Science.gov

Sample records for finnish forest industry

  1. Effects of biomass utilization on the carbon balance of Finnish forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievänen, Risto; Salminen, Olli; Kallio, Maarit

    2015-04-01

    The boreal forests cover three fourths of the land area of Finland. About 80 per cent of the total forest area is managed for commercial forestry. The forests produce timber for wood processing and pulp and paper industries and provide also bioenergy. The harvests of timber vary depending on demand of products of forest industry; the harvest level has been on average about 70 per cent of growth in recent years. The utilization of forest biomass is therefore the most important factor affecting the carbon balance of Finnish forests. We made projections of carbon balance of Finnish forests during 2012-2050 based on scenarios of timber and bioenergy demands. To assess the changes in carbon stock of forests, we combined three models: a large-scale forestry model, the soil carbon model Yasso07 for mineral soils, and a method based on emission factors for peatland soils. We considered two harvest scenarios based on the recent projections of plausible levels (min, max) of timber demand. For the bioenergy demand, we compared cases in which the wood energy use was low or high. In the past decades, the Finnish forests have been a steadily growing and substantial carbon sink. Its size has been more than 40% of the national GHG emissions during 1990-2012. The planned use of wood from the forests to forest and energy industry does not threaten the increasing trend of the forest sink; with the lowest use of forest biomass the sink may even match the national GHG emissions until 2050. The stock change of trees is the most important component of carbon balance of forests; it accounts for approximately 80 % of the total stock change. Trees and mineral soils act as carbon sinks and the drained peatland soils as a carbon source. By comparing the scenarios of wood energy use we conclude that the amount of carbon emissions avoided by replacing fossil fuels with stemwood is outweighed by the loss in carbon sequestration.

  2. Monitoring of forest condition in the Finnish-Russian border region

    SciTech Connect

    Maelkoenen, E.; Lumme, I. ); Tikkanen, E. )

    1994-12-01

    Large industrial and population centers of NW Russia and Estonia are great sources of air pollutants, which is regarded as a threat to the vitality of forests also in Finland. Therefore, the monitoring of forest condition has been set as a central goal of the Finnish-Russian cooperation in the field of environmental protection in near-border districts. Except in the vicinity of emissions sources it has been difficult to distinguish in a scientifically reliable way antropogenic symptoms from natural disturbances and epidemics.

  3. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  4. The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring

  5. High Latitude Forest Dynamics - CO2 EXCHANGE Measurements and Forest Growth at the Altitudinal Forest Line in High Subarctic Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, S.; Siivola, E.; Aakala, T.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Back, J. K.; Grace, J.; Vesala, T.

    2015-12-01

    Forests in high subarctic fell regions of Fennoscandia belong to the most northern forests in the world, a dynamic ecosystem vulnerable under a changing climate with treelines moving further north and also higher up slopes. An ecosystem is characterised by the interaction between micrometeorology, macroecology and the underlying terrain and topography. The current study is carried out at 68° North (Värriö strict nature reserve), the most sensitive zone of the high subarctic in Finnish Lapland. As the treeline is climbing up the slopes trees and eventually forests establish along the slopes leading to a greening of the area ("Greening of the Arctic" effect) and to an increase in CO2 uptake, also as a result of rising air temperatures and Nitrogen fertilization effects. Such developments and the little grazing (in this area) are leading to an increase in photosynthesising biomass. In order to fully understand the atmosphere - forest interaction in the fell region of Finnish Lapland, several important aspects are taken in consideration: its high latitudinal location, on-going climate change, polar day, its topographic characteristic and the dynamic of the progressing tree line. All these physiognomies cumulate in the capacity and efficiency of high latitude biomes in converting energy into photosynthate and contributing to removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Carrying out CO2 and energy exchange measurements at ecosystem level in such extreme environments are challenging in particular when trying to follow and fulfil established assumptions set out by the application of the eddy covariance technique. Results from the first four consecutive snow free growing seasons show this site to act as a sink for atmospheric CO2. We are investigating the orographic effect on the observed fluxes and evaluate the performance of the flux setup determining if the topography has any systematic effects on fluxes or whether its external properties bias the carbon balance.

  6. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  7. Forest Industry Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for forest industry occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

  8. Forest Products Industry of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc

    2002-05-01

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.

  9. Methods and practices used in incident analysis in the Finnish nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Suksi, Seija

    2004-07-26

    Finnish nuclear power plant operators Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) was carried out by the Technical Research Centre (VTT) on request of STUK at the end of 1990s. The study aimed at providing a broad overview and suggestions for improvement of the whole organisational framework to support event investigation practices at the regulatory body and at the utilities. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the adequacy and reliability of event investigation analysis methods and practices in the Finnish nuclear power industry and based on the results to further develop them. The results and suggestions of the research are reviewed in the paper and the corrective actions implemented in event investigation and operating experience procedures both at STUK and at utilities are discussed as well. STUK has developed its own procedure for the risk-informed analysis of nuclear power plant events. The PSA based event analysis method is used to assess the safety significance and importance measures associated with the unavailability of components and systems subject to Technical Specifications. The insights from recently performed PSA based analyses are also briefly discussed in the paper. PMID:15231350

  10. Fraser River action plan: Forest industries

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This research reviews the activities conducted under the Fraser River Action Plan with regard to forest industries and their effects on the Fraser River Basin environment. The review covers the following topics: Projects to cut pollution from wood preservatives and pulp/paper mills; ecological effects of pulp mill effluents; wood waste and its utilization; habitat conservation; environmentally sound forestry practices; riparian conservation; habitat and ecosystem protection; and the use of economic instruments as an alternative to regulation.

  11. Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Kouki, Jari; Strandman, Harri; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2015-02-01

    Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21st century. Landscape suitability for species under climate change is determined by several interacting factors including dispersal and human land use. Designing effective conservation strategies at regional scales to improve landscape suitability requires measuring the vulnerabilities of specific regions to climate change and determining their conservation capacities. Although methods for defining vulnerability categories are available, methods for doing this in a systematic, cost-effective way have not been identified. Here, we use an ecosystem model to define the potential resilience of the Finnish forest landscape by relating its current conservation capacity to its vulnerability to climate change. In applying this framework, we take into account the responses to climate change of a broad range of red-listed species with different niche requirements. This framework allowed us to identify four categories in which representation in the landscape varies among three IPCC emission scenarios (B1, low; A1B, intermediate; A2, high emissions): (i) susceptible (B1 = 24.7%, A1B = 26.4%, A2 = 26.2%), the most intact forest landscapes vulnerable to climate change, requiring management for heterogeneity and resilience; (ii) resilient (B1 = 2.2%, A1B = 0.5%, A2 = 0.6%), intact areas with low vulnerability that represent potential climate refugia and require conservation capacity maintenance; (iii) resistant (B1 = 6.7%, A1B = 0.8%, A2 = 1.1%), landscapes with low current conservation capacity and low vulnerability that are suitable for restoration projects; (iv) sensitive (B1 = 66.4%, A1B = 72.3%, A2 = 72.0%), low conservation capacity landscapes that are vulnerable and for which alternative conservation measures are required depending on the

  12. Calibration of industrial CT using two forest-balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yushu; Song, Xu; Li, Shi; Li, Wei; Li, Qi; Chen, Siwen; Shen, Fei; Song, Xiaoping; Gao, Sitian

    2015-02-01

    A small forest-ball was manufactured and calibrated using CMM F25. An industrial CT called Metrotom1500 was calibrated by the small forest-ball and another big forest-ball produced by Carl Zeiss. These two forest-balls were separately measured at two different magnifications of the industrial CT, and the measurement results could meet the maximum permissible error of Metrotom1500.

  13. Finnish Comprehensive School Students Contemplate the Forest Fires of Indonesia 1997 from Internet and Newspaper Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin-Oittinen, Toini

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the assignment for eighth-grade students was reporting on the forest fires in Indonesia in chronological order, from 26 August to 27 September 1997. The final stage of the assignment was composing a report in essay format. The goal of this presentation was to examine the historical interpretation of the events and to simultaneously…

  14. Forest products industry of the future: Building a sustainable technology advantage for America`s forest products industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The US forest, wood, and paper industry ranks as one of the most competitive forest products industries in the world. With annual shipments valued at nearly $267 billion, it employs over 1.3 million people and is currently among the top 10 manufacturing employers in 46 out of 50 states. Retaining this leadership position will depend largely on the industry`s success in developing and using advanced technologies. These technologies will enable manufacturing plants and forestry enterprises to maximize energy and materials efficiency and reduce waste and emissions, while producing high-quality, competitively priced wood and paper products. In a unique partnership, leaders in the forest products industry have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to encourage cooperative research efforts that will help position the US forest products industry for continuing prosperity while advancing national energy efficiency and environmental goals.

  15. Minnesota timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Dahlman, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The bulletin includes recent Minnesota forest industry trends and report the results of a detailed study of forest industry, industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Minnesota in 1990. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and industrial roundwood information for planning projects.

  16. Minnesota timber industry. An assessment of timber product output and use, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Dahlman, R.A.

    1997-09-19

    In this bulletin, the authors discuss recent Minnesota forest industry trends and report the results of a detailed study of forest industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Minnesota in 1992. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and industrial roundwood information for planning projects.

  17. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Atalla, Rajai; Beecher, James; Caron, Robert; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Deng, Yulin; Glasser, Wolfgang; Gray, Derek; Haigler, Candace; Jones, Philip; Joyce, Margaret; Kohlman, Jane; Koukoulas, Alexander; Lancaster, Peter; Perine, Lori; Rodriguez, Augusto; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wegner, Theodore; Zhu, Junyong

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  18. Wisconsin timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Whipple, J.W.

    1997-09-21

    In this bulletin we discuss recent Wisconsin forest industry trends and report the results of a detailed study of forest indsutry, industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Wisconsin in 1994. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and idustrial roundwood information for planning project.

  19. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Private non-industrial forest land. 701.157 Section... Conservation Program § 701.157 Private non-industrial forest land. (a) Subject to the other eligibility... section with respect to private, non-industrial forest land in an eligible county for costs related...

  20. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Private non-industrial forest land. 701.157 Section... Conservation Program § 701.157 Private non-industrial forest land. (a) Subject to the other eligibility... section with respect to private, non-industrial forest land in an eligible county for costs related...

  1. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Private non-industrial forest land. 701.157 Section... Conservation Program § 701.157 Private non-industrial forest land. (a) Subject to the other eligibility... section with respect to private, non-industrial forest land in an eligible county for costs related...

  2. 7 CFR 701.157 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private non-industrial forest land. 701.157 Section... Conservation Program § 701.157 Private non-industrial forest land. (a) Subject to the other eligibility... section with respect to private, non-industrial forest land in an eligible county for costs related...

  3. 7 CFR 701.57 - Private non-industrial forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private non-industrial forest land. 701.57 Section 701... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.57 Private non-industrial forest land. (a..., assistance made available under this section with respect to private, non-industrial forest land in...

  4. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  5. Attitudes and Perceptions of Mississippi Loggers and Environmentalists Toward the Forest Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habig, Rachel B.; Grado, Stephen C.; Grace, Laura A.; Capella, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty about the acceptability of the forest industry and its practices to the citizens of Mississippi provided the impetus for a study of the attitudes and perceptions of eight constituency groups toward the forest industry in the state. This study examines attitudes and perceptions of two of those groups, loggers and two…

  6. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Industrial Forest Clearcuts in the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, L. Z.; Boschetti, L.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing has been widely used for mapping and characterizing changes in forest cover, but the available remote sensing forest change products are not discriminating between deforestation (permanent transition from forest to non forest) and industrial forest management (logging followed by regrowth, with no land cover/ land use class change) (Hansen et al, 2010). Current estimates of carbon-equivalent emissions report the contribution of deforestation as 12% of total anthropogenic carbon emissions (van der Werf et al., 2009), but accurate monitoring of forest carbon balance should discriminate between land use change related to forest natural disturbances, and forest management. The total change in forest cover (Gross Forest Cover Loss, GFLC) needs to be characterized based on the cause (natural/human) and on the outcome of the change (regeneration to forest/transition to non/forest)(Kurtz et al, 2010). This paper presents the methodology used to classify the forest loss detected by the University of Maryland Global Forest Change product (Hansen, 2013) into deforestation, disturbances (fires, insect outbreaks) and industrial forest clearcuts. The industrial forest clearcuts were subsequently analysed by converting the pixel based detections into objects, and applying patch level metrics (e.g. size, compactness, straightness of boundaries) and contextual measures. The analysis is stratified by region and by dominant forest specie, to highlight changes in the rate of forest resource utilization in the 2003-2013 period covered by the Maryland Forest Cover Change Product. References Hansen, M.C., Stehman, S.V., & Potapov, P.V. (2010). Reply to Wernick et al.: Global scale quantification of forest change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, E148-E148 Hansen, M.C., Potapov, P.V., Moore, R et al., (2013), "High resolution Global Maps for the 21stCentury Forest Cover Change", Science 342: 850-853 Kurz, W.A. (2010). An ecosystem context for global

  7. Workplace conflict resolution and the health of employees in the Swedish and Finnish units of an industrial company.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Martin; Jappinen, Paavo; Theorell, Tores; Oxenstierna, Gabriel

    2006-10-01

    New patterns of working, the globalisation of production and the introduction of information technologies are changing the way we work. This new working environment has eliminated some risks whilst introducing others. The importance of the psychosocial working environment for the health of employees is now well documented, but the effects of managerial style have received relatively little attention. Yet management is an increasingly important aspect of companies' policies. In this paper, we examine the relationship between conflict management in the workplace and self-reported measures of stress, poor general health, exhaustion and sickness absence due to overstrain or fatigue. Our sample consists of non-supervisory employees (N = 9309) working in the Swedish and Finnish plants of a multinational forestry company who were surveyed in 2000. Bivariate analyses show that those who report that differences are resolved through discussion are least likely to report stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence. Those who report that authority is used or that no attempts are made to resolve differences have quite similar rates across all measures. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed for all health outcomes controlling for age, sex, occupational group, job complexity, job autonomy and support from superiors. Results show significantly lower likelihoods of reporting stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence amongst employees who report that differences of opinion are resolved through discussion compared to those who report that no attempts are made. No significant differences were found between those who reported that differences were resolved through use of authority and subjects in the 'no attempt' category. These results suggest that the workplace conflict resolution is important in the health of employees in addition to traditional psychosocial work environment risk factors. PMID:16782255

  8. Degradation of forest soils near an industrial zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlů, Lenka; Drábek, Ondřej; Borůvka, Luboš

    2014-05-01

    Forest soils near industrial zones could be endangered by acid deposition and by contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs). The Silesian Beskids represents a feasible example of these two types of forest soils damage. Soils of this area are strongly acid. The surface enrichment by several studied PTEs (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) reflects anthropogenic contamination. Moreover, acid character of soils enables presence of dangerous forms of Al. Two forms of all these PTEs were evaluated; potentially mobilized and mobile - the most danger form. Negligible amounts of Cu, Pb, and Al3+ are found in the mobile form. These elements represent just a potential risk for the system. The mobile forms of Cd, Zn, and Mn account for approximately 30 % of potentially mobilized forms in organic horizons. In the mineral horizon, Cd and Zn represent only about 20 % and Mn less than 10 % of potentially mobilized forms. These elements could pose a problem to ecosystem vitality. Cadmium is phytotoxic in small concentrations and its content in mobilized form approaches the critical load. For this reason, Cd could be considered as the most dangerous element in the studied area. While the distribution of mobile Cd is control by cation exchange capacity and hydrolytic acidity in the mineral horizon, stabilization of Cd in potentially mobilized form in organic horizons is enhanced by organic matter quality. A limiting nutrient could be P. Phosphorus plays an important role in the immobilization of toxic Al forms by creation of stable complexes as it was proven by a factor analysis in the H horizon. Negative aspect of this fact is decrease of bioavailability of P for plants. With regard to decreasing emissions, it is important to focus on the stabilization of PTEs deposited into the soil in the past. It is necessary to keep a relatively high quality of organic matter (connected to high CEC), higher pH, and higher nutrient content. This state could be temporarily achieved by the chemical

  9. Dynamics of Industrial Forests in Southeast United States Assessed using Satellite and Field Inventory Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Tao, X.; Zhao, F. A.; Schleeweis, K.; Ling, P. Y.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-12-01

    The southeast United States (SE-US) is dominated by tree plantations and other forms of industrial forests that provide vital socio-ecological services to the human society. Most of these forests are managed to maximize economic outcome, and hence are often subject to intensive management practices and have different harvest-regrowth cycles as compared with natural forest ecosystems. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped forest disturbances for the conterminous United States using dense time series Landsat observations. The derived map products revealed that more than 50% of the forests in SE-US were harvested or disturbed by other forms of human or natural disturbance events at least once between 1986 and 2010. These products are being analyzed together with ancillary GIS data sets and field inventory data to identify industrial forests and to quantify their logging intensity, timber output, recovery rate, and the harvest-regrowth cycle. The derived results will be summarized in this presentation, along with discussions of the underlying environmental and management factors that may drive the spatio-temporal dynamics of the industrial forests in SE-US.

  10. Natural Resources. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Forest Industry Worker. Resource Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This competency analysis profile lists 155 competencies that have been identified by employers as core competencies for inclusion in programs to train forest industry and resource conservation workers. The core competencies are organized into 10 units dealing the following: general safety precautions, natural resource industry operations, soil…

  11. Tradeoff between environmental impacts and economic benefits?: A case study of the Finnish and British pulp and paper industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, Mikko

    2001-02-01

    Due to the increased used paper collection rates in Western Europe, more recycled fibre will be used in the manufacture of paper. This will affect both the environmental and economic performance of the pulp and paper industry. The potential for the increase of the collection rate varies significantly in different countries in western Europe. In some countries the collection rate is already close to 70% (Austria, Germany; in others it is around 45% (Italy, United Kingdom). With the increased demand for recycled fibre also the collection will increase. When the collection of waste paper is increased something has to be done with the collected paper. Different utilisation modes results in different emission profiles. They also have different economic consequences. In this article the environmental and economic impacts of an increased paper collection rate are studied with three alternative scenarios. These scenarios are drawn using a dynamic material flow modelling such as Joined Time Projection (JTP). The results show, that a clear trade off between harmful environmental impacts and economic benefits exists.

  12. Finnish Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Aili Rytkonen; Koski, Augustus A.

    This audiolingual text is designed to serve as supplementary material for a beginning course in Finnish, to be introduced "when the student has mastered much of the basic structure of Finnish and about 700 lexical items." The authors suggest that it may also be used as an intermediate course. The text comprises 57 graded reading selections…

  13. Prosodies in Finnish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A study describing Finnish phonetics and analyzing prosodic properties is reported. Subjects were two female 17-year-olds, speakers of standard Finnish and well acquainted with each other. Data were drawn from two sources: a conversation between the two, in which one described a picture so the other could draw it, and one a set of stories narrated…

  14. The forest products industry in southeast Asia: An emphasis on Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, E.T. . School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries); Atmawidjaja, R. . Faculty of Forestry); Achmadi, S.S. . Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science)

    1993-05-01

    Wood production has increased rapidly in Southeast Asia in recent years. Harvesting intensity has also increased dramatically. To such an extent that the destruction of the tropical rainforest is of great concern to many people. This paper discusses the forest resources of three major wood-producing countries of Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, and the utilization of these resources in world markets. Because Indonesia is now the largest timber producer in the region, special emphasis is placed on the development of its forest products industry. Concern for the tropical forest and the effect of sustainable forestry development on the growth of the forest products industry, the economy, and the social environment are discussed.

  15. Forest Inventory Attribute Estimation Using Airborne Laser Scanning, Aerial Stereo Imagery, Radargrammetry and Interferometry-Finnish Experiences of the 3d Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.; Karjalainen, M.; Karila, K.; Kaasalainen, S.; Honkavaara, E.; Hyyppä, J.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote sensing has enabled detailed mapping of terrain and vegetation heights. Consequently, forest inventory attributes are estimated more and more using point clouds and normalized surface models. In practical applications, mainly airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been used in forest resource mapping. The current status is that ALS-based forest inventories are widespread, and the popularity of ALS has also raised interest toward alternative 3D techniques, including airborne and spaceborne techniques. Point clouds can be generated using photogrammetry, radargrammetry and interferometry. Airborne stereo imagery can be used in deriving photogrammetric point clouds, as very-high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are used in radargrammetry and interferometry. ALS is capable of mapping both the terrain and tree heights in mixed forest conditions, which is an advantage over aerial images or SAR data. However, in many jurisdictions, a detailed ALS-based digital terrain model is already available, and that enables linking photogrammetric or SAR-derived heights to heights above the ground. In other words, in forest conditions, the height of single trees, height of the canopy and/or density of the canopy can be measured and used in estimation of forest inventory attributes. In this paper, first we review experiences of the use of digital stereo imagery and spaceborne SAR in estimation of forest inventory attributes in Finland, and we compare techniques to ALS. In addition, we aim to present new implications based on our experiences.

  16. Greenhouse Gas and Carbon Profile of the U.S. Forest Products Industry Value Chain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004−2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO2-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions. PMID:20355695

  17. Discrimination in the Forest Industry: A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eylon, Dafna; Langton, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    A case study of a female chief executive officer denied membership in an industry-related social club helps students understand discrimination and the interaction of personal and organizational goals. The exercise creates awareness of ways to respond to discrimination and of gender and power issues in the workplace. (SK)

  18. Understanding felling safety in the New Zealand forest industry.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tim A; Parker, Richard J; Ashby, Liz

    2005-03-01

    Highest injury rates within the New Zealand forest sector are reported for the logging operation, with up to 30% of logging injuries occurring during the felling task. This paper reports findings from a detailed task and job safety analysis of the motor-manual (chainsaw) felling task, and an analysis of New Zealand Accident Reporting Scheme data for logging injuries for the five-year period, 1996-2000. Key safety factors, including physical hazards and potential errors and violations associated with the felling task, were determined from the task and job safety analysis, along with possible adverse consequences and potential solutions for reducing injury risk. The potential for injury among inexperienced fellers was noted, as felling safety was dependent upon appropriate assessment of hazards and good judgement in respect of decisions regarding the felling of trees. The analysis of some 351 reported felling injury cases allowed identification of high-risk task elements, common injury initiating events and temporal and logger population injury patterns. Findings from the two methods of analysis were triangulated where possible to produce a better understanding of key risk areas. The potential risk associated with inexperienced employees, who incurred a high proportion of felling injuries, and the need for good judgement and decision making for different aspects of the felling task were particularly noted. PMID:15694070

  19. Wisconsin timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Whipple, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In terms of volume of wood used, pulp mills dominate Wisconsin's forest industry, but sawmills far outnumber any other category. There were 323 mills of all types operating in Wisconsin in 1990. Wisconsin is divided into five Survey Units. Industrial roundwood production rose from 328.7 million cubic feet in 1988 to 342.6 million cubic feet in 1990. Pulpwood accounted for 66 percent of the industrial roundwood production in 1990. In 1990, 83 percent of the total growing-stock removals due to harvest came from aspen, red oak, hard maple, red pine, white birch, jack pine, and soft maple.

  20. Metals in Finnish liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Harju, K; Ronkainen, P

    1984-05-01

    The metal content of some representative Finnish berry liqueurs was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The berry liqueurs were prepared from cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus), cranberry (Vaccinum oxycoccus), lingonberry (Vaccinum vitis-idaea) and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). In addition some other Finnish berry, fruit and herbal liqueurs were analyzed. The trace elements studied were Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, and Zn. The level of poisonous metals in all the samples was very low: As less than 0.1, Cd less than 0.005 and Pb less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l. PMID:6464557

  1. [The social and hygienic aspects in the protection of the health of forest industry workers].

    PubMed

    Akhmetzyanov, L M

    1990-01-01

    The study of social and hygiene aspects in the industry of forest exploitation permitted to point out the changes that occurred in the field of mechanization and automation of production processes, which radically influenced the working conditions and characteristics, as well as the health indices. The study approaches some economic, social and hygiene problems. Proposals are made regarding the improvement of medical care organization for workers, for example the drawing up of a complex programme of prophylaxis of diseases in the enterprises for wood industrialization and of utilization of the computation technique. PMID:2218810

  2. Accounting for social impacts and costs in the forest industry, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, Robert . E-mail: rgale@web.net; Gale, Fred . E-mail: fred.gale@utas.edu.au

    2006-03-15

    Business reviews of the forest industry in British Colombia, Canada, typically portray an unequivocally positive picture of its financial and economic health. In doing so, they fail to consider the following six categories of social impacts and costs: (1) direct and indirect subsidies; (2) government support through investment; (3) community dependence; (4) the maintenance of public order; (5) aboriginal title; and (6) the overestimation of employment. Our findings show that conventional economic and financial accounting methods inflate the industry's net contribution to the economy. We make a number of recommendations to address this shortcoming to improve future accounting and reporting procedures.

  3. Responding to Agenda 2020: A technology vision and research agenda for America`s forest, wood and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.S.

    1995-03-01

    This document presents project summaries that demonstrate specific capabilities of interest to the forest, wood and paper industry in areas where PNL offers significant depth of experience or unique expertise. Though PNL possesses a wide range of capabilities across many of the technology-related issues identified by the industry, this document focuses on capabilities that meet the specific forest, wood and paper industry needs of the following research areas: forest inventory; human and environmental effects; energy and environmental tradeoffs; reduction of impacts of liquid effluent; solid wastes; removal of non-process elements in pulp and paper operations; life cycle assessment; and process measurement and controls. In addition, PNL can provide the forest, wood and paper industry with support in areas such as strategic and program planning, stakeholder communications and outreach, budget defense and quality metrics. These are services PNL provides directly to several programs within DOE.

  4. Post-harvest carbon emissions and sequestration in southern United States forest industries

    SciTech Connect

    Row, C.

    1997-12-31

    Whether the forest industries in the southern United States are net emitters or sequesters of carbon from the atmosphere depends on one`s viewpoint. In the short-term, the solid-wood industries-lumber, plywood, and panels--appear to sequester more carbon than is in the fossil fuels they use for processing. The paper industries, however, emit more carbon from fossil fuels than they sequester in the pulp and paper they manufacture. This viewpoint is quite limited. If one considers the life-cycles of solid-wood and paper products from seedlings to landfill, these industries sequester more carbon than they emit from burning fossil fuels. These industries also generate large amounts of energy by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from processing residues, and wood-based products produce more energy from incineration and landfill gases. Use of the carbon in these biofuels in effect keeps fossil fuel carbon in the ground, considering that at least that amount of carbon would be emitted in producing alternative materials. Another way of looking the emission balances is that wood-based materials, pound for pound or use for use, are the most {open_quotes}carbon efficient{close_quotes} group of major industrial materials. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Threshold responses of songbirds to long-term timber management on an active industrial forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, D.A.; Wood, P.B.; Keyser, P.D.; Wigley, T.B.; Dellinger, R.; Weakland, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Forest managers often seek to balance economic benefits from timber harvesting with maintenance of habitat for wildlife, ecosystem function, and human uses. Most research on the relationship between avian abundance and active timber management has been short-term, lasting one to two years, creating the need to investigate long-term avian responses and to identify harvest thresholds when a small change in habitat results in a disproportionate response in relative abundance and nest success. Our objectives were to identify trends in relative abundance and nest success and to identify landscape-scale disturbance thresholds for avian species and habitat guilds in response to a variety of harvest treatments (clear-cuts, heavy and light partial harvests) over 14 years. We conducted point counts and monitored nests at an industrial forest in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during 1996-1998, 2001-2003, and 2007-2009. Early successional species increased in relative abundance across all three time periods, whereas interior-edge and forest-interior guilds peaked in relative abundance mid-study after which the forest-interior guild declined. Of 41 species with >10 detections, four (10%) declined significantly, 13 (32%) increased significantly (only three species among all periods), and 9 (22%) peaked in abundance mid-study (over the entire study period, four species had no significant change in abundance, four declined, and one increased). Based on piecewise linear models, forest-interior and interior-edge guilds' relative abundance harvest thresholds were 28% total harvests (all harvests combined), 10% clear-cut harvests, and 18% light partial harvests, after which abundances declined. Harvest thresholds for the early successional guild were 42% total harvests, 11% clear-cut harvest, and 10% light partial harvests, and relative abundances increased after surpassing thresholds albeit at a reduced rate of increase after the clear-cut threshold. Threshold confidence

  6. Finnish care integrated?

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, J. Jouni

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The public Finnish social and health care system has been challenged by the economic crisis, administrative reforms and increased demands. Better integration as a solution includes many examples, which have been taken to use. The most important are the rewritten national and municipals strategies and quality recommendations, where the different sectors and the levels of care are seen as one entity. Many reorganisations have taken place, both nationally and locally, and welfare clusters have been established. The best examples of integrated care are the forms of teamwork, care management, emphasis on non-institutional care and the information technology. PMID:16896395

  7. Diversified forest ecosystems can grow on industrial waste residues: evidence from a multiproxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortet, Jerome; Schwartz, Christophe; Echevarria, Guillaume; Nahmani, Johanne; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Sirguey, Catherine; Watteau, Francoise; Morel, Jean Louis

    2010-05-01

    Smelter activities in the Lorraine region (North-East France) have lead to the creation of flotation ponds that were used to eliminate wastes, mainly slag. After industrial decline, some of these flotation ponds were colonized by vegetation and evolved to forest ecosystems. One of these old flotation ponds, situated in Pompey, close to Nancy (North-East France), was studied by collecting information on several physico-chemical and biological indicators. The main objective was to understand the biological functioning of this system, whose soil can be classified as a pure Technosol, characterised by a very complex stratified profile created by successive slag deposits. Soil is characterized by its apparent heterogeneity, but also its high agronomic fertility and particularly high metal contents. Holorganic horizons can vary from one to several centimetres. Macrofauna is characterized by a very low abundance of earthworms and a dominance of millipedes. Furthermore, whereas earthworms do accumulate metals, this is not the case for millipedes. Mesofauna is typical of a temperate forest system, dominated by Collembola. Soil organo-mineral associations showed a high proportion of faecal pellets from Oribatid mites, Isopods and Diplopods. Furthermore, Mn, which is highly associated to metals (especially Zn and Pb) seems to play an important role in organo-mineral associations, including bacteria. An organic fraction is also directly associated to Calcium, Pb and Cu. Vegetation presents a high diversity, with more than 70 species, with very low metal transfer to plants. Results from soil respirometry are typical from temperate forest ecosystems. All this information has been combined to propose a model for the biochemical functioning of a such Technosol.

