave Ground State in High Density, Zero Temperature QCD at Large NC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryagin, D. V.; Grigoriev, D. Yu.; Rubakov, V. A.

    Chiral symmetry breaking in QCD at zero temperature and high fermionic density is studied in the limit NC → ∞. We evaluate the effective action in the ladder approximation and integrate out fermions by introducing the bilocal field Σ(x, y), which enters the action as the mass operator for fermions. It is argued that at large fermionic chemical potential the mass operator Σ(x, y) has a small but nonvanishing expectation value. The condensate of the field Σ(x, y) and the fermionic condensate < bar ψ (x) ψ (y)> are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, so that the ground state has the structure of the standing wave with respect to these order parameters. Unlike possible color superconductivity, this symmetry breaking occurs to the leading order in 1/NC.

  17. Computation of form factors in massless QCD with finite master integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Manteuffel, Andreas; Panzer, Erik; Schabinger, Robert M.

    2016-06-01

    We present the bare one-, two-, and three-loop form factors in massless quantum chromodynamics as linear combinations of finite master integrals. Using symbolic integration, we compute their ɛ expansions and thereby reproduce all known results with an independent method. Remarkably, in our finite basis, only integrals with a less-than-maximal number of propagators contribute to the cusp anomalous dimensions. We report on indications of this phenomenon at four loops, including the result for a finite, irreducible, twelve-propagator form factor integral. Together with this article, we provide our automated software setup for the computation of finite master integrals.

  18. Heavy quark scattering and quenching in a QCD medium at finite temperature and chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrehrah, H.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Cassing, W.; Gossiaux, P. B.; Aichelin, J.

    2015-05-01

    The heavy quark collisional scattering on partons of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) is studied in a quantum chromodynamics medium at finite temperature and chemical potential. We evaluate the effects of finite parton masses and widths, finite temperature T , and quark chemical potential μq on the different elastic cross sections for dynamical quasiparticles (on- and off-shell particles in the QGP medium as described by the dynamical quasiparticle model "DQPM") using the leading order Born diagrams. Our results show clearly the decrease of the q Q and g Q total elastic cross sections when the temperature and the quark chemical potential increase. These effects are amplified for finite μq at temperatures lower than the corresponding critical temperature Tc(μq) . Using these cross sections we, furthermore, estimate the energy loss and longitudinal and transverse momentum transfers of a heavy quark propagating in a finite temperature and chemical potential medium. Accordingly, we have shown that the transport properties of heavy quarks are sensitive to the temperature and chemical potential variations. Our results provide some basic ingredients for the study of charm physics in heavy-ion collisions at Beam Energy Scan at RHIC and CBM experiment at FAIR.

  19. Finite-size effects in lattice QCD with dynamical Wilson fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, Boris; Lippert, Thomas; Schilling, Klaus

    2005-07-01

    As computing resources are limited, choosing the parameters for a full lattice QCD simulation always amounts to a compromise between the competing objectives of a lattice spacing as small, quarks as light, and a volume as large as possible. Aiming to push unquenched simulations with the Wilson action towards the computationally expensive regime of small quark masses we address the question whether one can possibly save computing time by extrapolating results from small lattices to the infinite volume, prior to the usual chiral and continuum extrapolations. In the present work the systematic volume dependence of simulated pion and nucleon masses is investigated and compared with a long-standing analytic formula by Luescher and with results from chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). We analyze data from hybrid Monte Carlo simulations with the standard (unimproved) two-flavor Wilson action at two different lattice spacings of a{approx_equal}0.08 and 0.13 fm. The quark masses considered correspond to approximately 85% and 50% (at the smaller a) and 36% (at the larger a) of the strange quark mass. At each quark mass we study at least three different lattices with L/a=10 to 24 sites in the spatial directions (L=0.85-2.08 fm). We find that an exponential ansatz fits the volume dependence of the pion masses well, but with a coefficient about an order of magnitude larger than the theoretical leading-order prediction. In the case of the nucleon we observe a remarkably good agreement between our lattice data and a recent formula from relativistic baryon ChPT.

  20. FOREWORD: Extreme QCD 2012 (xQCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Bazavov, Alexei; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2013-04-01

    The Extreme QCD 2012 conference, held at the George Washington University in August 2012, celebrated the 10th event in the series. It has been held annually since 2003 at different locations: San Carlos (2011), Bad Honnef (2010), Seoul (2009), Raleigh (2008), Rome (2007), Brookhaven (2006), Swansea (2005), Argonne (2004), and Nara (2003). As usual, it was a very productive and inspiring meeting that brought together experts in the field of finite-temperature QCD, both theoretical and experimental. On the experimental side, we heard about recent results from major experiments, such as PHENIX and STAR at Brookhaven National Laboratory, ALICE and CMS at CERN, and also about the constraints on the QCD phase diagram coming from astronomical observations of one of the largest laboratories one can imagine, neutron stars. The theoretical contributions covered a wide range of topics, including QCD thermodynamics at zero and finite chemical potential, new ideas to overcome the sign problem in the latter case, fluctuations of conserved charges and how they allow one to connect calculations in lattice QCD with experimentally measured quantities, finite-temperature behavior of theories with many flavors of fermions, properties and the fate of heavy quarkonium states in the quark-gluon plasma, and many others. The participants took the time to write up and revise their contributions and submit them for publication in these proceedings. Thanks to their efforts, we have now a good record of the ideas presented and discussed during the workshop. We hope that this will serve both as a reminder and as a reference for the participants and for other researchers interested in the physics of nuclear matter at high temperatures and density. To preserve the atmosphere of the event the contributions are ordered in the same way as the talks at the conference. We are honored to have helped organize the 10th meeting in this series, a milestone that reflects the lasting interest in this

  1. Lattice simulation study of SU(2) QCD with a nonzero baryon density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, V. V.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. A.; Valgushev, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    The lattice simulation of SU(2) QCD with two quark dynamical flavors and a nonzero baryon chemical potential has been performed. The dependence of the Polyakov loop and chiral condensate on the chemical potential has been studied. It has been shown that the chemical potential reduces the chiral condensate, thus weakening the breaking of the chiral symmetry.

  2. A unified approach to hadron phenomenology at zero and finite temperatures in a hard-wall AdS/QCD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2016-05-01

    We propose a unified approach to study meson, nucleon and Δ -baryon properties at zero and finite temperatures in the context of hard-wall AdS/QCD model. We first combine some previous works dealing with mesons and baryons separately, and introduce a new parameter ξ so that the model could give a universal description of spectrum and couplings of both sectors in a self-consistent way. All observables calculated numerically show reasonable agreement with experimental data. We then study these observables at nonzero temperature by modifying the AdS space-time into AdS-Schwartzchild space-time. Numerically solving the model, we find an interesting temperature dependence of the spectrum and the couplings. We also make a prediction on the finite-temperature decay width of some nucleon and Δ excited states.

  3. Study of the Z{sub 3} symmetry in QCD at finite temperature and chemical potential using a worm algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Krein, Gastao; Leme, Rafael R.; Woitek, Marcio

    2013-03-25

    Traditional Monte Carlo simulations of QCD in the presence of a baryon chemical potential are plagued by the complex phase problem and new numerical approaches are necessary for studying the phase diagram of the theory. In this work we consider a Z{sub 3} Polyakov loop model for the deconfining phase transition in QCD and discuss how a flux representation of the model in terms of dimer and monomer variable solves the complex action problem. We present results of numerical simulations using a worm algorithm for the specific heat and two-point correlation function of Polyakov loops. Evidences of a first order deconfinement phase transition are discussed.

  4. Relativistic density functional theory for finite nuclei and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarewicz, Jorge

    In 1939 Oppenheimer and Volkoff demonstrated using Einstein's theory of general relativity that a neutron star supported exclusively by neutron degeneracy pressure will collapse into a black hole if its mass exceeds seven tenths of a solar mass. Seventy five years after such a pioneering prediction the existence of neutron stars with masses as large as two solar masses has been firmly established. This fact alone highlights the critical role that nuclear interactions play in explaining the structure of neutron stars. Indeed, a neutron star is a gold mine for the study of nuclear phenomena that span an enormous range of densities and neutron-proton asymmetries. Physical phenomena over such diverse scales are best described by a formalism based on Relativistic Density Functional Theory. In this contribution I focus on the synergy between theory, experiment, and observation that is needed to elucidate the myriad of exotic states of matter that are believed to exist in a neutron star.

  5. On the Density of Languages Representing Finite Set Partitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Nelma; Reis, Rogério

    2005-05-01

    We present a family of regular languages representing partitions of a set of n elements in less or equal c parts. The density of those languages is given by partial sums of Stirling numbers of second kind for which we obtain explicit formulas. We also determine the limit frequency of those languages. This work was motivated by computational representations of the configurations of some numerical games.

  6. (Super)Yang-Mills at finite heavy-quark density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Kundu, Arnab; Mateos, David; Tarrío, Javier

    2015-02-01

    We study the gravitational duals of d-dimensional Yang-Mills theories with d ≤ 6 in the presence of an density of heavy quarks, with N the number of colors. For concreteness we focus on maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills, but our results apply to a larger class of theories with or without supersymmetry. The gravitational solutions describe renormalization group flows towards infrared scaling geometries characterized by fixed dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents. The special case d = 5 yields an geometry upon uplifting to M-theory. We discuss the multitude of physical scales that separate different dynamical regimes along the flows, as well as the validity of the supergravity description. We also present exact black brane solutions that encode the low-temperature thermodynamics.

  7. Determination of an Initial Mesh Density for Finite Element Computations via Data Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Kanapady, R; Bathina, S K; Tamma, K K; Kamath, C; Kumar, V

    2001-07-23

    Numerical analysis software packages which employ a coarse first mesh or an inadequate initial mesh need to undergo a cumbersome and time consuming mesh refinement studies to obtain solutions with acceptable accuracy. Hence, it is critical for numerical methods such as finite element analysis to be able to determine a good initial mesh density for the subsequent finite element computations or as an input to a subsequent adaptive mesh generator. This paper explores the use of data mining techniques for obtaining an initial approximate finite element density that avoids significant trial and error to start finite element computations. As an illustration of proof of concept, a square plate which is simply supported at its edges and is subjected to a concentrated load is employed for the test case. Although simplistic, the present study provides insight into addressing the above considerations.

  8. QCD In Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    Introduction Symmetry and the Phenomena of QCD Apparent and Actual Symmetries Asymptotic Freedom Confinement Chiral Symmetry Breaking Chiral Anomalies and Instantons High Temperature QCD: Asymptotic Properties Significance of High Temperature QCD Numerical Indications for Quasi-Free Behavior Ideas About Quark-Gluon Plasma Screening Versus Confinement Models of Chiral Symmetry Breaking More Refined Numerical Experiments High-Temperature QCD: Phase Transitions Yoga of Phase Transitions and Order Parameters Application to Glue Theories Application to Chiral Transitions Close Up on Two Flavors A Genuine Critical Point! (?) High-Density QCD: Methods Hopes, Doubts, and Fruition Another Renormalization Group Pairing Theory Taming the Magnetic Singularity High-Density QCD: Color-Flavor Locking and Quark-Hadron Continuity Gauge Symmetry (Non)Breaking Symmetry Accounting Elementary Excitations A Modified Photon Quark-Hadron Continuity Remembrance of Things Past More Quarks Fewer Quarks and Reality

  9. Dark energy from QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Federico R.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2010-08-30

    We review two mechanisms rooted in the infrared sector of QCD which, by exploiting the properties of the QCD ghost, as introduced by Veneziano, provide new insight on the cosmological dark energy problem, first, in the form of a Casimir-like energy from quantising QCD in a box, and second, in the form of additional, time-dependent, vacuum energy density in an expanding universe. Based on [1, 2].

  10. Towards the chiral limit in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Shailesh Chandrasekharan

    2006-02-28

    Computing hadronic observables by solving QCD from first principles with realistic quark masses is an important challenge in fundamental nuclear and particle physics research. Although lattice QCD provides a rigorous framework for such calculations many difficulties arise. Firstly, there are no good algorithms to solve lattice QCD with realistically light quark masses. Secondly, due to critical slowing down, Monte Carlo algorithms are able to access only small lattice sizes on coarse lattices. Finally, due to sign problems it is almost impossible to study the physics of finite baryon density. Lattice QCD contains roughly three mass scales: the cutoff (or inverse lattice spacing) a{sup -1}, the confinement scale {Lambda}{sub QCD}, and the pion mass m{sub {pi}}. Most conventional Monte Carlo algorithms for QCD become inefficient in two regimes: when {Lambda}{sub QCD} becomes small compared to a{sup -1} and when m{sub {pi}} becomes small compared to {Lambda}{sub QCD}. The former can be largely controlled by perturbation theory thanks to asymptotic freedom. The latter is more difficult since chiral extrapolations are typically non-analytic and can be unreliable if the calculations are not done at sufficiently small quark masses. For this reason it has been difficult to compute quantities close to the chiral limit. The essential goal behind this proposal was to develop a new approach towards understanding QCD and QCD-like theories with sufficiently light quarks. The proposal was based on a novel cluster algorithm discovered in the strong coupling limit with staggered fermions [1]. This algorithm allowed us to explore the physics of exactly massless quarks and as well as light quarks. Thus, the hope was that this discovery would lead to the complete solution of at least a few strongly coupled QCD-like theories. The solution would be far better than those achievable through conventional methods and thus would be able to shed light on the chiral physics from a new

  11. Non-Periodic Finite-Element Formulation of Orbital-Free Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gavini, V; Knap, J; Bhattacharya, K; Ortiz, M

    2006-10-06

    We propose an approach to perform orbital-free density functional theory calculations in a non-periodic setting using the finite-element method. We consider this a step towards constructing a seamless multi-scale approach for studying defects like vacancies, dislocations and cracks that require quantum mechanical resolution at the core and are sensitive to long range continuum stresses. In this paper, we describe a local real space variational formulation for orbital-free density functional theory, including the electrostatic terms and prove existence results. We prove the convergence of the finite-element approximation including numerical quadratures for our variational formulation. Finally, we demonstrate our method using examples.

  12. Finite-volume corrections to the CP-odd nucleon matrix elements of the electromagnetic current from the QCD vacuum angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akan, Tarik; Guo, Feng-Kun; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2014-09-01

    Nucleon electric dipole moments originating from strong CP-violation are being calculated by several groups using lattice QCD. We revisit the finite volume corrections to the CP-odd nucleon matrix elements of the electromagnetic current, which can be related to the electric dipole moments in the continuum, in the framework of chiral perturbation theory up to next-to-leading order taking into account the breaking of Lorentz symmetry. A chiral extrapolation of the recent lattice results of both the neutron and proton electric dipole moments is performed, which results in dn=(-2.7±1.2)×10-16eθ0 cm and dp=(2.1±1.2)×10-16eθ0 cm.

  13. Baryonic matter onset in two-color QCD with heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scior, Philipp; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2015-11-01

    We study the cold and dense regime in the phase diagram of two-color QCD with heavy quarks within a three-dimensional effective theory for Polyakov loops. This theory is derived from two-color QCD in a combined strong-coupling and hopping expansion. In particular, we study the onset of diquark density as the finite-density transition of the bosonic baryons in the two-color world. In contrast to previous studies of heavy dense QCD, our zero-temperature extrapolations are consistent with a continuous transition without binding energy. They thus provide evidence that the effective theory for heavy quarks is capable of describing the characteristic differences between diquark condensation in two-color QCD and the liquid-gas transition of nuclear matter in QCD.

  14. Density dependence of the symmetry energy from neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Vinas, X.; Centelles, M.; Roca-Maza, X.; Warda, M.

    2012-10-20

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy, characterized by the parameter L, is studied using information provided by the neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei. An estimate of L is obtained from experimental data of antiprotonic atoms. We also discuss the ability of parity violating electron scatering to obtain information about the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb.

  15. Kaon condensation in the linear sigma model at finite density and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Van Long; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Le Viet Hoa

    2008-11-15

    Basing on the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective action approach we formulate a theoretical formalism for studying kaon condensation in the linear sigma model at finite density and temperature. We derive the renormalized effective potential in the Hartree-Fock approximation, which preserves the Goldstone theorem. This quantity is then used to consider physical properties of kaon matter.

  16. Complex Langevin simulation of chiral symmetry restoration at finite baryonic density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael

    1986-12-01

    A recently proposed effective SU(3) spin model with chiral order parameter is studied by means of the complex Langevin equation. A first-order chiral symmetry restoring and deconfining transition is observed at sufficiently low temperature at finite baryonic density. Permanent address: Sektion Physik, Karl-Marx Universität, DDR-7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic.

  17. Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M. R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.

    2013-11-01

    We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss-Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100-200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings-of the order of 1000-fold-relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn-Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688 atoms using

  18. Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn–Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M.R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.

    2013-11-15

    We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss–Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100–200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings—of the order of 1000-fold—relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688

  19. Finite temperature bosonic charge and current densities in compactified cosmic string spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the expectation values of the induced charge and current densities for a massive bosonic field with nonzero chemical potential in the geometry of a higher-dimensional compactified cosmic string with magnetic fluxes along the string core and also enclosed by the compactified direction in thermal equilibrium at finite temperature T . These densities are calculated by decomposing them into the vacuum expectation values and finite temperature contributions coming from the particles and antiparticles. The only nonzero components correspond to the charge, azimuthal, and axial current densities. By using the Abel-Plana formula, we decompose the components of the densities into the part induced by the cosmic string and the one by the compactification. The charge density is an odd function of the chemical potential and even periodic function of the magnetic flux with a period equal to the quantum flux. Moreover, the azimuthal (axial) current density is an even function of the chemical potential and an odd (even) periodic function of the magnetic flux with the same period. In this paper, our main concern is the thermal effect on the charge and current densities, including some limiting cases, the low- and high-temperature approximations. We show that in all cases, the temperature enhances the induced densities.