  8. Ranking of industrial forest plantations in terms of sustainability: A multicriteria approach.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Balteiro, L; Alfranca, O; González-Pachón, J; Romero, C

    2016-09-15

    As forest managers and owners must have precise assessments of sustainability, in this study we have proposed a methodology based on multi-criteria techniques for assessing sustainability in industrial forest plantations and establishing a ranking of these plantations in terms of sustainability. First, we identified and have briefly described a set of sustainability indicators (economic, environmental and social). Next, we developed a statistical procedure to determine if a linear relationship existed between the indicators. With this analysis, the final set of indicators was defined and normalized. Then, we formulated four goal programming models, by which to aggregate the different indicators. In these models, we introduced the preferences of the decision makers for each indicator, using a survey with questions formulated in a pairwise comparison format. The procedure was applied to 30 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in northwestern Spain and 11 indicators were selected in order to define the sustainability. The results showed several rankings under each goal programming model. Although the results may not be the same in the different models, some plantations are always the most sustainable, while others are always the worst in terms of sustainability. The combination of initial values of indicators, goal programming models and preferences of stakeholders (preferential weights and targets) influence the results, and it cannot be predicted a priori which plantation is the best/worst in terms of sustainability. In our case study, we show how changes in preferential weights and targets substantially modify the results obtained. PMID:27213865

  9. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-09-15

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing.

  10. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  11. Finnish perspectives of wireless in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Alasaarela, Esko

    2009-01-01

    Wireless solutions are a good choice for healthcare development in Finland. A survey of 135 experts in Finland show that (1) the competences needed for developing wireless solutions exist (2) the Finnish healthcare system is integrated enough and (3) the technology industry in this area is too weak for global marketing. The following recommendations can be concluded: (1) Cooperate internationally (2) Develop integrated solutions and health managing concepts for the important health problems (such as diabetes), (3) Harness the healthcare system to act as a test bed for new solutions and (4) Help companies to grow and take global roles. PMID:19906633

  12. Bibliometric Evaluation of Finnish Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, E.

    2007-10-01

    Finnish astronomy publishing provides us with an interesting data sample. It is small but not too small: approximately one thousand articles have been published in a decade. There are only four astronomy institutes to be compared. An interesting paradox also emerges in the field: while Finnish science assessments usually value highly the impact of scientific publishing, no serious evaluations using real bibliometric data have been made. To remedy this, a comprehensive ten-year database of refereed papers was collected and analyzed.

  13. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. PMID:25957849

  14. Hybrid poplar and forest soil response to municipal and industrial by-products: a greenhouse study.

    PubMed

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Gilmore, Daniel W; Mozaffari, Morteza; Rosen, Carl J; Halbach, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Little research has been conducted in the Lake States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan) to evaluate the effects of municipal and industrial by-product applications on the early growth of short rotation woody crops such as hybrid poplar. Anticipated shortages of harvestable-age aspen in the next decade can be alleviated and rural development can be enhanced through the application of by-products to forest soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of inorganic fertilizer, boiler ash, biosolids, and the co-application of ash and biosolids application on tree growth and soil properties by measuring hybrid poplar clone NM-6 (Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry) yield, nutrient uptake, and select post-harvest soil properties after 15 wk of greenhouse growth. Treatments included a control of no amendment; agricultural lime; inorganic N, P, and K; three types of boiler ash; biosolids application rates equivalent to 70, 140, 210, and 280 kg available N ha(-1); and boiler ash co-applied with biosolids. All of the by-products treatments showed biomass production that was equal to or greater than inorganic fertilizer and lime treatments. A trend of increased biomass with increasing rates of biosolids was observed. Soil P concentration increased with increasing rates of biosolids application. None of the by-products treatments resulted in plant tissue metal concentrations greater than metal concentrations of plant tissue amended with inorganic amendments. Biosolids, boiler ash, and the co-application of biosolids and boiler ash together on forest soils were as beneficial to plant growth as inorganic fertilizers. PMID:15224944

  15. Evaluation of satellite change detection methods for monitoring forest harvest and silvicultural activity in Maine industrial forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangaribuan, Humala P.; Sader, Steven A.

    1997-09-01

    Change detection is a major application of satellite remote sensing. The idea is to analyze change in spectral patterns over a particular geographic area at different points of time. The information might be gathered by different satellite platforms (multi-sensor), in various wavebands (multi- spectral) and on several acquisition dates (multi-temporal). For forestry field applications, change detection might provide useful information for forest resources management, inventory, evaluation, planning, and monitoring. This study incorporated a multi-temporal approach for detecting forest change due to clearcut, partial cut, and release operation treatments in a Maine study area. Most forest change detection studies include only two dates of imagery. However, in this investigation, three date satellite images from 1983, 1988 and 1991 were examined simultaneously in a single step analysis approach. Two change detection methods, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were evaluated and a new method, Principal Factor Analysis (PFA) was introduced. A maximum likelihood classification algorithm was used to categorize change/no change events and the results were compared to a forest stand exam and history database. The Khat statistic was chosen as the criteria to evaluate the accuracy of each classification method while pairwise significance tests were constructed to compare results between methods. The Standardized variant of Principal Factor Analysis (SPFA) produced the best results followed by Principal Components Analysis and Normalized Difference Vegetation index.

  16. Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industry’s Extensive Transition

    PubMed Central

    PAHKIN, Krista; NIELSEN, Karina; VÄÄNÄNEN, Ari; MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; LEPPÄNEN, Anneli; KOSKINEN, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008–2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

  17. Cumulative industrial activity alters lotic fish assemblages in two boreal forest watersheds of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Garry J; Hvenegaard, Paul J; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages. PMID:18815827

  18. Cumulative Industrial Activity Alters Lotic Fish Assemblages in Two Boreal Forest Watersheds of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Hvenegaard, Paul J.; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages.

  19. Employability and Finnish University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhakka, Antero; Rautopuro, Juhani; Tuominen, Visa

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors concentrate on the change in the concept of employability during the Bologna process. They show that employability has gradually moved from a peripheral to a core presence in the most recent Bologna process documents. Using a Finnish university merger (University of Eastern Finland) as an example, the authors…

  20. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare. PMID:26764958

  1. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort. PMID:12134527

  2. Development of forest industries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development of forestry for wood pulp and products. The production of structural timber, wooden logs, plywood, and wood fibers is discussed. Also discussed are forest management, forest growth and mortality, inventory management, and harvest residues for energy production. Employment opportunities, marketing, international trade, and air pollution are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Development of forest industries. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development of forestry for wood pulp and products. The production of structural timber, wooden logs, plywood, and wood fibers is discussed. Also discussed are forest management, forest growth and mortality, inventory management, and harvest residues for energy production. Employment opportunities, marketing, international trade, and air pollution are considered.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macrocera nigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornu setigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophila haruspica Plassmann is redescribed. PMID:26175613

  5. Finnish geomagnetically induced currents project

    SciTech Connect

    Vilianen, A.; Pirjola, R. . Dept. of Geophysics)

    1995-01-01

    This article is a summary of Results of the Finnish Project on Geomagnetically Induced Currents,'' published in Surveys in Geophysics 15:383-408, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1994. IVO and FMI carried out a 1-year GIC project from June 1991 to May 1992. The time of the project was a little after the sunspot maximum, and the geomagnetic activity was high; there were 34 major or severe magnetic storm days (A[sub k] index at least 50). The main aim was to derive reliable statistics of the occurrences of GICs at different sites of the Finnish 400 and 220 kV power systems. Besides the practical engineering purpose, the project is also geophysically relevant by providing a GIC data set usable for large-scale investigations of auroral ionospheric-magnetospheric processes and of the earth's structure.

  6. 77 FR 39985 - Information Collection; Forest Industries and Residential Fuelwood and Post Data Collection Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...-pulp or composite panel, primary wood-using mills, including small, part-time mills, as well as large... the Forest Service to evaluate trends in the use of logs and wood chips, to forecast anticipated levels of logs and wood chips, and to analyze changes in the harvest of these resources from the...

  7. Finnish Higher Education Reforms: Responding to Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjeldvoll, Arild

    2009-01-01

    The international academic success of Finnish secondary schooling in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the triumph of the Finnish technology company NOKIA have stimulated national ambitions to improve higher education institutions in Finland. Because secondary schooling and technology in Finland receive world recognition,…

  8. Finnish Students' Perceptions of a Visiting Professor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussler, Susan C.; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi

    2003-01-01

    Finnish nursing students (n=31) evaluated their experience with a visiting Fulbright professor. Students were satisfied with course content, teaching methods, and information about the U.S. health care system. They thought the professor should have been more knowledgeable about Finnish culture, education, and health care. (Contains 15 references.)…

  9. Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

  10. Environmental Awareness through Art: The Finnish Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1980-01-01

    Finnish educators are concerned with the affective and aesthetic aspects of environmental education, with sensitivity to the urban, as well as the natural, environment. This article, one of several in this issue on art education in other countries, describes how human environment concepts are used in Finnish art teaching. (SJL)

  11. Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire’s Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest

    PubMed Central

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g−1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g−1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g−1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g−1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g−1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change. PMID:25259524

  12. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education--How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu; Paksuniemi, Merja; Määttä, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and…

  13. [The response of forest ecosystems to reduction in industrial atmospheric emission in the Kola Subarctic].

    PubMed

    Koptsik, G N; Koptsik, S V; Smirnova, I E; Kudryavtseva, A D; Turbabina, K A

    2016-01-01

    In spite of reduction in atmospheric emission, current state of forest ecosystems within the impact zone of Severonickel enterprise still reflects the entire spectrum of anthropogenic digression stages. As the distance to the enterprise grows shorter, structural-functional changes in forest communities are manifested in dropping out of mosses and lichens, replacement of undershrub by Poaceae, worsening of timber stand and undergrowth conditions and their progressive dying-off, and, as a result, in forming of anthropogenic wastelands. Alterations of elemental composition of fir bark and needles due to exposure to pollutants consist in accumulation of nickel, copper, cobalt, arsenic, and sulfur along with depletion of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. According to the data obtained by correlation and multiparameter analyses, the accumulation of heavy metals in fir organs is closely related to the increasing of their concentration in root-inhabited soil layers as the distance to the pollution source is getting shorter. By comparison with the background fir grove, concentration of available compounds of nickel and copper in the ground litter of open fir-birch woodland near the enterprise increases by the factor of 30-60, reaching up 280 and 130 mg/kg respectively. With the increasing of anthropogenic stress, the ground litter becomes depleted of available calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and zinc. For the first time, the coupled dynamics of vegetation and soil state in fir forests as a response to reduction in atmospheric emission is tracked back. The most distinguishable response to the reduction appears to be the development of small-leaved plants' young growth within the impact zone. For the last decade, concentration of nickel in fir needles and in ground litter has reduced by the factor of 1.2-2. As for copper, its concentration in needles has reduced by the factor of 2-4, though in ground litter remains the same. By comparison with the period of

  14. Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland? Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    "Finnish Lessons" is a first-hand, comprehensive account of how Finland built a world-class education system during the past three decades. The author traces the evolution of education policies in Finland and highlights how they differ from the United States and other industrialized countries. He shows how rather than relying on competition,…

  15. The Environmental Education Voice of the Oil and Forest Industries, 1958-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Nancy; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reported is the analysis of a stratified random sample of oil and forestry industry advertisements in selected magazines over a 20-year period. The objective of the research was to characterize the tenor of the imparted environmental messages and trends. (RE)

  16. Consequences of long-term severe industrial pollution for aboveground carbon and nitrogen pools in northern taiga forests at local and regional scales.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Zverev, Vitali; Bergman, Igor; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-12-01

    Boreal coniferous forests act as an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The overall tree carbon (C) sink in the forests of Europe has increased during the past decades, especially due to management and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition; however, industrial atmospheric pollution, primarily sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, still negatively affect forest biomass production at different spatial scales. We report local and regional changes in forest aboveground biomass, C and N concentrations in plant tissues, and C and N pools caused by long-term atmospheric emissions from a large point source, the nickel-copper smelter in Monchegorsk, in north-western Russia. An increase in pollution load (assessed as Cu concentration in forest litter) caused C to increase in foliage but C remained unchanged in wood, while N decreased in foliage and increased in wood, demonstrating strong effects of pollution on resource translocation between green and woody tissues. The aboveground C and N pools were primarily governed by plant biomass, which strongly decreased with an increase in pollution load. In our study sites (located 1.6-39.7 km from the smelter) living aboveground plant biomass was 76 to 4888 gm(-2), and C and N pools ranged 35-2333 g C m(-2) and 0.5-35.1 g N m(-2), respectively. We estimate that the aboveground plant biomass is reduced due to chronic exposure to industrial air pollution over an area of about 107,200 km2, and the total (aboveground and belowground) loss of phytomass C stock amounts to 4.24×10(13) g C. Our results emphasize the need to account for the overall impact of industrial polluters on ecosystem C and N pools when assessing the C and N dynamics in northern boreal forests because of the marked long-term negative effects of their emissions on structure and productivity of plant communities. PMID:26254064

  17. Physico-chemical characteristics of topsoil for contrasted forest, agricultural, urban and industrial land uses in France.

    PubMed

    Joimel, S; Cortet, J; Jolivet, C C; Saby, N P A; Chenot, E D; Branchu, P; Consalès, J N; Lefort, C; Morel, J L; Schwartz, C

    2016-03-01

    Soil quality is related to soil characteristics such as fertility and contamination. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of land use on these soil characteristics and to confirm the following anthropisation gradient: (i) forest, (ii) grassland, (iii) cultivated, (iv) orchard and vineyard, (v) urban vegetable garden, and (vi) SUITMA (urban, industrial, traffic, mining and military areas). A database comprising the characteristics of 2451 soils has been constituted. In order to compare the topsoils from six contrasting land uses, a principal components analysis (PCA) was performed on nine geochemical variables (C, N, pH, POlsen, total Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn). The first axis of the PCA is interpreted as a global increase of topsoil metallic elements along the anthropisation gradient. Axis 2 reflects the variability of fertility levels. Human activity increases the pressure on soils along the proposed gradient according to six different distribution patterns. This better knowledge of topsoil quality and its dependence on current land use should therefore help to manage and preserve the soil mantle. PMID:26745291

  18. The impact of a large industrial city on the soil respiration in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorkalov, I. A.; Vorobeichik, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of soil respiration was measured in situ under native pine stands in a large industrial city (Yekaterinburg, Russia) and beyond it. The compared sites differed significantly in the two factors affecting soil respiration, i.e., in the degree of urbanization (including air pollution, changes in the microclimate, fragmentation of the biotopes, the appearance of introduced species, etc.) and in the character of recreation loads (primarily, trampling loads). The difference between soil respiration rates in the city and in the suburbs was significant; it reached its maximum in the summer, when the soil respiration in the city was 1.9-3.5 times lower than that in the suburbs. However, this difference was virtually absent in the spring and fall seasons. The impact of recreation loads on the soil respiration was relatively low; moreover, it could have both positive and negative signs, i.e., lead to the increase or decrease in the soil respirarion rate. The particular mechanisms explaining the influence of the considered factors on the rate of the CO2 emission from the soils are discussed.

  19. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland. PMID:27081893

  20. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A History" (Yrjo…

  1. Personnel Training in the Finnish Lutheran Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtio, Pirkko

    1985-01-01

    Examines various personnel positions in the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church (the largest organized religion in Finland), the basic training of Church personnel (cantors, theologians, deacons, youth leaders, financial administrators, preschool teachers), personnel structure of the Church, and training in the Church itself (familiarization…

  2. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  3. Draft Inventory of Finnish Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsila, Tapani, Comp.; And Others

    Media studied in this report include broadcasting (radio and television), press (newspapers and magazines), literature, motion pictures, and sound and video recordings. First, there is an overview of Finnish mass communications on a qualitative level. After this, quantitative data are presented, divided into categories of production and…

  4. Are Students Customers in Finnish Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This study examines Finnish higher education students' perceptions of whether students are customers, based on qualitative interview data. The article contributes to the discussion on students as customers by giving attention to students' own voices from a country where tuition fees are not generally collected. The data are presented and analysed…

  5. Polytechnic Graduate Placement in Finnish Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite…

  6. Finnish ECEC Policy: Interpretations, Implementations and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onnismaa, Eeva-Leena; Kalliala, Marjatta

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complex development and contradictory current state of affairs of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Finland. Rather than presenting a harmonious picture of the Finnish ECEC system, the authors have chosen to look at the problematic way in which national policies concerning ECEC have been interpreted and…

  7. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  8. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  9. Management by Results at Finnish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuoppala, Kari

    2005-01-01

    The funding of Finnish Universities has been based on a "management by results" strategy since 1991. This paper analyses the effects of this strategy on university management and administration. Empirically the study is based on material collected from four multidisciplinary universities. Theoretically it is based on organization theory and higher…

  10. Swedish Speakers' Literacy in the Finnish Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunell, Viking; Linnakyla, Pirjo

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's reading literacy study in Finland. Shows that, although language-minority students are often expected to have lower achievement in school, students from Swedish-speaking homes in Finland scored almost as well as their Finnish-speaking counterparts on extensive…

  11. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher education policy,…

  12. Bibliometric Evaluation of the Changing Finnish Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, E.

    2010-10-01

    This is a follow-up on the bibliometric evaluation of Finnish astronomy presented by the author at the LISA V conference in 2006. The data from the previous study are revisited to determine how a wider institutional base and mergers affect comparisons between research units.

  13. Effect of vegetation on air quality: the value of forest vegetation as a filter for industrial sources of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Ares, J.O.

    1980-01-01

    A general model that can be used to estimate the deposition of gaseous pollutants by forests is made with described. Then the model is used to estimate the deposition of fluoride as hydrogen fluoride (HF) around an aluminum refinery. A comparison of spatial and temporal concentration patterns is made with data collected around the ALUAR plant in Puerto Madryn, Argentina. Finally, the area of forest needed to remove a significant portion of the fluoride from the atmosphere is estimated.

  14. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  15. Heavy metals in muscle, liver, and kidney from Finnish reindeer in 1990-91 and 1991-92

    SciTech Connect

    Rintala, R.; Venaelaeinen, E.R.; Hirvi, T.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metals were analyzed from reindeer by the Finnish National Veterinary and Food Research Institute. The analyses were part of a larger project during the period 1990-1993, in which residues in vegetables, milk, berries, fish and reindeer were monitored. The main aim of the reindeer study was to investigate possible differences between the heavy metal contents of reindeer samples from northern, eastern, western and southern Lapland. Another objective of the study was also to clarify the environmental effects of industrial activities in the Kola Peninsula and in Tornio on the food products of Finnish Lapland. Analyses of organochlorine compounds from reindeer samples were also performed, but these results will be published later after a larger number of samples has been studied. Results of the reindeer analyses were also compared with previous reindeer and elk studies of the Finnish National Veterinary Institute (1980) and Neimi (1993) and with two Norwegian studies (roslie 1984 and 1986). 13 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Automatic discrimination of emotion from spoken Finnish.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Juhani; Väyrynen, Eero; Seppänen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic features were derived and automatically computed from the speech samples. Two application scenarios were tested: the first scenario was speaker-independent for a small domain of speakers while the second scenario was completely speaker-independent. Human listening experiments were conducted to assess the perceptual adequacy of the emotional speech samples. Statistical classification experiments indicated that, with the optimal combination of prosodic feature vectors, automatic emotion discrimination performance close to human emotion recognition ability was achievable. PMID:16038449

  17. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES. PMID:24195778

  18. South Dakota timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Sowers, R.A.

    1996-10-04

    Reports findings of a survey of all primary wood-using mills in South Dakota in 1993 and compares those findings with earlier surveys. Reports production and receipts of industrial roundwood by product, species, and county. Also reports the quantity, type, and disposition of wood and bark residues generated by South Dakota`s primary wood-using industry.

  19. Information and Communication Technologies in Finnish Early Childhood Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanranta, Marja; Kangassalo, Marjatta

    2003-01-01

    Describes the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in Finnish early childhood environments from three perspectives. Examines Finnish national policies on the use of ICT; indicates the prevailing state of ICT use, according to results of international and national surveys; and presents some innovative practices involving the use…

  20. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  1. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  2. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  3. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  4. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  5. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  6. The Finnish Public Discussion of Giftedness and Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research in which the Finnish public discussion of giftedness and gifted children, and conceptions of giftedness and gifted children presented in it, were examined. The research was conducted by analyzing articles from the Finnish newspaper "Helsingin Sanomat" and the teachers' periodical…

  7. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-01-01

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater. PMID:26345887

  8. Oral health of workers in the modern Finnish confectionery industry.

    PubMed

    Masalin, K; Murtomaa, H; Meurman, J H

    1990-06-01

    The association between type of work and dental findings and the relevance of sugar dust as an occupational hazard to dental health was studied in workers producing sweets, biscuits, and bakery products, and in controls in a work environment not concerned with sugar. 298 employees, 42 +/- 11 yr of age, were investigated clinically and by means of chemical and microbiological tests of their saliva. Mean total time of work on the production line in question was 10 +/- 8.5 yr. Periodontal treatment needs increased similarly with increasing age in all subgroups. Subjects concerned with biscuit production had significantly higher DMFS values than subjects in the other groups. They also had significantly higher numbers of untreated cavities: 79.6% compared with 54.7% in those making sweets, 48.3% in bakery workers, and 62.6% in the controls not exposed to sugar. High levels of lactobacilli and Streptococcus mutans were found equally in all subgroups. Because work hygiene measurements have previously shown that sugar and flour dust concentrations were below accepted limits in the confectionery factory studied, the results do not seem to support the hypothesis that airborne sugar is an occupational dental health hazard. Some other factors need to be accounted for to explain the findings. PMID:2190754

  9. Applying MORT maintenance safety analysis in Finnish industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuhilehto, Kaarin; Virolainen, Kimmo

    1992-02-01

    A safety analysis method based on MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree) method, especially on the version developed for safety considerations in the evaluation of maintenance programs, is presented. The MORT maintenance safety analysis is intended especially for the use maintenance safety management. The analysis helps managers evaluate the goals of their safety work and measures taken to reach them. The analysis is done by a team or teams. The team ought to have expert knowledge of the organization both vertically and horizontally in order to be able to identify factors that may contribute to accidents or other interruptions in the maintenance work. Identification is made by using the MORT maintenance key question set as a check list. The questions check the way safety matters are connnected with the maintenance planning and managing, as well as the safety management itself. In the second stage, means to eliminate the factors causing problems are developed. New practices are established to improve safety of maintenance planning and managing in the enterprise.

  10. Learning Paths on Elementary University Courses in Finnish as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloranta, Johanna; Jalkanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Along with the growing degree of internationalisation, Finnish university education needs to address issues related to learning and teaching Finnish as a second language. From the perspective of teaching Finnish and related pedagogical development, it is essential to recognise when, where and for which purposes learners need Finnish at the various…

  11. Distribution of the solvent-extractable organic compounds in fine (PM1) and coarse (PM1-10) particles in urban, industrial and forest atmospheres of Northern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ladji, Riad; Yassaa, Noureddine; Balducci, Catia; Cecinato, Angelo; Meklati, Brahim Youcef

    2009-12-20

    The distribution of the solvent-extractable organic components in the fine (PM(1)) and coarse (PM(1-10)) fractions of airborne particulate was studied for the first time in Algeria. That was done during October 2006 concurrently in a big industrial district, a busy urban area, and a forest national park located in Algiers, Boumerdes, Blida, respectively, which are the three biggest provinces of Northern Algeria. Most of the organic matter identified in both particle size ranges consisted of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, with minor contributions coming from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), oxygenated PAHs, and other polar compounds (e.g., caffeine and nicotine). The potential emission sources of airborne contaminants were reconciled by combining the values of n-alkane carbon preference index (CPI) and selected diagnostic ratios of PAHs, calculated in both size ranges. The mean cumulative concentrations of PAHs reached 3.032 ng m(-3) at the Boumerdes site, urban, 80% of which (i.e. 2.246 ng m(-3)) in the PM(1) fraction, 6.462 ng m(-3) at Rouiba-Réghaia, industrial district, (5.135 ng m(-3) or 80% in PM(1)), and 0.512 ng m(-3) at Chréa, forested mountains (0.370 ng m(-3) or 72% in PM(1)). Similar patterns were shown by all organic groups, which resulted overall enriched in the fine particles at the three sites. Carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies associated to PAHs were evaluated by multiplying the concentrations of "toxic" compounds times the corresponding potency factors normalized vs. benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and were found to be both acceptable. PMID:19837448

  12. [The "top ten" of Finnish medicine].

    PubMed

    Leikola, A

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1980s the Wellcome Institute was planning a biographical dictionary on the world's most eminent physicians. The quota reserved for Finland was ten names, and having been asked by Dr. Karin Johannisson, Uppsala, to participate in the project, I undertook the task of choosing them and providing a short biography of each. For this, I asked the advice of ten experts on the history of Finnish medicine, and a "top ten" list was then compiled. The list extended from Johan Haartman, "the father of Finnish medicine", till the Nobel Prize winner Ragnar Granit and the famous pediatrist Arvo Ylppo, who were still alive in the 1980s. The biographies were sent to the editor of the dictionary, but it seems that the work was never published. As I had saved all my correspondence about the matter, it seemed now, fifteen years afterwards, interesting to publish a short report of the project, including an account of how the "top ten" list had been achieved. PMID:11625413

  13. Cumulative impact of 40 years of industrial sulfur emissions on a forest soil in west-central Alberta (Canada).

    PubMed

    Prietzel, Jörg; Mayer, Bernhard; Legge, Allan H

    2004-11-01

    The impact of 40 years of sulfur (S) emissions from a sour gas processing plant in Alberta (Canada) on soil development, soil S pools, soil acidification, and stand nutrition at a pine (Pinus contorta x Pinus banksiana) ecosystem was assessed by comparing ecologically analogous areas subjected to different S deposition levels. Sulfur isotope ratios showed that most deposited S was derived from the sour gas processing plant. The soil subjected to the highest S deposition contained 25.9 kmol S ha(-1) (uppermost 60 cm) compared to 12.5 kmol S ha(-1) or less at the analogues receiving low S deposition. The increase in soil S pools was caused by accumulation of organic S in the forest floor and accumulation of inorganic sulfate in the mineral soil. High S inputs resulted in topsoil acidification, depletion of exchangeable soil Ca2+ and Mg2+ pools by 50%, podzolization, and deterioration of N nutrition of the pine trees. PMID:15276281

  14. New Brunswick`s forestry sector. Forest report number 7

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.D.; Simpson, C.M.

    1991-12-31

    The report presents data on the New Brunswick forestry industry, including forest land area, ownership, stock inventory, wood utilization, forest management expenditures, volume of roundwood production, silviculture activities, economic benefits from forest, fish, and wildlife, fuelwood consumption, Christmas tree production, maple syrup production, forest sector employment, salaries, income taxes from the industry, exports, and gross domestic product due to the forest sector.

  15. Characterization of Finnish Building materials under salt frost artificial ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Torppa, Akseli; Pirinen, Heikki; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Under a national project co financed by the Confederation of Finnish Construction Industries RT (CFCI), the Finnish Natural Stone Association and the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), and thanks to the cooperation with the Polytechnic of Turin a comprehensive number of Finnish natural stones has been tested according to SFS EN standards for national CE marking and according to non standardized methods for research purposes. The aim was to evaluate the effects of combined salt and frost weathering caused by de-icing salts and to research a possible correlation between laboratory's accelerated decay and site weathering. The materials tested (60 stones in total) are mainly silicate rocks showing good resistance to the weathering. Results have been affected in some cases by uncertainties connected to the variation of material quality. Some materials have been from new quarries and variation of their properties has been higher than the effects of artificial weathering. Material sampled from crop presented higher weathering level and the additional artificial weathering has induced small variations. Results have shown that material weathering has been better represented by variation of flexural strength compared to uniaxial compressive strength. The most probable reason has been that small changes of planarity and perpendicularity had greater effects on the compressive strength than variations by weathering. Fifteen representative typologies of natural stones have been tested with non standardized methodologies to study the changes of the material and finding a possible correlation with methods used on site. Schmidt rebound test and Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV) have been used on site to assess the durability of stone on construction. Materials tested in laboratory have shown less variation between rebounds compared to site tests, this can be because of a more controlled environment and saw cut surface instead of rocky or chiselled ones. Laboratory tests showed an average

  16. Speech Perception and Vocabulary Growth: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish-Russian Bilinguals and Finnish Monolinguals from Infancy to Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvén, Maarit; Voeten, Marinus; Kouvo, Anna; Lundén, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level, but not growth rate of vocabulary in both Finnish…

  17. First meteorite recovery based on observations by the Finnish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Lyytinen, Esko; Moilanen, Jarmo; Kohout, Tomáš; Dmitriev, Vasily; Lupovka, Valery; Midtskogen, V.; Kruglikov, Nikolai; Ischenko, Alexei; Yakovlev, Grigory; Grokhovsky, Victor; Haloda, Jakub; Halodova, Patricie; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Aikkila, Asko; Taavitsainen, Aki; Lauanne, Jani; Pekkola, Marko; Kokko, Pekka; Lahtinen, Panu; Larionov, Mikhail

    2014-02-01

    We present a summary of the trajectory reconstruction, dark flight simulations and pre-impact orbit for a bright fireball that appeared in the night sky over the Kola Peninsula, close to the Finnish border, on April 18 2014, at 22h14m13.0s (UTC). The fireball was instrumentally recorded in Finland from Kuusamo, Mikkeli and Muhos observing sites belonging to the Finnish Fireball Network. Additionally, a publicly available video made by Alexandr Nesterov in Snezhnogorsk (Russia), from the opposite side of the fireball track, was carefully calibrated and taken into account in the trajectory reconstruction. Based on a thorough analysis of the fireball, it was concluded that part of the meteoroid survived atmospheric entry and reached the ground. To further specify an impact area for a dedicated expedition, dark flight simulations were done to build a strewn field map showing the most probable distribution of fragments. A 5-day expedition with 4 participants from Russia and Finland took place at the end of May following snow melt and preceding vegetation growth. On May 29, 2014, a first 120.35 g meteorite fragment was found on a local forest road within the predicted impact area. A second 47.54 g meteorite fragment, fully covered with a fusion crust, was recovered nearby on the following day. Both pieces were preserved in very good condition without apparent weathering.

  18. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-boreal zone: case Finland.

    PubMed

    Mielikäinen, Kari; Hynynen, Jari

    2003-01-01

    The majority of untouched natural boreal forests have been regenerated through large catastrophes, occurring by intervals between 50 and 100 years. Storm and fire will open the landscape, result in a huge amount of dead or dying trees and let the pioneer tree species germinate. These processes are the guideline for Finnish forest management today. The main focus by maintaining the biodiversity in Finnish boreal forest zone is directed to managed forests. Nature-orientated silviculture on stand level is practised. The site type classification, a reflection of the modern concept of biodiversity and developed by Cajander early in 1900s, on the basis of natural vegetation composition of the site, has the central role by choosing tree species, regeneration methods and thinning procedure, and reflects also on the site productivity. The small size of stands, the abundance of natural seedlings in planted stands and the popularity of mixed stands have a positive impact on biodiversity of forests. The protection of small-sized valuable habitats in commercially managed stands, the leaving of retention trees standing and lying in the forest in all phases of the rotation, are activities made for biodiversity. Many insects and fungi are adapted to catastrophes and so they can survive in single stems left on regeneration areas. Maintaining the biodiversity in multifunctional forests is also supported by the new forest legislation and by the criteria of Finnish Forest Certification System. PMID:12659803

  19. Threatened and neglected forests

    SciTech Connect

    Pellicane, P.J.; Gutkowski, R.M.; Czarnock, J.

    1997-02-01

    Polands once considerable forest resource suffered destruction during World War II and is now a victim of the legacy of past forest practices, the toxic effects of industrial pollution, and the urgent needs of its people today. Polish forest are threatened by a variety of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. Extremes of climate and declining groundwater tables add to the problem. Pollution is the most serious problem, particularly air pollution. Much of the air pollution in Poland is attributable to mining and burning high-sulfur coal. Besides describing the causes of the forest decline, this article discusses solutions.

  20. Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Taneli; Haapala, Antti; Lappalainen, Reijo; Tomppo, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs) are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residues from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. Organic materials are commonly disposed of or subjected to the traditional waste management methods, such as landfilling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The use of organic waste and residue materials in NFPCs represents an ecologically friendly and a substantially higher value alternative. This is a comprehensive review examining how organic waste and residues could be utilized in the future as reinforcements or additives for NFPCs from the perspective of the recently reported work in this field. PMID:27184447

  1. Quantifying Forest and Coastal Disturbance from Industrial Mining Using Satellite Time Series Analysis Under Very Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, M.; Van Den Hoek, J.; Ahmed, N.

    2015-12-01

    The open-pit Grasberg mine, located in the highlands of Western Papua, Indonesia, and operated by PT Freeport Indonesia (PT-FI), is among the world's largest in terms of copper and gold production. Over the last 27 years, PT-FI has used the Ajkwa River to transport an estimated 1.3 billion tons of tailings from the mine into the so-called Ajkwa Deposition Area (ADA). The ADA is the product of aggradation and lateral expansion of the Ajkwa River into the surrounding lowland rainforest and mangroves, which include species important to the livelihoods of indigenous Papuans. Mine tailings that do not settle in the ADA disperse into the Arafura Sea where they increase levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and associated concentrations of dissolved copper. Despite the mine's large-scale operations, ecological impact of mine tailings deposition on the forest and estuarial ecosystems have received minimal formal study. While ground-based inquiries are nearly impossible due to access restrictions, assessment via satellite remote sensing is promising but hindered by extreme cloud cover. In this study, we characterize ridgeline-to-coast environmental impacts along the Ajkwa River, from the Grasberg mine to the Arafura Sea between 1987 and 2014. We use "all available" Landsat TM and ETM+ images collected over this time period to both track pixel-level vegetation disturbance and monitor changes in coastal SPM levels. Existing temporal segmentation algorithms are unable to assess both acute and protracted trajectories of vegetation change due to pervasive cloud cover. In response, we employ robust, piecewise linear regression on noisy vegetation index (NDVI) data in a manner that is relatively insensitive to atmospheric contamination. Using this disturbance detection technique we constructed land cover histories for every pixel, based on 199 image dates, to differentiate processes of vegetation decline, disturbance, and regrowth. Using annual reports from PT-FI, we show

  2. Polarised Multiangular Reflectance Measurements Using the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Suomalainen, Juha; Hakala, Teemu; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Puttonen, Eetu

    2009-01-01

    The design, operation, and properties of the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO) are presented. FIGIFIGO is a portable instrument for the measurement of surface Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) for samples with diameters of 10 – 50 cm. A set of polarising optics enable the measurement of linearly polarised BRF over the full solar spectrum (350 – 2,500 nm). FIGIFIGO is designed mainly for field operation using sunlight, but operation in a laboratory environment is also possible. The acquired BRF have an accuracy of 1 – 5% depending on wavelength, sample properties, and measurement conditions. The angles are registered at accuracies better than 2°. During 2004 – 2008, FIGIFIGO has been used in the measurement of over 150 samples, all around northern Europe. The samples concentrate mostly on boreal forest understorey, snow, urban surfaces, and reflectance calibration surfaces. PMID:22412342

  3. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    PubMed

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production. PMID:26556402

  4. Cancer incidence among Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers in 1967–2011: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huvinen, Markku; Pukkala, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the risk of cancer among workers employed in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry since the beginning of production in 1967. Methods The study cohort was made up of all persons employed by the Finnish stainless steel production chain from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel during the period 1967–2004, and it was divided into subcohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns of the subcohorts assessed in previous studies. Follow-up for cancer through the files of the Finnish Cancer Registry was performed using the personal identity code as key. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratios of observed numbers of cancer cases and numbers expected on the basis of incidence rates in the population of the same region. Results The overall cancer incidence was at the expected level. The lung cancer risk was decreased in the whole cohort (SIR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.08). The incidence of prostate cancer was significantly increased (1.31; 1.05 to 1.61) and that for kidney cancer was significantly decreased (0.38; 0.14 to 0.82). None of the department-specific SIRs for lung cancer were significantly different from 1.0. No cancers of the nose and nasal sinuses were observed among workers in the ferrochromium smelter or the stainless steel melting shop. Conclusions It is not likely that the occupational exposures in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry would have increased the risk of cancer. PMID:24253032

  5. Changing cancer risk pattern among Finnish hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, E; Nokso-Koivisto, P; Roponen, P

    1992-01-01

    A cohort of 3637 female and 168 male hair-dressers in Finland was followed up for cancer through the Finnish Cancer Registry in 1970-1987. Compared with the total population, the women had a significantly elevated risk (standardized incidence ratio 1.7) during the first third of the observation period, but not thereafter. For the total follow-up period, the relative risks were highest for nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.0), lung cancer (1.7), ovarian cancer (1.6), cervical cancer (1.5), and cancer of the pancreas (1.5); only the risk of ovarian cancer was statistically significant. A decrease in relative risk with time was observed for many primary sites, e.g., pancreas, cervix uteri, central nervous system, and thyroid. The opposite was true for lung and skin: An increased risk was found only in 1982-1987. The excess was most prominent in the oldest age groups with the longest time span since the first employment as a hairdresser. Among men, too, the general cancer risk was highest (1.6) during the first third of the observation period. An excess of cancers of the lung and the pancreas was observed. The small numbers, however, did not allow any further conclusions. The changes in the cancer risk pattern over time may be associated with changes in working conditions in hairdressing salons. PMID:1399013

  6. Confidence in biopreparedness authorities among Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Vartti, Anne-Marie; Aro, Arja R; Jormanainen, Vesa; Henriksson, Markus; Nikkari, Simo

    2010-08-01

    A large sample of Finnish military conscripts of the armored brigade were questioned on the extent to which they trusted the information given biopreparedness authorities (such as the police, military, health care, and public health institutions) and how confident they were in the authority's ability to protect the public during a potential infectious disease outbreak, from either natural or deliberate causes. Participants answered a written questionnaire during their initial health inspection in July 2007. From a total of 1,000 conscripts, 953 male conscripts returned the questionnaire. The mean sum scores for confidence in the information given to biopreparedness authorities and the media on natural and bioterrorism-related outbreaks (range = 0-30) were 20.14 (SD = 7.79) and 20.12 (SD = 7.69), respectively. Mean sum scores for the respondents' confidence in the ability of the biopreparedness authorities to protect the public during natural and bioterrorism-related outbreaks (range 0-25) were 16.04 (SD = 5.78) and 16.17 (SD = 5.89). Most respondents indicated that during a natural outbreak, they would have confidence in information provided by a health care institution such as central hospitals and primary health care centers, whereas in the case of bioterrorism, the respondents indicated that they would have confidence in the defense forces and central hospitals. PMID:20731266

  7. Risk analysis of Finnish peacekeeping in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Lehtomäki, Kyösti; Pääkkönen, Rauno J; Rantanen, Jorma

    2005-04-01

    The research team interviewed over 90 Finnish battalion members in Kosovo, visited 22 units or posts, registered its observations, and made any necessary measurements. Key persons were asked to list the most important risks for occupational safety and health in their area of responsibility. Altogether, 106 accidents and 40 cases of disease resulted in compensation claims in 2000. The risks to the peacekeeping force were about twice those of the permanent staff of military trainees in Finland. Altogether, 21 accidents or cases of disease resulted in sick leave for at least 3 months after service. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion. Biological, chemical, and physical factors caused 8 to 9 occupational illnesses each. Traffic accidents, operational factors, and munitions and mines were evaluated to be the three most important risk factors, followed by occupational hygiene, living conditions (mold, fungi, dust), and general hygiene. Possible fatal risks, such as traffic accidents and munitions and explosives, received a high ranking in both the subjective and the objective evaluations. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion, and two traffic accidents involved a fatality, although not of a peacekeeper. The reduction of sports and military training accidents, risk-control programs, and, for some tasks, better personal protection is considered a development challenge for the near future. PMID:15876212

  8. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. Aims To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. Methods We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971–2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Results Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70–0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61–0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07–0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05–0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00–0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67–1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56–0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Conclusions Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. PMID:26655692

  9. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  10. Forest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…

  11. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  12. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  13. PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher…

  14. Countering the Neoliberal Paradigm: A Pedagogy of the Heart from a Finnish Higher Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzSimmons, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Finnish education and schooling has embraced the neoliberal model of education. No longer is the education system focused on social justice and social equality; rather, Finnish education and schooling has been remarketed into a more individualist mode of learning and schooling. This has especially happened in Finnish higher learning, as students…

  15. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  16. Priority-setting in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, P; Häkkinen, U

    1999-12-01

    The characteristics which affect priority setting in the Finnish healthcare system include strong municipal (local) administration, no clear separation between producers and purchasers, a duality in funding, and the potential for physicians in public hospitals to practice in the private sector. This system has its strengths, such as the possibility to effectively co-ordinate social and healthcare services, and a strong incentive to take care of local needs, because of municipal responsibility to finance these services largely through local taxes. However, the municipalities are typically too small to take advantage of these potentials, their knowledge is scarce especially of secondary care and their negotiating power with respect to hospitals is low. Local politicians also have a dual role: they represent the needs of the local population but simultaneously they are decision-makers in hospitals. Full-time physicians are allowed to act in a dual role as well; they can run a private practice, which is paid for on a fee-for-service basis, while the hospital pays (mostly) a fixed monthly salary. The share of financing which flows from the National Sickness Insurance system to healthcare users may have adverse effects on the local use of resources. The broad national consensus statement on patient-level priorities did not reach any general rules on priorities. Strong support was given to citizens' equal right to access all healthcare services. In healthcare practice, this general rule has some exemptions. First, the reimbursement schemes for prescribed drugs vary depending on the severity and chronic nature of the disease. Secondly, the tax-financed dental services for the young are clearly prioritised over those of older citizens. In the consensus statement, emphasis was put on improving the efficiency of producing health services in order to avoid having to impose patient-level priorities. PMID:10827305

  17. Change detection for Finnish CORINE land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törmä, Markus; Härmä, Pekka; Hatunen, Suvi; Teiniranta, Riitta; Kallio, Minna; Järvenpää, Elise

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the ideas, data and methods to produce Finnish Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC2006) classification. This version is based on use of existing national GIS data and satellite images and their automated processing, instead of visual interpretation of satellite images. The main idea is that land use information is based on GIS datasets and land cover information interpretation of satellite images. Because Finland participated to CLC2000-project, also changes between years 2000 and 2006 are determined. Finnish approach is good example how national GIS data is used to produce data fulfilling European needs in bottom-up fashion.

  18. Young Children's Well-Being in Finnish Stepfamilies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Changing family relationships as a result of divorce are considered a potential threat to children's well-being. This study investigates the well-being of children under the age of eight years in Finnish stepfamilies from the viewpoint of the mother. The goal of this study is to explore how the structural characteristics of the stepfamily and the…

  19. Mass Communication Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnish Broadcasting Co., Helsinki.

    A suggested curriculum to be used to teach mass communications in Finnish comprehensive schools is described. Instead of concentrating on either an aesthetic or medium-bound (e.g., film education) approach, this curriculum focuses on the mass media as social institutions and on developing in young people a critical, thoughtful approach to mass…

  20. In-flight breech delivery in Finnish lapland.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Ilkka; Pirnes, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Although medical crews may initially approach obstetric transport requests with (at least internal) trepidation, it has been shown that the risk of an in-flight delivery occurring is extremely low, even among patients considered high risk.(1-4) Nevertheless, the greatest concern of helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) personnel remains the potential for in-flight delivery.(5) Finland is a Northern European country, with a land area almost equivalent to that of the US state of New Mexico. The Finnish HEMS system is managed by FinnHEMS, and there are 6 HEMS units in Finland. The northernmost HEMS unit, FinnHEMS 51, is based at Rovaniemi Airport in Finnish Lapland, which is located within the Arctic Circle; it operates over a remote and sparsely habited area. Finnish Lapland accounts for almost 30% of Finland by area; however, the density of population is low (only 2.0 persons per square kilometer), and the average annual year-round temperature is only -1°C (30°F).(6) So far, there has been only 1 reported in-flight delivery; in 1939, a baby girl was born in an airplane operated by the Finnish Border Guard.(7.) PMID:25441526

  1. Students' Experiences of Workplace Learning in Finnish VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Anne; Tynjala, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    The Finnish vocational education and training system underwent remarkable transformations at the turn of the century. One of the biggest changes was introducing compulsory and guided on-the-job learning periods in all study programmes. In this article students' experiences of on-the-job learning and in particular of integrating school-based and…

  2. Families, Not Parents, Differ: Development of Communication in Finnish Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapakoski, Maija; Silven, Maarit

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study on Finnish families was conducted to identify developmental differences in family-level communication among mothers, fathers, and their infants during the second half of the infant's first year, and associations with infants' later language and communicative skills. We examined coregulated communication of parent-infant…

  3. Finnish Cooperating Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Physics Teachers' Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the…

  4. Finnish Children's Views on the Ideal School and Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Marjaana

    2010-01-01

    This grounded-theory study involved how Finnish children describe their ideal school and learning environment and considers how their notions should be valued in the development of schools to better respond to the challenges of the future. The school children, aged 10-12 years, participated in the study by writing a story about a school in which…

  5. Active Learning in a Finnish Engineering University Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Debra; Ahonen, Anna-Maija

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a case study on the use of active learning techniques in an upper-level engineering course at the Helsinki University of Technology. The paper describes how these techniques were introduced and successfully used within the Finnish university classroom. The cultural subtext is explored and attention is given to teaching techniques…

  6. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  7. Excellence through Special Education? Lessons from the Finnish School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivirauma, Joel; Ruoho, Kari

    2007-01-01

    The present article focuses on connections between part-time special education and the good results of Finnish students in PISA studies. After a brief summary of the comprehensive school system and special education in Finland, PISA results are analysed. The analysis shows that the relative amount of special education targeted at language problems…

  8. Wise, Wiser, Teacher: What I Learned in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Finns are proud of their uniformly high-quality schools. Unlike in the United States, where parents fret about getting their children into "good" and often private schools with restrictive enrollment, virtually all schools are public, and most Finnish parents send their children to the school closest to their home. Teaching is a desirable…

  9. Towards Community Oriented Curriculum in Finnish Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Finland's successful PISA "literacy results reflect" the foundation of the Finnish education system, which could be characterised by the words equality, equity and individual support. However, international interest in this PISA success has not focused on curricular aspects, and yet the core curriculum specifies teaching and learning practices in…

  10. Characteristics of Workplace Learning among Finnish Vocational Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Anne; Tynjälä, Päivi; Collin, Kaija

    2009-01-01

    In Finnish VET, students' work experience is explicitly defined as workplace learning, instead of the practice of already learnt skills. Therefore, vocational students' learning periods in the workplace are goal-oriented, guided and assessed. This paper examines the characteristics of students' workplace learning and compares them with the…

  11. The Prevalence of Stalking among Finnish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Katja; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and nature of stalking among university students in Finland. The prevalence of stalking was analyzed in relation to stalking episodes, violent stalking victimization, the stalker-victim relationship, and stalking duration. A group of Finnish university students were contacted by e-mail and asked to…

  12. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  13. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  14. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  15. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious…

  16. Making Sense of Institutional Positioning in Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how institutional positioning has emerged in the meaning-making activities between Finnish higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education and Culture. The study is based on a qualitative analysis of the performance agreement documents of all higher education institutions filed with the ministry for contract periods…

  17. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  18. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  19. Gendered Hegemony and Its Contradictions among Finnish University Physicists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Annalisa; Vainio, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of gender imbalance in Finnish universities in the domain of physics as a historical and dialectical phenomenon. Drawing from the Gramscian notion of hegemony and the activity-theoretical notion of contradiction, this paper analyses gendered hegemonic and contradictory forces steering physicists' careers. This…

  20. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  1. Sustainable Forest Management Preferences of Interest Groups in Three Regions with Different Levels of Industrial Forestry: An Exploratory Attribute-Based Choice Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berninger, Kati; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Messier, Christian

    2010-07-01

    The challenge of sustainable forest management is to integrate diverse and sometimes conflicting management objectives. In order to achieve this goal, we need a better understanding of the aspects influencing the preferences of diverse groups and how these groups make trade-offs between different attributes of SFM. We compare the SFM preferences of interest groups in regions with different forest use histories based on the reasoning that the condition of the forest reflects the forest use history of the area. The condition of the forest also shapes an individual’s forest values and attitudes. These held values and attitudes are thought to influence SFM preferences. We tested whether the SFM preferences vary amongst the different interest groups within and across regions. We collected data from 252 persons using a choice experiment approach, where participants chose multiple times among different options described by a combination of attributes that are assigned different levels. The novelty of our approach was the use of choice experiments in the assessment of regional preference differences. Given the complexity of inter-regional comparison and the small sample size, this was an exploratory study based on a purposive rather than random sample. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the aggregation of preferences of all individuals within a region does not reveal all information necessary for forest management planning since opposing viewpoints could cancel each other out and lead to an interpretation that does not reflect possibly polarised views. Although based on a small sample size, the preferences of interest groups within a region are generally statistically significantly different from each other; however preferences of interest groups across regions are also significantly different. This illustrates the potential importance of assessing heterogeneity by region and by group.

  2. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  3. Finnish immigrants and dental care in Stockholm county.

    PubMed

    Widström, E

    1983-01-01

    In recent decades Sweden has become an immigrant country. The proportion of persons of foreign origin in the population has risen from 0.5% in the 1940s to slightly more than 10% in the early 1980s. Migration to Sweden is a part of the extensive international migration of labour that has occurred in Europe since the Second World War. Almost half of the immigrants in Sweden come from Finland. The common Nordic Labour market since 1954 allows free migration of nordic citizens. No comprehensive dental health studies have been performed on immigrants in Sweden. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse the dental situation and utilization of dental services by Finnish immigrants to Stockholm county. Three different methods were used to gather dental epidemiological data. A clinical examination of an age-stratified random sample consisting of 170 adult Finnish citizens living at Huddinge, a suburb of Stockholm, provided data on the oral health during 1977. A questionnaire survey of a random sample of 1332, 20-59 yr old Finnish citizens in the same community in 1981 provided information on utilization of dental services, dental visiting behaviour and factors which determined this and also on perceived treatment needs in this population group. Finally, a comparison of use of dental services by and treatment provided to all Finnish citizens aged between 17-64 yr, born on the 20th of any month and living in the County of Stockholm, and to a matched comparison group of Swedes, was based on data from 1975. National health statistics, available since the introduction of the Dental Insurance scheme in Sweden, were used. A longitudinal follow-up survey of utilization of dental services and secular changes in dental attendance in 1976-1980 by 1152 settled Finnish immigrants, selected in the afore mentioned way, and a Swedish comparison group was also done using the same information source. The results of the investigations can be summarized as follows: The clinical and

  4. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  5. Effects of climate change on southeastern forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harcombe, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    Forests of the coastal plain region of the southeastern United States are among the most productive in North America. Because they form the basis of a large timber and wood products industry, these forests are of considerable economic importance. Also, the forests are rich in plant and animal species. Because they are diverse as well as productive, they have considerable conservation importance. Therefore, understanding potential impacts of climate change on southern forests is critical.

  6. The Finnish Arthroplasty Register: report of the hip register.

    PubMed

    Puolakka, T J; Pajamäki, K J; Halonen, P J; Pulkkinen, P O; Paavolainen, P; Nevalainen, J K

    2001-10-01

    The Finnish Arthroplasty Register was established in 1980. Between 1980 and 1999, 62,841 primary and 12,224 revision total hip arthroplasties (THA) were recorded. The annual number of both primary and revision THA has increased: in 1999, the incidence of primary THAs was 93/100,000. 174 implant designs have been used, but the 6 commonest implants comprised 82% in 1999. Since the late 1980s, more than 40% of the hips were inserted without cement. Over 47% of the cementless primary hip prostheses were used in patients younger than 60 years and over 93% of the cemented primary hips were used in patients 60 years or older. The 10-year survival rate was 72 (95% CI 67-76)% in patients younger than 55 years and 90 (89-91)% in patients older than 70 years. The commonest reasons for revision were aseptic loosening (65%), dislocation (9%) and infection (7%). In revisions, the 5-year survival of the cementless hip prosthesis improved over time: it was 85 (82-87)% in 1985-1989, 89 (88-91)% in 1990-1994 and 92 (88-95)% in 1995-1999. There are striking differences between the Arthroplasty Registers of Scandinavia as regards the end-point definition of survival. The Finnish Arthroplasty Register considers all reasons for revisions as the end-point of survival, but the Swedish register takes into account only aseptic loosening, so direct comparisons between registers are not possible. Recent data from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register indicate that the results of total hip replacements are improving in Finland. With the civic registration number, one can link and match data files. For example, with use of the Finnish Cancer Register, we found no increase in the risk of cancer after a THA. PMID:11728068

  7. Life-Lines of Finnish People Aged 83-87

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takkinen, Sanna; Sutama, Timo

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the characteristics of the life-lines drawn by older Finnish men and women. The study was part of the Evergreen Project, Finland. Seventy-eight persons aged 83-87 participated in an interview, in which they were asked to draw a life-line. The life-line was drawn on a standardized sheet as a continuous line which showed the…

  8. The Living Forest. Environmental Ecological Education Project. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for intermediate grades of elementary schools, focuses on the living forest by presenting such concepts as succession, forest communities, adaptation, ecological interrelationships, animal populations, the impact of man on forests, and job opportunities in the forest industry. The unit includes the behavioral objectives and the…

  9. Estimated intake levels for Finnish children of methylmercury from fish.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hallikainen, Anja; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Knip, Mikael; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Leino, Olli; Simell, Olli; Sinkko, Harri; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Veijola, Riitta; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2013-04-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxic agent, and consumption of contaminated fish is the principal environmental source of MeHg exposure in humans. Children are more susceptible to adverse effects than adults. No previous specific data exist for intake by Finnish children of methylmercury from fish. We estimated fish consumption and MeHg intakes from species most commonly consumed by Finnish children aged 1-6 years. The total mercury concentrations were determined in fish species consumed, and age-specific methylmercury intakes were derived. We also examined safety margins and the proportion of children exceeding the tolerable daily intakes set by international expert bodies. The daily intake of MeHg ranged from 0 to 0.33 μg/kg bw. The strictest reference value 0.1 μg/kg bw/day for MeHg, proposed by USEPA, was exceeded by 1-15% of the study population, and FAO/WHO JECFA provisional tolerable weekly intake of 1.6 μg/kg bw was exceeded by 1% of boys and 2.5% of girls aged 6 years. Intakes of 1-year old girls were higher than of boys, whereas for 3-year olds they were the opposite. The highest intakes were observed for 6-year-old boys and girls. There was great variation in the estimated MeHg intakes among Finnish children. PMID:22425939

  10. Reform, change, and continuity in Finnish health care.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Unto; Lehto, Juhani

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some essential aspects of the Finnish political and governmental system and the evolution of the basic institutional elements of the health care system. We examine the developments that gave rise to a series of health care reforms and reform proposals in the late 1980s and early 1990s and relate them to changes in health care expenditure, structure, and performance. Finally, we discuss the relationship between policy changes, reforms, and health system changes and the strength of neo-institutional theory in explaining both continuity and change. Much of the change in Finnish health care can be explained by institutional path dependency. The tradition of strong but small local authorities and the lack of legitimate democratic regional authorities as well as the coexistence of a dominant Beveridge-style health system with a marginal Bismarckian element explain the specific path of Finnish health care reform. Public responsibility for health care has been decentralized to smaller local authorities (known as municipalities) more than in any other country. Even an exceptionally deep economic recession in the early 1990s did not lead to systems change; rather, the economic imperative was met by the traditional centralized policy pattern. Some of the developments of the 1990s are, however, difficult to explain by institutional theory. Thus, there is a need for testing alternative theories as well. PMID:15943388

  11. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health. PMID:22269485

  12. Tropical forest conservation and development: A bibliography. Manual No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, J.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: forest resources; deforestation; conservation and sustainable development; indigenous peoples; management, policy, and planning; trade and industrial development; nontimber forest products; research, education, and training; history; bibliographies and general works; author index.

  13. World's forests

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A.; Clawson, M.

    1982-10-01

    An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)

  14. Mycobacteria in Finnish cooling tower waters.

    PubMed

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Paulin, Lars; Kusnetsov, Jaana

    2014-04-01

    Evaporative cooling towers are water systems used in, e.g., industry and telecommunication to remove excess heat by evaporation of water. Temperatures of cooling waters are usually optimal for mesophilic microbial growth and cooling towers may liberate massive amounts of bacterial aerosols. Outbreaks of legionellosis associated with cooling towers have been known since the 1980's, but occurrences of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in cooling waters are mostly unknown. We examined the occurrence of mycobacteria, which are common bacteria in different water systems and may cause pulmonary and other soft tissue infections, in cooling waters containing different numbers of legionellae. Mycobacteria were isolated from all twelve cooling systems and from 92% of the 24 samples studied. Their numbers in the positive samples varied from 10 to 7.3 × 10(4) cfu/L. The isolated species included M. chelonae/abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. intracellulare, M. lentiflavum, M. avium/nebraskense/scrofulaceum and many non-pathogenic species. The numbers of mycobacteria correlated negatively with the numbers of legionellae and the concentration of copper. The results show that cooling towers are suitable environments for potentially pathogenic mycobacteria. Further transmission of mycobacteria from the towers to the environment needs examination. PMID:23937212

  15. The purpose of forests

    SciTech Connect

    Westoby, J.

    1987-01-01

    The writings and speeches in this book have been selected to illustrate Jack Westoby's contributions to international forestry over the last two decades and more, and to show something of the evolution of his thinking. The problems he addresses are ones central to international forest policy and to the proper social responsibilities of foresters. This paper covers the following topics: Part I is a selection of papers which Westoby wrote during the 1960s on forest industries and their part in propelling economic development. The papers of Part II explore the responsibilities and dilemmas of the forestry profession in deciding which, among conflicting interests, to serve. Part III develops and enlarges Westoby's ideas of what forestry should be about-which he earlier defined as making trees serve people.

  16. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  17. Finnish and English Children's Color Use to Depict Affectively Characterized Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Esther; Tala, Katri; Low, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children use colors systematically in relation to how they feel about certain colors and the figures that they draw. This study explored cultural differences between Finnish and English children's use of color to represent figures with contrasting emotional characters. One hundred and eight children (54 Finnish, 54…

  18. THE STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FINNISH LANGUAGE. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAKULINEN, LAURI

    THIS INDIANA UNIVERSITY PUBLICATION IS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND REVISION OF THE FINNISH ORIGINAL "SUOMEN KIELEN RAKENNE JA KEHITYS," (OTAVA, HELSINKI, 1941 AND 1946). CHAPTERS IN PART I TREAT--(1) THE PHONETIC STRUCTURE OF FINNISH, (2) HISTORICAL PHONOLOGY, (3) THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OR PARTS OF SPEECH, AND (4) INFLECTION AND DERIVATION. CHAPTERS…

  19. Significant Trends in the Development of Finnish Teacher Education Programs (1860-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu; Maatta, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    The roots of teacher training in Finland extend to the 1860s. The evolution of teacher training was closely connected to the history of elementary education and changes in educational policy and the Finnish society. Recently, the Finnish educational system and its teacher education programs have fared extremely well in international comparisons.…

  20. Health Knowledge Construction and Pedagogical Style in Finnish Health Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Anna-Liisa; Haapala, Irja; Kuurala, Sade; Mielonen, Salla; Hanninen, Osmo; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the construction of health knowledge in the Finnish national curriculum and recent Finnish health education textbooks, at primary and secondary levels of education. The authors examine the visual and textual content of the textbooks in an attempt to identify their pedagogical style and approach to…

  1. The Finnish Five-String Kantele: Sustainably Designed for Musical Joy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruokonen, Inkeri; Sepp, Anu; Moilanen, Venla; Autio, Ossi; Ruismaki, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the five-string kantele as an example of the Finnish national heritage, a school instrument and an example of sustainable design. A qualitative case study was made by collecting the data from the Finnish students--prospective teachers--and the sixth form pupils, who had designed and carved their own five-string kanteles. The…

  2. Finnish Physical Education Teachers' Self-Reported Use and Perceptions of Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded…

  3. The Letter-Sound Generalization of First, Second, and Third Grade Finnish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venezky, Richard L.