  20. Density-matrix Chern insulators: Finite-temperature generalization of topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, A.; Viyuela, O.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    Thermal noise can destroy topological insulators (TI). However, we demonstrate how TIs can be made stable in dissipative systems. To that aim, we introduce the notion of band Liouvillian as the dissipative counterpart of band Hamiltonian, and show a method to evaluate the topological order of its steady state. This is based on a generalization of the Chern number valid for general mixed states (referred to as density-matrix Chern value), which witnesses topological order in a system coupled to external noise. Additionally, we study its relation with the electrical conductivity at finite temperature, which is not a topological property. Nonetheless, the density-matrix Chern value represents the part of the conductivity which is topological due to the presence of quantum mixed edge states at finite temperature. To make our formalism concrete, we apply these concepts to the two-dimensional Haldane model in the presence of thermal dissipation, but our results hold for arbitrary dimensions and density matrices.

  1. Relative Equilibria in the Spherical, Finite Density Three-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    The relative equilibria for the spherical, finite density three-body problem are identified. Specifically, there are 28 distinct relative equilibria in this problem which include the classical five relative equilibria for the point-mass three-body problem. None of the identified relative equilibria exist or are stable over all values of angular momentum. The stability and bifurcation pathways of these relative equilibria are mapped out as the angular momentum of the system is increased. This is done under the assumption that they have equal and constant densities and that the entire system rotates about its maximum moment of inertia. The transition to finite density greatly increases the number of relative equilibria in the three-body problem and ensures that minimum energy configurations exist for all values of angular momentum.

  2. Sum rules and spectral density flow in QCD and in superconformal theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Antonio; Delle Rose, Luigi; Serino, Mirko

    2014-11-01

    We discuss the signature of the anomalous breaking of the superconformal symmetry in N = 1 super Yang Mills theory and its manifestation in the form of anomaly poles. Moreover, we describe the massive deformations of the N = 1 theory and the spectral densities of the corresponding anomaly form factors. These are characterized by spectral densities which flow with the mass deformation and turn the continuum contributions from the two-particle cuts of the intermediate states into poles, with a single sum rule satisfied by each component. The poles can be interpreted as signaling the exchange of a composite axion/dilaton/dilatino (ADD) multiplet in the effective Lagrangian. We conclude that global anomalous currents characterized by a single flow in the perturbative picture always predict the existence of composite interpolating fields.

  3. Fermion structure of non-Abelian vortices in high density QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Shigehiro; Itakura, Kazunori; Nitta, Muneto

    2010-05-15

    We study the internal structure of a non-Abelian vortex in color superconductivity with respect to quark degrees of freedom. Stable non-Abelian vortices appear in the color-flavor-locked phase whose symmetry SU(3){sub c+L+R} is further broken to SU(2){sub c+L+R} x U(1){sub c+L+R} at the vortex cores. Microscopic structure of vortices at scales shorter than the coherence length can be analyzed by the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation (rather than the Ginzburg-Landau equation). We obtain quark spectra from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation by treating the diquark gap having the vortex configuration as a background field. We find that there are massless modes (zero modes) well-localized around a vortex, in the triplet and singlet states of the unbroken symmetry SU(2){sub c+L+R} x U(1){sub c+L+R}. The velocities v{sub i} of the massless modes (i=t, s for triplet and singlet) change at finite chemical potential {mu}{ne}0, and decrease as {mu} becomes large. Therefore, low energy excitations in the vicinity of the vortices are effectively described by 1+1 dimensional massless fermions whose velocities are reduced v{sub i}<1.

  4. Optimum element density studies for finite-element thermal analysis of hypersonic aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Olona, Timothy; Muramoto, Kyle M.

    1990-01-01

    Different finite element models previously set up for thermal analysis of the space shuttle orbiter structure are discussed and their shortcomings identified. Element density criteria are established for the finite element thermal modelings of space shuttle orbiter-type large, hypersonic aircraft structures. These criteria are based on rigorous studies on solution accuracies using different finite element models having different element densities set up for one cell of the orbiter wing. Also, a method for optimization of the transient thermal analysis computer central processing unit (CPU) time is discussed. Based on the newly established element density criteria, the orbiter wing midspan segment was modeled for the examination of thermal analysis solution accuracies and the extent of computation CPU time requirements. The results showed that the distributions of the structural temperatures and the thermal stresses obtained from this wing segment model were satisfactory and the computation CPU time was at the acceptable level. The studies offered the hope that modeling the large, hypersonic aircraft structures using high-density elements for transient thermal analysis is possible if a CPU optimization technique was used.

  5. Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bornyakov, V.G.

    2005-06-01

    Possibilities that are provided by a lattice regularization of QCD for studying nonperturbative properties of QCD are discussed. A review of some recent results obtained from computer calculations in lattice QCD is given. In particular, the results for the QCD vacuum structure, the hadron mass spectrum, and the strong coupling constant are considered.

  6. Estimating ŋ/s of QCD matter at high baryon densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Iu.; Bleicher, M.; Huovinen, P.; Petersen, H.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the application of a cascade + viscous hydro + cascade model for heavy ion collisions in the RHIC Beam Energy Scan range, √snn = 6.3…200 GeV. By constraining model parameters to reproduce the data we find that the effective (average) value of the shear viscosity over entropy density ratio ŋ/s decreases from 0.2 to 0.08 when collision energy grows from √sNN ≈ 7 to 39 GeV.

  7. LATTICE QCD THERMODYNAMICS WITH WILSON QUARKS.

    SciTech Connect

    EJIRI,S.

    2007-11-20

    We review studies of QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with dynamical Wilson quarks. After explaining the basic properties of QCD with Wilson quarks at finite temperature including the phase structure and the scaling properties around the chiral phase transition, we discuss the critical temperature, the equation of state and heavy-quark free energies.

  8. All-electron time-dependent density functional theory with finite elements: time-propagation approach.

    PubMed

    Lehtovaara, Lauri; Havu, Ville; Puska, Martti

    2011-10-21

    We present an all-electron method for time-dependent density functional theory which employs hierarchical nonuniform finite-element bases and the time-propagation approach. The method is capable of treating linear and nonlinear response of valence and core electrons to an external field. We also introduce (i) a preconditioner for the propagation equation, (ii) a stable way to implement absorbing boundary conditions, and (iii) a new kind of absorbing boundary condition inspired by perfectly matched layers. PMID:22029294

  9. Densities mixture unfolding for data obtained from detectors with finite resolution and limited acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagunashvili, N. D.

    2015-04-01

    A procedure based on a Mixture Density Model for correcting experimental data for distortions due to finite resolution and limited detector acceptance is presented. Addressing the case that the solution is known to be non-negative, in the approach presented here, the true distribution is estimated by a weighted sum of probability density functions with positive weights and with the width of the densities acting as a regularization parameter responsible for the smoothness of the result. To obtain better smoothing in less populated regions, the width parameter is chosen inversely proportional to the square root of the estimated density. Furthermore, the non-negative garrote method is used to find the most economic representation of the solution. Cross-validation is employed to determine the optimal values of the resolution and garrote parameters. The proposed approach is directly applicable to multidimensional problems. Numerical examples in one and two dimensions are presented to illustrate the procedure.

  10. Exact finite reduced density matrix and von Neumann entropy for the Calogero model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osenda, Omar; Pont, Federico M.; Okopińska, Anna; Serra, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The information content of continuous quantum variables systems is usually studied using a number of well known approximation methods. The approximations are made to obtain the spectrum, eigenfunctions or the reduced density matrices that are essential to calculate the entropy-like quantities that quantify the information. Even in the sparse cases where the spectrum and eigenfunctions are exactly known, the entanglement spectrum- the spectrum of the reduced density matrices that characterize the problem- must be obtained in an approximate fashion. In this work, we obtain analytically a finite representation of the reduced density matrices of the fundamental state of the N-particle Calogero model for a discrete set of values of the interaction parameter. As a consequence, the exact entanglement spectrum and von Neumann entropy is worked out.

  11. Low Density Parity Check Codes Based on Finite Geometries: A Rediscovery and More

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kou, Yu; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    Low density parity check (LDPC) codes with iterative decoding based on belief propagation achieve astonishing error performance close to Shannon limit. No algebraic or geometric method for constructing these codes has been reported and they are largely generated by computer search. As a result, encoding of long LDPC codes is in general very complex. This paper presents two classes of high rate LDPC codes whose constructions are based on finite Euclidean and projective geometries, respectively. These classes of codes a.re cyclic and have good constraint parameters and minimum distances. Cyclic structure adows the use of linear feedback shift registers for encoding. These finite geometry LDPC codes achieve very good error performance with either soft-decision iterative decoding based on belief propagation or Gallager's hard-decision bit flipping algorithm. These codes can be punctured or extended to obtain other good LDPC codes. A generalization of these codes is also presented.

  12. The effects of finite element grid density on model correlation and damage detection of a bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Simmermacher, T.; Mayes, R.L.; Reese, G.M.; James, G.H.; Zimmerman, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Variation of model size as determined by grid density is studied for both model refinement and damage detection. In model refinement 3 it is found that a large model with a fine grid is preferable in order to achieve a reasonable correlation between the experimental response and the finite element model. A smaller model falls victim to the inaccuracies of the finite element method. As the grid become increasing finer, the FE method approaches an accurate representation. In damage detection the FE method is only a starting point. The model is refined with a matrix method which doesn`t retain the FE approximation, therefore a smaller model that captures most of the dynamics of the structure can be used and is preferable.

  13. Experimental measurement of energy density in a vibrating plate and comparison with energy finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navazi, H. M.; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, A.; Ghobad, Y.; Haddadpour, H.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a new method and formulation is presented for experimental measurement of energy density of high frequency vibrations of a plate. By use of the new proposed method and eight accelerometers, both kinetic and potential energy densities are measured. Also, a computer program is developed based on energy finite element method to evaluate the proposed method. For several points, the results of the developed experimental formulation are compared with those of the energy finite element analysis results. It is observed that, there is a good agreement between experimental results and analyses. Finally, another test setup with reduced accelerometer spacing was prepared and based on the comparison between kinetic and potential results, it is concluded that, the kinetic and potential counterparts of the energy density are equal in high frequency bands. Based on this conclusion, the measurement procedure was upgraded to an efficient and very simple one for high frequency ranges. According to the new test procedure, another experimental measurement was performed and the results had a good agreement with the EFEA results.

  14. QUARKONIUM AT FINITE TEMPERATURE.

    SciTech Connect

    UMEDA, T.

    2006-06-09

    Lattice QCD studies on charmonium at finite temperature are presented After a discussion about problems for the Maximum Entropy Method applied to finite temperature lattice QCD, I show several results on charmonium spectral functions. The 'wave function' of charmonium is also discussed to study the spatial correlation between quark and anti-quark in deconfinement phase.

  15. Higher-order finite-difference formulation of periodic Orbital-free Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Swarnava; Suryanarayana, Phanish

    2016-02-01

    We present a real-space formulation and higher-order finite-difference implementation of periodic Orbital-free Density Functional Theory (OF-DFT). Specifically, utilizing a local reformulation of the electrostatic and kernel terms, we develop a generalized framework for performing OF-DFT simulations with different variants of the electronic kinetic energy. In particular, we propose a self-consistent field (SCF) type fixed-point method for calculations involving linear-response kinetic energy functionals. In this framework, evaluation of both the electronic ground-state and forces on the nuclei are amenable to computations that scale linearly with the number of atoms. We develop a parallel implementation of this formulation using the finite-difference discretization. We demonstrate that higher-order finite-differences can achieve relatively large convergence rates with respect to mesh-size in both the energies and forces. Additionally, we establish that the fixed-point iteration converges rapidly, and that it can be further accelerated using extrapolation techniques like Anderson's mixing. We validate the accuracy of the results by comparing the energies and forces with plane-wave methods for selected examples, including the vacancy formation energy in Aluminum. Overall, the suitability of the proposed formulation for scalable high performance computing makes it an attractive choice for large-scale OF-DFT calculations consisting of thousands of atoms.

  16. A density-dependant finite element model for analysis of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elhamid, H. F.; Javadi, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    SummarySaltwater intrusion is a serious problem in coastal regions all over the world. It is one of the processes that degrade water-quality by raising salinity to levels exceeding acceptable drinking water standards. It may occur due to human activities and/or by natural events. Over-abstraction is considered the main cause of saltwater intrusion. Moreover, climate change and sea level rise speed up saltwater intrusion. This paper presents the development and validation of a coupled transient finite element model for simulation of fluid flow and solute transport in saturate and unsaturated soils with application to study saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. The model includes coupling of water flow, air flow, heat flow and solute transport. Furthermore, transient density-dependent flow is included in the model and the dependency of dispersion on velocity is considered. Different mechanisms that govern solute transport in porous media including, advection, diffusion, dispersion, adsorption, chemical reactions and biological degradation are included in the model. The governing equation of the solute transport is solved together with three balance equations for water flow, air flow and heat transfer. The nonlinear system of governing differential equations is solved using the finite element method in the space domain and a finite difference scheme in the time domain. The model is validated by application to a standard case study from the literature (Henry's problem) and then applied to predict saltwater intrusion in a coastal aquifer. The results of the model predictions are presented and discussed.

  17. On finite density effects on cosmic reheating and moduli decay and implications for Dark Matter production

    SciTech Connect

    Drewes, Marco

    2014-11-01

    We study the damping of an oscillating scalar field in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime by perturbative processes, taking into account the back-reaction of the plasma of decay products on the damping rate. The scalar field may be identified with the inflaton, in which case this process resembles the reheating of the universe after inflation. It can also model a modulus that dominates the energy density of the universe at later times. We find that the finite density corrections to the damping rate can have a drastic effect on the thermal history and considerably increase both, the maximal temperature in the early universe and the reheating temperature at the onset of the radiation dominated era. As a result the abundance of some Dark Matter candidates may be considerably larger than previously estimated. We give improved analytic estimates for the maximal and the reheating temperatures and confirm them numerically in a simple model.

  18. Finite element analysis of cylinder shell resonator and design of intelligent density meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    W, Sui X.; M, Fan Y.; X, Zhang G.; R, Qiu Z.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the mathematical model and finite element analysis of the cylinder shell resonator, a novel resonant liquid density meter is designed. The meter consists of a cylinder shell resonator fixed on both ends, a measurement circuit with automatic gain control and automatic phase control, and a signal processing system with microcomputer unit C8051F021. The density meter is insensitive to the liquid pressure, and it can intelligently compensate for the temperature. The experiment results show the meter characteristic coefficients of K0, K1, and K2 at 25 centigrade are -129.5668 kg m-3, -0.2535 × 106 kg m-3 s-1 and 0.6239 × 1010 kg m-3 s-2, respectively. The accuracy of the sensor is ±0.1% in range of 700-900 kg m-3

  19. Hadron Resonances from QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Jozef J.

    2016-03-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel πK, ηK scattering. The very recent extension to the case where an external current acts is also presented, considering the reaction πγ* → ππ, from which the unstable ρ → πγ transition form factor is extracted. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  20. Density-based load estimation using two-dimensional finite element models: a parametric study.

    PubMed

    Bona, Max A; Martin, Larry D; Fischer, Kenneth J

    2006-08-01

    A parametric investigation was conducted to determine the effects on the load estimation method of varying: (1) the thickness of back-plates used in the two-dimensional finite element models of long bones, (2) the number of columns of nodes in the outer medial and lateral sections of the diaphysis to which the back-plate multipoint constraints are applied and (3) the region of bone used in the optimization procedure of the density-based load estimation technique. The study is performed using two-dimensional finite element models of the proximal femora of a chimpanzee, gorilla, lion and grizzly bear. It is shown that the density-based load estimation can be made more efficient and accurate by restricting the stimulus optimization region to the metaphysis/epiphysis. In addition, a simple method, based on the variation of diaphyseal cortical thickness, is developed for assigning the thickness to the back-plate. It is also shown that the number of columns of nodes used as multipoint constraints does not have a significant effect on the method. PMID:17132530

  1. ATLAS: A real-space finite-difference implementation of orbital-free density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Wenhui; Shao, Xuecheng; Su, Chuanxun; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shoutao; Li, Quan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Miao, Maosheng; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2016-03-01

    Orbital-free density functional theory (OF-DFT) is a promising method for large-scale quantum mechanics simulation as it provides a good balance of accuracy and computational cost. Its applicability to large-scale simulations has been aided by progress in constructing kinetic energy functionals and local pseudopotentials. However, the widespread adoption of OF-DFT requires further improvement in its efficiency and robustly implemented software. Here we develop a real-space finite-difference (FD) method for the numerical solution of OF-DFT in periodic systems. Instead of the traditional self-consistent method, a powerful scheme for energy minimization is introduced to solve the Euler-Lagrange equation. Our approach engages both the real-space finite-difference method and a direct energy-minimization scheme for the OF-DFT calculations. The method is coded into the ATLAS software package and benchmarked using periodic systems of solid Mg, Al, and Al3Mg. The test results show that our implementation can achieve high accuracy, efficiency, and numerical stability for large-scale simulations.

  2. Quantal Brownian motion from second RPA dynamics at finite temperature: Explicit density operator and related quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, S.

    1991-07-01

    Within the framework of the quantum dynamical description of Brownian motion, a closed expression for the density operator is extracted from the master equation based on the dynamics of the second random phase approximation (RPA) at finite temperature. The second RPA theory is an extension of the usual RPA theory up to next higher order. The entropy and effective temperature of the system of collective RPA phonons are subsequently calculated by exploiting the analogy with the quantum optics damped oscillator, and their temporal behavior is surveyed by showing how these quantities relax to their equilibrium values. The calculation is carried out without invoking the so-called the resonant approximation, which amounts to ignoring the rapidly oscillating coupling terms. Particular attention is paid to the effect of these coupling terms.