    To find how well children learn letter-sound correspondences when an orthography is highly regular, and how this ability relates to socioeconomic status (SES) and to reading ability, 240 Finnish children were tested for letter-sound generalizations. The test consisted of 25 synthetic words, constructed to look like Finnish words and to contain the…

  4. The Negotiation Process toward the New Salary System in the Finnish University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Jouni

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 the Finnish government decided that the state sector should develop a new salary system that would take more fully into account the actual outcomes and demands of particular posts. Subsequently, in June 2006, an agreement on a new salary system for the Finnish university sector was reached between the negotiating parties, the employers and…

  5. Finnish Students' School Engagement Profiles in the Light of PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnakyla, Pirjo; Malin, Antero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine Finnish students' school engagement profiles in the light of the data collected in the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) in 2003. Even though Finnish students' cognitive achievement has proved excellent in various international assessments, their school engagement has not been flattering. The…

  6. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-01-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The…

  7. Risk-Taking Abilities for Everyone? Finnish Entrepreneurship Education and the Enterprising Selves Imagined by Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komulainen, Katri; Korhonen, Maija; Raty, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the spread of the neo-liberal educational policy in Finnish schools by considering entrepreneurship education. We examined the kinds of gendered and classed enterprising selves that were narrated in the Finnish writing competition "Good Enterprise!" written by pupils in the 9th grade of comprehensive school. In their…

  8. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  9. Associations between Lexicon and Grammar at the End of the Second Year in Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and…

  10. Politics of Externalization in Reflexive Times: Reinventing Japanese Education Reform Discourses through "Finnish PISA Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a critical theoretical paradigm and critically engaging with the externalization thesis that Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Jurgen Schriewer have developed, this article examines the politics of "Finnish education" in the ongoing Japanese education reform debate. More specifically, it examines the various discursive uses of "Finnish education…

  11. Associations between Beliefs about Medicines and Medicines Education: A Survey among Finnish Comprehensive School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Piia; Vainio, Kirsti; Keinonen, Tuula; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between teachers' beliefs about medicines and teaching about illnesses and medicines-related topics by Finnish comprehensive school teachers. Design: A nationwide postal survey. Setting: Finnish primary and lower secondary school teachers. Method: Data were collected using a nationwide postal survey from a…

  12. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  13. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  14. International Graduates from Finland: Do They Satisfy the Needs of Finnish Employers Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that to increase the competitiveness of Finnish higher education institutions in the global education market international graduates' employability must be enhanced. International graduates from Finnish higher education institutions are rarely employed in Finland for a number of reasons, such as the language barrier and a…

  15. Engines without Fuel?--Empirical Findings on Finnish Higher Education Institutions as Education Exporters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…

  16. Safe and Encouraging Home Providing the Countdown to Leadership? Finnish Female Leaders' Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to dissect the connection between childhood homes and leadership. The study forms a part of a larger study on Finnish female leaders and their life paths. The following research question was set for this study: how did Finnish female leaders describe their childhood and home environment? It was studied through two…

  17. Emotion Work and Affective Stance in the Mathematics Classroom: The Case of IRE Sequences in Finnish Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…

  18. Convergent Validity of the Finnish Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 with Teachers and Parents as Raters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Hannu; Nordness, Philip D.; Sointu, Erkko T.; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Epstein, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    In previous research the Finnish version of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (Epstein, 2004) has demonstrated adequate internal consistency and reliability. The purpose of the present study was to examine the convergent validity of the Finnish BERS-2 by comparing it with the Finnish version of the Strengths and Difficulties…

  19. Morphological Family Size in a Morphologically Rich Language: The Case of Finnish Compared With Dutch and Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin; Bertram, Raymond; Haikio, Tuomo; Schreuder, Robert; Baayen, R. Harald

    2004-01-01

    Finnish has a very productive morphology in which a stem can give rise to several thousand words. This study presents a visual lexical decision experiment addressing the processing consequences of the huge productivity of Finnish morphology. The authors observed that in Finnish words with larger morphological families elicited shorter response…

  20. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  1. The Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale in Finnish Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Broms, Ulla; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Shiffman, Saul; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2007-01-01

    The Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) is a new multidimensional measure of nicotine dependence. The study aim was to examine the structure and heritability of the NDSS and its associations with nicotine dependence defined by FTND and DSM-IV criteria among Finnish smokers participating in an ongoing twin-family study. Adult twin pairs concordant for smoking from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study, and their siblings and parents were interviewed. Among 1370 smokers, the NDSS sum score (a summary measure of dependence) correlated moderately high with FTND score (r=0.62). Subjects in the highest NDSS sum score groups were more likely to be nicotine dependent according to DSM-IV criteria compared with those in the lowest quintile (odds ratio = 36.7, 95% Confidence interval 13.0–103). In exploratory factor analysis we derived three factors, named drive/priority, stereotypy/continuity and tolerance. The drive/priority factor correlated best with FTND (r=0.54). Genetic modelling showed no differences in the genetic architecture of NDSS or FTND by gender; the overall heritability estimate for NDSS was 0.30 (95% CI 0.06–0.47), and for FTND 0.40 (95% CI 0.23–0.55) The NDSS sum score is moderately high associated with DSM-IV nicotine dependence as well as FTND. These analyses indicate that the NDSS functions well in a Finnish family-based sample and provide additional validation of a new scale developed to capture complex behavioral features of nicotine dependence. PMID:17174039

  2. Excellence through Special Education? Lessons from the Finnish School Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivirauma, Joel; Ruoho, Kari

    2007-05-01

    The present article focuses on connections between part-time special education and the good results of Finnish students in PISA studies. After a brief summary of the comprehensive school system and special education in Finland, PISA results are analysed. The analysis shows that the relative amount of special education targeted at language problems is highest in Finland among those countries from which comparative statistics are available. The writers argue that this preventive language-oriented part-time special education is an important factor behind the good PISA results.

  3. Forest Fragmentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes forest fragmentation in the contiguous United States circa 2001. This information provides a broad, recent picture of the spatial pattern of the nation’s forests and the extent to which they are being broken into smaller patches and pierced or interspe...

  4. Value orientation and forest management: the forest health debate.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Jesse; Kelly, Erin; Shindler, Bruce; Wilton, James

    2005-10-01

    Among both forest practitioners and the general public, "forest health" has become an issue of contention. Whereas the debate over which treatments will best achieve healthy forests has been framed largely by the popular media and politicians as a struggle between industry and environmentalists, the views of the general public remain unexplored. Survey results from Oregon and Washington residents were used to assess the relationships between respondents' self-described environmental or economic priorities and the following two variables: (1) acceptability of forest management practices and (2) perceived threats to forest health. Findings indicate that active management was generally accepted by a majority of respondents regardless of their environmental or economic orientation. Disagreement emerged, however, when the appropriateness of specific management practices within specific forest conditions was examined. Additionally, strong evidence was found for a relationship between self-described environmental or economic orientation and perceived threats to forest health. Those with an environmentally oriented viewpoint tended to perceive human-caused factors as the largest threats, whereas those with an economic orientation saw naturally occurring processes as the greatest threats. These findings suggest that the issue of contention is not active management per se. Rather, the major divisions in the forest health debate are defined by specific contexts and circumstances, as well as the management practices used. PMID:16222459

  5. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development. PMID:25819212

  6. [Forest degradation/decline: research and practice].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Li, Feng-Qin

    2007-07-01

    As one of the most critical environmental problems in the 21st century, forest degradation has been facing worldwide. There are many definitions about forest degradation, but its common features are the permanent loss of forests, stand structure destructed, forest quality decreased, and forest functions lowered. Forest decline or tree decline in fact is one of the causes of forest degradation, which includes the general reduction of trees in vigor, low level growth of trees in productivity, death of trees, and even, decline of soil fertility. Many researches indicated that deforestation is the permanent loss of forests in area, which is shifted to other land uses. Deforestation is the product of the interactions between environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political forces at work in any given country/region, and thus, more and more attention is focused on the negative socioeconomic and environmental effects after forest degradation, especially on the reduction of forest area induced by deforestation. The effects of any decisions or policies in national and international levels on forest degradation induced by deforestation have been paid attention as well. How to make efforts and strengthen the worldwide cooperation to combat the forest degradation induced by deforestation must be challenged to find appropriate solutions. There are many researches on forest decline, because of its complexity and uncertainties. The major causes of forest decline include: 1) pollution from both industry and agriculture, 2) stress factors, e.g., desiccation, 3) changes in stand dynamics, 4) decline disease of forest or diseases of complex etiology, 5) degradation of productivity and/or soil fertility in pure plantation forests. Forest degradation in China is similar to that all over the world, but with the characteristics in forest components, i.e., 1) secondary forests are the major forest resources, 2) China has the most plantation forests in the world, some of which have

  7. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  8. Turning industry visions into reality

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This brochure outlines the activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in the Department of Energy. OIT activities are aimed at industry adoption of energy-efficient, pollution-reducing technologies and include research and development on advanced technologies, financing, technical assistance, information dissemination, education, and bringing together industry groups, universities, National Laboratories, states, and environmentalists. OIT`s core initiative is to facilitate partnerships within seven materials and process industries: aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metalcasting, petroleum refining, and steel industries.

  9. Multi-scale Visualization of Remote Sensing and Topographic Data of the Amazon Rain Forest for Environmental Monitoring of the Petroleum Industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, L.; Miranda, F. P.; Beisl, C. H.; Souza-Fonseca, J.

    2002-12-01

    PETROBRAS (the Brazilian national oil company) built a pipeline to transport crude oil from the Urucu River region to a terminal in the vicinities of Coari, a city located in the right margin of the Solimoes River. The oil is then shipped by tankers to another terminal in Manaus, capital city of the Amazonas state. At the city of Coari, changes in water level between dry and wet seasons reach up to 14 meters. This strong seasonal character of the Amazonian climate gives rise to four distinct scenarios in the annual hydrological cycle: low water, high water, receding water, and rising water. These scenarios constitute the main reference for the definition of oil spill response planning in the region, since flooded forests and flooded vegetation are the most sensitive fluvial environments to oil spills. This study focuses on improving information about oil spill environmental sensitivity in Western Amazon by using 3D visualization techniques to help the analysis and interpretation of remote sensing and digital topographic data, as follows: (a) 1995 low flood and 1996 high flood JERS-1 SAR mosaics, band LHH, 100m pixel; (b) 2000 low flood and 2001 high flood RADARSAT-1 W1 images, band CHH, 30m pixel; (c) 2002 high flood airborne SAR images from the SIVAM project (System for Surveillance of the Amazon), band LHH, 3m pixel and band XHH, 6m pixel; (d) GTOPO30 digital elevation model, 30' resolution; (e) Digital elevation model derived from topographic information acquired during seismic surveys, 25m resolution; (f) panoramic views obtained from low altitude helicopter flights. The methodology applied includes image processing, cartographic conversion and generation of value-added product using 3D visualization. A semivariogram textural classification was applied to the SAR images in order to identify areas of flooded forest and flooded vegetation. The digital elevation models were color shaded to highlight subtle topographic features. Both datasets were then converted to

  10. Tropical forest preservation using economic incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T. ); Cale, W.G. Jr. )

    1990-12-01

    The authors address the problem of deforestation of the tropical forests in terms of economic factors. They outline the global effects, such as hydrological and climatological changes, that apparently small scale deforestation has, when the forest is destroyed in many different places. The authors suggest that industrialized nations should offer economic incentives for tropical nations to save their forests, since all the world will suffer the effects of tropical deforestation.

  11. Patch-occupancy models indicate human activity as major determinant of forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis seasonal distribution in an industrial corridor in Gabon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buij, R.; McShea, W.J.; Campbell, P.; Lee, M.E.; Dallmeier, F.; Guimondou, S.; Mackaga, L.; Guisseougou, N.; Mboumba, S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Alonso, A.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of human activity and ecological features in influencing African forest elephant ranging behaviour was investigated in the Rabi-Ndogo corridor of the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas in southwest Gabon. Locations in a wide geographical area with a range of environmental variables were selected for patch-occupancy surveys using elephant dung to assess seasonal presence and absence of elephants. Patch-occupancy procedures allowed for covariate modelling evaluating hypotheses for both occupancy in relation to human activity and ecological features, and detection probability in relation to vegetation density. The best fitting models for old and fresh dung data sets indicate that (1) detection probability for elephant dung is negatively related to the relative density of the vegetation, and (2) human activity, such as presence and infrastructure, are more closely associated with elephant distribution patterns than are ecological features, such as the presence of wetlands and preferred fresh fruit. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of elephants to human disturbance, in this case infrastructure development associated with gas and oil production. Patch-occupancy methodology offers a viable alternative to current transect protocols for monitoring programs with multiple covariates.

  12. A follow-up of cancer incidence among former Finnish dump site residents: 1999–2011

    PubMed Central

    Pukkala, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Background: In an analysis of the years 1976–1998, a 50% excess in cancer incidence was observed among residents in twelve blockhouses in Helsinki, Finland on a former dump area containing industrial and household waste. Objective: To assess cancer risk over a 13-year period 1999–2011 among residents formerly living in houses built on a dump area. Methods: All 1879 persons who ever lived in the former dump area were identified and the number of cancer cases in this population was obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Results: After 5 years of residence at the dump site, the standardized incidence ratio of cancer (all sites combined) was 1.32 (95% CI: 0.94–1.79) in men and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.33–0.82) for women, in comparison with the general Helsinki population (1999–2011). No significant excess cancer risks were found. Conclusions: Residing on a former dump area was not found to result in an increased risk of cancer. PMID:25224807

  13. Strategic aspects of the purchasing process in the Finnish hearing instruments business.

    PubMed

    Petäjävaara, A

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Finnish hearing instrument market which, in the past decade, has been characterized by both closed and shared markets. Indicates there has been some formal competition, but real price competition has not influenced the resharing of market shares. Finds that the current recession has forced hospitals to re-evaluate their purchasing criteria. Investigates the process with the help of industrial marketing theories to determine the strategic means which can be used to create competitive advantages. The new automatic data-processing (ADP)-based high technology in the hearing-instrument business provides opportunities for identifying these advantages. Surveys the abilities of hearing-centre personnel in university hospitals to take advantage of ADP-based tools. Shows that hearing-centre personnel have a low level of ADP knowledge and, thus, a great need for ADP training. Discusses the ADP-based strategy chosen to be AP Medical Hearing Ltd's main strategy and emphasizes the importance of ADP-based training in high technology. PMID:10143261

  14. Forest statistics for Michigan`s northern lower peninsula unit, 1993. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherberry, E.C.

    1994-10-30

    Michigan`s Northern Lower Peninsula Unit (fig. 1) is comprised of 33 counties. This region of the State is rich with resources that support a network of social, economic, and ecological processes that are forest dependent. The forest resource of the Unit presently supports an industry that operates on a sustaining basis. In 1990 nearly half of Michigan`s saw-log production--297 million board feet--was harvest in the Unit. The forests of the Northern Lower Peninsula are vital to the region. The forest contains a variety of both deciduous and coniferous forest species, which results in regionally unique ecosystems that contribute to biodiversity.

  15. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  16. Finnish Cooperating Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Physics Teachers' Teacher Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2010-06-01

    This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers’ conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman’s theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the results. The results show that the teachers strongly emphasize knowledge related to day-to-day teaching practice. In German Didaktik, this means knowledge of the best instructional methods, while in Shulman’s categorization it belongs to the category of representations, strategies, and methods. It was also found that the teachers appear to lack some of the essential key ideas of modern physics teacher education, such as a holistic view of instructional approaches.

  17. Healthy worker effect in the total Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Vinni, K; Hakama, M

    1980-01-01

    The selection due to the "healthy worker effect" was estimated from a random sample of the total Finnish population. The sample of 20 000 people was followed for changes in occupations from 1960 to 1970 and for deaths in 1971-5. Those entering the active work force had a standard mortality ratio of 70, indicating a healthy population selection effect. Those staying in the same occupational category from 1960 to 1970 had a 20% lower mortality than those who did not. This survivor population effect was due to changes to another occupational group and to early retirement. These factors had an inverse effect on the survival history of an occupational group. PMID:7426468

  18. Subjective well-being in Finnish adolescents experiencing family violence.

    PubMed

    Lepistö, Sari; Joronen, Katja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi; Luukkaala, Tiina; Paavilainen, Eija

    2012-05-01

    This article describes the relationship between adolescent subjective well-being and experiences of family violence reported by a sample of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents living in one Finnish municipality (N = 1,393). Survey results found that experiences of family violence were common. The logistic regression model showed that experiences of violence were associated with adolescents' feeling of inner disequilibrium and markedly strong relationships with friends. In additional, adolescents who experienced family violence rated their health as poorer than adolescents from nonviolent homes. They also surprisingly reported being satisfied with their life and did not necessarily identify their need for help. Although adolescents are resilient and have some resources to cope with violence, nurses and other professionals should attend more carefully to adolescents' reports of health and behavioral problems and assess for the presence of family violence and school bullying. PMID:22274937

  19. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  20. Health status of former elite athletes. The Finnish experience.

    PubMed

    Sarna, S; Kaprio, J; Kujala, U M; Koskenvuo, M

    1997-01-01

    Physical activity is an important aspect of health behavior and life-style, when considering the possibilities to prevent premature deaths and sustain functional capacity. We studied former Finnish male athletes and controls to investigate the effects of long-lasting participation in vigorous sports on health, and the main findings are reviewed here. The athletes represented Finland between the years 1920-1965 at least once in international competitions. The following sports were selected: track and field athletics, cross-country skiing, soccer, ice hockey, basketball, boxing, wrestling, weight lifting, and shooting. The full name, place and date of birth were traced for 2613 (97.7%) men. The referent subjects (N = 1712) were selected among those Finnish men who, at the age of 20, were classified completely healthy at the medical examination for induction into military service. In most analyses we grouped the sports according to the type of training needed to achieve maximal results, i.e., principally aerobic training, principally anaerobic training or mixed. In 1985, a questionnaire on physical activity, health and health habits was mailed to surviving former athletes and referents (N = 2851, 65.9% of the original cohort). Follow-up for morbidity and mortality was based on national medical registries. We found that former aerobic sports athletes (endurance and mixed sports) in particular have high total and active life expectancy and low risk for ischemic heart disease and diabetes in later years. On the other hand, they have slightly higher risk for lower-limb osteoarthritis. Overall, the benefits of physically active life-style on health were clearly higher than the adverse effects. PMID:9177584

  1. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  2. Organisational culture: pursuing a theoretical foundation within the Finnish public oral health-care context.

    PubMed

    Kasila, Kirsti; Poskiparta, Marita

    2004-01-01

    At the moment, Finnish oral health care is undergoing many changes. Little attention has been paid to issues of organisational culture and communication in Finnish oral health care. Yet the question of culture is of primary importance for changes in an organisation and for planning and reconstructing the rational functioning of an organisation. The purpose of this paper is to examine Finnish public oral health care within a theoretical framework of organisational culture and to identify the various cultural traits that appear to characterise Finnish oral health care. Using a cultural point of view, we develop an orientation for understanding more profoundly and specifically the processes concerning the functioning and change of oral health care. PMID:15481692

  3. Impacts of peatland forestation on regional climate conditions in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Backman, Leif; Henttonen, Helena M.; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; Laaksonen, Ari

    2014-05-01

    Climate response to anthropogenic land cover change happens more locally and occurs on a shorter time scale than the global warming due to increased GHGs. Over the second half of last Century, peatlands were vastly drained in Finland to stimulate forest growth for timber production. In this study, we investigate the biophysical effects of peatland forestation on near-surface climate conditions in Finland. For this, the regional climate model REMO, developed in Max Plank Institute (currently in Climate Service Center, Germany), provides an effective way. Two sets of 15-year climate simulations were done by REMO, using the historic (1920s; The 1st Finnish National Forest Inventory) and present-day (2000s; the 10th Finnish National Forest Inventory) land cover maps, respectively. The simulated surface air temperature and precipitation were then analyzed. In the most intensive peatland forestation area in Finland, the differences in monthly averaged daily mean surface air temperature show a warming effect around 0.2 to 0.3 K in February and March and reach to 0.5 K in April, whereas a slight cooling effect, less than 0.2 K, is found from May till October. Consequently, the selected snow clearance dates in model gridboxes over that area are advanced 0.5 to 4 days in the mean of 15 years. The monthly averaged precipitation only shows small differences, less than 10 mm/month, in a varied pattern in Finland from April to September. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis was conducted on the peatland forestation area with a 23% decrease in peatland and a 15% increase in forest types. 11 day running means of simulated temperature and energy balance terms, as well as snow depth were averaged over 15 years. Results show a positive feedback induced by peatland forestation between the surface air temperature and snow depth in snow melting period. This is because the warmer temperature caused by lower surface albedo due to more forest in snow cover period leads to a quicker and

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Marine organisms are known to adsorb and accumulate PAH's from water. Mussels due to their widespread distribution in coastal waters have been studied in many laboratory and field experiments for their responses to PAH exposures. The occurrence of PAH's has been studied also in fish. This report presents preliminary data for the PAH content in blue mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Mussel and fish samples were collected from the Finnish Archipelago Sea during 1978-1979.

  5. Forested wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, A.E.; Brinson, M.; Brown, S.

    1990-01-01

    Forested wetlands have important roles in global biogeochemical cycles, supporting freshwater and saltwater commercial fisheries, and in providing a place for wildlife of all kinds to flourish. Scientific attention towards these ecosystems has lagged with only a few comprehensive works on forested wetlands of the world. A major emphasis of this book is to develop unifying principles and data bases on the structure and function of forested wetlands, in order to stimulate scientific study of them. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface-water or ground-water, at such a frequency and duration that under natural conditions they support organisms adapted to poorly aerated and/or saturated soil. The strategy of classifying the conditions that control the structure and behavior of forested wetlands by assuming that the physiognomy and floristic composition of the system will reflect the total energy expenditure of the ecosystem; and the structural and functional characteristics of forested wetlands from different parts of the world are the major topics covered.

  6. Nitrogen balance along a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar

    2016-04-01

    Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change in boreal regions. Because boreal forests comprise 30% of the global forest area, increases in the annual area burned may have significant implications for global carbon and nitrogen (N) cycles. The productivity of boreal forests is limited by low N availability. Fires cause N loss from ecosystems through oxidation and volatilization of N stored in biomass and soil. N balance may be poorly buffered against forest fires especially in sub-arctic ecosystems where atmospheric N deposition is low. Although forest fires alter N dynamics, there are little quantitative data available on N pools and fluxes through post-fire succession in sub-arctic boreal forests. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year forest fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve situated in Finnish Lapland (67°46' N, 29°35' E). Soil was the largest N pool in all forest age classes and comprised 69-82% of the total ecosystem N pool. The total ecosystem N pool varied from 622 kg ha-1 in the recently burned forest to 960 kg ha-1 in the 155-year-old forest. The forests were N sinks in all age classes the annual N accumulation rate being 2.28 kg ha-1 yr-1 which was distributed almost equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in ecosystem N pools were consistent with the computed N balance 2.10 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period (Balance= (atmospheric deposition + N fixation) - (leaching + N2O emissions)). The results indicated that N deposition is an important component of the N balance and the N outputs are small (13% of the inputs) in the studied ecosystems. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1) compared to the other N fluxes. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N

  7. Tobacco industry documents from outside sources: new perspectives on industry strategies on local levels.

    PubMed

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Hirschhorn, Norbert

    2006-12-01

    The internal tobacco industry documents have also been used to study tobacco industry operations outside the United States. The scope of the documents on a country outside the US is decided mainly by the extent to which documents and reports were transmitted from the abroad offices of the US tobacco companies to headquarters. We explored whether the material from a private archive of a Finnish public relation consultant to Philip Morris will augment or revise the earlier reports on tobacco industry manipulation in Finland. The private records add more details to previously published reports. The new information mainly concerned implementation of the tobacco industry strategies. A general conclusion is that tobacco industry documents may not give a detailed picture of tobacco industry activities in distant markets, which would be of interest locally, even if they provide sufficient information to convey a general view of tobacco industry strategies. PMID:17243496

  8. Michigan`s forests 1993: An analysis. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.L.; Spencer, J.S.; Bertsch, R.

    1997-02-04

    Michigan`s forests are abundant, diverse, healthy, productive, and expanding. These forests make important contributions to the quality of life by providing a wide array of benefits, including wildlife habitat, biological diversity, outdoor recreation, improved air and water quality, and economic resources such as the estimated $12 billion of value added and 200,000 jobs annually supported by forest-based industries/tourism/recreation.

  9. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  10. "A High Speed Laser Profiling Device for Refractory Lininig Thickness Measurements In a Gasifier with Cross-Cut to the Metals, Forest Products, Chemical and Power Generation Industries"

    SciTech Connect

    Michel Bonin; Tom Harvill; Jared Hoog; Don Holve; Alan Alsing; Bob Clark; Steve Hrivnak

    2007-11-01

    Process Metrix began this project with the intent of modifying an existing ranging system and combining the same with a specially designed optical scanner to yield three dimensional range images that could be used to determine the refractory lining thickness in a gasifier. The goal was to make these measurements during short outages while the gasifier was at or near operating temperature. Our initial estimates of the photon counts needed for the modulation-based range finder were optimistic, and we were forced to undertake a redesign of the range finder portion of the project. This ultimately created significant and unanticipated time delays that were exacerbated when Acuity Technologies, the subcontractor responsible for delivering the redesigned range finder, failed to deliver electrical components capable of meeting the specific range error requirements needed for accurate lining thickness measurement. An extensive search for an alternate, off-the-shelf solution was unsuccessful, and Process Metrix was forced to undertake the electronics development internally without project funds. The positive outcome of this effort is a documented set of range finder electronics that have exceptional accuracy, simplicity, temperature stability and detection limit; in sum a package perfectly suited to the measurement requirements and within our control. It is unfortunate yet understandable, given the time delays involved in reaching this milestone, that the Department of Energy decided not to continue the project to completion. The integration of this electronics set into the optomechanical hardware also developed within the scope of the project remains as follow-on project that Process Metrix will finish within the calendar year 2008. Testing in the gasifier is, at this point, not certain pending the award of additional funding needed for field trials. Eastman, our industrial partner in this project, remains interested in evaluating a finished system, and working together we

  11. Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of 137Cs in soil and the soil-to-plant transfer in a pine forest in SW Finland.

    PubMed

    Outola, Iisa; Pehrman, Reijo; Jaakkola, Timo

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial pollution on the distribution of radiocaesium in soil and on its transfer from soil to plants. The study was started in September 2000 in four Scots pine stands located at distances of 0.5, 2, 4 and 8 km along a transect running SE from the Cu-Ni smelter at Harjavalta in SW Finland. Annual emissions from the smelter in 1990 were 80 t of Cu, 31 t of Ni and 9000 t of SO(2), and in 1999 these were 5.9, 0.8 and 3400 t, respectively. At each site, soil profiles were sampled with a corer, and samples were separated into litter (L), organic soil layer (O) and mineral soil layers (B, E). Mushrooms, lichens (Cladina spp. and Cetraria islandica), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) plants were collected at each site, except at a distance of 0.5 km, where only mushrooms were available. In the organic soil layer, 137Cs activity decreased from 8000 Bq/m(2) at a distance of 8 km from the smelter to 1500 Bq/m(2) at a distance of 0.5 km; in litter, 137Cs concentration increased from 6300 Bq/m(2) at 8 km to 14000 Bq/m(2) at 0.5 km. 137Cs activity concentration decreased significantly in plants, mushrooms and lichens as the pollution load increased. In lichens, 137Cs activity decreased from 910 Bq/kg at 8 km to 170 Bq/kg at 2 km, while in lingonberry it decreased from 1470 to 20 Bq/kg and in crowberry from 310 to 20 Bq/kg. Aggregated transfer factors for 137Cs decreased in a similar way in lingonberry from 7.6x10(-2) m(2)/kg at 8 km to 7.7x10(-4) m(2)/kg at 2 km and in crowberry from 1.6x10(-2) to 7.9x10(-4) m(2)/kg. PMID:12606162

  12. Recycling research progress at the forest products laboratory. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document summarizes accomplishments of USDA Forest Service researchers in the area of recycling. Specifically, it describes work in economic assessment paper recycling, recycled housing and industrial applications of recycle materials, other recycled applications, and technology transfer. The literature list includes the references cited in the text and additional publications regarding Forest Service recycling research.

  13. Turning First Nation Forest Values into Integrated Forest Management Plans: Two Models in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natcher, David; Hickey, Cliff

    Canada's federal and provincial governments have called upon the forest industry to ensure protection of Aboriginal rights and include Aboriginal communities in forest management. The challenge is to design frameworks for multi-party cooperation in which multiple values and interests can be accommodated. To promote such cooperation, two research…

  14. Forests & Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter discusses the disappearance of the world's forests and the resulting environmental problems of erosion and flooding; loss of genetic diversity; climatic changes such as less rainfall, and intensifying of the greenhouse effect; and displacement and destruction of indigenous cultures. The articles, lessons, and activities are…

  15. Forest Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  16. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Heidi; Valkama, Jari; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists. PMID:26422684

  17. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, Heidi; Valkama, Jari; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100–4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992–2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists. PMID:26422684

  18. Shaping professional identity for sustainability. Evidence in Finnish public catering.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Minna

    2009-08-01

    Catering for sustainability is often presented as a legitimate perspective for caterers to promote more equitable economic development locally and across distances through food procurement, integrated with environmental protection and concern for the welfare of customers and staff. Caterers are thus seen as agents responsible for sustainable food systems within their reach. This paper explores how public caterers use their position and productive intelligence in promoting a sustainable food system within the power field of their contextual networks. This article crystallises this 'agency for sustainability' as professional identity for sustainability, the shaping of which is analysed in Finnish public catering. The paper identifies eased and positive, troubled and critical as well as delimited and distancing approaches for sustainability, with respective views and efforts for sustainable food systems. The shaping of professional identity for sustainability could serve as co-operative platform for future contextual developments towards more sustainable food systems. Such progress could result in better alignment with political guidelines for sustainability and caterers' satisfaction due to their heightened professional position reaching beyond 'kitchen walls' to construct everyday sustainability. PMID:19460407

  19. Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Finnish Slaughter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-andfattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples. PMID:27052875

  20. Finnish nurses' attitudes towards nursing research and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, Merja; Tuomi, Jouni

    2005-02-01

    This study was concerned with Finnish nurses' attitudes to nursing research and with the associations of different background factors with these attitudes. The data were collected with a purpose-designed, structured questionnaire. The study was carried out in one central hospital, one central university hospital and 10 community health centres in Finland. A total of 400 nurses took part. The response rate was 67%. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical software. Attitudes to nursing research were generally quite positive, although over half of the nurses felt their own relationship to nursing science was quite distant. There were also shortfalls with respect to the information value and utilisation of research results. Only one-third took the view that doing research is an important part of the nurse's job. Age, the frequency of reading the professional literature, participation in training courses, training received in research and development, and the type of workplace were associated with attitudes. The results underline the importance of paying closer attention to the choice of research objects in the field of nursing science. Greater effort should also be invested in supporting and developing the application of research results. It is recommended that more courses on research methodology and other relevant training be made available to practical nurses. PMID:15680617

  1. Distribution and content of ellagitannins in Finnish plant species.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Johanna; Koskinen, Piia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2015-08-01

    The results of a screening study, in which a total of 82 Finnish plant species were studied for their ellagitannin composition and content, are presented. The total ellagitannin content was determined by HPLC-DAD, the detected ellagitannins were further characterized by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and divided into four structurally different sub-groups. Thirty plant species were found to contain ellagitannins and the ellagitannin content in the crude extracts varied from few mgg(-1) to over a hundred mgg(-1). Plant families that were rich in ellagitannins (>90mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were Onagraceae, Lyhtraceae, Geraniaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Fagaceae and some species from Rosaceae. Plant species that contained moderate amounts of ellagitannins (31-89mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were representatives of the family Rosaceae. Plant species that contained low amounts of ellagitannins (1-30mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were representatives of the families Betulaceae and Myricaceae. The specific ellagitannin composition of the species allowed their chemotaxonomic classification and the comparison between the older Cronquist's classification and the nowadays preferred Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification. PMID:25819000

  2. Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

  3. Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

  4. Familial carpal tunnel syndrome: a report of a Finnish family.

    PubMed

    Mahjneh, I; Saarinen, A; Siivola, J

    2001-12-01

    The existence of familial carpal tunnel syndrome (FCTS) as a separate autonomic entity has been discussed during the last few years. In order to contribute with more data to the literature, we report here the results of clinical. electrophysiological, pathological and radiological studies performed in 5 patients belonging to the same Finnish pedigree. The disease appeared usually before the second decade with numbness and pain on the I--III digits. In most patients symptoms were unilateral but within 2 years they became bilateral. In all patients typical electrophysiological features of median nerve entrapment have been recorded. X-rays of the wrist showed narrow carpal tunnel in all patients. In all patients the possibility of having HNPP as well as familial amyloidosis has been excluded by molecular genetic and pathological studies. All patients underwent surgery and at postoperative stage symptoms were relieved or completely disappeared. Our study supports the theory that FCTS exists as a separate autonomic entity, therefore it is important in front of a sporadic case to investigate the family occurrence of CTS. PMID:11903093

  5. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    PubMed

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland. PMID:14761694

  6. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani

    2014-11-01

    Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases. PMID:25147126

  7. Near Nativeness and Stylistic Lexical Competence in Swedish of First and Second Generation Finnish Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijvoet, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Characterizes the perception of stylistic nuances of lexical items in both Swedish and Finnish among members of the Sweden Finnish minority in Sweden, with special emphasis on Swedish. Results are discussed in the context of the ongoing debate on immigrants and integration, and suggest a more similar language use may indicate a higher degree of…

  8. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: A Comparison of Pupils' Images of Intelligence in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim; Hamalainen, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The study set out to examine Finnish and Russian children's images of intelligence as contextualized in the systems of the school and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent and an ordinary pupil and a good and an ordinary pupil. A distinctive feature shared by the children in both…

  9. Anti-Racist Strategies in Finnish Children's Literature: Physical Appearance and Language as Signifiers of National Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    This article examines anti-racist strategies employed in Finnish children's literature. The examples from four stories illustrate that certain physical characteristics and cultural markers can become strong signifiers of nationality, that is Finnishness. The characters in these stories have to cope with experiences of exclusion and loneliness…

  10. Cross-Informant Agreement and Stability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish Mainstream and Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Sointu, Erkko T.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-informant agreement among student self-report, teacher report, and parent report on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire translated into Finnish (SDQ-Fin) and estimated mean convergent and divergent correlations with a sample of fifth-grade Finnish students (N = 588) and the cross-informant agreement among…

  11. Processing Modifier-Head Agreement in L1 and L2 Finnish: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Seppo; Pajunen, Anneli; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of first language (L1) on the reading of modifier-head case agreement in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Russian is similar to Finnish in that both languages use case endings to mark grammatical roles, whereas such markings are absent in Chinese. The critical nouns were…

  12. Noun and Noun Phrase Stress: A Phonetic Study of English Supplemented with an Error Analysis Using Finnish Speaker-Hearers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi

    1979-01-01

    Confirms previous observations about the tonal character of English stress. Notes that Finnish listeners relied on duration as the perceptual cue for noun/noun phrase distinction (blackbird/black bird), reflecting the absence of linguistic contrasts based on an active use of the larynx in standard Finnish stress and intonation. (Author/RL)

  13. Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2013-01-01

    To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national…

  14. English Voiceless and Voiced Stops as Produced by Native and Finnish Speakers. Jyvaskyla Contrastive Studies, 2. Reports from the Department of English, University of Jyvaskyla, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suomi, Kari

    It is well known to anyone involved in teaching English to Finnish students that it is difficult for Finns to distinguish between English /ptk/ and /bdg/. This second volume in a series on a Finnish-English contrastive project reports on a study which attempted to obtain more concrete knowledge about the ability of speakers of Finnish to use the…

  15. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  16. Making bullying prevention a priority in Finnish schools: the KiVa antibullying program.