  3. Quasiparticle theory of transport coefficients for hadronic matter at finite temperature and baryon density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, M.; Kapusta, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a flexible quasiparticle theory of transport coefficients of hot hadronic matter at finite baryon density. We begin with a hadronic quasiparticle model which includes a scalar and a vector mean field. Quasiparticle energies and the mean fields depend on temperature and baryon chemical potential. Starting with the quasiparticle dispersion relation, we derive the Boltzmann equation and use the Chapman-Enskog expansion to derive formulas for the shear and bulk viscosities and thermal conductivity. We obtain both relaxation-time approximation formulas and more general integral equations. Throughout the work, we explicitly enforce the Landau-Lifshitz conditions of fit and ensure the theory is thermodynamically self-consistent. The derived formulas should be useful for predicting the transport coefficients of the hadronic phase of matter produced in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at other accelerators.

  4. QCD Phase Diagram According to the Center Group

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado Mercado, Ydalia; Gattringer, Christof; Evertz, Hans Gerd

    2011-06-03

    We study an effective theory for QCD at finite temperature and density which contains the leading center symmetric and center symmetry breaking terms. The effective theory is studied in a flux representation where the complex phase problem is absent and the model becomes accessible to Monte Carlo techniques also at finite chemical potential. We simulate the system by using a generalized Prokof'ev-Svistunov worm algorithm and compare the results to a low temperature expansion. The phase diagram is determined as a function of temperature, chemical potential, and quark mass. The shape and quark mass dependence of the phase boundaries are as expected for QCD. The transition into the deconfined phase is smooth throughout, without any discontinuities or critical points.

  5. Variational density matrices in quantum field theory at finite temperature and chemical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Nadeau, H.

    1996-07-01

    I evaluate the Helmholtz free energy of finite temperature {lambda}{var_phi}{sup 4} theory, both real and complex, using a variational quadratic {ital ansatz} for the density matrix. Minimizing with respect to the variational parameters produces results identical to those obtained by summing the daisy and superdaisy diagrams. In the nonrelativistic limit this is equivalent to a Hartree-Fock mean field with an effective mass. Quartic terms are then included by means of a relativistic generalization of the hypernetted-chain approximation without exchange terms, called the {open_quote}{open_quote}direct approximation.{close_quote}{close_quote} In this way infinite groups of rings and ladders are summed, giving nonperturbative expressions for the internal energy and four-point function in terms of a small number of Dyson-like integral equations. An expression is obtained for the internal energy of a zero-temperature system in terms of only two variational parameters. Because the hypernetted-chain approximation preserves the Euler-Lagrange variational principle, minimizing the internal energy with respect to these parameters should provide a semiquantitative upper bound on the ground state energy of an interacting relativistic system at zero temperature. For the full finite temperature theory in the direct approximation, there are now three variational parameters and it is necessary to obtain the entropy in a approximation comparable to that for the internal energy. This is done in an analogous manner to the separability approximation of nonrelativistic hypernetted-chain theory. Finally, an improvement on the direct approximation is attained by including exchange terms of all types. This proceeds along the lines of parquet summations, resulting in a set of integral equations that, when solved self-consistently, includes all series and parallel connections of direct and exchange diagrams. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Explore the high-density QCD medium via particle correlations in pPb collisions at CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei

    2015-01-15

    The observation of a long-range, near-side two-particle correlation (“ridge”) in very high multiplicity proton–proton and proton–lead collisions has opened up new opportunity of studying novel QCD phenomena in small collision systems. In 2013, high luminosity pPb data were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. New results of two- and multi-particle correlations in pPb collisions from CMS are presented over a wide event multiplicity and transverse momentum range. A direct comparison of pPb and PbPb systems is provided. Physics implications, especially in the context of color glass condensate and hydrodynamics models are also discussed.

  7. Dislocation density-based finite element method modeling of ultrasonic consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Deepankar

    A dislocation density-based constitutive model has been developed and implemented into a crystal plasticity quasi-static finite element framework. This approach captures the statistical evolution of dislocation structures and grain fragmentation at the bonding interface when sufficient boundary conditions pertaining to the Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) process are prescribed. The hardening is incorporated using statistically stored and geometrically necessary dislocation densities (SSDs and GNDs), which are dislocation analogs of isotropic and kinematic hardening, respectively. Since the macroscopic global boundary conditions during UC involves cyclic sinosuidal simple shear loading along with constant normal pressure, the cross slip mechanism has been included in the evolution equation for SSDs. The inclusion of cross slip promotes slip irreversibility, dislocation storage, and hence, cyclic hardening during the UC. The GND considers strain-gradient and thus renders the model size-dependent. The model is calibrated using experimental data from published refereed literature for simple shear deformation of single crystalline pure aluminum alloy and uniaxial tension of polycrystalline Aluminum 3003-H18 alloy. The model also incorporates various local and global effects such as (1) friction, (2) thermal softening, (3) acoustic softening, (4) surface texture of the sonotrode and initial mating surfaces, and (6) presence of oxide-scale at the mating surfaces, which further contribute significantly specifically to the grain substructure evolution at the interface and to the anisotropic bulk deformation away from the interface during UC in general. The model results have been predicted for Al-3003 alloy undergoing UC. A good agreement between the experimental and simulated results has been observed for the evolution of linear weld density and anisotropic global strengths macroscopically. Similarly, microscopic observations such as embrittlement due to grain substructure

  8. Family of finite geometry low-density parity-check codes for quantum key expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kung-Chuan; Brun, Todd A.

    2013-06-01

    We consider a quantum key expansion (QKE) protocol based on entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). In these protocols, a seed of a previously shared secret key is used in the postprocessing stage of a standard quantum key distribution protocol like the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol, in order to produce a larger secret key. This protocol was proposed by Luo and Devetak, but codes leading to good performance have not been investigated. We look into a family of EAQECCs generated by classical finite geometry (FG) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, for which very efficient iterative decoders exist. A critical observation is that almost all errors in the resulting secret key result from uncorrectable block errors that can be detected by an additional syndrome check and an additional sampling step. Bad blocks can then be discarded. We make some changes to the original protocol to avoid the consumption of the preshared key when the protocol fails. This allows us to greatly reduce the bit error rate of the key at the cost of a minor reduction in the key production rate, but without increasing the consumption rate of the preshared key. We present numerical simulations for the family of FG LDPC codes, and show that this improved QKE protocol has a good net key production rate even at relatively high error rates, for appropriate choices of these codes.

  9. Finite-connectivity spin-glass phase diagrams and low-density parity check codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, Gabriele; Saad, David

    2006-02-01

    We obtain phase diagrams of regular and irregular finite-connectivity spin glasses. Contact is first established between properties of the phase diagram and the performance of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes within the replica symmetric (RS) ansatz. We then study the location of the dynamical and critical transition points of these systems within the one step replica symmetry breaking theory (RSB), extending similar calculations that have been performed in the past for the Bethe spin-glass problem. We observe that the location of the dynamical transition line does change within the RSB theory, in comparison with the results obtained in the RS case. For LDPC decoding of messages transmitted over the binary erasure channel we find, at zero temperature and rate R=1/4 , an RS critical transition point at pc≃0.67 while the critical RSB transition point is located at pc≃0.7450±0.0050 , to be compared with the corresponding Shannon bound 1-R . For the binary symmetric channel we show that the low temperature reentrant behavior of the dynamical transition line, observed within the RS ansatz, changes its location when the RSB ansatz is employed; the dynamical transition point occurs at higher values of the channel noise. Possible practical implications to improve the performance of the state-of-the-art error correcting codes are discussed.

  10. Twisted mass finite volume effects

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Wenger, Urs; Wu, Jackson M. S.

    2010-08-01

    We calculate finite-volume effects on the pion masses and decay constant in twisted mass lattice QCD at finite lattice spacing. We show that the lighter neutral pion in twisted mass lattice QCD gives rise to finite-volume effects that are exponentially enhanced when compared to those arising from the heavier charged pions. We demonstrate that the recent two flavor twisted mass lattice data can be better fitted when twisted mass effects in finite-volume corrections are taken into account.

  11. A Galerkin-based formulation of the probability density evolution method for general stochastic finite element systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Vissarion; Kalogeris, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    The present paper proposes a Galerkin finite element projection scheme for the solution of the partial differential equations (pde's) involved in the probability density evolution method, for the linear and nonlinear static analysis of stochastic systems. According to the principle of preservation of probability, the probability density evolution of a stochastic system is expressed by its corresponding Fokker-Planck (FP) stochastic partial differential equation. Direct integration of the FP equation is feasible only for simple systems with a small number of degrees of freedom, due to analytical and/or numerical intractability. However, rewriting the FP equation conditioned to the random event description, a generalized density evolution equation (GDEE) can be obtained, which can be reduced to a one dimensional pde. Two Galerkin finite element method schemes are proposed for the numerical solution of the resulting pde's, namely a time-marching discontinuous Galerkin scheme and the StreamlineUpwind/Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) scheme. In addition, a reformulation of the classical GDEE is proposed, which implements the principle of probability preservation in space instead of time, making this approach suitable for the stochastic analysis of finite element systems. The advantages of the FE Galerkin methods and in particular the SUPG over finite difference schemes, like the modified Lax-Wendroff, which is the most frequently used method for the solution of the GDEE, are illustrated with numerical examples and explored further.

  12. Finite size effects in the averaged eigenvalue density of Wigner random-sign real symmetric matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhesi, G. S.; Ausloos, M.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, strict finite size effects must be taken into account in condensed matter problems when treated through models based on lattices or graphs. On the other hand, the cases of directed bonds or links are known to be highly relevant in topics ranging from ferroelectrics to quotation networks. Combining these two points leads us to examine finite size random matrices. To obtain basic materials properties, the Green's function associated with the matrix has to be calculated. To obtain the first finite size correction, a perturbative scheme is hereby developed within the framework of the replica method. The averaged eigenvalue spectrum and the corresponding Green's function of Wigner random sign real symmetric N ×N matrices to order 1 /N are finally obtained analytically. Related simulation results are also presented. The agreement is excellent between the analytical formulas and finite size matrix numerical diagonalization results, confirming the correctness of the first-order finite size expression.

  13. Direct numerical simulations of particle-laden density currents with adaptive, discontinuous finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, S. D.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.; Allison, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    High resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) are an important tool for the detailed analysis of turbidity current dynamics. Models that resolve the vertical structure and turbulence of the flow are typically based upon the Navier-Stokes equations. Two-dimensional simulations are known to produce unrealistic cohesive vortices that are not representative of the real three-dimensional physics. The effect of this phenomena is particularly apparent in the later stages of flow propagation. The ideal solution to this problem is to run the simulation in three dimensions but this is computationally expensive. This paper presents a novel finite-element (FE) DNS turbidity current model that has been built within Fluidity, an open source, general purpose, computational fluid dynamics code. The model is validated through re-creation of a lock release density current at a Grashof number of 5 × 106 in two, and three-dimensions. Validation of the model considers the flow energy budget, sedimentation rate, head speed, wall normal velocity profiles and the final deposit. Conservation of energy in particular is found to be a good metric for measuring mesh performance in capturing the range of dynamics. FE models scale well over many thousands of processors and do not impose restrictions on domain shape, but they are computationally expensive. Use of discontinuous discretisations and adaptive unstructured meshing technologies, which reduce the required element count by approximately two orders of magnitude, results in high resolution DNS models of turbidity currents at a fraction of the cost of traditional FE models. The benefits of this technique will enable simulation of turbidity currents in complex and large domains where DNS modelling was previously unachievable.

  14. Exponentially modified QCD coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, Gorazd; Valenzuela, Cristian

    2008-04-01

    We present a specific class of models for an infrared-finite analytic QCD coupling, such that at large spacelike energy scales the coupling differs from the perturbative one by less than any inverse power of the energy scale. This condition is motivated by the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics operator product expansion philosophy. Allowed by the ambiguity in the analytization of the perturbative coupling, the proposed class of couplings has three parameters. In the intermediate energy region, the proposed coupling has low loop-level and renormalization scheme dependence. The present modification of perturbative QCD must be considered as a phenomenological attempt, with the aim of enlarging the applicability range of the theory of the strong interactions at low energies.

  15. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  16. Finite-density effects in the Fredrickson-Andersen and Kob-Andersen kinetically-constrained models

    SciTech Connect

    Teomy, Eial Shokef, Yair

    2014-08-14

    We calculate the corrections to the thermodynamic limit of the critical density for jamming in the Kob-Andersen and Fredrickson-Andersen kinetically-constrained models, and find them to be finite-density corrections, and not finite-size corrections. We do this by introducing a new numerical algorithm, which requires negligible computer memory since contrary to alternative approaches, it generates at each point only the necessary data. The algorithm starts from a single unfrozen site and at each step randomly generates the neighbors of the unfrozen region and checks whether they are frozen or not. Our results correspond to systems of size greater than 10{sup 7} × 10{sup 7}, much larger than any simulated before, and are consistent with the rigorous bounds on the asymptotic corrections. We also find that the average number of sites that seed a critical droplet is greater than 1.

  17. Initial Energy Density in Heavy Ion Collisions from a Color Neutral Three-Dimensional Color Glass Condensate Model of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozonder, Sener

    In the ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, hot, dense and strongly interacting Quark Gluon Plasma has been created. After the Quark Gluon Plasma reaches local thermal equilibrium, the fireball expands rapidly. Relativistic hydrodynamics successfully captures this evolution given the initial energy and initial entropy densities, along with the equation of state. This is followed by freeze-out of the plasma into hadrons, which are finally recorded at the detectors. The final multiplicity of the detected particles as well as their distribution in transverse momentum and rapidity are determined by the initial conditions of the hydrodynamic evolution of the Quark Gluon Plasma. In this thesis, the initial energy density of heavy-ion collisions is calculated in the framework of an effective model based on Quantum Chromodynamics. An overview of heavy ion collisions and Quark Gluon Plasma is given first. Then, the three-dimensional, color neutral McLerran-Venugopalan model is introduced and its parameters are fixed from the data on gluon distribution functions. Finally, we apply this model to Au-Au (at RHIC) and Pb-Pb (at LHC) collisions to calculate the initial energy density. The most important result of the work presented here is calculation of the rapidity profile of the initial energy density. Finally we compare our results on the energy density profile with that is used in hydrodynamic simulations.

  18. Level density of a Fermi gas and integer partitions: A Gumbel-like finite-size correction

    SciTech Connect

    Roccia, Jerome; Leboeuf, Patricio

    2010-04-15

    We investigate the many-body level density of a gas of noninteracting fermions. We determine its behavior as a function of the temperature and the number of particles. As the temperature increases, and beyond the usual Sommerfeld expansion that describes the degenerate gas behavior, corrections due to a finite number of particles lead to Gumbel-like contributions. We discuss connections with the partition problem in number theory, extreme value statistics, and differences with respect to the Bose gas.

  19. Extending the density functional embedding theory to finite temperature and an efficient iterative method for solving for embedding potentials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen

    2016-03-28

    A key element in the density functional embedding theory (DFET) is the embedding potential. We discuss two major issues related to the embedding potential: (1) its non-uniqueness and (2) the numerical difficulty for solving for it, especially for the spin-polarized systems. To resolve the first issue, we extend DFET to finite temperature: all quantities, such as the subsystem densities and the total system's density, are calculated at a finite temperature. This is a physical extension since materials work at finite temperatures. We show that the embedding potential is strictly unique at T > 0. To resolve the second issue, we introduce an efficient iterative embedding potential solver. We discuss how to relax the magnetic moments in subsystems and how to equilibrate the chemical potentials across subsystems. The solver is robust and efficient for several non-trivial examples, in all of which good quality spin-polarized embedding potentials were obtained. We also demonstrate the solver on an extended periodic system: iron body-centered cubic (110) surface, which is related to the modeling of the heterogeneous catalysis involving iron, such as the Fischer-Tropsch and the Haber processes. This work would make it efficient and accurate to perform embedding simulations of some challenging material problems, such as the heterogeneous catalysis and the defects of complicated spin configurations in electronic materials. PMID:27036426

  20. Extending the density functional embedding theory to finite temperature and an efficient iterative method for solving for embedding potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen

    2016-03-01

    A key element in the density functional embedding theory (DFET) is the embedding potential. We discuss two major issues related to the embedding potential: (1) its non-uniqueness and (2) the numerical difficulty for solving for it, especially for the spin-polarized systems. To resolve the first issue, we extend DFET to finite temperature: all quantities, such as the subsystem densities and the total system's density, are calculated at a finite temperature. This is a physical extension since materials work at finite temperatures. We show that the embedding potential is strictly unique at T > 0. To resolve the second issue, we introduce an efficient iterative embedding potential solver. We discuss how to relax the magnetic moments in subsystems and how to equilibrate the chemical potentials across subsystems. The solver is robust and efficient for several non-trivial examples, in all of which good quality spin-polarized embedding potentials were obtained. We also demonstrate the solver on an extended periodic system: iron body-centered cubic (110) surface, which is related to the modeling of the heterogeneous catalysis involving iron, such as the Fischer-Tropsch and the Haber processes. This work would make it efficient and accurate to perform embedding simulations of some challenging material problems, such as the heterogeneous catalysis and the defects of complicated spin configurations in electronic materials.

  1. Effects of Finite Density Fluctuations and of the Upper Hybrid Resonance on O-X Correlation Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.

    2001-02-10

    The correlation between O-mode and X-mode reflectometer signals is studied with a 1-D reflectometer model taking into account the influence of finite density fluctuation levels and the upper hybrid resonance. It is found that a high level of O-X correlation can only be achieved for sufficiently small density fluctuation levels (typically much less than 1%) or very low magnetic field strengths. The influence of the upper hybrid resonance on the O-X correlation was found to also degrade the correlation between the O and X mode signals for very low magnetic field strengths or for very short density scale lengths. The extrapolation of these results to reactor-scale parameters indicates that the magnetic field strength can reliably be measured in the core plasma provided the density fluctuation level is typically much less than 1%.

  2. QCD phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Peter O.

    2006-09-25

    A review is presented on the contributions of Mexican Scientists to QCD phenomenology. These contributions range from Constituent Quark model's (CQM) with a fixed number of quarks (antiquarks) to those where the number of quarks is not conserved. Also glueball spectra were treated with phenomenological models. Several other approaches are mentioned.

  3. Method to study complex systems of mesons in lattice QCD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Detmold, William; Savage, Martin J.

    2010-07-30

    Correlation functions involving many hadrons allow finite density systems to be explored with Lattice QCD. Recently, systems with up to 12more » $$\\pi^+$$'s or $K^+$'s have been studied to determine the the $3$-$$\\pi^+$$ and $3$-$K^+$ interactions and the corresponding chemical potential has been determined as a function of density in each case. We derive recursion relations between correlation functions that allow us to extend this work to systems of arbitrary numbers of mesons and to systems containing arbitrary different types of mesons such as $$\\pi^+$$'s, $K^+$'s, $D^0$'s and $B^+$'s. These relations allow for the study of finite-density systems in arbitrary volumes, and the study of high-density systems. Systems comprised of up to N=12 m mesons can be explored with Lattice QCD calculations utilizing $m$ different sources for the quark propagators. As the recursion relations require only a small, N-independent, number of operations to derive the N+1 meson contractions from the N meson contractions, they are compuationally feasible.« less

  4. Lattice QCD at the physical point: simulation and analysis details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, S.; Fodor, Z.; Hoelbling, C.; Katz, S. D.; Krieg, S.; Kurth, T.; Lellouch, L.; Lippert, T.; Szabó, K. K.; Vulvert, G.

    2011-08-01

    We give details of our precise determination of the light quark masses m ud = ( m u + m d )/2 and m s in 2 + 1 flavor QCD, with simulated pion masses down to 120 MeV, at five lattice spacings, and in large volumes. The details concern the action and algorithm employed, the HMC force with HEX smeared clover fermions, the choice of the scale setting procedure and of the input masses. After an overview of the simulation parameters, extensive checks of algorithmic stability, autocorrelation and (practical) ergodicity are reported. To corroborate the good scaling properties of our action, explicit tests of the scaling of hadron masses in N f = 3 QCD are carried out. Details of how we control finite volume effects through dedicated finite volume scaling runs are reported. To check consistency with SU(2) Chiral Perturbation Theory the behavior of M π 2 /m ud and F π as a function of m ud is investigated. Details of how we use the RI/MOM procedure with a separate continuum limit of the running of the scalar density R S ( μ, μ') are given. This procedure is shown to reproduce the known value of r 0 m s in quenched QCD. Input from dispersion theory is used to split our value of m ud into separate values of m u and m d . Finally, our procedure to quantify both systematic and statistical uncertainties is discussed.

  5. Finite Elements approach for Density Functional Theory calculations on locally refined meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Fattebert, J; Hornung, R D; Wissink, A M

    2006-03-27

    We present a quadratic Finite Elements approach to discretize the Kohn-Sham equations on structured non-uniform meshes. A multigrid FAC preconditioner is proposed to iteratively solve the equations by an accelerated steepest descent scheme. The method was implemented using SAMRAI, a parallel software infrastructure for general AMR applications. Examples of applications to small nanoclusters calculations are presented.

  6. All-electron Kohn–Sham density functional theory on hierarchic finite element spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, Volker; Linder, Christian

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a real space formulation of the Kohn–Sham equations is developed, making use of the hierarchy of finite element spaces from different polynomial order. The focus is laid on all-electron calculations, having the highest requirement onto the basis set, which must be able to represent the orthogonal eigenfunctions as well as the electrostatic potential. A careful numerical analysis is performed, which points out the numerical intricacies originating from the singularity of the nuclei and the necessity for approximations in the numerical setting, with the ambition to enable solutions within a predefined accuracy. In this context the influence of counter-charges in the Poisson equation, the requirement of a finite domain size, numerical quadratures and the mesh refinement are examined as well as the representation of the electrostatic potential in a high order finite element space. The performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in computations on noble gases. In addition the finite element basis proves its flexibility in the calculation of the bond-length as well as the dipole moment of the carbon monoxide molecule.

  7. Finite Element approach for Density Functional Theory calculations on locally refined meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Fattebert, J; Hornung, R D; Wissink, A M

    2007-02-23

    We present a quadratic Finite Element approach to discretize the Kohn-Sham equations on structured non-uniform meshes. A multigrid FAC preconditioner is proposed to iteratively solve the equations by an accelerated steepest descent scheme. The method was implemented using SAMRAI, a parallel software infrastructure for general AMR applications. Examples of applications to small nanoclusters calculations are presented.

  8. Phase structure of QCD for heavy quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christian S.; Luecker, Jan; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the deconfinement and Roberge-Weiss transition in the heavy quark regime for finite real and imaginary chemical potential within the functional approach to continuum QCD. We extract the critical phase boundary between the first-order and crossover regions and also explore tricritical scaling. Our results confirm previous ones from finite volume lattice studies.

  9. Baryons in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, Kanabu; Suganuma, Hideo; Kojo, Toru

    2007-04-15

    We study baryons in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D-brane system. In holographic QCD, the baryon appears as a topologically nontrivial chiral soliton in a four-dimensional effective theory of mesons. We call this topological soliton brane-induced Skyrmion. Some review of D4/D8/D8 holographic QCD is presented from the viewpoints of recent hadron physics and QCD phenomenologies. A four-dimensional effective theory with pions and {rho} mesons is uniquely derived from the non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action of D8 brane with D4 supergravity background at the leading order of large N{sub c}, without small amplitude expansion of meson fields to discuss chiral solitons. For the hedgehog configuration of pion and {rho}-meson fields, we derive the energy functional and the Euler-Lagrange equation of brane-induced Skyrmion from the meson effective action induced by holographic QCD. Performing the numerical calculation, we obtain the soliton solution and figure out the pion profile F(r) and the {rho}-meson profile G-tilde(r) of the brane-induced Skyrmion with its total energy, energy density distribution, and root-mean-square radius. These results are compared with the experimental quantities of baryons and also with the profiles of standard Skyrmion without {rho} mesons. We analyze interaction terms of pions and {rho} mesons in brane-induced Skyrmion, and find a significant {rho}-meson component appearing in the core region of a baryon.

  10. Hadron scattering and resonances in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Jozef J.

    2016-05-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel π >K, ηK scattering. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  11. Testing density-dependent groundwater models: Two-dimensional steady state unstable convection in infinite, finite and inclined porous layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weatherill, D.; Simmons, C.T.; Voss, C.I.; Robinson, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    This study proposes the use of several problems of unstable steady state convection with variable fluid density in a porous layer of infinite horizontal extent as two-dimensional (2-D) test cases for density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport simulators. Unlike existing density-dependent model benchmarks, these problems have well-defined stability criteria that are determined analytically. These analytical stability indicators can be compared with numerical model results to test the ability of a code to accurately simulate buoyancy driven flow and diffusion. The basic analytical solution is for a horizontally infinite fluid-filled porous layer in which fluid density decreases with depth. The proposed test problems include unstable convection in an infinite horizontal box, in a finite horizontal box, and in an infinite inclined box. A dimensionless Rayleigh number incorporating properties of the fluid and the porous media determines the stability of the layer in each case. Testing the ability of numerical codes to match both the critical Rayleigh number at which convection occurs and the wavelength of convection cells is an addition to the benchmark problems currently in use. The proposed test problems are modelled in 2-D using the SUTRA [SUTRA-A model for saturated-unsaturated variable-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport. US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report, 02-4231, 2002. 250 p] density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport code. For the case of an infinite horizontal box, SUTRA results show a distinct change from stable to unstable behaviour around the theoretical critical Rayleigh number of 4??2 and the simulated wavelength of unstable convection agrees with that predicted by the analytical solution. The effects of finite layer aspect ratio and inclination on stability indicators are also tested and numerical results are in excellent agreement with theoretical stability criteria and with

  12. Structural Health Monitoring Using High-Density Fiber Optic Strain Sensor and Inverse Finite Element Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alexander; Quach, Cuong C.; Cooper, Eric G.; Parks, Jeffrey; Spangler, Jan L.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to mitigate accidents due to system and component failure, NASA s Aviation Safety has partnered with industry, academia, and other governmental organizations to develop real-time, on-board monitoring capabilities and system performance models for early detection of airframe structure degradation. NASA Langley is investigating a structural health monitoring capability that uses a distributed fiber optic strain system and an inverse finite element method for measuring and modeling structural deformations. This report describes the constituent systems that enable this structural monitoring function and discusses results from laboratory tests using the fiber strain sensor system and the inverse finite element method to demonstrate structural deformation estimation on an instrumented test article

  13. Closed-orbit theory of spatial density oscillations in finite fermion systems.

    PubMed

    Roccia, Jérôme; Brack, Matthias

    2008-05-23

    We investigate the particle and kinetic-energy densities for N noninteracting fermions confined in a local potential. Using Gutzwiller's semiclassical Green function, we describe the oscillating parts of the densities in terms of closed nonperiodic classical orbits. We derive universal relations between the oscillating parts of the densities for potentials with spherical symmetry in arbitrary dimensions and a "local virial theorem" valid also for arbitrary nonintegrable potentials. We give simple analytical formulas for the density oscillations in a one-dimensional potential. PMID:18518516

  14. Wave coupling in the magnetized plasma edge: Impact of a finite, inhomogeneous density inside the antenna box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Crombé, K.; Van Eester, D.; Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most present Ion Cyclotron Resonant Frequency (ICRF) heating codes and antenna codes assume the antenna sitting in a vacuum region and consider the fast wave only, which implicitly performs an abrupt density transition from vacuum to above lower hybrid (LH) resonance. We studied the impact of densities that decay continuously inside the antenna box on near field patterns and power coupling. A new full wave code based on the COMSOL Finite Element Solver has been developed to investigate this topic. It is shown that: up to the memory limits of the adopted workstation, the local RF field pattern in low-density regions below the LH resonance changes with the grid size. Interestingly and importantly, however, the total coupled spectrum is independent to the mesh size and is weakly affected by the presence of the density profile inside the antenna box in dipole phasing. Thus one can drop out this density for coupling studies. Simulation also shows that varying the density gradient in the fast wave evanescence region has no significant effect on wave coupling.

  15. Internal one-particle density matrix for Bose-Einstein condensates with finite number of particles in a harmonic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Taiichi; Funaki, Yasuro; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Roepke, Gerd; Schuck, Peter; Tohsaki, Akihiro

    2009-05-15

    Investigations on the internal one-particle density matrix in the case of Bose-Einstein condensates with a finite number (N) of particles in a harmonic potential are performed. We solve the eigenvalue problem of the Pethick-Pitaevskii-type internal density matrix and find a fragmented condensate. On the contrary the condensate Jacobi-type internal density matrix gives complete condensation into a single state. The internal one-particle density matrix is, therefore, shown to be different in general for different choices of the internal coordinate system. We propose two physically motivated criteria for the choice of the adequate coordinate systems that give us a unique answer for the internal one-particle density matrix. One criterion is that in the infinite particle number limit (N={infinity}) the internal one-particle density matrix should have the same eigenvalues and eigenfunctions as those of the corresponding ideal Bose-Einstein condensate in the laboratory frame. The other criterion is that the coordinate of the internal one-particle density matrix should be orthogonal to the remaining (N-2) internal coordinates, though the (N-2) coordinates, in general, do not need to be mutually orthogonal. This second criterion is shown to imply the first criterion. It is shown that the internal Jacobi coordinate system satisfies these two criteria while the internal coordinate system adopted by Pethick and Pitaevskii for the construction of the internal one-particle density matrix does not. It is demonstrated that these two criteria uniquely determine the internal one-particle density matrix that is identical to that calculated with the Jacobi coordinates. The relevance of this work concerning {alpha}-particle condensates in nuclei, as well as bosonic atoms in traps, is pointed out.

  16. Neutron star structure from QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Eduardo S.; Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities.

  17. Finite-size scaling of the magnetization probability density for the critical Ising model in slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Cardozo, David; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetization probability density in d  =  2 and 3 dimensional Ising models in slab geometry of volume L\\paralleld-1× {{L}\\bot} is computed through Monte-Carlo simulation at the critical temperature and zero magnetic field. The finite-size scaling of this distribution and its dependence on the system aspect-ratio ρ =\\frac{{{L}\\bot}}{{{L}\\parallel}} and boundary conditions are discussed. In the limiting case ρ \\to 0 of a macroscopically large slab ({{L}\\parallel}\\gg {{L}\\bot} ) the distribution is found to scale as a Gaussian function for all tested system sizes and boundary conditions.

  18. Effects of 2D and Finite Density Fluctuations on O-X Correlation Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Kramer; R. Nazikian; E. Valeo

    2001-07-05

    The correlation between O-mode and X-mode reflectometer signals is studied with a 1D and 2D reflectometer model in order to explore its feasibilities as a q-profile diagnostic. It was found that 2D effects and finite fluctuation levels both decrease the O-X correlation. At very low fluctuation levels, which are usually present in the plasma core, there is good possibility to determine the local magnetic field strength and use that as a constraint for the equilibrium reconstruction.

  19. Relative weights approach to SU(3) gauge theories with dynamical fermions at finite density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greensite, Jeff; Höllwieser, Roman

    2016-07-01

    We derive effective Polyakov line actions for SU(3) gauge theories with staggered dynamical fermions, for a small sample of lattice couplings, lattice actions, and lattice extensions in the time direction. The derivation is via the method of relative weights, and the theories are solved at finite chemical potential by mean field theory. We find in some instances that the long-range couplings in the effective action are very important to the phase structure, and that these couplings are responsible for long-lived metastable states in the effective theory. Only one of these states corresponds to the underlying lattice gauge theory.

  20. The QCD vacuum, hadrons and superdense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Shuryak, E.

    1986-01-01

    This is probably the only textbook available that gathers QCD, many-body theory and phase transitions in one volume. The presentation is pedagogical and readable. Contents: The QCD Vacuum: Introduction; QCD on the Lattice Topological Effects in Gauges Theories. Correlation Functions and Microscopic Excitations: Introduction; Operator Product Expansion; The Sum Rules beyond OPE; Nonpower Contributions to Correlators and Instantons; Hadronic Spectroscopy on the Lattice. Dense Matter: Hadronic Matter; Asymptotically Dense Quark-Gluon Plasma; Instantons in Matter; Lattice Calculations at Finite Temperature; Phase Transitions; Macroscopic Excitations and Experiments: General Properties of High Energy Collisions; ''Barometers'', ''Thermometers'', Interferometric ''Microscope''; Experimental Perspectives.

  1. QCD at nonzero chemical potential: Recent progress on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarts, Gert; Attanasio, Felipe; Jäger, Benjamin; Seiler, Erhard; Sexty, Dénes; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2016-01-01

    We summarise recent progress in simulating QCD at nonzero baryon density using complex Langevin dynamics. After a brief outline of the main idea, we discuss gauge cooling as a means to control the evolution. Subsequently we present a status report for heavy dense QCD and its phase structure, full QCD with staggered quarks, and full QCD with Wilson quarks, both directly and using the hopping parameter expansion to all orders.

  2. The effect of particle density in turbulent channel flow laden with finite size particles in semi-dilute conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, W.; Formenti, A.; Picano, F.; Brandt, L.

    2016-03-01

    We study the effect of varying the mass and volume fraction of a suspension of rigid spheres dispersed in a turbulent channel flow. We performed several direct numerical simulations using an immersed boundary method for finite-size particles changing the solid to fluid density ratio R, the mass fraction χ, and the volume fraction ϕ. We find that varying the density ratio R between 1 and 10 at constant volume fraction does not alter the flow statistics as much as when varying the volume fraction ϕ at constant R and at constant mass fraction. Interestingly, the increase in overall drag found when varying the volume fraction is considerably higher than that obtained for increasing density ratios at same volume fraction. The main effect at density ratios R of the order of 10 is a strong shear-induced migration towards the centerline of the channel. When the density ratio R is further increased up to 1000, the particle dynamics decouple from that of the fluid. The solid phase behaves as a dense gas and the fluid and solid phase statistics drastically change. In this regime, the collision rate is high and dominated by the normal relative velocity among particles.

  3. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model. PMID:26723661

  4. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Ayers, Paul W. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Gázquez, José L. E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Vela, Alberto E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx

    2015-12-28

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model.

  5. The response of cranial biomechanical finite element models to variations in mesh density.

    PubMed

    Bright, Jen A; Rayfield, Emily J

    2011-04-01

    Finite element (FE) models provide discrete solutions to continuous problems. Therefore, to arrive at the correct solution, it is vital to ensure that FE models contain a sufficient number of elements to fully resolve all the detail encountered in a continuum structure. Mesh convergence testing is the process of comparing successively finer meshes to identify the point of diminishing returns; where increasing resolution has marginal effects on results and further detail would become costly and unnecessary. Historically, convergence has not been considered in most CT-based biomechanical reconstructions involving complex geometries like the skull, as generating such models has been prohibitively time-consuming. To assess how mesh convergence influences results, 18 increasingly refined CT-based models of a domestic pig skull were compared to identify the point of convergence for strain and displacement, using both linear and quadratic tetrahedral elements. Not all regions of the skull converged at the same rate, and unexpectedly, areas of high strain converged faster than low-strain regions. Linear models were slightly stiffer than their quadratic counterparts, but did not converge less rapidly. As expected, insufficiently dense models underestimated strain and displacement, and failed to resolve strain "hot-spots" notable in contour plots. In addition to quantitative differences, visual assessments of such plots often inform conclusions drawn in many comparative studies, highlighting that mesh convergence should be performed on all finite element models before further analysis takes place. PMID:21370496

  6. The effect of grid transparency and finite collector size on determining ion temperature and density by the retarding potential analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troy, B. E., Jr.; Maier, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The analysis of ion data from retarding potential analyzers (RPA's) is generally done under the planar approximation, which assumes that the grid transparency is constant with angle of incidence and that all ions reaching the plane of the collectors are collected. These approximations are not valid for situations in which the ion thermal velocity is comparable to the vehicle velocity, causing ions to enter the RPA with high average transverse velocity. To investigate these effects, the current-voltage curves for H+ at 4000 K were calculated, taking into account the finite collector size and the variation of grid transparency with angle. These curves are then analyzed under the planar approximation. The results show that only small errors in temperature and density are introduced for an RPA with typical dimensions; and that even when the density error is substantial for non-typical dimensions, the temperature error remains minimal.