    PubMed

    Salmivalli, Christina; Poskiparta, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal and bullying specific actions to prevent the emergence of new cases of bullying, stop ongoing bullying, and reduce the negative consequences of victimization. The program has been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial involving 234 Finnish schools and during broad dissemination across Finnish schools (the evaluation involving almost one thousand schools) with positive findings. The program content and the implementation model are presented in this article, and the findings from the evaluation studies are summarized. PMID:22504790

  17. Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

    2006-07-31

    In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way. PMID:16458952

  18. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study. PMID:23316078

  19. Semmelweis' discovery and its Finnish follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, O; Faragó, Mária; Monos, E

    2003-01-01

    Professor Ignác Semmelweis (1818-1865) is one of the great personalities of medical history. He insisted on washing hands with chlorine water before any obstetrical intervention, he was the first to demonstrate its importance in preventing puerperal fever. Thus, the principle of asepsis was introduced prior to the discovery of bacteria and bacterial diseases. Semmelweis carefully documented his findings and in this way pioneered the scientific analysis of clinical data Medical community of that time misinterpreted Semmelweis' great ideas, he died abandoned and forgotten. A Finnish doctor Josef Adam Joachim Pippingsköld was one of the first obstetricians who had realized the importance of Semmelweis' work. In 1861, in his letter to Semmelweis he reported about his own findings and favorable results in prevention of puerperal fever in Helsinki. Two decades earlier, Dr. Ehrström in the University of Helsinki had submitted his thesis on pathophysiology of puerperal fever that was similar to the ideas of Semmelweis. Long before modern times in Finland, mothers traditionally had their babies delivered in smoke saunas, where heating and smoke of bactericidal phenols created a clean, rather aseptic environment. Hand washing was self-evident necessity. However, the situation was quite different in the Central European universities and departments of obstetrics, where the medical training and clinical practice took place side by side. Semmelweis' life and his contribution to medicine was appreciated even in the theatrical circles of Finland. The piece "Semmelweis" of Norwegian playwright Jens Bjørneboe got its World Premier in the Swedish Theatre in Turku, former capital of Finland, in September 1969. PMID:12903907

  20. Repatriation and Identification of Finnish World War II Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Palo, Jukka U.; Hedman, Minttu; Söderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. Results At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Conclusion Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals. PMID:17696308

  1. Use of xylitol chewing gum among Finnish schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Honkala, S; Honkala, E; Tynjälä, J; Kannas, L

    1999-12-01

    The preventive, and partly the remineralizing, effect of xylitol was shown in Finland in the Turku Sugar Studies in 1971-73. Since then, several clinical trials in many countries have confirmed these results. In Finland, oral health personnel have recommended daily use of xylitol chewing gum in their dental health education. Moreover, commercial companies have advertised xylitol, emphasizing in particular its caries preventive effects. All Nordic dental associations have given their recommendations for xylitol use. The aim of this study was to describe how this health habit has been adopted by Finnish schoolchildren. The study was part of the comprehensive cross-national survey on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC Study)--a WHO Collaborative Study. The data were collected using standardized questionnaires to which pupils in grades 5 (11 years), 7 (13 years) and 9 (15 years) responded anonymously in school classrooms during the spring term 1998. The response rate varied between 87% (15-year-old boys) and 94% (11- and 13-year-old girls). Among boys, the percentages of daily users of xylitol chewing gum were 47% (11 years), 46% (13 years), and 44% (15 years), and among girls, 57% (11 years), 65% (13 years), and 69% (15 years), respectively. Use of sugar-sweetened chewing gum was very rare (1%), as also was use of chewing gum with other artificial sweeteners (1%). It may be concluded that since 1991 the use of xylitol chewing gum has further increased in Finland and currently more than a half of all schoolchildren benefit from it. PMID:10777132

  2. Characterization of fine fraction mined from two Finnish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mönkäre, Tiina J; Palmroth, Marja R T; Rintala, Jukka A

    2016-01-01

    A fine fraction (FF) was mined from two Finnish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Kuopio (1- to 10-year-old, referred as new landfill) and Lohja (24- to 40-year-old, referred as old landfill) in order to characterize FF. In Kuopio the FF (<20mm) was on average 45±7% of the content of landfill and in Lohja 58±11%. Sieving showed that 86.5±5.7% of the FF was smaller than 11.2mm and the fraction resembled soil. The total solids (TS) content was 46-82%, being lower in the bottom layers compared to the middle layers. The organic matter content (measured as volatile solids, VS) and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of FF were lower in the old landfill (VS/TS 12.8±7.1% and BMP 5.8±3.4 m(3)CH4/t TS) than in the new landfill (VS/TS 21.3±4.3% and BMP 14.4±9.9 m(3)CH4/t TS), and both were lower compared with fresh MSW. In the Kuopio landfill materials were also mechanically sieved in the full scale plant in two size fraction <30 mm (VS/TS 31.1% and 32.9 m(3)CH4/t TS) and 30-70 mm (VS/TS 50.8% and BMP 78.5m(3)CH4/t TS). The nitrogen (3.5±2.0 g/kg TS), phosphorus (<1.0-1.5 g/kg TS) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) (2.77±1.77 kg/t TS) contents were low in all samples. Since FF is major fraction of the content of landfill, the characterization of FF is important to find possible methods for using or disposing FF mined from landfills. PMID:25817722

  3. Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Sanna; Riihinen, Kaisu; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p < 0.01) against all the tested pathogens was found from willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) honeys. This is the first report on antimicrobial activity of Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378

  4. Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Sanna; Riihinen, Kaisu; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2013-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p < 0.01) against all the tested pathogens was found from willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) honeys. This is the first report on antimicrobial activity of Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378

  5. Application of good practices as described by the NEPSI agreement coincides with a strong decline in the exposure to respiratory crystalline silica in Finnish workplaces.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Tapani; Linnainmaa, Markku; Väänänen, Virpi; Reijula, Kari

    2014-08-01

    To protect the health of those occupationally exposed to respirable crystalline silica, the main industries in European Union associated with exposure to respirable silica, agreed on appropriate measures for the improvement of working conditions through the application of good practices, as part of 'The Agreement on Workers Health Protection through the Good Handling and Use of Crystalline Silica and Products Containing it' (NEPSI agreement), signed in April 2006. The present paper examines trends in exposure to respirable crystalline silica in Finland prior to and following the implementation of the NEPSI agreement and includes a working example of the NEPSI approach in the concrete industry. Data derived from workplace exposure assessments during the years 1994-2013 are presented, including 2556 air samples collected mostly indoors, from either the breathing zone of workers or from stationary points usually at a height of 1.5 m above the floor, with the aim to estimate average exposure of workers to respiratory crystalline silica during an 8-h working day. The aim was, to find out how effective this unique approach has been in the management of one of the major occupational hazards in the concerned industries. Application of good practices as described by the NEPSI agreement coincides with a strong decline in the exposure to respirable crystalline silica in Finnish workplaces, as represented by the clientele of Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. During the years followed in the present study, we see a >10-fold decrease in the average and median exposures to respirable silica. Prior to the implementation of the NEPSI agreement, >50% of the workplace measurements yielded results above the OEL8 h (0.2mg m(-3)). As of present (2013), circa 10% of the measurements are above of or identical to the OEL8 h (0.05mg m(-3)). PMID:24914034

  6. Montana's forest resources. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.C.; O'Brien, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.

  7. Does Finnish hospital staff job satisfaction vary across occupational groups?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction of staff is an essential outcome variable in research when describing the work environment of successful hospitals. Numerous studies have evaluated the topic, but few previous studies have assessed the job satisfaction of all staff in hospital settings. It is important to discover if there are any unsatisfied groups of people working in hospitals, the aspects they are unsatisfied with and why. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction of all staff working at a Finnish university hospital, identify differences in job satisfaction between staff groups, and explore the relationship between their self-evaluated quality of work and job satisfaction. Methods Data were collected from 1424 employees of the hospital using the web-based Kuopio University Job Satisfaction Scale survey instrument in autumn 2010. The research data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Frequency and percentage distributions, as well as mean values, were used to describe the data. A non-parametric test (Kruskal–Wallis test) was used to determine the significance of differences in scores between different groups of staff members and between quality evaluations. Results The overall job satisfaction of the employees was good. They rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent. The areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making. Physicians formed the most satisfied group, nurses and maintenance staff were the least satisfied, and office and administrative staff were fairly satisfied. Staff who rated the quality of work in their units as high usually also considered their job satisfaction to be excellent. Conclusions Every staff member has an influence on job satisfaction in her/his unit. A culture of participation should be developed and maintained in the units and the whole hospital to ensure that all staff feel they play important roles in the hospital. A university hospital is

  8. Black carbon concentrations and mixing state in the Finnish Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T.; Brus, D.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Svensson, J.; Asmi, E.; Lihavainen, H.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol composition was measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) in the Finnish Arctic during winter 2011-2012. The Sammaltunturi measurement site at the Pallas GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station receives air masses from different source regions including the Arctic Ocean and continental Europe. The SP2 provides detailed information about mass distributions and mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC). The measurements showed widely varying rBC mass concentrations (0-120 ng m-3), which were related to varying contributions of different source regions and aerosol removal processes. The rBC mass was log-normally distributed showing a relatively constant rBC core mass mean diameter with an average of 194 nm (75-655 nm sizing range). On average, the number fraction of particles containing rBC was 0.24 (integrated over 350-450 nm particle diameter range) and the average particle diameter to rBC core volume equivalent diameter ratio was 2.0 (averaged over particles with 150-200 nm rBC core volume equivalent diameters). These average numbers mean that the observed rBC core mass mean diameter is similar to those of aged particles, but the observed particles seem to have unusually high particle to rBC core diameter ratios. Comparison of the measured rBC mass concentration with that of the optically detected equivalent black carbon (eBC) using an Aethalometer and a MAAP showed that eBC was larger by a factor of five. The difference could not be fully explained without assuming that only a part of the optically detected light absorbing material is refractory and absorbs light at the wavelength used by the SP2. Finally, climate implications of five different black carbon mixing state representations were compared using the Mie approximation and simple direct radiative forcing efficiency calculations. These calculations showed that the observed mixing state means significantly lower warming effect or even a net cooling effect when compared with

  9. Physical activity and sleep profiles in Finnish men and women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and sleep are related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. The interrelationship between these behaviors has been studied, but there remain questions regarding the association of different types of PA, such as occupational, commuting, and leisure time to sleep, including quality, duration and sufficiency. It is also unclear to what extent sleep affects peoples’ PA levels and patterns. Our aim is to investigate the interrelationship between PA and sleep behaviors in the Finnish population, including employment status and gender. Methods The study comprised population based data from the FINRISK 2012 Study. A stratified, random sample of 10,000 Finns, 25 to 74 years-old, were sent a questionnaire and an invitation to a health examination. The participation rate was 64% (n = 6,414). Latent class analysis was used to search for different underlying profiles of PA and sleep behavior in men and women, respectively. Models with one through five latent profiles were fitted to the data. Based on fit indicators, a four-class model for men and women, respectively, was decided to be the best fitted model. Results Four different profiles of PA and sleep were found in both men and women. The most common profile of men comprised 45% of the total participants, and in women, 47%. These profiles were distinguished by probabilities for high leisure time PA and sleep, subjectively rated as sufficient, as well as sleep duration of 7–7.9 hours. The least common profiles represented 5% (men) and 11% (women) of the population, and were characterized by probabilities for physical inactivity, short sleep, and evening type for women and morning type for men. There was also one profile in both genders characterized by likelihood for both high occupational PA and subjectively experienced insufficient sleep. Conclusions The use of latent class analysis in investigating the interrelationship between PA and sleep is a novel

  10. Changes in the quality of dissolved organic matter in soil water with time since last fire in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Jun'ichiro; Ohashi, Mizue; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Miura, Ikumi; Makita, Naoki; Yamase, Keitaro; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires strongly influence carbon stocks in boreal forests by inducing combustion of the aboveground and ground biomass. Simultaneously, they greatly influence the quality of dissolved organic matter in the soils, which in turn can alter water and carbon cycles in the forest. However, little information is available on how the quality of dissolved organic matter in boreal forest soils changes with time after forest fire occurred. To examine this, we collected soil water samples in Pinus sylvestris stands located in Finnish Lapland, where fire occurred 6, 46, and 156 years ago, analyzed dissolved organic carbon and inorganic elements concentrations, and then compared them among those three stands. In the assembly, we are going to report the results.

  11. Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

    2012-04-01

    As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

  12. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  13. "Virtuoso Ideal Daddy": Finnish Children's Perceptions of Good Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Riika; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research…

  14. Self-Regulation and Moral Orientation among Finnish and Chinese Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; He, Jin

    A comparative study of value orientations among Finnish and Chinese adolescents was conducted focusing on how secondary school students in these two cultures understand the purpose and meaningfulness of their lives and the value purposes they foresee in the future. The survey took place in the comprehensive schools of suburban towns in Finland and…

  15. Cultures in Dialogue: Perceptions and Experiences of Finnish Teachers of Transnational Dances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siljamäki, Mariana Elisabet; Anttila, Eeva; Sääkslahti, Arja

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a phenomenographic study that focuses on identifying the pedagogical conceptions of Finnish teachers of transnational dances. The purpose is to uncover and understand teachers' conceptions concerning the implications of the cultural contexts of their specific dance forms for their pedagogical practices. Through a…

  16. Repeated Reading of Syllables among Finnish-Speaking Children with Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Sini; Aro, Mikko; Landerl, Karin; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of repeated reading on reading speed among 36 Finnish-speaking poor readers in Grades 4 to 6. A switching replications design was applied: Group A (n = 20) received training first, and during this period Group B (n = 16) acted as a control group. After a midpoint test, the design was switched. The training material…

  17. Socio-Spatial Practices in a Finnish Daycare Group for One- to Three-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutanen, Niina

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study approaches early childhood education and care practices from a socio-spatial point of view. One Finnish daycare group for one- to three-year-olds participated in the study. The ethnographic observations from the practices are analyzed together with the ECE practitioners' audio-recorded team meetings and video-elicited…

  18. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  19. Comparison of the Classroom Practices of Finnish and Icelandic Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savola, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics teachers in Finland and Iceland are on different tracks. Based on a recent video study, the classroom practices of Finnish mathematics teachers seem to be rather traditional. This is in contrast to the Icelandic teachers many of whom use progressive-minded, learner-based instructional strategies. The classroom practices in Finland…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of PISA Scientific Literacy Framework in Finnish and Thai Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA…

  1. Towards ICT in Everyday Life in Finnish Schools: Seeking Conditions for Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Vahtivuori-Hanninen, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses how to strengthen educational use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Finnish schools. The conceptions and experiences of the successful integration of ICT in everyday school settings are reported. Participant observations in 20 schools in different parts of Finland were carried out, including discussions…

  2. Hybridisation or Ousterisation? The Case of Local Accountability Policy in Finnish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paananen, Maiju; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the analytic concept of imaginary, this study investigates policy hybridisation in the Finnish early childhood education. Specifically, it illuminates how the interplay between different imaginaries enabled the neoliberal imaginary to oust the social-democratic imaginary through a tripartite process in a case of local productivity…

  3. The Construction of Academic Identity in the Changes of Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylijoki, Oili-Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2013-01-01

    This article sets out to explore how academics make sense of the current transformations of higher education and what kinds of academic identities are thereby constructed. Based on a narrative analysis of 42 interviews with Finnish academics, nine narratives are discerned, each providing a different answer as to what it means to be an academic in…

  4. Identifying Finnish Children's Impulsivity Trajectories from Kindergarten to Grade 4: Associations with Academic and Socioemotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Pakarinen, Eija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to identify the developmental trajectories of impulsive behavior among 378 Finnish children who were followed from kindergarten to 4th grade. In addition to ratings of children's impulsivity, the analyses included measures of motivation, cognitive skills, socioemotional adjustment, and…

  5. Special Features of the Finnish Labour Market and Challenges for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouhelo, Anne; Ruoholinna, Tarita

    Research synthesized from three studies of the Finnish labor market indicates that a rapidly changing working life in Finland (and the rest of Europe) sets many different challenges for the workforce. In Finland, the population is even more aged than in the other European Union (EU) member states, and the transition of older workers to retirement…

  6. Teachers' Contribution to the Social Life in Finnish Preschool Classrooms during Structured Learning Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, Jenni; Hännikäinen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify and deepen the knowledge on and understanding of the role that teachers' practices during teacher-led learning sessions play in creating and enhancing social life in Finnish preschool classrooms. Observational data pertaining to 20 preschool teachers were analysed according to the principles of thematic analysis.…

  7. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  8. Accurate genetic diagnosis of Finnish pulmonary arterial hypertension patients using oligonucleotide-selective sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Vattulainen, Sanna; Aho, Joonas; Salmenperä, Pertteli; Bruce, Siina; Tallila, Jonna; Gentile, Massimiliano; Sankelo, Marja; Laitinen, Tarja; Koskenvuo, Juha W; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Myllykangas, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) among Finnish PAH patients is poorly understood. We adopted a novel-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach called Oligonucleotide-Selective Sequencing (OS-Seq) and developed a custom data analysis and interpretation pipeline to identify pathogenic base substitutions, insertions, and deletions in seven genes associated with PAH (BMPR2, BMPR1B, ACVRL1, ENG, SMAD9, CAV1, and KCNK3) from Finnish PAH patients. This study represents the first clinical study with OS-Seq technology on patients suffering from a rare genetic disorder. We analyzed DNA samples from 21 Finnish PAH patients, whose BMPR2 and ACVRL1 mutation status had been previously studied using Sanger sequencing. Our sequencing panel covered 100% of the targeted base pairs with >15× sequencing depth. Pathogenic base substitutions were identified in the BMPR2 gene in 29% of the Finnish PAH cases. Two of the pathogenic variant-positive patients had been previously tested negative using Sanger sequencing. No clinically significant variants were identified in the six other PAH genes. Our study validates the use of targeted OS-Seq for genetic diagnostics of PAH and revealed pathogenic variants that had been previously missed using Sanger sequencing. PMID:26247051

  9. Investigating Finnish Teacher Educators' Views on Research-Based Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokfors, Leena; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Stenberg, Katariina; Toom, Auli; Maaranen, Katriina; Jyrhama, Riitta; Byman, Reijo; Kansanen, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine teacher educators' views on research-based teacher education. Finnish research-based teacher education has four characteristics: (1) the study programme is structured according to a systematic analysis of education; (2) all teaching is based on research; (3) activities are organized in such a way that students can…

  10. Behavioral and Emotional Strength-Based Assessment of Finnish Elementary Students: Psychometrics of the BERS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Savolainen, Hannu; Lambert, Matthew C.; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    When rating scales are used in different countries, thorough investigation of the psychometric properties is needed. We examined the internal structure of the Finnish translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2) using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis approaches with a sample of youth, parents, and teachers. The results…

  11. How Finnish Upper Secondary Students Conceive Transgenerational Responsibility and Historical Reparations: Implications for the History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses how Finnish upper secondary school students ponder upon the questions of transgenerational responsibility and historical reparation. These questions have got a prominent place in the history culture in many societies in the last 20 years. The philosophical and political dimensions of reparations for historical injustices have…

  12. Finnish Media Literacy Education Policies and Best Practices in Early Childhood Education and Care since 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantala, Leena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to describe Finnish media literacy policies and good media education practices in early childhood education and care. This article will focus on describing two central action lines related to the Children and Media Program, initiated by the Division for Cultural Policy of the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2004.…

  13. Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) in the Assessment of Psychopathology in Finnish Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskentausta, Terhi; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) in the assessment of psychopathology in a Finnish population of children with intellectual disability. Disruptive behaviour was more common in children with mild intellectual disability, and problems with social interaction and communication in those with moderate, severe or profound…

  14. Debating Educability: Diverging Social Representations of Abilities in Finnish Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räty, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    By surveying a representative sample of Finnish parents, this study set out to compare two social representations of intelligence current in our educational discourse: the established one, "the idea of natural giftedness", and an emerging one, "the idea of the multifariousness of abilities and support for social equality." It…

  15. A Purposeful MOOC to Alleviate Insufficient CS Education in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurhila, Jaakko; Vihavainen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school students are not able to study CS-related topics, the Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is open to pupils and students in…

  16. Same Challenges, Different Processes: Perceptions on Governance Changes in Portuguese and Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diogo, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This article compares recent governance reforms in Finnish and Portuguese higher education (HE) systems and institutions (HEIs). Although Portugal and Finland differ significantly, both the countries have recently undertaken similar HE legislative reforms. This article analyses the contexts and implementation processes of these legal frameworks:…

  17. Happy Spouses, Happy Parents? Family Relationships among Finnish and Dutch Dual Earners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinen, Kaisa; Kinnunen, Ulla; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna; Wierda-Boer, Hilde; Gerris, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of…

  18. Enhancing Overseas Chinese Graduate Employability: The Case of Chinese Graduates with Finnish Academic Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance overseas Chinese graduate employability by taking Finnish-educated Chinese students/graduates as an example. In so doing, it understands that graduate employability development is a joint effort of multiple stakeholders including students, graduates, academics, program coordinators, employers, and policymakers.…

  19. Examining the Differences of Linear Systems between Finnish and Taiwanese Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between Finnish and Taiwanese textbooks for grades 7 to 9 on the topic of solving systems of linear equations (simultaneous equations). The specific textbooks examined were TK in Taiwan and FL in Finland. The content analysis method was used to examine (a) the teaching sequence, (b)…

  20. Efficiency of Finnish General Upper Secondary Schools: An Application of Stochastic Frontier Analysis with Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirjavainen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Different stochastic frontier models for panel data are used to estimate education production functions and the efficiency of Finnish general upper secondary schools. Grades in the matriculation examination are used as an output and explained with the comprehensive school grade point average, parental socio-economic background, school resources,…

  1. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…

  2. Transforming Causal Logics in Finnish Adult Education: Historical and Moral Transitions Rewritten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Leena; Filander, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the historical representations of adulthood, citizenship and the ideal social bonds of an individual and the society in the transforming moral orders of Finnish adult education. The research is based on a thematic reading of data, which consist of texts written during the past 150 years by theorists of adult…

  3. Investigating the Genre of a Business Fax: A Finnish Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes faxes sent and received during one week by a Finnish company involved in international operations. Suggests that the business fax is a distinct, dynamic genre constituted by and constitutive of the social practices within which it is situated, with five specific subgenres: specific information, specific requests, "for your information,"…

  4. The Finnish Miracle of PISA: Historical and Sociological Remarks on Teaching and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simola, Hannu

    2005-01-01

    One of the recent tributes to the success of Finnish schooling was the PISA 2000 project report. As befits the field of education, the explanations are primarily pedagogical, referring especially to the excellent teachers and high-quality teacher education. Without underrating the explanatory power of these statements, this paper presents some of…

  5. Prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms continues to increase in the Finnish working-age population.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Härmä, Mikko; Hublin, Christer; Lallukka, Tea; Peltonen, Markku; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, we published epidemiological data from 1972 to 2005 that suggested an increase in insomnia-related symptoms among the working-age population. The results were based on the National FINRISK (FR) Study samples of the Finnish adult population aged 25-64, and on the Finnish Quality of Work Life Surveys (FQWLS), carried out among Finnish salary earners. Both of these ongoing studies have since provided two new estimates of insomnia-related symptoms. Chronic insomnia-related symptoms were 9.0% (95% CI 8.3-9.7), 9.6% (95% CI 8.8-10.4) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 9.1% (95% CI 8.3-10.0), 9.2% (95% CI 8.4-10.1) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. Occasional insomnia-related symptoms were 45.3% (95% CI 44.1-46.6), 42.5% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 40.3% (95% CI 38.8-41.7), 44.8% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. The new estimates further strengthen the interpretation of the ongoing increase in occasional insomnia-related symptoms among the Finnish general adult population. The increase in occasional symptoms was most prominent among employees. However, chronic insomnia symptoms showed no further increase. PMID:26868677

  6. Enacting the Common Script: Management Ideas at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the work of mid-level management at Finnish universities of applied sciences. Based on in-depth interviews with 15 line managers, this study investigates how the standardized management ideas of rational management and employee empowerment are used in the leadership of lecturers at these institutions. The findings indicate…

  7. School-External Factors in Finnish Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Sophie; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the English language competence of Finnish bilingual pupils and school-external factors such as parental expectations, home involvement, and exposure to English outside the classroom. Data on the pupils' language competence was collected from n?=?122 6th graders in bilingual education, and…

  8. Vocational Career Decision-Making of Finnish Upper Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to clarify the characteristics of Finnish upper secondary school students as vocational decision-makers. The focus was especially on what skills and competences were related to decision-making at different phases of the decision-making process. Altogether, 216 upper secondary school students filled in the…

  9. Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A): Overview and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Banerjee, P. Nina; Gissler, Mika; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; Huttunen, Jukka; Kulmala, Ulla; Lindroos, Jarna; Niemela, Solja; Rihko, Maria; Ristkari, Terja; Saanakorpi, Kristiina; Sarlin, Tanja; Sillanmaki, Lauri; McKeague, Ian W.; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Helenius, Hans; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A), a new study designed to examine the relationship between prenatal serologic factors, mediating and moderating developmental antecedents, and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The FIPS-A is based on register linkages between…

  10. Analysing Finnish Steering System from the Perspective of Social Space: The Case of the "Campus University"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuthardt, Leena; Valimaa, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyses Finnish higher education steering system, management by results, from the perspective of higher education institutions. We ask what happens inside a higher education institution, called here the "Campus University", during the actual negotiations related to the national steering system. We analyse not only the management…

  11. Validation of the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) for Clinical Settings and Total Population Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Kielinen, Marko; Bloigu, Risto; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Joskitt, Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the validity and determined cut-off scores for the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A population sample of 8-year-old children (n = 4,408) was rated via the ASSQ by parents and/or teachers, and a subgroup of 104 children was examined via structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school…

  12. The Relationship between Finnish Student Teachers' Practical Theories, Sources, and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitkäniemi, Harri; Karlsson, Liisa; Stenberg, Katariina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is two-fold: 1) to describe what kind of practical theories student teachers have in the Finnish class teacher education context and 2) to analyse their differences and similarities at the initial and final phase of teacher education. We further analyse the relationship between the practical theories and their sources.…

  13. Computer-Based Molecular Modelling: Finnish School Teachers' Experiences and Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksela, Maija; Lundell, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Modern computer-based molecular modelling opens up new possibilities for chemistry teaching at different levels. This article presents a case study seeking insight into Finnish school teachers' use of computer-based molecular modelling in teaching chemistry, into the different working and teaching methods used, and their opinions about necessary…

  14. Brief Report: Delinquent Behaviour and Depression in Middle Adolescence: A Finnish Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kivivuori, Janne; Rimpela, Matti

    2005-01-01

    A large number (N 50 569) of 14-16 year old Finnish adolescents taking part in the School Health Promotion Study were surveyed for delinquent behaviour in relation to depression. The results indicate a robust association between delinquency and depression. Among girls risk for depression varied between 1.3 and 3.1 according to various antisocial…

  15. Implementing the Finnish Literacy Curriculum in a First-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the first author's process of implementing new literacy practices as a teacher in a Finnish first-grade classroom from a poststructuralist perspective by using nexus analysis (NA). We concentrated on two essential concepts in NA, Bourdieu's habitus and Goffman's interaction order, which we linked to Grundy's curriculum…

  16. Having, Loving, and Being: Children's Narrated Well-Being in Finnish Day Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila; Syrjala, Leena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to answer the following question: what do children tell about their well-being in Finnish day care centres? The theoretical and methodological framework of this study is based on a narrative approach. The research material was collected by participating in the everyday life of three groups of children and listening to…

  17. Not Babies Anymore: Young Children's Narrative Identities in Finnish Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of deepening understanding of young children's identity construction, the study explores small stories produced in a Finnish day care center context. Small stories are understood as identity-constituting social practices that occur and recur in day care settings. Taking ideas on narrative ethnography as starting point, research…

  18. Professionalism--A Breeding Ground for Struggle. The Example of the Finnish Day-Care Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinos, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the Finnish day-care centre out of a neo-Weberian-Bourdieuan frame of reference. The leading idea is that the day-care centre field is continuously shaping as a result of both inner struggles and struggles with other fields. The state, the education system, and trade unions act as the dealers of professional playing cards.…

  19. Economic difficulties and subsequent sleep problems: Evidence from British and Finnish occupational cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Lallukka, Tea; Ferrie, Jane E.; Kivimäki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J.; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Background Social determinants of sleep may prove to be as important as health status. In this study we examined the extent to which persistent and changing economic difficulties are associated with sleep problems in two prospective occupational cohorts. Methods We used data from Finnish (baseline 2000–2002; follow-up 2007; n = 6328) and British (baseline 1997–1999; follow-up 2003–2004; n = 5002) public sector employees. Economic difficulties, sleep problems, and a variety of covariates were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results Prevalence of frequent sleep problems at follow-up was 27% and 20% among women and men in the Finnish cohort, and 34% and 27% in the British cohort, respectively. Odds for sleep problems were higher among those with persistent economic difficulties (frequent economic difficulties at baseline and follow-up) compared to those with no difficulties. This association remained after multiple adjustments, including parental and current socioeconomic position, in the Finnish (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.35–2.18) cohort. Increases in economic difficulties were similarly associated with sleep problems in the Finnish and the British cohort. Conclusion Evidence from two occupational cohorts suggests strong associations between economic difficulty and poor sleep. Awareness of this association will help health care professionals identify and prevent sleep problems. PMID:22445231

  20. Stories of Change: TieVie - The Support Service for Finnish Universities Toward the Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairamo, Anna-Kaarina; Sinko, Matti

    In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.