  7. Euler-Heisenberg-Weiss action for QCD +QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Sho; Arai, Takashi; Hattori, Koichi; Itakura, Kazunori

    2015-07-01

    We derive an analytic expression for one-loop effective action of QCD +QED at zero and finite temperatures by using the Schwinger proper time method. The result is a nonlinear effective action not only for electromagnetic and chromo-electromagnetic fields but also for the Polyakov loop, and thus reproduces the Euler-Heisenberg action in QED, QCD, and QED +QCD , and also the Weiss potential for the Polyakov loop at finite temperature. As applications of this "Euler-Heisenberg-Weiss" action in QCD +QED , we investigate quark pair productions induced by QCD +QED fields at zero temperature and the Polyakov loop in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields. Quark one-loop contribution to the effective potential of the Polyakov loop explicitly breaks the center symmetry, and is found to be enhanced by the magnetic field, which is consistent with the inverse magnetic catalysis observed in lattice QCD simulation.

  8. Finite temperature fermion condensate, charge and current densities in a (2+1)-dimensional conical space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, S.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Bragança, E.; Saharian, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    We evaluate the fermion condensate and the expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic field in (2+1)-dimensional conical spacetime with a magnetic flux located at the cone apex. The consideration is done for both irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. The expectation values are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from particles and antiparticles. All these contributions are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. Related to the non-invariance of the model under the parity and time-reversal transformations, the fermion condensate and the charge density have indefinite parity with respect to the change of the signs of the magnetic flux and chemical potential. The expectation value of the radial current density vanishes. The azimuthal current density is the same for both the irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. It is an odd function of the magnetic flux and an even function of the chemical potential. The behavior of the expectation values in various asymptotic regions of the parameters are discussed in detail. In particular, we show that for points near the cone apex the vacuum parts dominate. For a massless field with zero chemical potential the fermion condensate and charge density vanish. Simple expressions are derived for the part in the total charge induced by the planar angle deficit and magnetic flux. Combining the results for separate irreducible representations, we also consider the fermion condensate, charge and current densities in parity and time-reversal symmetric models. Possible applications to graphitic nanocones are discussed.

  9. Lefschetz thimble structure in one-dimensional lattice Thirring model at finite density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hirotsugu; Kamata, Syo; Kikukawa, Yoshio

    2015-11-01

    We investigate Lefschetz thimble structure of the complexified path-integration in the one-dimensional lattice massive Thirring model with finite chemical potential. The lattice model is formulated with staggered fermions and a compact auxiliary vector boson (a link field), and the whole set of the critical points (the complex saddle points) are sorted out, where each critical point turns out to be in a one-to-one correspondence with a singular point of the effective action (or a zero point of the fermion determinant). For a subset of critical point solutions in the uniform-field subspace, we examine the upward and downward cycles and the Stokes phenomenon with varying the chemical potential, and we identify the intersection numbers to determine the thimbles contributing to the path-integration of the partition function. We show that the original integration path becomes equivalent to a single Lefschetz thimble at small and large chemical potentials, while in the crossover region multiple thimbles must contribute to the path integration. Finally, reducing the model to a uniform field space, we study the relative importance of multi-thimble contributions and their behavior toward continuum and low-temperature limits quantitatively, and see how the rapid crossover behavior is recovered by adding the multi-thimble contributions at low temperatures. Those findings will be useful for performing Monte-Carlo simulations on the Lefschetz thimbles.

  10. String effects and the distribution of the glue in static mesons at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bakry, A. S.; Leinweber, D. B.; Moran, P. J.; Williams, A. G.; Sternbeck, A.

    2010-11-01

    The distribution of the gluon action density in mesonic systems is investigated at finite temperature. The simulations are performed in quenched QCD for two temperatures below the deconfinement phase. Unlike the gluonic profiles displayed at T=0, the action-density isosurfaces display a prolate-spheroid-like shape. The curved width profile of the flux tube is found to be consistent with the prediction of the free bosonic string model at large distances.

  11. Chiral symmetry restoration in holographic noncommutative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Tadahito; Ohtake, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    We consider the noncommutative deformation of the Sakai-Sugimoto model at finite temperature and finite baryon chemical potential. The space noncommutativity is possible to have an influence on the flavor dynamics of the QCD. The critical temperature and critical value of the chemical potential are modified by the space noncommutativity. The influence of the space noncommutativity on the flavor dynamics of the QCD is caused by the Wess-Zumino term in the effective action of the D8-branes. The intermediate temperature phase, in which the gluons deconfine but the chiral symmetry remains broken, is easy to be realized in some region of the noncommutativity parameter.

  12. Finite difference calculations of current densities in a homogeneous model of a man exposed to extremely low frequency electric fields.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, P J

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional finite difference calculations of induced current densities in a grounded, homogeneous, realistically human-shaped phantom. Comparison is made with published experimental values of current density at 60 Hz, measured in conducting saline manikins with their arms down by the side. The congruence between calculation and experiment gives confidence in the applicability of the numerical method and phantom shape to other configurations. The effect of raising both arms above the head is to reduce the current densities in the head and neck by approximately 50% and to increase those from the thorax downwards by 20-30%. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the shape and dimensions of the phantom, from a 45-kg, 1.5-m-tall person to a 140-kg, 1.9-m-tall person. When the phantom is grounded through both feet the current densities range from 50 to 90 microAm-2 in the head (all values for a 60-Hz, 1-kVm-1, vertical applied field), 70 to 140 microAm-2 in the thorax, 150 to 440 microAm-2 at the crotch, and 500 to 2,230 microAm-2 in the ankle. When grounded through only one foot the current densities at the crotch range from 400 to 1,000 microAm-2 and from 1,000 to 4,400 microAm-2 in the ankle of the grounded leg. Scale transformations of the short-circuit current with phantom height, weight, and surface area are confirmed. PMID:3122768

  13. A new method to predict the evolution of the power spectral density for a finite-amplitude sound wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menounou, Penelope; Blackstock, David T.

    2004-02-01

    A method to predict the effect of nonlinearity on the power spectral density of a plane wave traveling in a thermoviscous fluid is presented. As opposed to time-domain methods, the method presented here is based directly on the power spectral density of the signal, not the signal itself. The Burgers equation is employed for the mathematical description of the combined effects of nonlinearity and dissipation. The Burgers equation is transformed into an infinite set of linear equations that describe the evolution of the joint moments of the signal. A method for solving this system of equations is presented. Only a finite number of equations is appropriately selected and solved by numerical means. For the method to be applied all appropriate joint moments must be known at the source. If the source condition has Gaussian characteristics (it is a Gaussian noise signal or a Gaussian stationary and ergodic stochastic process), then all the joint moments can be computed from the power spectral density of the signal at the source. Numerical results from the presented method are shown to be in good agreement with known analytical solutions in the preshock region for two benchmark cases: (i) sinusoidal source signal and (ii) a Gaussian stochastic process as the source condition.

  14. A GPU-based finite-size pencil beam algorithm with 3D-density correction for radiotherapy dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xuejun; Jelen, Urszula; Li, Jinsheng; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-06-01

    Targeting at the development of an accurate and efficient dose calculation engine for online adaptive radiotherapy, we have implemented a finite-size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm with a 3D-density correction method on graphics processing unit (GPU). This new GPU-based dose engine is built on our previously published ultrafast FSPB computational framework (Gu et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6287-97). Dosimetric evaluations against Monte Carlo dose calculations are conducted on ten IMRT treatment plans (five head-and-neck cases and five lung cases). For all cases, there is improvement with the 3D-density correction over the conventional FSPB algorithm and for most cases the improvement is significant. Regarding the efficiency, because of the appropriate arrangement of memory access and the usage of GPU intrinsic functions, the dose calculation for an IMRT plan can be accomplished well within 1 s (except for one case) with this new GPU-based FSPB algorithm. Compared to the previous GPU-based FSPB algorithm without 3D-density correction, this new algorithm, though slightly sacrificing the computational efficiency (∼5-15% lower), has significantly improved the dose calculation accuracy, making it more suitable for online IMRT replanning. PMID:21558589

  15. A GPU-based finite-size pencil beam algorithm with 3D-density correction for radiotherapy dose calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xuejun; Jelen, Urszula; Li, Jinsheng; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2011-06-01

    Targeting at the development of an accurate and efficient dose calculation engine for online adaptive radiotherapy, we have implemented a finite-size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm with a 3D-density correction method on graphics processing unit (GPU). This new GPU-based dose engine is built on our previously published ultrafast FSPB computational framework (Gu et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6287-97). Dosimetric evaluations against Monte Carlo dose calculations are conducted on ten IMRT treatment plans (five head-and-neck cases and five lung cases). For all cases, there is improvement with the 3D-density correction over the conventional FSPB algorithm and for most cases the improvement is significant. Regarding the efficiency, because of the appropriate arrangement of memory access and the usage of GPU intrinsic functions, the dose calculation for an IMRT plan can be accomplished well within 1 s (except for one case) with this new GPU-based FSPB algorithm. Compared to the previous GPU-based FSPB algorithm without 3D-density correction, this new algorithm, though slightly sacrificing the computational efficiency (~5-15% lower), has significantly improved the dose calculation accuracy, making it more suitable for online IMRT replanning.

  16. Translationally invariant calculations of form factors, nucleon densities and momentum distributions for finite nuclei with short-range correlations included

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebeko, A. V.; Grigorov, P. A.; Iurasov, V. S.

    2012-11-01

    Relying upon our previous treatment of the density matrices for nuclei (in general, nonrelativistic self-bound finite systems) we are studying a combined effect of center-of-mass motion and short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations on the nucleon density and momentum distributions in light nuclei (4He and 16O). Their intrinsic ground-state wave functions are constructed in the so-called fixed center-of-mass approximation, starting with mean-field Slater determinants modified by some correlator ( e.g., after Jastrow or Villars). We develop the formalism based upon the Cartesian or boson representation, in which the coordinate and momentum operators are linear combinations of the creation and annihilation operators for oscillatory quanta in the three different space directions, and get the own "Tassie-Barker" factors for each distribution and point out other model-independent results. After this separation of the center-of-mass motion effects we propose additional analytic means in order to simplify the subsequent calculations ( e.g., within the Jastrow approach or the unitary correlation operator method). The charge form factors, densities and momentum distributions of 4He and 16O evaluated by using the well-known cluster expansions are compared with data, our exact (numerical) results and microscopic calculations.

  17. A finite-temperature density functional study of electron self-trapping in 3He and 4He.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dafei; Guo, Wei

    2012-06-28

    We introduce a compact finite-temperature density functional model to study electron self-trapping in both liquid and vapor (3)He and (4)He. This model can quantitatively reproduce the most essential thermodynamic properties of (3)He and (4)He along their liquid-vapor coexistence lines. The structures and energetics of self-trapped electron bubbles on the 1S ground state and 1P excited state are particularly investigated. Our results show that 1S and 1P bubbles exist in liquid at any temperature, whereas 1S bubbles exist in vapor only above 1.6 K in (3)He and above 2.8 K in (4)He, 1P bubbles exist in vapor only above 2.5 K in (3)He and 4.0 K in (4)He. An initially spherical 1P bubble is unstable against deformation towards a peanut shape. In liquid, a peanut-shaped 1P bubble is held from fission by surface tension until reaching the liquid-vapor critical point, whereas in vapor it always splits into two smaller bubbles. The existence of 1P bubbles in finite-temperature liquid helium and their fission instability in helium vapor reveal interesting physics in this system. PMID:22755590

  18. Comparison of mechanical stress and change in bone mineral density between two types of femoral implant using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yasuhide; Inaba, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Naomi; Ike, Hiroyuki; Fujimaki, Hiroshi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2013-12-01

    Stress shielding after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains an unsolved issue. Various patterns of mechanical stress appear according to the type of femoral stem used. To compare differences in mechanical stress conditions between Zweymuller type and fit-and-fill type stems, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed. Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) changes in the femur were also compared. Maximum stress was confirmed in Gruen zone 4, whereas zone 1 had the minimum amount of stress with both types of implant. The Zweymuller stem group had less mechanical stress and lower BMD in zone 7 than the fit-and-fill stem group. In conclusion, differences in mechanical stress may be related to changes in BMD after THA. PMID:23683518

  19. The One-Body and Two-Body Density Matrices of Finite Nuclei and Center-of-Mass Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Shebeko, A.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Mavrommatis, E.

    2006-04-26

    A method is presented for the calculation of the one-body (1DM) and two-body (2DM) density matrices and their Fourier transforms in momentum space, that is consistent with the requirement for translational invariance (TI), in the case of a nucleus (a finite self-bound system). We restore TI by using the so-called fixed center-of-mass (CM) approximation for constructing an intrinsic nuclear ground state wavefunction (WF) by starting from a non-translationally invariant (nTI) WF and applying a projection prescription. We discuss results for the one-body (OBMD) and two-body (TBMD) momentum distributions of the 4He nucleus calculated with the Slater determinant of the harmonic oscillator (HO) orbitals, as the initial nTI WF. Effects of such an inclusion of CM correlations are found to be quite important in the momentum distributions.

  20. Irreversible bimolecular reactions with inertia: from the trapping to the target setting at finite densities.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Francesco; Foffi, Giuseppe; De Michele, Cristiano

    2013-06-19

    We investigate numerically pseudo-first-order irreversible bimolecular reactions of the type A + B → B between hard spheres undergoing event-driven Brownian dynamics. We study the encounter rate and the survival probability of A particles as functions of the packing fraction ϕ in the trapping (a single particle diffusing among static non-overlapping traps) and target (many traps diffusing in the presence of a single static target particle) settings, as well as in the case of diffusing traps and particles (full mobility). We show that, since inertial effects are accounted for in our simulation protocol, the standard Smoluchowski theory of coagulation of non-interacting colloids is recovered only at times greater than a characteristic time Δt, marking the transition from the under-damped to the over-damped regime. We show that the survival probability S(t) decays exponentially during this first stage, with a rate 1/τ0 is proportional to φ. Furthermore, we work out a simple analytical expression that is able to capture to an excellent extent the numerical results for t < Δt at low and intermediate densities. Moreover, we demonstrate that the time constant of the asymptotic exponential decay of S(t) for diffusing traps and particles is k(S)(-1), where kS = 4π(DA + DB)Rρ is the Smoluchowski rate. Detailed analyses of the effective decay exponent β = d [log(-logS(t))]/d (logt) and of the steady-state encounter rate reveal that the full mobility and trapping problem are characterized by very similar kinetics, rather different from the target problem. Our results do not allow one to ascertain whether the prediction S(t) is proportional to exp(-at(3/2)) (a = const.) as t → ∞ for the trapping problem in 3D is indeed recovered. In fact, at high density, S(t) is dominated by short encounter times, which makes it exceedingly hard to record the events corresponding to the exploration of large, trap-free regions. As a consequence, at high densities the steady

  1. Validation of density-elasticity relationships for finite element modeling of human pelvic bone by modal analysis.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Roger; Hoffmann, Falk; von Sachsen, Sandra; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Klöhn, Carsten; Voigt, Christian

    2013-10-18

    In total hip arthroplasty and particularly in revision surgery, computer assisted pre-operative prediction of the best possible anchorage strategy for implant fixation would be a great help to the surgeon. Computer simulation relies on validated numerical models. In the current study, three density-elasticity relationships (No. 1-3) from the literature for inhomogeneous material parameter assignment from CT data in automated finite element (FE) modeling of long bones were evaluated for their suitability for FE modeling of human pelvic bone. Numerical modal analysis was conducted on 10 FE models of hemipelvic bone specimens and compared to the gold standard provided by experimental modal analysis results from a previous in-vitro study on the same specimens. Overall, calculated resonance frequencies came out lower than measured values. Magnitude of mean relative deviation of numerical resonance frequencies with regard to measured values is lowest for the density-elasticity relationship No. 3 (-15.9%) and considerably higher for both density-elasticity relationships No. 1 (-41.1%) and No. 2 (-45.0%). Mean MAC values over all specimens amount to 77.8% (No. 1), 78.5% (No. 2), and 83.0% (No. 3). MAC results show, that mode shapes are only slightly influenced by material distribution. Calculated resonance frequencies are generally lower than measured values, which indicates, that numerical models lack stiffness. Even when using the best suited (No. 3) out of three investigated density-elasticity relationships, in FE modeling of pelvic bone a considerable underestimation of model stiffness has to be taken into account. PMID:24001928

  2. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; et al

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressedmore » plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.« less

  3. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Pak, A. E.; Gericke, D. O.

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressed plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.

  4. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Pak, A. E.; Gericke, D. O.

    2015-01-01

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressed plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach. PMID:25904218

  5. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter.

    PubMed

    Chapman, D A; Vorberger, J; Fletcher, L B; Baggott, R A; Divol, L; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G; Guymer, T M; Kritcher, A L; Landen, O L; Ma, T; Pak, A E; Gericke, D O

    2015-01-01

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye-Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye-Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressed plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach. PMID:25904218

  6. QCD with chiral 4-fermion interactions ({chi}QCD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, J.B.; Sinclair, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Lattice QCD with staggered quarks is augmented by the addition of a chiral 4-fermion interaction. The Dirac operator is now non-singular at m{sub q}=0, decreasing the computing requirements for light quark simulations by at least an order of magnitude. We present preliminary results from simulations at finite and zero temperatures for m{sub q}=0, with and without gauge fields. Chiral QCD enables simulations at physical u and d quark masses with at least an order of magnitude saving in CPU time. It also enables simulations with zero quark masses which is important for determining the equation of state. A renormalization group analysis will be needed to continue to the continuum limit. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Nucleon Axial Charge in Full Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.G.; Richards, D.G.; Fleming, G.T.; Haegler, Ph.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.V.; Orginos, K.; Renner, D.B.; Schroers, W.

    2006-02-10

    The nucleon axial charge is calculated as a function of the pion mass in full QCD. Using domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered sea quarks, we present the first calculation with pion masses as light as 354 MeV and volumes as large as (3.5 fm){sup 3}. We show that finite volume effects are small for our volumes and that a constrained fit based on finite volume chiral perturbation theory agrees with experiment within 7% statistical errors.

  8. Quarkyonic Matter and the Revised Phase Diagram of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2009-03-30

    At high baryon number density, it has been proposed that a new phase of QCD matter controlsthe physics. This matter is confining but can have densities much larger than 3QCD. Its existenceis argued from large Nc approximations, and model computations. It is approximately chirallysymmetric.

  9. Brane-induced Skyrmion on S{sup 3}: Baryonic matter in holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, Kanabu; Suganuma, Hideo; Kojo, Toru

    2009-01-15

    We study baryonic matter in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D brane system in type IIA superstring theory. The baryon is described as the 'brane-induced Skyrmion', which is a topologically nontrivial chiral soliton in the four-dimensional meson effective action induced by holographic QCD. We employ the ''truncated-resonance model'' approach for the baryon analysis, including pion and {rho} meson fields below the ultraviolet cutoff scale M{sub KK}{approx}1 GeV, to keep the holographic duality with QCD. We describe the baryonic matter in large N{sub c} as single brane-induced Skyrmion on the three-dimensional closed manifold S{sup 3} with finite radius R. The interactions between baryons are simulated by the curvature of the closed manifold S{sup 3}, and the decrease of the size of S{sup 3} represents the increase of the total baryon-number density in the medium in this modeling. We investigate the energy density, the field configuration, the mass and the root-mean-square radius of single baryon on S{sup 3} as the function of its radius R. We find a new picture of 'pion dominance' near the critical density in the baryonic matter, where all the (axial) vector meson fields disappear and only the pion fields survive. We also find the swelling phenomena of the baryons as the precursor of the deconfinement, and propose the mechanism of the swelling in the general context of QCD. The properties of the deconfinement and the chiral symmetry restoration in the baryonic matter are examined by taking the proper order parameters. We also compare our truncated-resonance model with another instanton description of the baryon in holographic QCD, considering the role of cutoff scale M{sub KK}.

  10. Foundations of Perturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, John

    2011-04-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Why QCD?; 3. Basics of QCD; 4. Infra-red safety and non-safety; 5. Libby-Sterman analysis and power counting; 6. Parton model to parton theory I; 7. Parton model to parton theory II; 8. Factorization; 9. Corrections to the parton model in QCD; 10. Factorization and subtractions; 11. DIS in QCD; 12. Fragmentation; 13. TMD factorization; 14. Hadron-hadron collisions; 15. More advanced topics; Appendices; References; Index.

  11. Foundations of Perturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, John

    2013-11-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Why QCD?; 3. Basics of QCD; 4. Infra-red safety and non-safety; 5. Libby-Sterman analysis and power counting; 6. Parton model to parton theory I; 7. Parton model to parton theory II; 8. Factorization; 9. Corrections to the parton model in QCD; 10. Factorization and subtractions; 11. DIS in QCD; 12. Fragmentation; 13. TMD factorization; 14. Hadron-hadron collisions; 15. More advanced topics; Appendices; References; Index.

  12. Probing QCD at high energy via correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

    2011-04-26

    A hadron or nucleus at high energy or small x{sub Bj} contains many gluons and may be described as a Color Glass Condensate. Angular and rapidity correlations of two particles produced in high energy hadron-hadron collisions is a sensitive probe of high gluon density regime of QCD. Evolution equations which describe rapidity dependence of these correlation functions are derived from a QCD effective action.

  13. Electrostatic interactions in finite systems treated with periodic boundary conditions: Application to linear-scaling density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hine, Nicholas D. M.; Dziedzic, Jacek; Haynes, Peter D.; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2011-11-01

    We present a comparison of methods for treating the electrostatic interactions of finite, isolated systems within periodic boundary conditions (PBCs), within density functional theory (DFT), with particular emphasis on linear-scaling (LS) DFT. Often, PBCs are not physically realistic but are an unavoidable consequence of the choice of basis set and the efficacy of using Fourier transforms to compute the Hartree potential. In such cases the effects of PBCs on the calculations need to be avoided, so that the results obtained represent the open rather than the periodic boundary. The very large systems encountered in LS-DFT make the demands of the supercell approximation for isolated systems more difficult to manage, and we show cases where the open boundary (infinite cell) result cannot be obtained from extrapolation of calculations from periodic cells of increasing size. We discuss, implement, and test three very different approaches for overcoming or circumventing the effects of PBCs: truncation of the Coulomb interaction combined with padding of the simulation cell, approaches based on the minimum image convention, and the explicit use of open boundary conditions (OBCs). We have implemented these approaches in the ONETEP LS-DFT program and applied them to a range of systems, including a polar nanorod and a protein. We compare their accuracy, complexity, and rate of convergence with simulation cell size. We demonstrate that corrective approaches within PBCs can achieve the OBC result more efficiently and accurately than pure OBC approaches.

  14. Electrostatic interactions in finite systems treated with periodic boundary conditions: application to linear-scaling density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Hine, Nicholas D M; Dziedzic, Jacek; Haynes, Peter D; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2011-11-28

    We present a comparison of methods for treating the electrostatic interactions of finite, isolated systems within periodic boundary conditions (PBCs), within density functional theory (DFT), with particular emphasis on linear-scaling (LS) DFT. Often, PBCs are not physically realistic but are an unavoidable consequence of the choice of basis set and the efficacy of using Fourier transforms to compute the Hartree potential. In such cases the effects of PBCs on the calculations need to be avoided, so that the results obtained represent the open rather than the periodic boundary. The very large systems encountered in LS-DFT make the demands of the supercell approximation for isolated systems more difficult to manage, and we show cases where the open boundary (infinite cell) result cannot be obtained from extrapolation of calculations from periodic cells of increasing size. We discuss, implement, and test three very different approaches for overcoming or circumventing the effects of PBCs: truncation of the Coulomb interaction combined with padding of the simulation cell, approaches based on the minimum image convention, and the explicit use of open boundary conditions (OBCs). We have implemented these approaches in the ONETEP LS-DFT program and applied them to a range of systems, including a polar nanorod and a protein. We compare their accuracy, complexity, and rate of convergence with simulation cell size. We demonstrate that corrective approaches within PBCs can achieve the OBC result more efficiently and accurately than pure OBC approaches. PMID:22128924

  15. Unified description of the dc conductivity of monolayer and bilayer graphene at finite densities based on resonant scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Aires; Viana-Gomes, J.; Nilsson, Johan; Mucciolo, E. R.; Peres, N. M. R.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2011-04-01

    We show that a coherent picture of the dc conductivity of monolayer and bilayer graphene at finite electronic densities emerges upon considering that strong short-range potentials are the main source of scattering in these two systems. The origin of the strong short-range potentials may lie in adsorbed hydrocarbons at the surface of graphene. The equivalence among results based on the partial-wave description of scattering, the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, and the T-matrix approach is established. Scattering due to resonant impurities close to the neutrality point is investigated via a numerical computation of the Kubo formula using a kernel polynomial method. We find that relevant adsorbate species originate impurity bands in monolayer and bilayer graphene close to the Dirac point. In the midgap region, a plateau of minimum conductivity of about e2/h (per layer) is induced by the resonant disorder. In bilayer graphene, a large adsorbate concentration can develop an energy gap between midgap and high-energy states. As a consequence, the conductivity plateau is supressed near the edges and a “conductivity gap” takes place. Finally, a scattering formalism for electrons in biased bilayer graphene, taking into account the degeneracy of the spectrum, is developed and the dc conductivity of that system is studied.

  16. Bone density and anisotropy affect periprosthetic cement and bone stresses after anatomical glenoid replacement: A micro finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Yan; Santos, Inês; Müller, Peter E; Pietschmann, Matthias F

    2016-06-14

    Glenoid loosening is still a main complication for shoulder arthroplasty. We hypothesize that cement and bone stresses potentially leading to fixation failure are related not only to glenohumeral conformity, fixation design or eccentric loading, but also to bone volume fraction, cortical thickness and degree of anisotropy in the glenoid. In this study, periprosthetic bone and cement stresses were computed with micro finite element models of the replaced glenoid depicting realistic bone microstructure. These models were used to quantify potential effects of bone microstructural parameters under loading conditions simulating different levels of glenohumeral conformity and eccentric loading simulating glenohumeral instability. Results show that peak cement stresses were achieved near the cement-bone interface in all loading schemes. Higher stresses within trabecular bone tissue and cement mantle were obtained within specimens of lower bone volume fraction and in regions of low anisotropy, increasing with decreasing glenohumeral conformity and reaching their maxima below the keeled design when the load is shifted superiorly. Our analyses confirm the combined influences of eccentric load shifts with reduced bone volume fraction and anisotropy on increasing periprosthetic stresses. They finally suggest that improving fixation of glenoid replacements must reduce internal cement and bone tissue stresses, in particular in glenoids of low bone density and heterogeneity. PMID:27087675

  17. A dislocation density based crystal plasticity finite element model: Application to a two-phase polycrystalline HCP/BCC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeljan, Milan; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Knezevic, Marko

    2014-05-01

    We present a multiscale model for anisotropic, elasto-plastic, rate- and temperature-sensitive deformation of polycrystalline aggregates to large plastic strains. The model accounts for a dislocation-based hardening law for multiple slip modes and links a single-crystal to a polycrystalline response using a crystal plasticity finite element based homogenization. It is capable of predicting local stress and strain fields based on evolving microstructure including the explicit evolution of dislocation density and crystallographic grain reorientation. We apply the model to simulate monotonic mechanical response of a hexagonal close-packed metal, zirconium (Zr), and a body-centered cubic metal, niobium (Nb), and study the texture evolution and deformation mechanisms in a two-phase Zr/Nb layered composite under severe plastic deformation. The model predicts well the texture in both co-deforming phases to very large plastic strains. In addition, it offers insights into the active slip systems underlying texture evolution, indicating that the observed textures develop by a combination of prismatic, pyramidal, and anomalous basal slip in Zr and primarily {110}<111> slip and secondly {112}<111> slip in Nb.

  18. In Situ Parameter Identification of Optimal Density-Elastic Modulus Relationships in Subject-Specific Finite Element Models of the Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Alexander; Buijs, Jorn Op Den; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography based finite element analysis of the femur is currently being investigated as a method for non-invasive stiffness and strength predictions of the proximal femur. The specific objective of this study was to determine better conversion relationships from QCT-derived bone density to elastic modulus, in order to achieve accurate predictions of the overall femoral stiffness in a fall-on-the-hip loading configuration. Twenty-two femurs were scanned, segmented and meshed for finite element analysis. The elastic moduli of the elements were assigned according to the average density in the element. The femurs were then tested to fracture and force-displacement data was collected to calculate femoral stiffness. Using a training set of nine femurs, finite element analyses were performed and the parameters of the density-elastic modulus relationship were iteratively adjusted to obtain optimal stiffness predictions in a least-squares sense. The results were then validated on the remaining 13 femurs. Our novel procedure resulted in parameter identification of both power and sigmoid functions for density-elastic modulus conversion for this specific loading scenario. Our in situ estimated power law achieved improved predictions compared to published power laws, and the sigmoid function yielded even smaller prediction errors. In the future, these results will be used to further improve the femoral strength predictions of our finite element models. PMID:21030287

  19. Quark eigenmodes and lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guofeng

    In this thesis, we study a number of topics in lattice QCD through the low-lying quark eigenmodes in the domain wall fermion (DWF) formulation in the quenched approximation. Specifically, we present results for the chiral condensate measured from these eigenmodes; we investigate the QCD vacuum structure by looking at the correlation between the magnitude of the chirality density, |psi†(x)gamma5psi( x)|, and the normal density, psi†( x)psi(x), for these states; we study the behavior of DWF formulation at large quark masses by investigating the mass dependence of the eigenvalues of the physical four dimensional-states as well as the bulk, five-dimensional states.

  20. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  1. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculationsmore » of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.« less

  2. QCD for Postgraduates (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Modern QCD - Lecture 3 We will introduce processes with initial-state hadrons and discuss parton distributions, sum rules, as well as the need for a factorization scale once radiative corrections are taken into account. We will then discuss the DGLAP equation, the evolution of parton densities, as well as ways in which parton densities are extracted from data.

  3. Generation of 3D shape, density, cortical thickness and finite element mesh of proximal femur from a DXA image.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Sami P; Grassi, Lorenzo; Flivik, Gunnar; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Isaksson, Hanna

    2015-08-01

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), predicts hip fracture risk only moderately. Simulation of bone mechanics based on DXA imaging of the proximal femur, may help to improve the prediction accuracy. Therefore, we collected three (1-3) image sets, including CT images and DXA images of 34 proximal cadaver femurs (set 1, including 30 males, 4 females), 35 clinical patient CT images of the hip (set 2, including 27 males, 8 females) and both CT and DXA images of clinical patients (set 3, including 12 female patients). All CT images were segmented manually and landmarks were placed on both femurs and pelvises. Two separate statistical appearance models (SAMs) were built using the CT images of the femurs and pelvises in sets 1 and 2, respectively. The 3D shape of the femur was reconstructed from the DXA image by matching the SAMs with the DXA images. The orientation and modes of variation of the SAMs were adjusted to minimize the sum of the absolute differences between the projection of the SAMs and a DXA image. The mesh quality and the location of the SAMs with respect to the manually placed control points on the DXA image were used as additional constraints. Then, finite element (FE) models were built from the reconstructed shapes. Mean point-to-surface distance between the reconstructed shape and CT image was 1.0 mm for cadaver femurs in set 1 (leave-one-out test) and 1.4 mm for clinical subjects in set 3. The reconstructed volumetric BMD showed a mean absolute difference of 140 and 185 mg/cm(3) for set 1 and set 3 respectively. The generation of the SAM and the limitation of using only one 2D image were found to be the most significant sources of errors in the shape reconstruction. The noise in the DXA images had only small effect on the accuracy of the shape reconstruction. DXA-based FE simulation was able to explain 85% of the CT-predicted strength of the femur in stance loading. The present method can be used to

  4. Lattice QCD phase diagram in and away from the strong coupling limit.

    PubMed

    de Forcrand, Ph; Langelage, J; Philipsen, O; Unger, W

    2014-10-10

    We study lattice QCD with four flavors of staggered quarks. In the limit of infinite gauge coupling, "dual" variables can be introduced, which render the finite-density sign problem mild and allow a full determination of the μ-T phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulations, also in the chiral limit. However, the continuum limit coincides with the weak coupling limit. We propose a strong-coupling expansion approach towards the continuum limit. We show first results, including the phase diagram and its chiral critical point, from this expansion truncated at next-to-leading order. PMID:25375704

  5. Study of the deconfinement phase transition in a finite volume with massive particles: Hydrodynamics of the system near the transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ghenam, L.; Djoudi, A. Ait El

    2012-06-27

    We study the finite size and finite mass effects for the thermal deconfinement phase transition in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), using a simple model of coexistence of hadronic (H) gas and quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phases in a finite volume. We consider the equations of state of the two phases with the QGP containing two massless u and d quarks and massive s quarks, and a hadronic gas of massive pions, and we probe the system near the transition. For this, we examine the behavior of the most important hydrodynamical quantities describing the system, at a vanishing chemical potential ({mu}= 0), with temperature and energy density.

  6. Exploring hyperons and hypernuclei with lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, S.R.; Bedaque, P.F.; Parreno, A.; Savage, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we outline a program for lattice QCD that wouldprovide a first step toward understanding the strong and weakinteractions of strange baryons. The study of hypernuclear physics hasprovided a significant amount of information regarding the structure andweak decays of light nuclei containing one or two Lambda's, and Sigma's.From a theoretical standpoint, little is known about the hyperon-nucleoninteraction, which is required input for systematic calculations ofhypernuclear structure. Furthermore, the long-standing discrepancies inthe P-wave amplitudes for nonleptonic hyperon decays remain to beunderstood, and their resolution is central to a better understanding ofthe weak decays of hypernuclei. We present a framework that utilizesLuscher's finite-volume techniques in lattice QCD to extract thescattering length and effective range for Lambda-N scattering in both QCDand partially-quenched QCD. The effective theory describing thenonleptonic decays of hyperons using isospin symmetry alone, appropriatefor lattice calculations, is constructed.

  7. Spectral continuity in dense QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tachibana, Motoi

    2008-07-01

    The vector mesons in three-flavor quark matter with chiral and diquark condensates are studied using the in-medium QCD sum rules. The diquark condensate leads to a mass splitting between the flavor-octet and flavor-singlet channels. At high density, the singlet vector meson disappears from the low-energy spectrum, while the octet vector mesons survive as light excitations with a mass comparable to the fermion gap. A possible connection between the light gluonic modes and the flavor-octet vector mesons at high density is also discussed.