  1. Dancing in Fetters? Chinese Principals' Perceptions of the Effects of Finnish Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Xin; Dervin, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Although there is an increased interest in overseas training for educational leaders in China, little is known about the value of such programs. This qualitative case study explores Chinese school principals' perceptions of leadership practices and professional development after undertaking a Finnish training program. The article also…

  2. Work People's College: A Finnish Folk High School in the American Labor College Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenbaugh, Richard J.; Paulston, Rolland G.

    American working class organizations' efforts since World War I to establish and control their own educational programs flourished during the 1920s and 1930s with the appearance of over 300 worker controlled colleges. An important forerunner of this movement was the Work People's College, created by socialist Finnish immigrants in Duluth,…

  3. Voices of Teachers with Dyslexia in Finnish and English Further and Higher Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Eila; Bell, Sheena

    2010-01-01

    This paper sheds light onto a poorly presented group of professionals--teachers with dyslexia in Finnish and English further and higher educational settings. The purpose of this qualitative study was, firstly, to discover what teachers with dyslexia could tell us about the manifestation of dyslexia and the challenges they face in the practice of…

  4. Making Bullying Prevention a Priority in Finnish Schools: The KiVa Antibullying Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmivalli, Christina; Poskiparta, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal…

  5. Having Many Irons in the Fire--"Finnish Female Leaders' School Memories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    Education and school years impact leadership development, but this development has still been little studied. This study contributes Finnish female leaders' narratives to the discussion. The purpose was to analyze how female leaders describe their school years and themselves as learners and how these elements have shaped their careers. The…

  6. Finnish Mentor Mathematics Teachers' Views of the Teacher Knowledge Required for Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    Seven Finnish mentor mathematics teachers were interviewed about their views regarding the teacher knowledge required for teaching mathematics. The results of the interviews revealed not only the teachers' spontaneous views of the knowledge base needed for effective mathematics teaching but also their views of the particular types of teacher…

  7. Finnish Pre-Service Teachers' and Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of Division and Reasoning Strategies Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaasila, Raimo; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hellinen, Anu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on Finnish pre-service elementary teachers' (N = 269) and upper secondary students' (N = 1,434) understanding of division. In the questionnaire, we used the following non-standard division problem: "We know that 498:6 = 83. How could you conclude from this relationship (without using long-division algorithm) what 491:6 = ?…

  8. Sustainable Leadership and Future-Oriented Decision Making in the Educational Governance--A Finnish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsamuuronen, Jari; Kuosa, Tuomo; Laukkanen, Reijo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: During the new millennium the Finnish educational system has faced a new challenge: how to explain glorious PISA results produced with only a small variance between schools, average national costs and, as regards the average duration of studies, relatively efficiently. Explanations for this issue can be searched for in many different…

  9. A Case Study of Parents' School Choice Strategies in a Finnish Urban Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poikolainen, Jaana

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses how Finnish parents of sixth graders in a comprehensive school act in the local "school markets" of the case city. The parents' subject positions as choosers are reflected on and explored in relation to the discourses and resources they use when discussing their school choices. The data were gathered in 2009 by administering…

  10. New Degree for a New Career? Career Development of Finnish Polytechnic Master's Degree Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari; Galli, Loretta

    2012-01-01

    This article explores Finnish polytechnic master's degree graduates' career development about one year after graduation. Twenty interviewed graduates were first classified on the basis of their initial educational motives yielding a typology of goal-oriented, learning-oriented and drifters. After this, their career development was analysed. As a…

  11. Finnish Upper Secondary Students' Collaborative Processes in Learning Statistics in a CSCL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oikarinen, Juho Kaleva; Järvelä, Sanna; Kaasila, Raimo

    2014-01-01

    This design-based research project focuses on documenting statistical learning among 16-17-year-old Finnish upper secondary school students (N = 78) in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. One novel value of this study is in reporting the shift from teacher-led mathematical teaching to autonomous small-group learning in…

  12. Pragmatics of Content-Based Instruction: Teacher and Student Directives in Finnish and Austrian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Nikula, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Using a pragmatic framework, this paper examines how directives are performed by teachers and students in Finnish and Austrian CLIL classrooms, that is settings where a foreign language (in this case English) is used as the medium of instruction in non-language subjects such as history or chemistry. We explore how interpersonal aspects of…

  13. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the…

  14. Maternal Smoking Behavior, Background and Neonatal Health in Finnish Children Subsequently Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalland, Mirjam; Sinkkonen, Jari; Gissler, Mika; Merilainen, Jouni; Siimes, Martti A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively neonatal health and maternal background among a sample of children taken into custody and placed in foster care and to investigate the relation between medical and social risk in the neonatal period. Method: The data-linkage study combined two registries: the Finnish Medical…

  15. Geography in the Finnish School Curriculum: Part of the "Success Story"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the status of geography education in the Finnish national curricula from the 1970s until today. Conceptions of teaching, learning and change in society are traced through curriculum texts; in addition, the ways in which these are applied in the subject-specified aims and content of the geography curriculum are explored.…

  16. Displaying Now-Understanding: The Finnish Change-of-State Token "aa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivisto, Aino

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Finnish change-of-state token "aa" that has previously not been identified. The central claim is that even though "aa" indicates a cognitive shift experienced by the speaker, it does not function as a receipt of new information. Instead, the token "aa" indicates that the speaker…

  17. Relationship of Gender and Academic Achievement to Finnish Students' Intercultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intercultural sensitivity of Finnish 12-16-year-old secondary school students (N=549) with a 23-item Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ICSSQ). The ICSSQ is based on Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which is a conceptual tool to situate certain reactions towards cultural…

  18. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights…

  19. A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

  20. From Canon to Chaos Management: Blogging as a Learning Tool in a Modern Finnish Literature Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokinen, Elina; Vaarala, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on the teaching experiment implemented in summer 2013 in a modern Finnish literature course organised by the Centre for International Mobility (CIMO) and the University of Jyväskylä Language Centre. In order to break away from the traditional conception of literature and text, students' independent blogging was chosen as the…

  1. Different distributions of operative diagnoses for Achilles tendon overuse injuries in Italian and Finnish athletes

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background the origin of chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is currently unclear and epidemiological factors, such as ethnicity, may be associated. Methods intraoperative findings from the treatment of 865 Finnish and 156 Italian athletic patients with chronic Achilles tendon related pain were evaluated, retrospectively. The mean age was 34 years (range, 18 to 65 years) in the Finnish and 29 years (range, 17–63 years) in the Italian patients. In total, 786 patients were males and 226 females of which 84 and 87% Finnish, respectively. Data were collected, retrospectively from patient records. The differences in the frequencies of operative findings were assessed for statistical significance. Results retrocalcaneal bursitis, partial tear and chronic paratenonitis were the most prevalent findings in patients with chronic AT undergoing surgery. Tendinosis and chronic paratenonitis were significantly (p=0.011) more common in Finnish athletes. Italian patients exhibited significantly (p<0.001) more insertional calcific tendinopathy (heel spurs) and prominent posterosuperior calcaneal corners (Haglund’s heel). Conclusion ethnicity appears to be associated with specific characteristics of overuse-related Achilles tendon pathology. This is an issue that should be considered in the planning of genetic research on AT. PMID:27331038

  2. Non-Linear Modeling of Growth Prerequisites in a Finnish Polytechnic Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokelainen, Petri; Ruohotie, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors of growth-oriented atmosphere in a Finnish polytechnic institution of higher education with categorical exploratory factor analysis, multidimensional scaling and Bayesian unsupervised model-based visualization. Design/methodology/approach: This study was designed to examine employee perceptions of…

  3. Analysis of the Development of Academic Writing in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhanen-Nuutinen, Liisa; Janhonen, Sirpa; Tuomi, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the genre of the reviewed scientific articles published in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science") during its history. The aim was to bring a critical approach to writing in nursing science and to discuss the dominant conventions of scientific writing in nursing. A total of 27 journals, which…

  4. Workforce Competencies of Finnish Plant Production Graduates as Assessed by Students, Employers and Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Ritva; And Others

    A study examined the extent to which Finnish horticulture graduates' assessments of their work force competencies differ from those of their teachers and employers. Questionnaires were sent to all 68 plant production graduates of the University of Helsinki's plant production program from 1990-1993, a sample of 38 employers representing…

  5. Forty Years of Finnish Pre-School Education: The Development of Curricula between 1972 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 in Finland, all six year olds have had the right to free pre-school education, and almost all pre-school-aged children take advantage of this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to dissect the development of Finnish pre-school education curricula within the societal context and within the changes in trends of curriculum planning…

  6. Changing Voices in Early Years Curricula. An Example from Finnish Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the changing constructions of childhood in two Finnish pre-school education curricula during the time of pre-school reform in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These constructions are part of the underlying curriculum containing postulates and values that influence the written curriculum documents. They determine the…

  7. The Representation of Leisure in Corporate Publicity Material: The Case of a Finnish Pine Construction Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Jokipii, Hilkka M.

    1998-01-01

    States that a video introducing a company to various audiences is a common genre of promotional material in Finland. Applies theories of both advertising and semiotics to analyze the first minute of a video produced for a Finnish company that manufactures log buildings and wraps its image around a concept of leisure. (PA)

  8. Activities of Telithromycin, Erythromycin, Fluoroquinolones, and Doxycycline against Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Finnish Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schönberg-Norio, Daniela; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Katila, Marja-Leena; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku; Koskela, Markku; Eerola, Erkki; Uksila, Jaakko; Pajarre, Sini; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 478 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from Finnish subjects during 2002 to 2004 were determined. Susceptibility to erythromycin remained high, and telithromycin did not offer any advantage over erythromycin. Reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones and doxycycline were detected almost exclusively among isolates of foreign origin. PMID:16495275

  9. From Discrete to Transformed? Developing Inclusive Primary School Teacher Education in a Finnish Teacher Education Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naukkarinen, Aimo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the primary school teacher education curriculum reform currently under way in the Department of Teacher Education at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. A general overview of the Finnish context and relevant inclusive education policy issues are presented. The process of developing inclusive education in the curriculum and…

  10. Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

  11. Persistent Work for Equity and Lifelong Learning in the Finnish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces how the Finnish educational system has been moved systematically towards equal opportunities for all learners. It also describes how principles of equity and lifelong learning are tied together and what consequences this has had on teachers' professional role. Finally, the article reflects on what kind of studies and…

  12. Measuring Distributive Justice Preferences of Finnish University Students via the State Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetoklis, Takis

    2007-01-01

    We measure the distributive justice preferences of students within eight departments in the faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Turku, Finland. We use the Finnish government's annual budget and its specific appropriations as a proxy to measure the students' underlying preferences. We test whether the type of studies of the respondents…

  13. Teachers' Views on Curriculum Development in Health Promotion in Two Finnish Polytechnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Auli; Poskiparta, Marita; Liimatainen, Leena; Kettunen, Tarja

    2003-01-01

    Ten nursing teachers in two Finnish polytechnics stated that their involvement in curriculum development was impeded by lack of time. They felt that health promotion was adequately addressed, although there was no evidence that new approaches recommended by the World Health Organization and other bodies were being used. (Contains 49 references.)…

  14. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…

  15. Finnish High School Students' Readiness to Adopt Online Learning: Questioning the Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Kukkonen, Jari; Dillon, Patrick; Vaisanen, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    The Finnish high school system in rural areas is facing challenges because of a decreasing number of the students. This situation places new emphasis on online learning. Online learning offers new possibilities for high schools to provide equal learning opportunities for their students. This paper explores students' readiness to adapt their…

  16. The Transnational Idea of University Autonomy and the Reform of the Finnish Universities Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piironen, Ossi

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Finnish parliament passed a new Universities Act that aimed to strengthen the institutional autonomy of the country's universities. But why and how did the idea of autonomy come to frame the reform agenda in the overt way it did? In analysing a sample of authoritative policy and strategy papers by the key stakeholders in the…

  17. Forest Dynamics in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Ramachandran, A.; Bhaskaran, G.; Heo, J.

    2009-02-01

    The primary deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (EG) of Tamil Nadu (TN) India have undergone many changes owing to various need-based forest managements, such as timber extraction for industry, railway sleepers, charcoal, and forest clearance for hydroelectric projects and agriculture, during preindependence and postindependence periods (i.e., from 1800 to 1980). The enactment of a forest conservation act during the 1980s changed the perception of forest managers from utilization to conservation. This study was taken up to assess the forests dynamics in the EG of TN spatially between 1990 and 2003 and nonspatially between 1900 and the 1980s. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS) 1D Linear Imaging and Self Scanning (LISS III) data were used to assess forests during 1990 and 2003, respectively. Field floristic survey and secondary data (such as published literature, floras, books, and forest working plans) were used to assess the forest dynamics in terms of forest type and species composition among the preindependence period, the postindependence period, and the present (i.e., before and after 1980). The satellite data analysis revealed a considerable amount of changes in all forest types during the 13 years. The comparison of species composition and forest types between the past and present revealed that need-based forest management along with anthropogenic activity have altered the primary deciduous forest in to secondary and postextraction secondary forests such as southern thorn and southern thorn scrub forests in the middle [400-900 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and lower slopes (<400 m MSL). However, the evergreen forests present at the upper slope (>900 m MSL) and plateau seemed not to be much affected by the forest management. The changes estimated by the satellite data processing in the major forest types such as evergreen, deciduous, southern thorn, and southern thorn scrub are really alarming because these changes have

  18. Moral Problems Perceived by Industry in Collaboration with a Student Group: Balancing between Beneficial Objectives and Upholding Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartiainen, Tero

    2009-01-01

    Industry-university partnerships are common in the IT field. This paper reports on moral problems perceived by client representatives collaborating with student groups taking part in a project course in information systems education in a Finnish university. Twenty-two client representatives from IT organizations were interviewed during the course…

  19. Forest Health Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  20. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future. PMID:27002810

  1. Forestry/Forest Products. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the forestry/forest products industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the forestry/forest products curriculum. There are six sections…

  2. Forest dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  3. Forest dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  4. Education Policies for Raising Student Learning: The Finnish Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that system-wide excellence in student learning is attainable at reasonable cost, using education policies differing from conventional market-oriented reform strategies prevalent in many other countries. In this respect, Finland is an example of a nation that has developed from a remote agrarian/industrial state in the 1950s to…

  5. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  6. Future Forest Production and Net Carbon Sinks under Optimal C:N Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, A.; Kalliokoski, T.; Peltoniemi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental change affects forests directly by changing physiological process rates, but the consequent changes in resource acquisition may lead to structural and functional acclimations that obscure the long-term relationship between environmental drivers and forest function. Based on an adaptive balance between structure and function, evolutionary optimisation may provide a feasible tool for analysing such indirect effects of environmental change on forests. This study applies OptiPipe, a model of optimal co-allocation of forest carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), to prediction of potential productivity and C balance of Finnish forests under climate change. OptiPipe is embedded in a transparent modular system including: PreLes, a canopy C exchange model; Yasso, a soil C model; and expert assumptions about the impacts of weather on N availability at different growth sites. National Forest Inventory data and gridded weather data (10 x 10 km2) are utilised. The uncertainties of the projections are analysed relative to inputs and parameters. The results quantify the changes in growth and carbon stocks, which are either smaller or larger than those in photosynthetic capacity, depending on the C:N balance of the site. The results emphasize the need to obtain more reliable information and data about nitrogen processes, but also demonstrate the potential for the optimality approach for regional applications.

  7. Children with Specific Language Impairment in Finnish: The Use of Tense and Agreement Inflections

    PubMed Central

    Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Leonard, Laurence B.; Mäkinen, Leena; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) vary widely in their ability to use tense/agreement inflections depending on the type of language being acquired, a fact that current accounts of SLI have tried to explain. Finnish provides an important test case for these accounts because: (1) verbs in first and second person permit null subjects whereas verbs in third person do not; and (2) tense and agreement inflections are agglutinating and thus one type of inflection can appear without the other. Probes were used to compare the verb inflection use of Finnish-speaking children with SLI, and both age-matched and younger typically developing children. The children with SLI were less accurate, and the pattern of their errors did not match predictions based on current accounts of SLI. It appears that children with SLI have difficulty learning complex verb inflection paradigms apart from any problem specific to tense and agreement. PMID:21281548

  8. Noun Case Suffix Use by Children with Specific Language Impairment: An Examination of Finnish

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Leena; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Finnish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI, N = 15, M age = 5;2), a group of same-age typically developing peers (TD-A, N = 15, M age = 5;2) and a group of younger typically developing children (TD-Y, N = 15, M age = 3;8) were compared in their use of accusative, partitive, and genitive case noun suffixes. The children with SLI were less accurate than both groups of TD children in case marking, suggesting that their difficulties with agreement extend to grammatical case. However, these children were also less accurate in making the phonological changes in the stem needed for suffixation. This second type of error suggests that problems in morphophonology may constitute a separate problem in Finnish SLI. PMID:25995529

  9. The use of negative inflections by Finnish-speaking children with and without specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Leonard, Laurence B.; Mäkinen, Leena; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty expressing subject-verb agreement. However, in many languages, tense is fused with agreement, making it difficult to attribute the problem to agreement in particular. In Finnish, negative markers are function words that agree with the subject in person and number but do not express tense, providing an opportunity to assess the status of agreement in a more straightforward way. Fifteen Finnish-speaking preschoolers with SLI, 15 age controls, and 15 younger controls responded to items requiring negative markers in first person singular and plural, and third person singular and plural. The children with SLI were less accurate than both typically developing groups. However, their problems were limited to particular person-number combinations. Furthermore, the children with SLI appeared to have difficulty selecting the form of the lexical verb that should accompany the negative marker, suggesting that agreement was not the sole difficulty. PMID:24588468

  10. Air pollution, acid rain, and the future of forests. Part 3. Counting the costs

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, S.

    1984-09-01

    Economic losses are predicted due to the effects of acid rain on forests in Europe and the United States. Growth declines and tree damage on forest lands intensively managed for marketable timber are described. Forest industries which produce paper and other forest products which consume large amounts of energy are said to be reluctant to support acid rain control measures. Few studies have examined the effects of acid deposition combined with intensive forestry practices.

  11. Self-esteem and narcissism among the most and least empathetic Finnish baseball players.

    PubMed

    Kalliopuska, M

    1992-12-01

    560 girls and 819 boys, ages 8 to 16 years and actively interested in Finnish baseball, were tested in small groups in three training-camp championship games with the modified Mehrabian and Epstein's Empathy Scale, and the Battle Self-esteem Inventory, Form B. Narcissism was estimated on the 1984 Emmons scale. The hypothesis that the most empathetic players compared with the least empathetic players have better self-esteem and less narcissism was confirmed. PMID:1454500

  12. Hunt for the origin of allergy - comparing the Finnish and Russian Karelia.

    PubMed

    Haahtela, T; Laatikainen, T; Alenius, H; Auvinen, P; Fyhrquist, N; Hanski, I; von Hertzen, L; Jousilahti, P; Kosunen, T U; Markelova, O; Mäkelä, M J; Pantelejev, V; Uhanov, M; Zilber, E; Vartiainen, E

    2015-05-01

    The Finnish and Russian Karelia are adjacent areas in northern Europe, socio-economically distinct but geoclimatically similar. The Karelia Allergy Study was commenced in 1998 to characterize the allergy profiles in the two areas. Allergy prevalence had increased in Finland since the early 1960s, but the situation in Russia was unknown. The key finding was that allergic symptoms and diseases were systematically more common in Finnish children and adults than in their Russian counterparts. For example, in the early 2000s, hay fever in school children was almost non-existent in Russian Karelia, and only 2% were sensitized to birch pollen compared with 27% in Finnish Karelia. Adult birth cohorts showed that among those born in the 1940s, the sensitization to pollens and pets was at the same low level in both countries, but among younger generation born in the late 1970s, the difference was already manifold. Seropositivity to some pathogens, microbial content in house dust and drinking water seemed to confer allergy protection in Russia. In subsequent studies, it became apparent that on the Finnish side, healthy children had a more biodiverse living environment as well as greater diversity of certain bacterial classes on their skin than atopic children. Abundance of skin commensals, especially Acinetobacter (gammaproteobacteria), associated with anti-inflammatory gene expression in blood leucocytes. In vivo experiments with the mouse model demonstrated that intradermally applied Acinetobacter protected against atopic sensitization and lung inflammation. These observations support the notion that the epidemic of allergy and asthma results from reduced exposure to natural environments with rich microbiota, changed diet and sedentary lifestyle. Genetic studies have confirmed strong influence of lifestyle and environment. With our results from the Karelia study, a 10-year National Allergy Programme was started in 2008 to combat the epidemic in Finland. PMID:25772429

  13. High Frequency of CYP2D6 Ultrarapid Metabolizer Genotype in the Finnish Population.

    PubMed

    Pietarinen, Paavo; Tornio, Aleksi; Niemi, Mikko

    2016-09-01

    CYP2D6 participates in the biotransformation of many commonly used drugs. Large genetic variability in CYP2D6 results in a wide interindividual variability in the response to CYP2D6 substrate drugs. Previous studies have assessed the phenotype and genotype distributions of CYP2D6 in relatively small Finnish population samples. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequencies of CYP2D6 genotypes in a larger Finnish population cohort of 857 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were genotyped for 10 CYP2D6 genetic variants (*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *9, *10, *17, *39, *41) and copy number variation performed with TaqMan genotyping assays and copy number assay targeting exon 9. CYP2D6 phenotypes were inferred from the genotype data with the classical and activity score methods. According to the classical method, a large majority of the study cases were extensive metabolizers (EM; 87.3%; 95% confidence interval 84.9-89.3) and the second largest group was ultrarapid metabolizers (UM; 7.2%; 5.7-9.2%). Intermediate (IM) and poor metabolizers (PM) were in clear minority (3.0%; 2.1-4.4% and 2.3%; 1.5-3.6%, respectively). The activity score method yielded similar phenotype predictions. These results show that the frequency of UM genotype is higher and that of PM and IM genotype is lower in the Finnish population than in other North European populations. Accordingly, CYP2D6 genetic profile of the Finnish population differs from its geographically close neighbours, which has implications for the effective and safe use of drugs metabolized by CYP2D6. PMID:27038154

  14. Orbit determination and analysis of meteors recently observed by Finnish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, V.; Lupovla, V.; Gritsevich, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Mineeva, S.

    2015-10-01

    We perform orbit determination and analysis of three fireballs recently observed by Finnish Fireball Network (FFN). Precise orbit determination was performed by using integration of differential equations of motion. This technique was implemented into free distributable software "Meteor Toolkit". Accounting of several perturbing forces are discussed. Also estimation of accuracy of orbital elements was obtained by propagation of observational error with using covariance transformation. Long-term backward integration was provided as well.

  15. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive…

  16. Timing of plant phenophases since 1752 in the boreal forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubin, Eero; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Valkama, Jari

    2016-04-01

    Global warming and climate change will significantly affect on forest environment in northern latitudes. There is the strong evidence that increase of early spring and late autumn temperatures will have impacts on growth and growth cycles. In Finland the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Luke since 2015) established in 1996 National Phenological Network to study changes of phenophases all over the country representing southern, middle and northern boreal forest zones. Continuous detailed scientific monitoring includes eleven forest plant species and it forms an excellent basis to evaluate responses of forest vegetation in respect to climate change. Monitoring is done together with Universities and other Institutes. Prior to the establishment of the Finnish National Phenological Network observations has been made solely based on volunteers since 1752. This citizen-science data is very important to analyze phenophases together with the results of the National Network. The long-term data since 1752 shows e.g. an advancement in the onset of Prunus padus flowering by five days per 100 years and correspondingly three days in the rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). The latest results of the Finnish National Network (1996 - 2014) fits well to this long term trend. In the Finnish National Phenological Network we have monitored phenophases of forest spieces throughout the growth period, focusing on nine forest tree species and two dwarf shrubs. The results can be followed in real time at: http://www.metla.fi/metinfo/fenologia/index-en.htm. We have observed big differences in phenophases between southern and northern boreal zone. Onset of downy birch leafing happens one month later in the north compared with southern boreal zone. Coming into leaf has clearly occurred earlier during the research period since 1996 in the northern boreal zone compared with southern boreal zone. This indicates the response of climate change. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall was observed remained

  17. The Multiplier Effect of the Development of Forest Park Tourism on Employment Creation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuifa, Ke; Chenguang, Pan; Jiahua, Pan; Yan, Zheng; Ying, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article was employment creation by developing forest park tourism industries in China. Analysis of the statistical data and an input-output approach showed that 1 direct job opportunity in tourism industries created 1.15 other job opportunities. In the high, middle, and low scenarios, the total predicted employment in forest park…

  18. Parental age and risk of autism spectrum disorders in a Finnish national birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Lampi, Katja M; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S; Sourander, Andre

    2013-11-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) (n = 1,796), which were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. Advanced paternal age (35-49 years) was associated with childhood autism in offspring, whereas advanced maternal age was associated with both Asperger's syndrome and PDD in offspring (35 years or more and 40 years or more, respectively). Teenage motherhood (19 years or less) was associated with PDD in offspring. The main finding was that maternal and paternal ages were differentially associated with ASD subtypes. In addition to advanced parental age, teenage pregnancy seems to incur a risk for PDD in offspring. PMID:23479075

  19. Establishing credibility, constructing understanding: The epistemic struggle over healthy eating in the Finnish dietetic blogosphere.

    PubMed

    Huovila, Janne; Saikkonen, Sampsa

    2016-07-01

    What constitutes healthy eating is experiencing ongoing public debate, and this debate is increasingly taking place on the Internet. In this article, using a dialectical approach to analyse rhetorical discourse, we investigated how six highly popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers construct dietetic credibility and understanding. Their argumentation is compared to that of two academic experts contributing to the blog of the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Theoretically, we draw on Michael Billig's notions on how thinking and understanding are pervasively argumentative and reflect wider socio-cultural contexts, and on the dilemmatic nature of common sense. We demonstrate how the popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers rhetorically constructed a more particularistic and individualistic understanding of healthy eating in their argumentation in critical opposition to the universalistic and population-based understanding. In the popular Finnish nutrition counselling bloggers argumentation, practical, subjective and moral knowledge was valued, alongside abstract, scientific knowledge. In contrast, the National Institute for Health and Welfare bloggers typically utilised population-based averages and causalities in their argumentation. We argue that arguing over healthy eating in the public domain is fundamentally an epistemic struggle, in which different forms of knowledge and ways of knowing are valued, and dilemmas related to healthy eating are deliberated. PMID:26220062

  20. Morphology of plantar interdigital neuroma: a comparative cadaveric study of elderly Finnish and Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinichi; Nakao, Tadashi; Yamane, Shigeki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Santti, Risto; Murakami, Gen

    2013-01-01

    To examine morphological differences in Morton's interdigital neuroma between two elderly human populations, we conducted comparative study using 40 Japanese (27 males, 13 females; mean age, 81.2 years) and 21 Finnish (6 males, 15 females; mean age, 80.5 years) cadavers. We defined the neuroma as a thickening of the nerve of at least two-fold relative to the non-pathological proximal part. The incidence of this neuroma was 25% (10/40) in the Japanese and 33.3% (7/21) in the Finnish cadavers. Moderate or severe hallux valgus (with an angle of more than 20 degrees) was seen in half of the 40 Japanese cadavers (7 males, 13 females), but was absent in the Finnish cadavers. Such hallux valgus was present in 7 (5 males, 2 females) of the 10 Japanese cadavers with neuroma. Moreover, in 2 Japanese cadavers, a paper-like, specialized type of neuroma was associated with the deformity. Pathogenesis of Morton's neuroma might be different between human populations with or without hallux valgus. PMID:23883772

  1. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-08-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days) and residence in Finland (n = 17,695). The prevalence of specific congenital syndromes in the Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations was evaluated among the ASD group and the controls by sex. The results of this study suggest that there is an association between several etiologically different syndromes and ASD when compared to controls without ASD. Statistically significant associations were observed with 47,XYY, Sotos syndrome, neurofibromatosis I, and syndrome not otherwise specified. Syndromes were more common among males with ASD compared to controls. These results support the previous studies of etiological heterogeneity of ASD and have importance in clinical examination, management and rehabilitation. PMID:27101237

  2. The Children's Rain Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Carol A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a unit on rain forests in which first graders studied about rain forests, built a classroom rain forest, and created a bulletin board. They also graphed rainfall, estimated body water, and estimated the number of newspapers that could be produced from one canopy tree. (MKR)

  3. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of the industrial garnet industry is provided. About 20 percent of global industrial garnet production takes place in the U.S. During 2000, an estimated 300 kt of industrial garnets were produced worldwide. The U.S. is the world's largest consumer of industrial garnet, consuming 56.9 kt in 2000.