  8. Effects of finite size and symmetry energy on the phase transition of stellar matter at subnuclear densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, S. S.; Shen, H.

    2016-02-01

    We study the liquid-gas phase transition of stellar matter with the inclusion of the finite-size effect from surface and Coulomb energies. The equilibrium conditions for two coexisting phases are determined by minimizing the total free energy including the surface and Coulomb contributions, which are different from the Gibbs conditions used in the bulk calculations. The finite-size effect can significantly reduce the region of the liquid-gas mixed phase. The influence of the symmetry energy on the liquid-gas phase transition is investigated with the inclusion of finite-size effects. It is found that the slope of the symmetry energy plays an important role in determining the boundary and properties of the mixed phase.

  9. QCD results at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2005-01-01

    Recent QCD measurements from the CDF collaboration at the Tevatron are presented, together with future prospects as the luminosity increases. The measured inclusive jet cross section is compared to pQCD NLO predictions. Precise measurements on jet shapes and hadronic energy flows are compared to different phenomenological models that describe gluon emissions and the underlying event in hadron-hadron interactions.

  10. Transverse momentum distributions inside the nucleon from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Musch, B. U.; Haegler, Ph.; Negele, J. W.; Schaefer, A.

    2011-07-15

    We study transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) with non-local operators in lattice QCD, using MILC/LHPC lattices. Results obtained with a simplified operator geometry show visible dipole deformations of spin-dependent quark momentum densities.

  11. Consistent Perturbative Fixed Point Calculations in QCD and Supersymmetric QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryttov, Thomas A.

    2016-08-01

    We suggest how to consistently calculate the anomalous dimension γ* of the ψ ¯ ψ operator in finite order perturbation theory at an infrared fixed point for asymptotically free theories. If the n +1 loop beta function and n loop anomalous dimension are known, then γ* can be calculated exactly and fully scheme independently in a Banks-Zaks expansion through O (Δfn) , where Δf=N¯ f-Nf , Nf is the number of flavors, and N¯f is the number of flavors above which asymptotic freedom is lost. For a supersymmetric theory, the calculation preserves supersymmetry order by order in Δf. We then compute γ* through O (Δf2) for supersymmetric QCD in the dimensional reduction scheme and find that it matches the exact known result. We find that γ* is astonishingly well described in perturbation theory already at the few loops level throughout the entire conformal window. We finally compute γ* through O (Δf3) for QCD and a variety of other nonsupersymmetric fermionic gauge theories. Small values of γ* are observed for a large range of flavors.

  12. Consistent Perturbative Fixed Point Calculations in QCD and Supersymmetric QCD.

    PubMed

    Ryttov, Thomas A

    2016-08-12

    We suggest how to consistently calculate the anomalous dimension γ_{*} of the ψ[over ¯]ψ operator in finite order perturbation theory at an infrared fixed point for asymptotically free theories. If the n+1 loop beta function and n loop anomalous dimension are known, then γ_{*} can be calculated exactly and fully scheme independently in a Banks-Zaks expansion through O(Δ_{f}^{n}), where Δ_{f}=N[over ¯]_{f}-N_{f}, N_{f} is the number of flavors, and N[over ¯]_{f} is the number of flavors above which asymptotic freedom is lost. For a supersymmetric theory, the calculation preserves supersymmetry order by order in Δ_{f}. We then compute γ_{*} through O(Δ_{f}^{2}) for supersymmetric QCD in the dimensional reduction scheme and find that it matches the exact known result. We find that γ_{*} is astonishingly well described in perturbation theory already at the few loops level throughout the entire conformal window. We finally compute γ_{*} through O(Δ_{f}^{3}) for QCD and a variety of other nonsupersymmetric fermionic gauge theories. Small values of γ_{*} are observed for a large range of flavors. PMID:27563948

  13. Ion cyclotron wave coupling in the magnetized plasma edge of tokamaks: impact of a finite, inhomogeneous density inside the antenna box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Crombé, K.; Van Eester, D.; Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.; Heuraux, S.

    2016-05-01

    Most present ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) heating codes and antenna codes assume the antenna sitting in a vacuum region and consider the fast wave only, which implicitly performs an abrupt density transition from vacuum to above lower hybrid (LH) resonance. The impact of the appearance of the LH resonance is entirely overlooked in their simulations. We studied the impact of densities that decay continuously inside the antenna box on near field patterns and power coupling. A new full wave code based on the COMSOL Finite Element Solver has been developed to investigate this topic. It is shown that: up to the memory limits of the adopted workstation, the local RF field pattern in low-density regions below the LH resonance changes with the grid size. Interestingly and importantly, however, the total coupled toroidal spectrum is almost independent on the mesh size and is weakly affected by the presence of the density profile inside the antenna box in dipole toroidal strap phasing. This suggests one can drop out this density for coupling studies to speed up the computation. Simulation also shows that varying the density gradient in the fast wave evanescence region has no significant effect on wave coupling.

  14. Nuclear Physics and Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas

    2003-11-01

    Impressive progress is currently being made in computing properties and interac- tions of the low-lying hadrons using lattice QCD. However, cost limitations will, for the foreseeable future, necessitate the use of quark masses, Mq, that are signif- icantly larger than those of nature, lattice spacings, a, that are not significantly smaller than the physical scale of interest, and lattice sizes, L, that are not sig- nificantly larger than the physical scale of interest. Extrapolations in the quark masses, lattice spacing and lattice volume are therefore required. The hierarchy of mass scales is: L 1 j Mq j â ºC j a 1 . The appropriate EFT for incorporating the light quark masses, the finite lattice spacing and the lattice size into hadronic observables is C-PT, which provides systematic expansions in the small parame- ters e m L, 1/ Lâ ºC, p/â ºC, Mq/â ºC and aâ ºC . The lattice introduces other unphysical scales as well. Lattice QCD quarks will increasingly be artificially separated

  15. Lattice QCD in rotating frames.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata; Hirono, Yuji

    2013-08-23

    We formulate lattice QCD in rotating frames to study the physics of QCD matter under rotation. We construct the lattice QCD action with the rotational metric and apply it to the Monte Carlo simulation. As the first application, we calculate the angular momenta of gluons and quarks in the rotating QCD vacuum. This new framework is useful to analyze various rotation-related phenomena in QCD. PMID:24010426

  16. Nf=2 QCD chiral phase transition with Wilson fermions at zero and imaginary chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipsen, Owe; Pinke, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The order of the thermal phase transition in the chiral limit of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with two dynamical flavors of quarks is a long-standing issue and still not known in the continuum limit. Whether the transition is first or second order has important implications for the QCD phase diagram and the existence of a critical end point at finite densities. We follow a recently proposed approach to explicitly determine the region of first order chiral transitions at imaginary chemical potential, where it is large enough to be simulated, and extrapolate it to zero chemical potential with known critical exponents. Using unimproved Wilson fermions on coarse Nt=4 lattices, the first order region turns out to be so large that no extrapolation is necessary. The critical pion mass mπc≈560 MeV is by nearly a factor 10 larger than the corresponding one using staggered fermions. Our results are in line with investigations of three-flavor QCD using improved Wilson fermions and indicate that the systematic error on the two-flavor chiral transition is still of order 100%.

  17. Lee-Yang zero distribution of high temperature QCD and the Roberge-Weiss phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Kashiwa, Kouji; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nishigaki, Shinsuke M.

    2015-05-01

    Canonical partition functions and Lee-Yang zeros of QCD at finite density and high temperature are studied. Recent lattice simulations confirm that the free energy of QCD is a quartic function of quark chemical potential at temperature slightly above pseudocritical temperature Tc, as in the case with a gas of free massless fermions. We present analytic derivation of the canonical partition functions and Lee-Yang zeros for this type of free energy using the saddle point approximation. We also perform lattice QCD simulation in a canonical approach using the fugacity expansion of the fermion determinant and carefully examine its reliability. By comparing the analytic and numerical results, we conclude that the canonical partition functions follow the Gaussian distribution of the baryon number, and the accumulation of Lee-Yang zeros of these canonical partition functions exhibit the first-order Roberge-Weiss phase transition. We discuss the validity and applicable range of the result and its implications both for theoretical and experimental studies.

  18. From QCD to physical resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Daniel R.; Briceño, Raúl A.; Wilson, David J.

    2016-05-01

    In this talk, we present the first chiral extrapolation of a resonant scattering amplitude obtained from lattice QCD. Finite-volume spectra, determined by the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration at mπ = 236 MeV [1], for the isotriplet ππ channel are analyzed using the Lüscher method to determine the infinite-volume scattering amplitude. Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory is then used to extrapolate the scattering amplitude to the physical light quark masses. The viability of this procedure is demonstrated by its agreement with the experimentally determined scattering phase shift up to center-of-mass energies of 1.2 GeV. Finally, we analytically continue the amplitude to the complex plane to obtain the ρ-pole at [ 755 (2 )(1 )(02 20 ) -i/2 129 (3 )(1 )(1 7 ) ] MeV.

  19. Resonances in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015. A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions: What is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD? Where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers? What experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus. This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  20. Exploring Hyperons and Hypernuclei with Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Beane; P.F. Bedaque; A. Parreno; M.J. Savage

    2005-01-01

    In this work we outline a program for lattice QCD that would provide a first step toward understanding the strong and weak interactions of strange baryons. The study of hypernuclear physics has provided a significant amount of information regarding the structure and weak decays of light nuclei containing one or two Lambda's, and Sigma's. From a theoretical standpoint, little is known about the hyperon-nucleon interaction, which is required input for systematic calculations of hypernuclear structure. Furthermore, the long-standing discrepancies in the P-wave amplitudes for nonleptonic hyperon decays remain to be understood, and their resolution is central to a better understanding of the weak decays of hypernuclei. We present a framework that utilizes Luscher's finite-volume techniques in lattice QCD to extract the scattering length and effective range for Lambda-N scattering in both QCD and partially-quenched QCD. The effective theory describing the nonleptonic decays of hyperons using isospin symmetry alone, appropriate for lattice calculations, is constructed.

  1. The QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  2. QCD (&) event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  3. Absence of finite-temperature ballistic charge (and spin) transport in the 1D Hubbard model at half filling (and zero spin density)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Gu, Shi-Jian; Sampaio, M. J.

    2014-06-01

    Finite-temperature T > 0 transport properties of integrable and nonintegrable one-dimensional (1D) many-particle quantum systems are rather different, showing ballistic and diffusive behavior, respectively. The repulsive 1D Hubbard model is a prominent example of an integrable correlated system. For electronic densities n ≠ 1 (and spin densities m ≠ 0) it is an ideal charge (and spin) conductor, with ballistic charge (and spin) transport for T ⩾ 0. In spite of the fact that it is solvable by the Bethe ansatz, at n = 1 (and m = 0) its T > 0 charge (and spin) transport properties are an issue that remains poorly understood. Here we combine this solution with symmetry and the explicit calculation of current-operator matrix elements between energy eigenstates to show that for on-site repulsion U > 0 and at n = 1 the charge stiffness Dη(T) vanishes for T > 0 in the thermodynamic limit. A similar behavior is found by such methods for the spin stiffness Ds(T) for U > 0 and T > 0, which vanishes at m = 0. This absence of finite temperature n = 1 ballistic charge transport and m = 0 ballistic spin transport are exact results that clarify long-standing open problems.

  4. Comparison between mechanical stress and bone mineral density in the femur after total hip arthroplasty by using subject-specific finite element analyses.

    PubMed

    Ike, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Naomi; Hirata, Yasuhide; Yukizawa, Yohei; Aoki, Chie; Choe, Hyonmin; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    The mechanism underling bone mineral density (BMD) loss that occurs in the femur after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains unknown. We compared the equivalent stress and strain energy density (SED) to BMD in the femur after THA using subject-specific finite element analyses. Twenty-four patients who had undergone primary cementless THA were analysed. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 1 week and 3, 6 and 12 months after THA. Seven regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in accordance with Gruen's system (ROIs 1-7). Computed tomography images of the femurs were acquired pre- and postoperatively, and the images were converted into three-dimensional finite element (FE) models. Equivalent stress and SED were analysed and compared with DEXA data. BMD was maintained 1 year after THA in ROIs 3, 4, 5 and 6, whereas BMD decreased in ROIs 1, 2 and 7. FE analysis revealed that equivalent stress in ROIs 3, 4, 5 and 6 was much higher than that in ROIs 1, 2 and 7. A significant correlation was observed between the rate of changes in BMD and equivalent stress. Reduction of equivalent stress may contribute to decrease in BMD in the femur after THA. PMID:24661022

  5. Need for CT-based bone density modelling in finite element analysis of a shoulder arthroplasty revealed through a novel method for result analysis.

    PubMed

    Pomwenger, Werner; Entacher, Karl; Resch, Herbert; Schuller-Götzburg, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Treatment of common pathologies of the shoulder complex, such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis, is usually performed by total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Survival of the glenoid component is still a problem in TSA, whereas the humeral component is rarely subject to failure. To set up a finite element analysis (FEA) for simulation of a TSA in order to gain insight into the mechanical behaviour of a glenoid implant, the modelling procedure and the application of boundary conditions are of major importance because the computed result strongly depends upon the accuracy and sense of realism of the model. The goal of this study was to show the influence on glenoid stress distribution of a patient-specific bone density distribution compared with a homogenous bone density distribution for the purpose of generating a valid model in future FEA studies of the shoulder complex. Detailed information on the integration of bone density properties using existing numerical models as well as the applied boundary conditions is provided. A novel approach involving statistical analysis of values derived from an FEA is demonstrated using a cumulative distribution function. The results show well the mechanically superior behaviour of a realistic bone density distribution and therefore emphasise the necessity for patient-specific simulations in biomechanical and medical simulations. PMID:24897390

  6. Connecting physical resonant amplitudes and lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Daniel R.; Briceño, Raúl A.; Wilson, David J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a determination of the isovector, P-wave ππ scattering phase shift obtained by extrapolating recent lattice QCD results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using mπ = 236 MeV. The finite volume spectra are described using extensions of Lüscher's method to determine the infinite volume Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory scattering amplitude. We exploit the pion mass dependence of this effective theory to obtain the scattering amplitude at mπ = 140 MeV. The scattering phase shift is found to agree with experiment up to center of mass energies of 1.2 GeV. The analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude to the complex plane yields a ρ-resonance pole at Eρ = [ 755 (2) (1) (20 02) -i/2 129 (3) (1) (7 1) ] MeV. The techniques presented illustrate a possible pathway towards connecting lattice QCD observables of few-body, strongly interacting systems to experimentally accessible quantities.

  7. Connecting physical resonant amplitudes and lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Daniel R.; Briceño, Raúl A.; Wilson, David J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a determination of the isovector, P-wave ππ scattering phase shift obtained by extrapolating recent lattice QCD results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using mπ = 236 MeV. The finite volume spectra are described using extensions of Lüscher's method to determine the infinite volume Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory scattering amplitude. We exploit the pion mass dependence of this effective theory to obtain the scattering amplitude at mπ = 140 MeV. The scattering phase shift is found to agree with experiment up to center of mass energies of 1.2 GeV. The analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude to the complex plane yields a ρ-resonance pole at Eρ = [ 755 (2) (1) (20 -i/2 129 (3) (1) 7 1) ] MeV. The techniques presented illustrate a possible pathway towards connecting lattice QCD observables of few-body, strongly interacting systems to experimentally accessible quantities.

  8. The nucleon axial charge in full lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards; George Fleming; P Hagler; John Negele; Konstantinos Orginos; Andrew Pochinsky; Dru Renner; David Richards; Wolfram Schroers

    2005-10-13

    The nucleon axial charge is calculated as a function of the pion mass in full QCD. Using domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered sea quarks, we present the first calculation with pion masses as light as 354 MeV and volumes as large as (3.5 fm)3. We show that finite volume effects are small for our volumes and that a constrained fit based on finite volume chiral perturbation theory agrees with experiment within 5% statistical errors.

  9. Pure-state noninteracting v-representability of electron densities from Kohn-Sham calculations with finite basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, Piotr; Wesolowski, Tomasz A.

    2012-03-01

    Within the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) approximation, one can distinguish two different Kohn-Sham potentials. One is the potential available numerically in calculations, and the other is the exact potential corresponding to the LCAO density. The latter is usually not available, but can be obtained from the total density by a numerical inversion procedure or, as is done here, analytically using only one LCAO Kohn-Sham orbital. In the complete basis-set limit, the lowest-lying Kohn-Sham orbital suffices to perform the analytical inversion, and the two potentials differ by no more than a constant. The relation between these two potentials is investigated here for diatomic molecules and several atomic basis sets of increasing size and quality. The differences between the two potentials are usually qualitative (wrong behavior at nuclear cusps and far from the molecule even if Slater-type orbitals are used) and δ-like features at nodal planes of the lowest-lying LCAO Kohn-Sham orbital. Such nodes occur frequently in LCAO calculations and are not physical. Whereas the behavior of the potential can be systematically improved locally by the increase of the basis sets, the occurrence of nodes is not correlated with the size of the basis set. The presence of nodes in the lowest-lying LCAO orbital can be used to monitor whether the effective potential in LCAO Kohn-Sham equations can be interpreted as the potential needed for pure-state noninteracting v-representability of the LCAO density. Squares of such node-containing lowest-lying LCAO Kohn-Sham orbitals are nontrivial examples of two-electron densities which are not pure-state noninteracting v-representable.