  4. SAR Satellite Images and Terrestrial Laser Scanning in Forest Damages Mapping in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjalainen, Mika; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Hyyppa, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Lyytikainen-Saarenmaa, Paivi; Krooks, Anssi; Jaakkola, Anttoni

    2010-12-01

    Forests are of high importance for the Finnish economy and environment. Forests inventories should not only provide information about the volume of growing stock, but also about the health status of forests, which is an indicator of the annual growth of forests and Carbon balance. One of the forest damage types is defoliation, which causes forest growth reduction and consequently potentially economical losses to the forest owners, but can be seen as an environmental indicator also. For example, in the past ten years, extensive and persistent needle defoliation caused by insects has been observed in the areas of Palokangas and Outokumpu in Eastern Finland. It is expected that the insect outbreaks are becoming more common and new species of insects may be spreading out in Finland due to the climate warming. Traditionally the intensity of needle defoliation has been estimated using visual observations, which are prone to errors and their areal extent is limited. Therefore, remote sensing can be seen as a potential tool for mapping defoliation. In this study, both Terrestrial Laser Scanning data and SAR satellite images have been exploited. On the one hand, Terrestrial Laser Scanning provides means to rapidly and objectively measure critical forest related information. On the other hand, SAR satellite images enable wide-area mapping and constant monitoring, which would be impossible in Finland using optical satellite images due to the cloudiness. The fusion of Laser scanning and SAR information could make a difference in forest health mapping. In this paper, preliminary results of the estimation of the needle defoliation intensity based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning and ERS and Envisat SAR (non-interferometric) satellite data are presented.

  5. Biogeophysical impacts of peatland forestation on regional climate changes in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Markkanen, T.; Backman, L.; Henttonen, H. M.; Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Mäkelä, H. M.; Laaksonen, A.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover changes can impact the climate by influencing the surface energy and water balance. Naturally treeless or sparsely treed peatlands were extensively drained to stimulate forest growth in Finland over the second half of 20th century. The aim of this study is to investigate the biogeophysical effects of peatland forestation on regional climate in Finland. Two sets of 18-year climate simulations were done with the regional climate model REMO by using land cover data based on pre-drainage (1920s) and post-drainage (2000s) Finnish national forest inventories. In the most intensive peatland forestation area, located in the middle west of Finland, the results show a warming in April of up to 0.43 K in monthly-averaged daily mean 2 m air temperature, whereas a slight cooling from May to October of less than 0.1 K in general is found. Consequently, snow clearance days over that area are advanced up to 5 days in the mean of 15 years. No clear signal is found for precipitation. Through analysing the simulated temperature and energy balance terms, as well as snow depth over five selected subregions, a positive feedback induced by peatland forestation is found between decreased surface albedo and increased surface air temperature in the snow-melting period. Our modelled results show good qualitative agreements with the observational data. In general, decreased surface albedo in the snow-melting period and increased evapotranspiration in the growing period are the most important biogeophysical aspects induced by peatland forestation that cause changes in climate. The results from this study can be further integrally analysed with biogeochemical effects of peatland forestation to provide background information for adapting future forest management to mitigate climate warming effects. Moreover, they provide insights about the impacts of projected forestation of tundra at high latitudes due to climate change.

  6. Characteristics of Finnish and Swedish intensive care nursing narratives: a comparative analysis to support the development of clinical language technologies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Free text is helpful for entering information into electronic health records, but reusing it is a challenge. The need for language technology for processing Finnish and Swedish healthcare text is therefore evident; however, Finnish and Swedish are linguistically very dissimilar. In this paper we present a comparison of characteristics in Finnish and Swedish free-text nursing narratives from intensive care. This creates a framework for characterising and comparing clinical text and lays the groundwork for developing clinical language technologies. Methods Our material included daily nursing narratives from one intensive care unit in Finland and one in Sweden. Inclusion criteria for patients were an inpatient period of least five days and an age of at least 16 years. We performed a comparative analysis as part of a collaborative effort between Finnish- and Swedish-speaking healthcare and language technology professionals that included both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The qualitative analysis addressed the content and structure of three average-sized health records from each country. In the quantitative analysis 514 Finnish and 379 Swedish health records were studied using various language technology tools. Results Although the two languages are not closely related, nursing narratives in Finland and Sweden had many properties in common. Both made use of specialised jargon and their content was very similar. However, many of these characteristics were challenging regarding development of language technology to support producing and using clinical documentation. Conclusions The way Finnish and Swedish intensive care nursing was documented, was not country or language dependent, but shared a common context, principles and structural features and even similar vocabulary elements. Technology solutions are therefore likely to be applicable to a wider range of natural languages, but they need linguistic tailoring. Availability The Finnish and Swedish

  7. The Finnish lapphund retinal atrophy locus maps to the centromeric region of CFA9

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre-Hernández, Jesús; Wickström, Kaisa; Sargan, David R

    2007-01-01

    Background Dogs have the second largest number of genetic diseases, after humans. Among the diseases present in dogs, progressive retinal atrophy has been reported in more than a hundred breeds. In some of them, the mutation has been identified and genetic tests have allowed the identification of carriers, thus enabling a drastic reduction in the incidence of the disease. The Finnish lapphund is a dog breed presenting late-onset progressive retinal atrophy for which the disease locus remains unknown. Results In this study we mapped the progressive retinal atrophy locus in the Finnish lapphund using a DNA pooling approach, assuming that all affected dogs within the breed share the same identical-by descent-mutation as the cause of the disease (genetic homogeneity). Autosomal recessive inheritance was also assumed, after ruling out, from pedigree analysis, dominant and X-linked inheritance. DNA from 12 Finnish lapphund cases was mixed in one pool, and DNA from 12 first-degree relatives of these cases was mixed to serve as the control pool. The 2 pools were tested with 133 microsatellite markers, 3 of which showed a shift towards homozygosity in the cases. Individual genotyping with these 3 markers confirmed homozygosity for the GALK1 microsatellite only (chromosome 9). Further individual genotyping with additional samples (4 cases and 59 controls) confirmed the association between this marker and the disease locus (p < 0.001). Closely related to this breed are the Swedish lapphund and the Lapponian herder for which a small number of retinal atrophy cases have been reported. Swedish lapphund cases, but not Lapponian herder cases, had the same GALK1 microsatellite genotype as Finnish lapphund cases. Conclusion The locus for progressive rod-cone degeneration is known to be close to the GALK1 locus, on the telomeric region of chromosome 9, where the retinal atrophy locus of the Finnish lapphund has been mapped. This suggests that the disease in this breed, as well as in

  8. Consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on wood and forests: An application of the Global Forest Products Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buongiorno, J.; Raunikar, R.; Zhu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was applied to project the consequences for the global forest sector of doubling the rate of growth of bioenergy demand relative to a base scenario, other drivers being maintained constant. The results showed that this would lead to the convergence of the price of fuelwood and industrial roundwood, raising the price of industrial roundwood by nearly 30% in 2030. The price of sawnwood and panels would be 15% higher. The price of paper would be 3% higher. Concurrently, the demand for all manufactured wood products would be lower in all countries, but the production would rise in countries with competitive advantage. The global value added in wood processing industries would be 1% lower in 2030. The forest stock would be 2% lower for the world and 4% lower for Asia. These effects varied substantially by country. ?? 2011 Department of Forest Economics, SLU Ume??, Sweden.

  9. Estimating Fire-Caused Boreal Forest Disturbances Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, A. I.; Slinkina, O. A.; Soja, A. J.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; McRae, D.; Yurikova, E. Y.; Cahoon, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Russia accounts for about half of the world's forests, most of which are in Siberia. Numerous forest fires, mostly human-caused, and extensive forest harvesting, including illegal logging, have resulted in considerable ecological damage and economic loss. At present, forest inventory agencies assess the effects of fire based on the known forest area burned. Due to potential cost and difficulty of access types and severity of fire effects are normally not assessed. The lack of reliable estimates of ecological and economic impacts of forest fires prevents development of effective approaches for forest management and forest fire protection. Remote sensing and GIS-based technologies provide for the development of fundamental new methods to assess and monitor forest condition and wildfire behavior and effects. Wildfire and insect and disease outbreaks are the main natural factors responsible for partial or complete mortality of forest stands in Siberia. Negative human influences include forest harvesting, mining, industrial pollution, and human-caused fires. Estimating the scale, rate, and severity of disturbance is of key importance for appraising the resulting ecological and economical damage. In this study, we developed a GIS- and satellite-based methodology to appraise forest damage by taking advantage of unique spectral signature of the underlying forest types. Our focus was on an area of intensive forest harvest in the Angara river basin, which includes the southern and central taiga zones. We have assessed the type, extent, and severity of disturbances in vegetation cover and mapped the current condition of disturbed forest sites.

  10. Hyperspectral sensing of forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash

    2007-11-01

    Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.

  11. Modeling the forest transition: forest scarcity and ecosystem service hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Satake, Akiko; Rudel, Thomas K

    2007-10-01

    An historical generalization about forest cover change in which rapid deforestation gives way over time to forest restoration is called "the forest transition." Prior research on the forest transition leaves three important questions unanswered: (1) How does forest loss influence an individual landowner's incentives to reforest? (2) How does the forest recovery rate affect the likelihood of forest transition? (3) What happens after the forest transition occurs? The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimum model of the forest transition to answer these questions. We assume that deforestation caused by landowners' decisions and forest regeneration initiated by agricultural abandonment have aggregated effects that characterize entire landscapes. These effects include feedback mechanisms called the "forest scarcity" and "ecosystem service" hypotheses. In the forest scarcity hypothesis, forest losses make forest products scarcer, which increases the economic value of forests. In the ecosystem service hypothesis, the environmental degradation that accompanies the loss of forests causes the value of ecosystem services provided by forests to decline. We examined the impact of each mechanism on the likelihood of forest transition through an investigation of the equilibrium and stability of landscape dynamics. We found that the forest transition occurs only when landowners employ a low rate of future discounting. After the forest transition, regenerated forests are protected in a sustainable way if forests regenerate slowly. When forests regenerate rapidly, the forest scarcity hypothesis expects instability in which cycles of large-scale deforestation followed by forest regeneration repeatedly characterize the landscape. In contrast, the ecosystem service hypothesis predicts a catastrophic shift from a forested to an abandoned landscape when the amount of deforestation exceeds the critical level, which can lead to a resource degrading poverty trap. These findings imply

  12. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  13. Conceptualizing Forest Degradation.

    PubMed

    Ghazoul, Jaboury; Burivalova, Zuzana; Garcia-Ulloa, John; King, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    Forest degradation is a global environmental issue, but its definition is problematic. Difficulties include choosing appropriate reference states, timescales, thresholds, and forest values. We dispense with many such ambiguities by interpreting forest degradation through the frame of ecological resilience, and with reference to forest dynamics. Specifically, we define forest degradation as a state of anthropogenically induced arrested succession, where ecological processes that underlie forest dynamics are diminished or severely constrained. Metrics of degradation might include those that reflect ecological processes shaping community dynamics, notably the regeneration of plant species. Arrested succession implies that management intervention is necessary to recover successional trajectories. Such a definition can be applied to any forest ecosystem, and can also be extended to other ecosystems. PMID:26411619

  14. The empty forest revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now. PMID:21449969

  15. Evolution of Secondary Software Businesses: Understanding Industry Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrväinen, Pasi; Warsta, Juhani; Seppänen, Veikko

    Primary software industry originates from IBM's decision to unbundle software-related computer system development activities to external partners. This kind of outsourcing from an enterprise internal software development activity is a common means to start a new software business serving a vertical software market. It combines knowledge of the vertical market process with competence in software development. In this research, we present and analyze the key figures of the Finnish secondary software industry, in order to quantify its interaction with the primary software industry during the period of 2000-2003. On the basis of the empirical data, we present a model for evolution of a secondary software business, which makes explicit the industry dynamics. It represents the shift from internal software developed for competitive advantage to development of products supporting standard business processes on top of standardized technologies. We also discuss the implications for software business strategies in each phase.

  16. Impact of Forest Management on Future Forest Carbon Storage in Alaska Coastal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Kushch, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The forest in Coastal Alaska are unique in many ways. Two groups of forest types occur in the Alaska region: boreal and temperate rain forests. About eighty-eight percent of these forests are in public ownership. High proportations of reserved forests and old-growth forests make the forests in coastal Alaska differ from that in other coastal regions. This study is focused on how forest management actions may impact the future carbon stocks and flux in coastal Alaska forests. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data collected by US Forest Service are the primary data used for estimation of current carbon storage and projections of future forest carbon storage for all forest carbon pools in Alaska coastal forests under different management scenarios and climate change effect.

  17. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  18. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  19. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the

  20. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  1. Heavy metal pollution and forest health in the Ukrainian Carpathians.

    PubMed

    Shparyk, Y S; Parpan, V I

    2004-07-01

    The Ukrainian Carpathians are characterized by high air pollution caused by emissions from numerous industries. We have been monitoring the state of forests in this region since 1989. The highest levels of tree defoliation (>30%) are found close to industrial emission sources and in the upper mountain forests of the Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions. This is caused by a combination of strong anthropogenic influences (pollution, illegal uses, recreation) as well as poor site and climatic conditions. In the Ivano-Frankivsk region, Cd and Mo accumulate in forest soils; Cr, Mo and Zn soil concentrations are higher than their limit levels; and Pb concentrations exceed toxic levels close to industrial areas (10% of the region territory). Local background levels of heavy metals are greatly exceeded in snow close to industrial regions. Analysis of correlation matrices shows that the chemical elements Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn occur at pollution levels in natural ecosystems in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Maximum concentrations of toxic elements occur in the oak forest zone; the most industrially developed area of the region. Toxic heavy metals in the Ukrainian Carpathians forests enter with precipitation and dustfall, then become fixed in soil and accumulate in leaves, needles of vascular plants and mosses. Concentrations of these metals decrease with altitude: highest in the oak forests, less in beech, and lowest in the spruce forest zones. However, some chemical elements have the highest concentrations in spruce forests; V in needles, As in snow, and Ba and Al in soils. PMID:15046840

  2. Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.

    1991-10-01

    The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

  3. Investigating the spatial expression of millennial-scale Holocene climate changes: a multi-proxy lake sediment approach, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fower, D.; Wilson, G. P.; Pepin, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has identified global Holocene climate instability. Oscillations at c. 2500 year intervals, identified in ocean and ice core records, are thought to be driven by solar variation. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC), a regulator of climate, oscillates with quasi-periodicities of c. 1500 years, the cause and spatial expression of which is uncertain. This project investigates how these subtle oscillations influenced the climate of northern Scandinavia through high-resolution, multi-proxy analysis (diatoms, isotope geochemistry, organic content, particle size, biogenic silica) of a lacustrine sediment sequence in Northern Finland. The resulting high-resolution, multi-proxy climate record clarifies the role of the THC in driving terrestrial climate change in this region. A 1.99m sediment core was extracted from Sirrajärvi, Northern Finnish Lapland in March 2012. Lake Sirrajävri (69.761619oN, 26.892815oE) is located 208 m.a.s.l. and lies at the boreal forest-alpine tundra ecotone. It is surrounded by low alpine heaths and isolated stands of birch (Betula pubescens spp. tortuosa). The lake is situated within a nature reserve, and <4km to Kevo subarctic research station, which houses a meteorological station with >50 yrs. of observations. The lake, which is 0.182 km2 in area and 11.2m deep at the centre, is ice covered between Sept. and May. The duration of lake ice cover is the main influencing factor on lake physio- chemistry and thus diatom ecology. The lake is hydrologically open and δ18O analysis of its waters (-11.2‰) predominantly reflects the mean annual weighted isotopic composition of precipitation. The core has been dated at 11160 yrs BP at 195cm and 2810 yrs BP at 69cm. In addition, sediment was collected from 30 lakes along a north-south transect in Finland in July 2012 to form the basis of a diatom-based transfer function, used to identify the major influencing variable(s) on diatom species assemblages which, in turn, is

  4. Classification of forest land attributes using multi-source remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippuri, Inka; Suvanto, Aki; Maltamo, Matti; Korhonen, Kari T.; Pitkänen, Juho; Packalen, Petteri

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to (1) examine the classification of forest land using airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, satellite images and sample plots of the Finnish National Forest Inventory (NFI) as training data and to (2) identify best performing metrics for classifying forest land attributes. Six different schemes of forest land classification were studied: land use/land cover (LU/LC) classification using both national classes and FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) classes, main type, site type, peat land type and drainage status. Special interest was to test different ALS-based surface metrics in classification of forest land attributes. Field data consisted of 828 NFI plots collected in 2008-2012 in southern Finland and remotely sensed data was from summer 2010. Multinomial logistic regression was used as the classification method. Classification of LU/LC classes were highly accurate (kappa-values 0.90 and 0.91) but also the classification of site type, peat land type and drainage status succeeded moderately well (kappa-values 0.51, 0.69 and 0.52). ALS-based surface metrics were found to be the most important predictor variables in classification of LU/LC class, main type and drainage status. In best classification models of forest site types both spectral metrics from satellite data and point cloud metrics from ALS were used. In turn, in the classification of peat land types ALS point cloud metrics played the most important role. Results indicated that the prediction of site type and forest land category could be incorporated into stand level forest management inventory system in Finland.

  5. Principals' Perceptions for Finnish- and Swedish-Language Schools in Finland: An Analysis of School-Level Indices from Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi; Vettenranta, Jouni; Kanervio, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    The Finnish educational system is known for its equality. However, in many key areas in national and international assessments, Swedish-language schools in Finland have lagged behind their Finnish-language counterparts. So far there is little research into the underlying reasons for this discrepancy. In this article, in order to illuminate the…

  6. Size and Composition of the Lexicon in Prematurely Born Very-Low-Birth-Weight and Full-Term Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Klippi, Anu; Launonen, Kaisa; Munck, Petriina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the aspects of the lexicon in 66 prematurely born very-low-birth-weight and 87 full-term Finnish children at 2;0, studied using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventory". The groups did not differ in vocabulary size. Furthermore, the female advantage in vocabulary size was not seen in…

  7. L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

  8. Implications of the Bologna Process for Throughput in the Higher Education Sector: An Empirical Illustration Based on a Finnish-British Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study illustrates the differences between Finnish and British graduates in the higher education-to-work transition and related market mechanisms in the year 2000. Specifically, the differences between the Finnish and British students' academic careers and ability to find employment after graduation were evaluated in relation to the…

  9. Increasing human dominance of tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon L; Edwards, David P; Galbraith, David

    2015-08-21

    Tropical forests house over half of Earth's biodiversity and are an important influence on the climate system. These forests are experiencing escalating human influence, altering their health and the provision of important ecosystem functions and services. Impacts started with hunting and millennia-old megafaunal extinctions (phase I), continuing via low-intensity shifting cultivation (phase II), to today's global integration, dominated by intensive permanent agriculture, industrial logging, and attendant fires and fragmentation (phase III). Such ongoing pressures, together with an intensification of global environmental change, may severely degrade forests in the future (phase IV, global simplification) unless new "development without destruction" pathways are established alongside climate change-resilient landscape designs. PMID:26293955

  10. Supporting industries energy and environmental profile

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-09-21

    As part of its Industries of the Future strategy, the Industrial Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy works with energy-intensive industries to improve efficiency, reduce waste, and increase productivity. These seven Industries of the Future (IOFs) – aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, mining, and steel – rely on several other so-called “supporting industries” to supply materials and processes necessary to the products that the IOFs create. The supporting industries, in many cases, also provide great opportunities for realizing energy efficiency gains in IOF processes.

  11. Forest management and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Buongiorno, J.; Gilless, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    This volume provides a survey of quantitative methods, guiding the reader through formulation and analysis of models that address forest management problems. The authors use simple mathematics, graphics, and short computer programs to explain each method. Emphasizing applications, they discuss linear, integer, dynamic, and goal programming; simulation; network modeling; and econometrics, as these relate to problems of determining economic harvest schedules in even-aged and uneven-aged forests, the evaluation of forest policies, multiple-objective decision making, and more.

  12. 3. View northeast, west facade of Lake Forest (original Forest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View northeast, west facade of Lake Forest (original Forest Cottage structure incorporated into renamed structure) - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  13. 4. View southeast, west facade of Lake Forest (original Forest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View southeast, west facade of Lake Forest (original Forest Cottage structure incorporated into renamed structure) - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  14. 7. View southwest, east facade of Lake Forest (original Forest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View southwest, east facade of Lake Forest (original Forest Cottage structure incorporated into renamed structure) - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  15. Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Elaine T; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K; Reilly, Muredach P; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P; Stitziel, Nathan O; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Daly, Mark J; Palotie, Aarno

    2014-07-01

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5-5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10⁻⁸) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P = 1.5×10⁻¹¹⁷). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.84, P = 3×10⁻⁴), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers. PMID

  16. Does the Finnish intervention prevent obstetric anal sphincter injuries? A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Mette Østergaard; Madsen, Mia Lund; Skriver-Møller, Anne-Cathrine; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A rise in obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) has been observed and a preventive approach, originating in Finland, has been introduced in several European hospitals. The aim of this paper was to systematically evaluate the evidence behind the ‘Finnish intervention’. Design A systematic review of the literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Outcome measures The primary outcome was OASIS. Secondary outcomes were (perinatal): Apgar scores, pH and standard base excess in the umbilical cord, and (maternal): episiotomy, intact perineum, first and second-degree perineal lacerations, duration of second stage, birth position and women's perceptions/birth experiences. Methods Multiple databases (Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed and SveMed) were systematically searched for studies published up to December 2014. Both randomised controlled trials and observational studies were eligible for inclusion. Studies were excluded if a full-text article was not available. Studies were evaluated by use of international reporting guidelines (eg, STROBE). Results Overall, 1042 articles were screened and 65 retrieved for full-text evaluation. Seven studies, all observational and with a level of evidence at 2c or lower, were included and consistently reported a significant reduction in OASIS. All evaluated episiotomy and found a significant increase. Three studies evaluated perinatal outcomes and reported conflicting results. No study reported on other perineal outcomes, duration of the second stage, birth positions or women's perceptions. Conclusions A reduction in OASIS has been contributed to the Finnish intervention in seven observational studies, all with a low level of evidence. Knowledge about the potential perinatal and maternal side effects and women's perceptions of the intervention is extremely limited and the biological mechanisms underlying the Finnish intervention are not well documented

  17. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  18. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p<0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p<000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  19. Association of celiac disease genes with inflammatory bowel disease in Finnish and Swedish patients.

    PubMed

    Parmar, A S; Lappalainen, M; Paavola-Sakki, P; Halme, L; Färkkilä, M; Turunen, U; Kontula, K; Aromaa, A; Salomaa, V; Peltonen, L; Halfvarson, J; Törkvist, L; D'Amato, M; Saavalainen, P; Einarsdottir, E

    2012-09-01

    Some genetic loci may affect susceptibility to multiple immune system-related diseases. In the current study, we investigated whether the known susceptibility loci for celiac disease (CelD) also associate with Crohn's disease (CD) and/or ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in Finnish patients. A total of 45 genetic markers were genotyped in a Finnish data set comprising 699 IBD patients and 2482 controls. Single-marker association with IBD and its subphenotypes was tested. A meta-analysis with a Swedish UC data set was also performed. A total of 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CD and/or UC (P<0.05). In the subphenotype analysis, rs6974491-ELMO1 (P=0.0002, odds ratio (OR): 2.20) and rs2298428-UBE2L3 (P=5.44 × 10(-5), OR: 2.59) associated with pediatric UC and CD, respectively. In the meta-analysis, rs4819388-ICOSLG (P=0.00042, OR: 0.79) associated with UC. In the subphenotype meta-analysis, rs1738074-TAGAP (P=7.40 × 10(-5), OR: 0.61), rs6974491-ELMO1 (P=0.00052, OR: 1.73) and rs4819388-ICOSLG (P=0.00019, OR: 0.75) associated with familial UC, pediatric UC and sporadic UC, respectively. Multiple CelD risk loci also confer susceptibility for CD and/or UC in the Finnish and Swedish populations. Certain genetic risk variants may furthermore predispose an individual for developing a particular disease phenotype. PMID:22592522

  20. Forest Fires in a Random Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1

  1. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

  2. Simulation of Finnish population history, guided by empirical genetic data, to assess power of rare-variant tests in Finland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sophie R; Agarwala, Vineeta; Flannick, Jason; Chiang, Charleston W K; Altshuler, David; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2014-05-01

    Finnish samples have been extensively utilized in studying single-gene disorders, where the founder effect has clearly aided in discovery, and more recently in genome-wide association studies of complex traits, where the founder effect has had less obvious impacts. As the field starts to explore rare variants' contribution to polygenic traits, it is of great importance to characterize and confirm the Finnish founder effect in sequencing data and to assess its implications for rare-variant association studies. Here, we employ forward simulation, guided by empirical deep resequencing data, to model the genetic architecture of quantitative polygenic traits in both the general European and the Finnish populations simultaneously. We demonstrate that power of rare-variant association tests is higher in the Finnish population, especially when variants' phenotypic effects are tightly coupled with fitness effects and therefore reflect a greater contribution of rarer variants. SKAT-O, variable-threshold tests, and single-variant tests are more powerful than other rare-variant methods in the Finnish population across a range of genetic models. We also compare the relative power and efficiency of exome array genotyping to those of high-coverage exome sequencing. At a fixed cost, less expensive genotyping strategies have far greater power than sequencing; in a fixed number of samples, however, genotyping arrays miss a substantial portion of genetic signals detected in sequencing, even in the Finnish founder population. As genetic studies probe sequence variation at greater depth in more diverse populations, our simulation approach provides a framework for evaluating various study designs for gene discovery. PMID:24768551

  3. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy. PMID:23475653

  4. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  5. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  6. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  7. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  8. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  9. Reimbursing for the costs of teaching and research in Finnish hospitals: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    PubMed

    Linna, Miika; Häkkinen, Unto

    2006-03-01

    In this study stochastic frontier cost function was used to estimate the teaching and research costs of Finnish hospitals. Predicted efficiency adjusted costs were calculated and compared to evaluate the current level of teaching and research reimbursement. The efficiency adjustment had significant impact on the marginal and average cost estimates of the teaching and research output. The results suggest that the average rate of teaching and research reimbursement should be approximately 14.6% of the total operating costs in university teaching hospitals. The main finding was that the university teaching hospitals were underfunded with respect to both research and teaching output. PMID:16612572

  10. DNA analysis in Finnish patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).

    PubMed Central

    Silander, K; Halonen, P; Sara, R; Kalimo, H; Falck, B; Savontaus, M L

    1994-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is a dominantly inherited disorder that presents as recurrent mononeuropathies precipitated by apparently trivial traumas. The presence of a deletion in 17p11.2 was analysed in 13 Finnish families with HNPP. The deletion was found in all patients who were neurologically and neurophysiologically confirmed to have HNPP. In the problematic cases the detection of the gene defect is the method of choice in the diagnosis of HNPP. Analysis of DNA can also be used to detect clinically unaffected family members. Images PMID:7931393

  11. Sisterhood's ordeals: shared interests and divided loyalties in Finnish wartime nursing.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight early Finnish nursing in a special wartime context. Occupational development of nursing is envisioned by addressing at a more general level women's mutual relationships and the opportunities and obstacles of the process of occupational development. The article debates two main issues. Establishing occupational domains was a process of selecting suitable labour force and training women morally, as well. The hierarchical order of nursing is manifested especially in the questions of auxiliary labour and the so-called amateur scare. War was still a time of romanticism with visible military and religious models, but women also struggled for their right to have rights. PMID:11624266

  12. An analysis of problem gambling among the Finnish working-age population: a population survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gambling problems currently affect approximately 100 000 Finns. In order to prevent and reduce gambling-related harms it is crucial for the Finnish public health authorities to gain a stronger understanding of the association between gambling problems and related socio-demographic factors, other commonly co-occurring dependencies (e.g. alcohol and nicotine) and the type of games gambled. In this article the prevalence of problem gambling in Finland and the socio-demographic profiles of problem gamblers are studied. Method An annual postal survey entitled Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population AVTK was sent to a random sample of Finnish adults (N=5000) aged between 15 and 64. The sample was derived from the Finnish Population Register. The survey was mailed to the participants in April 2010. Gender differences in socio-demographic variables and Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI were assessed. A multinomial regression model was created in order to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and the severity of gambling. Results A total of 2826 individuals (1243 males and 1583 females) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 1.1% (2.1% of males, 0.3% of females) were identified as problem gamblers. Those who were of younger age, gender, had less than twelve years of education, consumed alcohol at risk level and smoked had higher odds of having low or moderate levels of gambling problems. Whereas, unemployment and smoking predicted significantly for problem gambling. Females gambled Lotto and slot machines less frequently than males and had more low level gambling problems. Males gambled more with a higher frequency and had a more severe level of gambling problems. Females were more attracted to scratch card gambling and daily Keno lotteries compared to males. In comparison, males gambled more on internet poker sites than females. Overall, a high frequency of gambling in Lotto, daily lotteries, slot machines, horse

  13. Opportunities to enhance contribution of model forests in the sustainable forest resources management (example from Yalova Model Forest).

    PubMed

    Bekiroğlu, Sultan; Özdemir, Mehmet; Özyürek, Ercan; Arslan, Avni

    2016-10-01

    Model forests are nongovernmental organizations at local, regional and international level which are mainly focused on reconciling the conflicts between the stakeholders. This is an innovative approach to organization, which has been receiving more and more attraction from increasing number of countries, which gradually increased the number of model forests for the last 25 years. If these organizations reach desired levels of structure, medium, impacts and assets their contribution in sustainable forest resources management will increase ipso facto. The very first model forest of Turkey was created in Yalova Province in 2010. Yalova Province has certain fundamental problems including but not limited to; population growth and unplanned urbanization caused by industrialization, uncontrolled increase in demand for fire wood and non-wooden products of forestry resources, questionable resource management decisions adopted in the past and low-income levels of the people especially those in the rural areas. The main objective of present case study is to analyze Yalova Model Forest (YMF) so as to determine the possible problems that may occur during implementation of sustainable management for forestry resources through a planning approach with multiple stakeholders. As a result of research, it has been revealed that YMF has certain significant structural, environmental and impact-related problems. In order to ensure continuity of YMF's contribution to sustainable forestry resources management, these problems need to be addressed promptly. PMID:27566934

  14. Industrial bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000072.htm Industrial bronchitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Industrial bronchitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large airways ...