  10. Gluonic profile of the static baryon at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2015-05-01

    The gluon flux distribution of a static three quark system has been revealed at finite temperature in the pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. An action density operator is correlated with three Polyakov loops representing the baryonic state at temperatures near the end of the QCD plateau, T /Tc≈0.8 , and another just before the deconfinement point, T /Tc≈0.9 . The flux distributions at short distance separations between the quarks display an action-density profile consistent with a rounded filled Δ shape iso surface. However the Δ shape action iso-surface distributions are found to persist even at large interquark separations. The action density distribution in the quark plane exhibits a nonuniform pattern for all quark separations considered. This result contrasts with the Y-shaped uniform action density gluonic-flux profile obtained using the Wilson loop as a quark source operator at zero temperature. We systematically measure and compare the main aspects of the profile of the flux distribution at the two considered temperature scales for three sets of isosceles triangle quark configurations. In this paper, we present major characteristics of the gluonic profile including radii, amplitudes, and rate of change of the width of the flux distribution. These aspects show significant changes as the temperature changes from the end of the QCD plateau towards the deconfinement point. In particular, we found the flux tube is exhibiting a linear divergence at some planes of the gluonic pattern for the temperature close to the deconfinement point.

  11. QCD physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.

    1992-05-01

    We present measurements of jet production and isolated prompt photon production in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV from the 1988--89 run of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). To test QCD with jets, the inclusive jet cross section (p{bar p} {yields} J + X) and two jet angular distributions (p{bar P} {yields} JJ + X) are compared to QCD predictions and are used to search for composite quarks. The ratio of the scaled jet cross sections at two Tevatron collision energies ({radical}s= 546 and 1800 GeV) is compared to QCD predictions for X{sub T} scaling violations. Also, we present the first evidence for QCD interference effects (color coherence) in third jet production (p{bar p} {yields} JJJ + X). To test QCD with photons, we present measurements of the transverse momentum spectrum of single isolated prompt photon production (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} + X), double isolated prompt photon production (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} + X), and the angular distribution of photon-jet events (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} J + X). We have also measured the isolated production ratio of {eta} and {pi}{sup 0} mesons (p{bar p} {yields} {eta} + X)/(p{bar p} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + X) = 1.02 {plus minus} .15(stat) {plus minus} .23(sys).

  12. QCD physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.; The CDF Collaboration

    1992-05-01

    We present measurements of jet production and isolated prompt photon production in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV from the 1988--89 run of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). To test QCD with jets, the inclusive jet cross section (p{bar p} {yields} J + X) and two jet angular distributions (p{bar P} {yields} JJ + X) are compared to QCD predictions and are used to search for composite quarks. The ratio of the scaled jet cross sections at two Tevatron collision energies ({radical}s= 546 and 1800 GeV) is compared to QCD predictions for X{sub T} scaling violations. Also, we present the first evidence for QCD interference effects (color coherence) in third jet production (p{bar p} {yields} JJJ + X). To test QCD with photons, we present measurements of the transverse momentum spectrum of single isolated prompt photon production (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} + X), double isolated prompt photon production (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} + X), and the angular distribution of photon-jet events (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} J + X). We have also measured the isolated production ratio of {eta} and {pi}{sup 0} mesons (p{bar p} {yields} {eta} + X)/(p{bar p} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + X) = 1.02 {plus_minus} .15(stat) {plus_minus} .23(sys).

  13. Finite-Element Model Predicts Current Density Distribution for Clinical Applications of tDCS and tACS.

    PubMed

    Neuling, Toralf; Wagner, Sven; Wolters, Carsten H; Zaehle, Tino; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been applied in numerous scientific studies over the past decade. However, the possibility to apply tDCS in therapy of neuropsychiatric disorders is still debated. While transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been approved for treatment of major depression in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), tDCS is not as widely accepted. One of the criticisms against tDCS is the lack of spatial specificity. Focality is limited by the electrode size (35 cm(2) are commonly used) and the bipolar arrangement. However, a current flow through the head directly from anode to cathode is an outdated view. Finite-element (FE) models have recently been used to predict the exact current flow during tDCS. These simulations have demonstrated that the current flow depends on tissue shape and conductivity. To face the challenge to predict the location, magnitude, and direction of the current flow induced by tDCS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), we used a refined realistic FE modeling approach. With respect to the literature on clinical tDCS and tACS, we analyzed two common setups for the location of the stimulation electrodes which target the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe, respectively. We compared lateral and medial electrode configuration with regard to their usability. We were able to demonstrate that the lateral configurations yielded more focused stimulation areas as well as higher current intensities in the target areas. The high resolution of our simulation allows one to combine the modeled current flow with the knowledge of neuronal orientation to predict the consequences of tDCS and tACS. Our results not only offer a basis for a deeper understanding of the stimulation sites currently in use for clinical applications but also offer a better interpretation of observed effects. PMID:23015792

  14. The correlation between the SOS in trabecular bone and stiffness and density studied by finite-element analysis.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Liesbet; Vanderoost, Jef; Jaecques, Siegfried; Boonen, Steven; D'hooge, Jan; Lauriks, Walter; Van der Perre, Georges

    2008-01-01

    For the clinical assessment of osteoporosis (i.e., a degenerative bone disease associated with increased fracture risk), ultrasound has been proposed as an alternative or supplement to the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) technique. However, the interaction of ultrasound waves with (trabecular) bone remains relatively poorly understood. The present study aimed to improve this understanding by simulating ultrasound wave propagation in 15 trabecular bone samples from the human lumbar spine, using microcomputed tomography-based finite-element modeling. The model included only the solid bone, without the bone marrow. Two structural parameters were calculated: the bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the structural (apparent) elastic modulus (E(s)), and the ultrasound propagation parameter speed of sound (SOS). Relations between BV/TV and E(s) were similar to published experimental relations. At 1 MHz, correlations between SOS and the structural parameters BV/TV and Es were rather weak, but the results can be explained from the specific features of the trabecular structure and the intrinsic material elastic modulus E(i). In particular, the systematic differences between the three main directions provide information on the trabecular structure. In addition, at 1 MHz the correlation found between the simulated SOS values and those calculated from the simple bar equation was poor when the three directions are considered separately. Hence, under these conditions, the homogenization approach-including the bar equation-is not valid. However, at lower frequencies (50-300 kHz) this correlation significantly improved. It is concluded that detailed analysis of ultrasound wave propagation through the solid structure in various directions and with various frequencies, can yield much information on the structural and mechanical properties of trabecular bone. PMID:18599411

  15. Translationally Invariant Calculations of Form Factors, Densities and Momentum Distributions for Finite Nuclei with Short-Range Correlations Included: A Fresh Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebeko, A.; Grigorov, P.; Iurasov, V.

    2014-08-01

    The approach proposed in the 70s (Dementiji et al. in Sov J Nucl Phys 22:6-9, 1976), when describing the elastic and inelastic electron scattering off 4 He, and elaborated in (Shebeko et al.in Eur Phys J A27:143-155, 2006) for calculations of the one-body, two-body and more complex density matrices of finite bound systems has been applied (Shebeko and Grigorov in Ukr J Phys 52:830-842, 2007; Shebeko et al. in Eur. Phys. J. A48:153-172, 2012) in studying a combined effect of the center-of-mass motion and nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations on the nucleon density and momentum distributions in light nuclei beyond the independent particle model. Unlike a common practice, suitable for infinite bound systems, these distributions are determined as expectation values of appropriate intrinsic operators that depend upon the relative coordinates and momenta (Jacobi variables) and act on the intrinsic ground-state wave functions (WFs). The latter are constructed in the so-called fixed center-of-mass approximation, starting with a mean-field Slater determinant modified by some correlator (e.g., after Jastrow or Villars). Our numerical calculations of the charge form factors ( F CH ( q)), densities and momentum distributions have been carried out for nuclei 4 He and 16 O choosing, respectively, the 1 s and 1 s-1 p Slater determinants of the harmonic oscillator model as trial, nontranslationally invariant WFs.

  16. The QCD running coupling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    Here, we review present knowledge onmore » $$\\alpha_{s}$$, the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) running coupling. The dependence of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics --from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We will survey our present theoretical and empirical knowledge of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$, including constraints at high $Q^2$ predicted by perturbative QCD, and constraints at small $Q^2$ based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the first, introductory, part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how $$\\alpha_s$$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as `` Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization scale ambiguity. We also report recent important experimental measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the ``Principle of Maximum Conformality" which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of the gauge and renormalization scheme. In last part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the low momentum transfer domain, where there has been no consensus on how to define $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ or its analytic behavior. We will discuss the various approaches used for low energy calculations. Among them, we will discuss the light-front holographic approach to QCD in the strongly coupled

  17. QCD Evolution 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    These are the proceedings of the QCD Evolution 2015 Workshop which was held 26-30 May, 2015 at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, USA. The workshop is a continuation of a series of workshops held during four consecutive years 2011, 2012, 2013 at Jefferson Lab, and in 2014 in Santa Fe, NM. With the rapid developments in our understanding of the evolution of parton distributions including low-x, TMDs, GPDs, higher-twist correlation functions, and the associated progress in perturbative QCD, lattice QCD and effective field theory techniques we look forward with great enthusiasm to the 2015 meeting. A special attention was also paid to participation of experimentalists as the topics discussed are of immediate importance for the JLab 12 experimental program and a future Electron Ion Collider.

  18. Implication of nonintegral occupation number and Fermi-Dirac statistics in the local-spin-density approximation applied to finite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, S.

    1989-02-01

    In electronic-structure calculations for finite systems using the local-spin-density (LSD) approximation, it is assumed that the eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equation should obey Fermi-Dirac (FD) statistics. In order to comply with this assumption for some of the transition-metal atoms, a nonintegral occupation number is used which also minimizes the total energy. It is shown here that for finite systems it is not necessary that the eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equation obey FD statistics. It is also shown that the Kohn-Sham exchange potential used in all LSD models is correct only for integer occupation number. With a noninteger occupation number the LSD exchange potential will be smaller than that given by the Kohn-Sham potential. Ab initio self-consistent spin-polarized calculations have been performed numerically for the total energy of an iron atom. It is found that the ground state belongs to the 3d/sup 6/4s/sup 2/ configuration. The ionization potentials of all the Fe/sup n//sup +/ ions are reported and are in agreement with experiment.

  19. A finite element analysis of the effect of electrode area and inter-electrode distance on the spatial distribution of the current density in tDCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Paula; Hallett, Mark; Cavaleiro Miranda, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effect of electrode area and inter-electrode distance on the spatial distribution of the current density in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). For this purpose, we used the finite element method to compute the distribution of the current density in a four-layered spherical head model using various electrode montages, corresponding to a range of electrode sizes and inter-electrode distances. We found that smaller electrodes required slightly less current to achieve a constant value of the current density at a reference point on the brain surface located directly under the electrode center. Under these conditions, smaller electrodes also produced a more focal current density distribution in the brain, i.e. the magnitude of the current density fell more rapidly with distance from the reference point. The combination of two electrodes with different areas produced an asymmetric current distribution that could lead to more effective and localized neural modulation under the smaller electrode than under the larger one. Focality improved rapidly with decreasing electrode size when the larger electrode sizes were considered but the improvement was less marked for the smaller electrode sizes. Also, focality was not affected significantly by inter-electrode distance unless two large electrodes were placed close together. Increasing the inter-electrode distance resulted in decreased shunting of the current through the scalp and the cerebrospinal fluid, and decreasing electrode area resulted in increased current density on the scalp under the edges of the electrode. Our calculations suggest that when working with conventional electrodes (25-35 cm2), one of the electrodes should be placed just 'behind' the target relative to the other electrode, for maximum current density on the target. Also electrodes with areas in the range 3.5-12 cm2 may provide a better compromise between focality and current density in the scalp than the traditional

  20. Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.

  1. The Influence of Mesh Density on the Impact Response of a Shuttle Leading-Edge Panel Finite Element Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Spellman, Regina L.

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed to examine the influence of varying mesh density on an LS-DYNA simulation of a rectangular-shaped foam projectile impacting the space shuttle leading edge Panel 6. The shuttle leading-edge panels are fabricated of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. During the study, nine cases were executed with all possible combinations of coarse, baseline, and fine meshes of the foam and panel. For each simulation, the same material properties and impact conditions were specified and only the mesh density was varied. In the baseline model, the shell elements representing the RCC panel are approximately 0.2-in. on edge, whereas the foam elements are about 0.5-in. on edge. The element nominal edge-length for the baseline panel was halved to create a fine panel (0.1-in. edge length) mesh and doubled to create a coarse panel (0.4-in. edge length) mesh. In addition, the element nominal edge-length of the baseline foam projectile was halved (0.25-in. edge length) to create a fine foam mesh and doubled (1.0- in. edge length) to create a coarse foam mesh. The initial impact velocity of the foam was 775 ft/s. The simulations were executed in LS-DYNA version 960 for 6 ms of simulation time. Contour plots of resultant panel displacement and effective stress in the foam were compared at five discrete time intervals. Also, time-history responses of internal and kinetic energy of the panel, kinetic and hourglass energy of the foam, and resultant contact force were plotted to determine the influence of mesh density. As a final comparison, the model with a fine panel and fine foam mesh was executed with slightly different material properties for the RCC. For this model, the average degraded properties of the RCC were replaced with the maximum degraded properties. Similar comparisons of panel and foam responses were made for the average and maximum degraded models.

  2. Visualization Tools for Lattice QCD - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Massimo Di Pierro

    2012-03-15

    Our research project is about the development of visualization tools for Lattice QCD. We developed various tools by extending existing libraries, adding new algorithms, exposing new APIs, and creating web interfaces (including the new NERSC gauge connection web site). Our tools cover the full stack of operations from automating download of data, to generating VTK files (topological charge, plaquette, Polyakov lines, quark and meson propagators, currents), to turning the VTK files into images, movies, and web pages. Some of the tools have their own web interfaces. Some Lattice QCD visualization have been created in the past but, to our knowledge, our tools are the only ones of their kind since they are general purpose, customizable, and relatively easy to use. We believe they will be valuable to physicists working in the field. They can be used to better teach Lattice QCD concepts to new graduate students; they can be used to observe the changes in topological charge density and detect possible sources of bias in computations; they can be used to observe the convergence of the algorithms at a local level and determine possible problems; they can be used to probe heavy-light mesons with currents and determine their spatial distribution; they can be used to detect corrupted gauge configurations. There are some indirect results of this grant that will benefit a broader audience than Lattice QCD physicists.

  3. Strangeness of the nucleon from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Constantinou, Martha; Dinter, Simon; Drach, Vincent; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Koutsou, Giannis; Vaquero, Alejandro; ETM Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We present a nonperturbative calculation of the strangeness of the nucleon yN within the framework of lattice QCD. This observable is known to be an important cornerstone to interpret results from direct dark matter detection experiments. We perform a lattice computation for yN with an analysis of systematic effects originating from discretization, finite size, chiral extrapolation and excited state effects leading to the value of yN=0.173 (50 ) . The rather large uncertainty of this value of yN is dominated by systematic uncertainties which we are able to quantify in this work.

  4. Universality and the QCD Anderson transition.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Matteo; Kovács, Tamás G; Pittler, Ferenc

    2014-03-14

    We study the Anderson-type transition previously found in the spectrum of the QCD quark Dirac operator in the high-temperature, quark-gluon plasma phase. Using finite size scaling for the unfolded level spacing distribution, we show that in the thermodynamic limit there is a genuine mobility edge, where the spectral statistics changes from Poisson to Wigner-Dyson statistics in a nonanalytic way. We determine the correlation length critical exponent ν and find that it is compatible with that of the unitary Anderson model. PMID:24679282

  5. Lattice QCD for parallel computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadling, Henley Sean

    Lattice QCD is an important tool in the investigation of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This is particularly true at lower energies where traditional perturbative techniques fail, and where other non-perturbative theoretical efforts are not entirely satisfactory. Important features of QCD such as confinement and the masses of the low lying hadronic states have been demonstrated and calculated in lattice QCD simulations. In calculations such as these, non-lattice techniques in QCD have failed. However, despite the incredible advances in computer technology, a full solution of lattice QCD may still be in the too-distant future. Much effort is being expended in the search for ways to reduce the computational burden so that an adequate solution of lattice QCD is possible in the near future. There has been considerable progress in recent years, especially in the research of improved lattice actions. In this thesis, a new approach to lattice QCD algorithms is introduced, which results in very significant efficiency improvements. The new approach is explained in detail, evaluated and verified by comparing physics results with current lattice QCD simulations. The new sub-lattice layout methodology has been specifically designed for current and future hardware. Together with concurrent research into improved lattice actions and more efficient numerical algorithms, the very significant efficiency improvements demonstrated in this thesis can play an important role in allowing lattice QCD researchers access to much more realistic simulations. The techniques presented in this thesis also allow ambitious QCD simulations to be performed on cheap clusters of commodity computers.

  6. QCD physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, T.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-10-01

    The CDF collaboration is engaged in a broad program of QCD measurements at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. I will discuss inclusive jet production at center-of-mass energies of 1800 GeV and 630 GeV, properties of events with very high total transverse energy and dijet angular distributions.

  7. QCD results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, R.; The CDF Collaboration

    1991-10-01

    Results are presented for hadronic jet and direct photon production at {radical}{bar s} = 1800 GeV. The data are compared with next-to-leading QCD calculations. A new limit on the scale of possible composite structure of the quarks is also reported. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  8. QCD and Hadron Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  9. Progress in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas S. Kronfeld

    2002-09-30

    After reviewing some of the mathematical foundations and numerical difficulties facing lattice QCD, I review the status of several calculations relevant to experimental high-energy physics. The topics considered are moments of structure functions, which may prove relevant to search for new phenomena at the LHC, and several aspects of flavor physics, which are relevant to understanding CP and flavor violation.

  10. REGGE TRAJECTORIES IN QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V.; Efremov, Anatoly Vasilievich; Ginzburg, Ilya F.

    2013-04-01

    We discuss some problems concerning the application of perturbative QCD to high energy soft processes. We show that summing the contributions of the lowest twist operators for non-singlet $t$-channel leads to a Regge-like amplitude. Singlet case is also discussed.