  15. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  16. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  17. Leaching of nitrogen from forested catchments in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortelainen, Pirkko; Saukkonen, Sari; Mattsson, Tuija

    1997-12-01

    This study provides an assessment on the spatial variability of the long-term leaching (8-23 years) of nitrogen and organic carbon from 22 forested catchments (0.69-56 km2). The catchments are located throughout Finland excluding the northernmost regions. The Kruunuoja catchment is located in a national park; the other catchments represent typical Finnish forestry land. The leaching from the 21 forestry land catchments can be considered to represent average leaching from Finnish forestry land since the most important forestry practices (ditching, clear-cutting, scarification, and fertilization) since the 1960s have affected about 2.4% of the catchment area per year (compare 2.5% in the entire country in 1980 and 2% in 1991). Moreover, the mean annual runoff from the catchments, 230-420 mm yr-1, agree with the mean annual runoff from Finland (301 mm yr-1 from 1931 to 1990). The major part of the nitrogen transported from the catchments consisted of organic nitrogen (on average 79%). The average inorganic nitrogen proportion ((NO3-N + NH4-N)/Ntot) was lowest (7.3%) in the Kruunuoja catchment and was highest (54%) in the southernmost Teeressuonoja catchment located in the highest anthropogenic nitrogen deposition area. The median C/N ratio in the study streams was high, ranging from 34 to 66. Nitrate leaching from the catchments varied between 2.8 (Kruunuoja) and 100 kg km-2 yr-1 (Teeressuonoja) and was negatively related to C/N ratio in stream water and latitude. The stepwise multiple regression model selected C/N ratio and nitrogen deposition which together explained 72% of the variation in NO3-N leaching. Retention of NO3-N deposition (calculated as ((input-output)/input) was high in all catchments, ranging from 0.99 in Kruunuoja to 0.67 in Teeressuonoja.

  18. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.

  19. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  20. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  1. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  2. Reconciling Forest Conservation and Logging in Indonesian Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Kshatriya, Mrigesh; Sheil, Douglas; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Wijaya, Arief; Wich, Serge; Ancrenaz, Marc; Hansen, Matthew; Broich, Mark; Guariguata, Manuel R.; Pacheco, Pablo; Potapov, Peter; Turubanova, Svetlana; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Combining protected areas with natural forest timber concessions may sustain larger forest landscapes than is possible via protected areas alone. However, the role of timber concessions in maintaining natural forest remains poorly characterized. An estimated 57% (303,525 km2) of Kalimantan's land area (532,100 km2) was covered by natural forest in 2000. About 14,212 km2 (4.7%) had been cleared by 2010. Forests in oil palm concessions had been reduced by 5,600 km2 (14.1%), while the figures for timber concessions are 1,336 km2 (1.5%), and for protected forests are 1,122 km2 (1.2%). These deforestation rates explain little about the relative performance of the different land use categories under equivalent conversion risks due to the confounding effects of location. An estimated 25% of lands allocated for timber harvesting in 2000 had their status changed to industrial plantation concessions in 2010. Based on a sample of 3,391 forest plots (1×1 km; 100 ha), and matching statistical analyses, 2000–2010 deforestation was on average 17.6 ha lower (95% C.I.: −22.3 ha–−12.9 ha) in timber concession plots than in oil palm concession plots. When location effects were accounted for, deforestation rates in timber concessions and protected areas were not significantly different (Mean difference: 0.35 ha; 95% C.I.: −0.002 ha–0.7 ha). Natural forest timber concessions in Kalimantan had similar ability as protected areas to maintain forest cover during 2000–2010, provided the former were not reclassified to industrial plantation concessions. Our study indicates the desirability of the Government of Indonesia designating its natural forest timber concessions as protected areas under the IUCN Protected Area Category VI to protect them from reclassification. PMID:23967062

  3. Reconciling forest conservation and logging in Indonesian Borneo.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, David L A; Kshatriya, Mrigesh; Sheil, Douglas; Sloan, Sean; Molidena, Elis; Wijaya, Arief; Wich, Serge; Ancrenaz, Marc; Hansen, Matthew; Broich, Mark; Guariguata, Manuel R; Pacheco, Pablo; Potapov, Peter; Turubanova, Svetlana; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Combining protected areas with natural forest timber concessions may sustain larger forest landscapes than is possible via protected areas alone. However, the role of timber concessions in maintaining natural forest remains poorly characterized. An estimated 57% (303,525 km²) of Kalimantan's land area (532,100 km²) was covered by natural forest in 2000. About 14,212 km² (4.7%) had been cleared by 2010. Forests in oil palm concessions had been reduced by 5,600 km² (14.1%), while the figures for timber concessions are 1,336 km² (1.5%), and for protected forests are 1,122 km² (1.2%). These deforestation rates explain little about the relative performance of the different land use categories under equivalent conversion risks due to the confounding effects of location. An estimated 25% of lands allocated for timber harvesting in 2000 had their status changed to industrial plantation concessions in 2010. Based on a sample of 3,391 forest plots (1×1 km; 100 ha), and matching statistical analyses, 2000-2010 deforestation was on average 17.6 ha lower (95% C.I.: -22.3 ha- -12.9 ha) in timber concession plots than in oil palm concession plots. When location effects were accounted for, deforestation rates in timber concessions and protected areas were not significantly different (Mean difference: 0.35 ha; 95% C.I.: -0.002 ha-0.7 ha). Natural forest timber concessions in Kalimantan had similar ability as protected areas to maintain forest cover during 2000-2010, provided the former were not reclassified to industrial plantation concessions. Our study indicates the desirability of the Government of Indonesia designating its natural forest timber concessions as protected areas under the IUCN Protected Area Category VI to protect them from reclassification. PMID:23967062

  4. People and Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on how forests are managed and some of the problems facing forests around the world; (2) three activities dealing with these topics; and (3) three ready-to-copy pages for student use. Activities include an objective, recommended age level(s), recommended subject area(s), list of materials needed, and…

  5. The National Forests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion

    1976-01-01

    National forests are a valuable national asset in terms of wood, recreation, wilderness, wildlife, and water. Management is inefficient and uneconomic creating wasteful capital investment and below-potential economic output. Better national leadership, analysis of forests as a business enterprise, and recruitment of outside persons into Forest…

  6. Chisholm Forest Fire

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... Larger Image A new look at smoke from the Chisholm forest fire, which ignited on May 23, 2001 about 160 kilometers north of ... in detail by M. Fromm and R. Servranckx, "Transport of forest fire smoke above the tropopause by supercell convection", Geophys. Res. ...

  7. People & Tropical Rain Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses ways people who live in rain forests make a living and some of the products that enrich our lives. Provides activities covering forest people, tropical treats, jungle in the pantry, treetop explorers, and three copyable pages to accompany activities. (Author/RT)

  8. Trading forest carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  9. Act of 28 November 1989 creating the National Forest Commission.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Act creates a National Forest Commission as an advisory body to coordinate activities in the Nicaragua National Forestry Sector, including use of soil, management of trees, and the exploitation, industrialization, and commercialization of forestry products. Among the functions of the Commission are the following: 1) to supervise the implementation of rules relating to protection, conservation, sustained management, study, and inventory of forests in accordance with the spirit of rational use of forestry resources; and 2) to make recommendations and proposals with respect to the technological protection, production, and transformation of the forest. Further provisions of the Act deal with the composition and finances of the Commission, among other things. PMID:12344327

  10. 7 CFR 1980.490 - Business and industry buydown loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in the operation of timber tracts, tree farms, forest nurseries, and related activities such as... “Business and Industry Chief or Community and Business Programs Chief, or other appropriate FmHA or...

  11. Multi-Dimensional Interacting Constraints on Physical Activity Behaviours in the Finnish Population.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Aki; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Kokko, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo

    2016-07-01

    Finnish sports organisations, local and federal government, and healthcare organisations have widely adopted the World Health Organization and national recommendations for physical activity for different age groups. However, studies have indicated that only 46 % of 3-year-old preschool children, approximately 50 % of primary school students (7-12 years), 10-17 % of secondary school students (13-15 years) and 16 % of Finnish adults (20-54 years) attain those recommendations. In Finland there are 33,620 built sports facilities and over 9000 sport clubs, meaning there are many possibilities for physical activity, yet people are still rather inactive. In this paper we argue that availability of facilities, although an important element, is not enough to promote physical activity. It is possible that the current built physical environmental design does not fulfil people's needs regarding participation in physical activity. More emphasis should be placed on the design and operation of the facilities to develop new affordances for physical activity. PMID:27245059

  12. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters. PMID:23428555

  13. Clustering Finnish Gambler Profiles Based on the Money and Time Consumed in Gambling Activities.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Maria; Toikka, Arho

    2016-06-01

    Gambling involves consumption of gamblers' money and time. Gamblers are a heterogeneous group, and in addition to grouping gamblers based on personality factors, it is also important to find different gambler profiles with respect to their gambling behavior. Using the nationally representative survey 'Finnish Gambling 2011' (N = 4484), this article studies the subtypes of Finnish gamblers based on the frequency of gambling and the amounts of money and time used in different gambling forms. Cluster analysis reveals six profiles of gamblers, from infrequent gamblers to omnivorous gamblers. In the further analysis of the clusters, it was found that the highest problem gambling prevalence was in the groups of sport betting + electronic gaming machine gamblers and omnivorous gamblers, which were also both dominated by men. Certain gambling consumption patterns and risk factors for problem gambling are related to both socio-demographic backgrounds of the gamblers as well as the structural and situational characteristics of the games. The results have implications for the prevention of problem gambling, as some consumption patterns may be connected with the probability of developing gambling problems. PMID:26026988

  14. Quantitative risk assessment on the dietary exposure of Finnish children and adults to nitrite.

    PubMed

    Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi M; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite intake from the consumption of cured meat and tap water was estimated for Finnish children of 1, 3 and 6 years as well as Finnish adults of 25-74 years. Nitrite content in the foods was measured by capillary electrophoresis, and was then used together with individual food consumption data from the FINDIET 2007 and DIPP studies in a stochastic exposure assessment by a Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) program. Nitrite intake from additive sources and tap water was assessed, and more than every 10th child between the ages 3 and 6 years was estimated to have a nitrite intake exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of nitrite. The high exposure levels were caused by frequent consumption of large portions of sausages, up to 350 g day(-1) or 750 g in 3 days, among the children. Median nitrite intake from cured meat was 0.016, 0.040, 0.033 and 0.005 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children of 1, 3 and 6 years and adults, respectively. Bayesian estimation was employed to determine safe consumption levels of sausages and cold cuts for children, and these results gave rise to new national food consumption advice. PMID:26609554

  15. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R; Pukkala, E; Perheentupa, A; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebæk, N E; Toppari, J

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998–2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57–80) million/mL, 60 (51–71) and 48 (39–60) for birth cohorts 1979–81, 1982–83 and 1987; total sperm counts 227 (189–272) million, 202 (170–240) and 165 (132–207); total number of morphologically normal spermatozoa 18 (14–23) million, 15 (12–19) and 11 (8–15). Men aged 10–59 years at the time of diagnosis with testicular cancer during 1954–2008 were included in the registry study, which confirmed the increasing incidence of testicular cancer in recent cohorts. These simultaneous and rapidly occurring adverse trends suggest that the underlying causes are environmental and, as such, preventable. Our findings necessitate not only further surveillance of male reproductive health but also research to detect and remove the underlying factors. PMID:21366607

  16. Rational forest productivity decline.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, James I; Carleton, T J

    2003-01-01

    A whole forest optimisation model was employed to examine economic behaviour as it relates to long term, forest productivity decline in the boreal forests of Ontario, Canada. Our productivity investment model (PIM) incorporated a choice between productivity decline as represented by a drop in forest Site Class, and a fee to 'maintain' site productivity. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine the point at which these fees exceeded the value of the differential in timber volume between upper and lower site classes. By varying discount rate, 'productivity investment frontiers' were constructed, which highlight the effects of the magnitude in productivity decline, maintenance fees, and harvest flow constraints upon the occurrence and schedule of productivity declines. In presenting this simple approach to exploring the effects of economic choice upon forest productivity decline, the phenomena of 'natural capital divestment' within forestry is described. PMID:12859006

  17. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator; by phone...

  18. Biology, ecology, and social aspects of wild edible mushrooms in the forests of the Pacific northwest: A preface to managing commercial harvest. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, R.; O'Dell, T.; Luoma, D.; Amaranthus, M.; Costellano, M.

    1993-02-01

    The commercial harvest of edible, forest fungi has a multimillion dollar industry with several thousand tons harvested annually. The primary objectives of the overview paper are to provide information on the biology of forest fungi, describe the major edible fungi harvested in the Pacific Northwest, integrate a perspective on the social aspects of the mushroom harvest issue, summarize the development of the commercial mushroom industry, and suggest research and monitoring protocols for developing management guidelines.

  19. Comparison of High and Low Density Airborne LIDAR Data for Forest Road Quality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, K.; Malinen, J.; Tokola, T.

    2016-06-01

    Good quality forest roads are important for forest management. Airborne laser scanning data can help create automatized road quality detection, thus avoiding field visits. Two different pulse density datasets have been used to assess road quality: high-density airborne laser scanning data from Kiihtelysvaara and low-density data from Tuusniemi, Finland. The field inventory mainly focused on the surface wear condition, structural condition, flatness, road side vegetation and drying of the road. Observations were divided into poor, satisfactory and good categories based on the current Finnish quality standards used for forest roads. Digital Elevation Models were derived from the laser point cloud, and indices were calculated to determine road quality. The calculated indices assessed the topographic differences on the road surface and road sides. The topographic position index works well in flat terrain only, while the standardized elevation index described the road surface better if the differences are bigger. Both indices require at least a 1 metre resolution. High-density data is necessary for analysis of the road surface, and the indices relate mostly to the surface wear and flatness. The classification was more precise (31-92%) than on low-density data (25-40%). However, ditch detection and classification can be carried out using the sparse dataset as well (with a success rate of 69%). The use of airborne laser scanning data can provide quality information on forest roads.

  20. A Mobile Phone Application for the Collection of Opinion Data for Forest Planning Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Annika; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Eyvindson, Kyle; Chambers, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The last 30 years has seen an increase in environmental, socio-economic, and recreational objectives being considered throughout the forest planning process. In the Finnish context these are considered mainly at the regional level potentially missing out on more local issues and problems. Such local information would be most efficiently collected with a participatory GIS approach. A mobile participatory GIS application called Tienoo was developed as a tool for collecting location-specific opinions of recreational and aesthetical characteristics of forests and forest management. The application also contains information the user can access regarding the practical details of the area, for instance about the recreational infrastructure. The application was tested in Ruunaa National Hiking Area, North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Through this application it is possible to continuously collect geolocated preference information. As a result, the collected opinions have details which can be located in both time and space. This allows for the possibility to monitor the changes in opinions when the stands are treated, and it also allows for easily analyzing the effect of time of year on the opinions. It is also possible to analyze the effect of the spatial location and the forest characteristics on the opinions using GIS analysis.

  1. A mobile phone application for the collection of opinion data for forest planning purposes.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Annika; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Eyvindson, Kyle; Chambers, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The last 30 years has seen an increase in environmental, socio-economic, and recreational objectives being considered throughout the forest planning process. In the Finnish context these are considered mainly at the regional level potentially missing out on more local issues and problems. Such local information would be most efficiently collected with a participatory GIS approach. A mobile participatory GIS application called Tienoo was developed as a tool for collecting location-specific opinions of recreational and aesthetical characteristics of forests and forest management. The application also contains information the user can access regarding the practical details of the area, for instance about the recreational infrastructure. The application was tested in Ruunaa National Hiking Area, North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Through this application it is possible to continuously collect geolocated preference information. As a result, the collected opinions have details which can be located in both time and space. This allows for the possibility to monitor the changes in opinions when the stands are treated, and it also allows for easily analyzing the effect of time of year on the opinions. It is also possible to analyze the effect of the spatial location and the forest characteristics on the opinions using GIS analysis. PMID:25579620

  2. Nitrogen release from forest soils containing sulfide-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maileena Nieminen, Tiina; Merilä, Päivi; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa

    2014-05-01

    concentrations in drainage water from forested peatland catchments underlain by black shale bedrock have been monitored during a 5-year-period, and they show higher values compared to control areas. In addition, soil solution from seven spruce dominated forests belonging to the Finnish permanent monitoring programme of the EU-Forest Focus-FutMon / pan-European ICP forests Level II network was monitored over a 10-year-period. At one of the sites the chemical properties of the soil reflect the formation of an acid sulfate soil presenting clearly higher nitrogen concentration compared to other sites.

  3. Investigating the Contribution of Procedural and Declarative Memory to the Acquisition of Past Tense Morphology: Evidence from Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Kirjavainen, Minna

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on a study that investigated the role of procedural and declarative memory in the acquisition of Finnish past tense morphology. Two competing models were tested. Ullman's (2004) declarative/procedural model predicts that procedural memory supports the acquisition of regular morphology, whereas declarative memory supports…

  4. Even the Best Have Difficulties: A Study of Finnish Straight-A Graduates' Resource-Oriented Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela, Mari; Määttä, Kaarina

    2015-01-01

    To achieve top scores, students need not only talents and study skills but also they have to conquer various adversities successfully. This research focused on the study paths, the concept adopted from Hickman, Bartholomew, Mathwig, and Heinrich (2008), of Finnish straight-A graduates in general upper secondary education. In this article, we refer…

  5. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  6. The Double Deficit Hypothesis in the Transparent Finnish Orthography: A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torppa, Minna; Parrila, Rauno; Niemi, Pekka; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    We examined the double deficit hypothesis (Wolf & Bowers, 1999) and literacy development in a longitudinal dataset of 1,006 Finnish children who were nonreaders at school entry. A single phonological awareness (PA) deficit was a predictor of pseudoword spelling accuracy and reading fluency, and a single rapid automatized naming (RAN) deficit…

  7. Democratic Deliberations in the Finnish Elementary Classroom: The Dilemmas of Deliberations and the Teacher's Role in an Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammi, Tuure

    2013-01-01

    Finnish youth are found to be, despite their broad knowledge, uninterested in politics and in societal participation. As a remedy, international studies suggest enabling democratic experiences in schools. This article discusses an action research project aimed at developing deliberation-based democratic practice in an elementary classroom. Results…

  8. Boys, Girls, and E-Mail: A Case Study in Finnish Senior Secondary Schools. Research Report 110.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Seppo

    The educational potential accessible with the aid of international communications networks and computer-mediated communication was explored with Finnish secondary school students in an ethnographic study that also investigated gender differences and quality of education. Subjects were 108 students (46 males and 62 females) from six classes in…

  9. Retrospective Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Childhood: Discriminatory Validity of Finnish Translation of the Wender Utah Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivisaari, Sasa; Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the discriminatory validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and its five suggested subscales (Conduct Problems, Impulsivity Problems, Mood Difficulties, Inattention/Anxiety, Academic Concerns) in a Finnish sample. Method: WURS was administered to 114 adults, aged 18 to 55 years. Participants with ADHD (n = 37) and…

  10. The Association between Autism Spectrum Disorders and Congenital Anomalies by Organ Systems in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Sourander, Andre; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Vanhala, Raija

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with and without intellectual disability (ID) and congenital anomalies (CAs) by organ system. The sample included all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register during 1987-2000 and a total of four controls per…

  11. "Can There Be Such a Delightful Feeling as This?" Variations of Sexual Scripts in Finnish Girls' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvivuo, Pia; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Kontula, Osmo

    2010-01-01

    This study examined what kinds of sexual scripts were found in Finnish girls' narratives, what elements those scripts included and how different scripts were associated with sexually risky behavior. The data were comprised of the narratives of 173 14-15-year-old girls regarding their experiences in sexually motivating situations. The narratives…

  12. The Finnish Delphi Study: Forecasting the Extent of Information Technology Use in Libraries in 1996 and 2010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskiala, Sinnikka; Huhtanen, Anni

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Delphi study in which Finnish experts predicted the extent of information technology use in libraries and information centers. Predictions are summarized in the areas of workstations; fax and electronic mail; videotex; print, electronic, and optical publishing; indexing and storage of sounds and images; speech recognition and scanning…

  13. Developing a speech intelligibility test based on measuring speech reception thresholds in noise for English and Finnish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Martti; Suni, Antti; Järveläinen, Hanna; Järvikivi, Juhani; Mattila, Ville-Veikko

    2005-09-01

    A subjective test was developed suitable for evaluating the effect of mobile communications devices on sentence intelligibility in background noise. Originally a total of 25 lists, each list including 16 sentences, were developed in British English and Finnish to serve as the test stimuli representative of adult language today. The sentences, produced by two male and two female speakers, were normalized for naturalness, length, and intelligibility in each language. The sentence sets were balanced with regard to the expected lexical and phonetic distributions in the given language. The sentence lists are intended for adaptive measurement of speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in noise. In the verification of the test stimuli, SRTs were measured for ten subjects in Finnish and nine subjects in English. Mean SRTs were -2.47 dB in Finnish and -1.12 dB in English, with standard deviations of 1.61 and 2.36 dB, respectively. The mean thresholds did not vary significantly between the lists or the talkers after two lists were removed from the Finnish set and one from the English set. Thus the numbers of lists were reduced from 25 to 23 and 24, respectively. The statistical power of the test increased when thresholds were averaged over several sentence lists. With three lists per condition, the test is able to detect a 1.5-dB difference in SRTs with the probability of about 90%.

  14. What Friends Are for: The Relationships between Body Image, Substance Use, and Peer Influence among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmqvist, Riia; Santavirta, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the relationships between substance use, body image, and peer influence among Finnish adolescents. The participants (N = 488, 240 boys and 248 girls), were eighth-grade high school students. The data were gathered using a questionnaire. In addition to background information, the study covered risk behaviors frequency, body…

  15. Where on Earth Is New York? Pedagogical Lessons from Finnish Geography Students' Knowledge of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina; Hottola, Petri

    2005-01-01

    Behind this study are our (1) classroom observations suggesting a decline in the cartographic and general knowledge of Finnish geography students; (2) interest in developing the content and method of geographical education; and (3) belief that intellectual challenge is not incompatible with entertainment. A total of 257 university and high school…

  16. A Positive Psychological Viewpoint for Success at School--10 Characteristic Strengths of the Finnish High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela, Mari; Uusiautti, Satu

    2015-01-01

    People who exploit their strengths flourish; they are not only engaged with their goals, but also to their well-being and the content of life. In this study, interest focused on the high-achieving students in the Finnish general upper secondary education, in other words, on straight-A graduates' characteristic strengths. This was a narrative study…

  17. The Emergence of Grammar in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children ("N" = 156) and full-term controls…

  18. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  19. Finland Has it All? Examining the Media Accentuation of "Finnish Education" in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita; Waldow, Florian; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the conceptual work of externalisation in comparative education and multi-accentual signs in cultural studies, this article examines how the print news media accentuate "Finnish education" in the process of inserting this external reference into the domestic political discourses around education reform in Australia, Germany…

  20. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  1. Look at Me! Does the Adult Truly See and Respond to the Child in Finnish Day-Care Centres?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalliala, Marjatta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Kangaroo research project was to enhance the well-being of children under three years of age in Finnish day-care centres. In this experimental intervention study adults were encouraged to take a more sensitive and active role especially during "free play." In six Kangaroo groups and five control groups adults (N = 28) and children…

  2. Health Promotional Education: Differences between School Nurses' Health Counselling and Teachers' Health Instruction in the Finnish ENHPS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Jakonen, Sirkka; Vertio, Harri

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe school nurses' (N=24) and teachers' (N=25) opinions of how the health-related goals in their counselling and instruction were attained and to find out the possible differences between the two groups in the Finnish European Network of Health Promoting Schools. The data were collected by a questionnaire and…

  3. Finnish and UK English Pre-Teen Children's Text Message Language and Its Relationship with Their Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plester, B.; Lerkkanen, M.-K.; Linjama, L. J.; Rasku-Puttonen, H.; Littleton, K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the style of text language used by Finnish pre-teen texters (n = 65) and determine how their text language related to their traditional literacy skills, and compare descriptively these results with earlier results from work with young English texters. Three kinds of text messages (natural texts, elicited…

  4. Dynamic Patterns in Development of Accuracy and Complexity: A Longitudinal Case Study in the Acquisition of Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoelman, Marianne; Verspoor, Marjolijn

    2010-01-01

    Within a Dynamic System Theory (DST) approach, it is assumed that language is in a constant flux, but that differences in the degree of variability can give insight into the developmental process. This longitudinal case study focuses on intra-individual variability in accuracy rates and complexity measures in Finnish learner language. The study…

  5. The Associations between Seventh Grade Finnish Students' Motivational Climate, Perceived Competence, Self-Determined Motivation, and Fundamental Movement Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaja, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between motivational climate, perceived competence, self-determined motivation towards physical education (PE) and the fundamental movement skills of Finnish secondary school students. A sample of 370 seventh-grade PE students (girls n = 189; boys n = 181; mean age = 13.08; SD = 0.25)…

  6. Implementing Technology Education in Finnish General Education Schools: Studying the Cross-Curricular Theme "Human Being and Technology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Järvinen, Esa-Matti; Rasinen, Aki

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture assigned the National Board of Education with the task of carrying out a nationwide evaluation of all seven cross-curricular themes. The evaluation is one of the largest education evaluation projects the National Board of Finland has ever organised. The present authors were invited to evaluate…

  7. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

  8. The effects of short-term selenium stress on Polish and Finnish wheat seedlings-EPR, enzymatic and fluorescence studies.

    PubMed

    Łabanowska, Maria; Filek, Maria; Kościelniak, Janusz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Kuliś, Ewa; Hartikainen, Helina

    2012-02-15

    Biochemical analyses of antioxidant content were compared with measurements of fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to examine the alteration of radicals in wheat seedlings exposed to 2 days of selenium stress. Two genotypes of Polish and one of Finnish wheat, differing in their tolerance to long-term stress treatment, were cultured under hydroponic conditions to achieve the phase of 3-leave seedlings. Afterwards, selenium (sodium selenate, 100 μM concentration) was added to the media. After Se-treatment, all varieties showed an increase in carbohydrates (soluble and starch), ascorbate and glutathione content in comparison to non-stressed plants. These changes were more visible in Finnish wheat. On the basis of lipid peroxidation measurements, Finnish wheat was recognized as the genotype more sensitive to short-term Se-stress than the Polish varieties. The antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) increased in Polish genotypes, whereas they decreased in Finnish wheat plants cultured on Se media. The action of reactive oxygen species in short-term action of Se stress was confirmed by the reduction of PSII and PSI system activities (measured by fluorescence parameters and EPR, respectively). EPR studies showed changes in redox status (especially connected with Mn(II)/Mn(III), and semiquinone/quinone ratios) in wheat cell after Se treatment. The involvement of the carbohydrate molecules as electron traps in production of long-lived radicals is postulated. PMID:22153751

  9. Does Structural Development Matter? The Third Mission through Teaching and R&D at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohtamäki, Vuokko

    2015-01-01

    The latest policy trends of higher education institutions (HEIs) have increasingly highlighted the importance of external stakeholders' expertise and resources. This paper investigated how the third mission through teaching and research and development (R&D) at Finnish universities of applied sciences (UASs) is influenced by the structural…

  10. How to Make the Neighbourhood School a School for All?: Finnish Teachers' Perceptions of Educational Reform Aiming towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakkala, Suvi; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2016-01-01

    A new special education strategy was launched in Finland by the Ministry of Education in 2007. The new Basic Act was enacted in 2010 and the new national core curriculum concerning three-tiered support for pupils in 2011. Since the 1990s, teachers across Finland have participated in developing Finnish basic education towards greater inclusion. The…

  11. Grammar Is the Heart of Language: Grammar and Its Role in Language Learning among Finnish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaristo, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and discusses views on grammar and its role in formal language learning amongst Finnish university students. The results are based on a questionnaire which was distributed to students at the University of Jyväskylä as part of institutional action research. The background to the project was a feeling amongst some teachers of…

  12. Work Placements as Learning Environments for Patient Safety: Finnish and British Preregistration Nursing Students' Important Learning Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Learning to ensure patient safety in complex health care environments is an internationally recognised concern. This article explores and compares Finnish (n = 22) and British (n = 32) pre-registration nursing students' important learning events about patient safety from their work placements in health care organisations. Written descriptions were…

  13. Fabrications, Time-Consuming Bureaucracy and Moral Dilemmas--Finnish University Employees' Experiences on the Governance of University Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Jauhiainen, Annukka; Laiho, Anne; Lehto, Reeta

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the university workers of two Finnish universities experienced the range of neoliberal policymaking and governance reforms implemented in the 2000s. These reforms include quality assurance, system of defined annual working hours, outcome-based salary system and work time allocation system. Our point of view regarding…

  14. The Impact of Timing of Puberty on Psychosomatic Symptoms among Fourteen- to Sixteen-Year-Old Finnish Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Hillevi; Taipale, Vappu

    1987-01-01

    Studied whether pubertal age affects reports of psychosomatic symptoms among 14- to 16-year-old girls. Considered whether differences in dating and alcohol use might be mediating factors in the relation between pubertal age and psychosomatic symptoms. Subjects were 935 Finnish eighth-grade pupils who completed questionnaires three times during a…

  15. With the Eye and the Ear--Analytical and Intuitive Approaches in Piano Playing by Finnish Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a piano-playing subject called "keyboard harmony." The subject was initially developed in the 1980s to give (K-12) schoolteachers the skills needed for accompanying singing in classrooms. Since keyboard harmony today has an official status in all Finnish music schools, both piano and general music teachers ought…

  16. Conceptions Associated with Sense of Belonging in Different School Placements for Finnish Pupils with Special Education Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Henri; Kontu, Elina; Saarinen, Minna; Pirttimaa, Raija

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine conceptions associated with sense of belonging (SEBE) in Finnish general and special school placements for pupils with special education needs. Five pupils were selected for this study by means of purposive sampling. They had a history of several school placements prior to arriving at their current special…

  17. Phonological Mean Length of Utterance in Specific Language Impairment: A Multi-Case Study of Children Acquiring Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnari, Sari; Saaristo-Helin, Katri; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the phonological development of four Finnish-speaking children (ages 4;8, 4;9, 4;9 and 5;5) with specific language impairment (SLI) and dyspractic features in speech. The analysis is performed using the phonological mean length of utterance (pMLU) method. Moreover, the children's phonological abilities are evaluated…

  18. Virtual Mobility in Reality: A Study of the Use of ICT in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci Mobility Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valjus, Sonja

    An e-mail survey and interviews collected data on use of information and communications technology (ICT) in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci mobility projects from 2000-02. Findings showed that the most common ICT tools used were e-mail, digital tools, and the World Wide Web; ICT was used during all project phases; the most common problems concerned…

  19. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E.; Silva, José N. M.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16 ± 1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained. PMID:16901980

  20. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E; Silva, José N M

    2006-08-22

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16+/-1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained. PMID:16901980