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This report contains the abstracts of presentations given at an extensive research symposium held on April 21 - 24, 1987, where over one hundred Finnish scientists presented their research results. The topics covered several research disciplines from poll...
Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful particip...
The structure and infrastructure of the Finnishresearch literature was determined. A representative database of technical articles was extracted from the Science Citation Index for the years 2003-2004, with each article containing at least one author wit...
R. N. Kostoff R. Tshiteya C. A. Bowles T. Tuunanen
The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…
This European Forest Institute (EFI) is "An independent non-governmental organization conducting European forestresearch." This website provides information about EFI's mission, research goals, strategies and programs. Site users can view information about on-going and completed projects in any of the four EFI research programs which include: Forest Ecology and Management, Forest Products Markets and Socio-Economics, Policy Analysis, and Forest Resources and Information. EFI also provides a search engine for locating specific research projects as well as information about how to propose an EFI project.
The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.
Health promotion research is distinct in some respects from research within its contributing disciplines. A study was conducted in Finland to identify the special characteristics and distinctiveness of health promotion research, to develop a set of specific quality evaluation criteria for health promotion research, and to test the usefulness of such criteria in selecting research applications for funding. A wide range of discussions supplemented a systematic literature review with experts within and outside Finland. The review was conducted with regard to the content of health promotion, its basic principles, as well as theories and models used to steer practical health promotion activities. This resulted in a proposal for quality criteria for health promotion research. Key informants from Finnish universities and institutes evaluated the criteria in three Delphi rounds, and they were suitably revised. The utility of the revised criteria was tested using 31 research proposals. After further revision, the criteria were tested with a further 16 research proposals. Seven health promotion research quality criteria were developed by these methods, as were seven general criteria of research quality, applicable to all social research, whether in the health promotion arena or not. The 14 criteria will undergo continuous revision for improvement, but they are already at this stage thought to be suitable for use by (a) funding agencies in the design of calls for health promotion research proposals, and calls for tenders; (b) researchers who respond to calls for health promotion research proposals and/or calls for tenders; (c) evaluators and proposal review groups; and (d) reviewers and auditors of research progress. PMID:15964888
Lahtinen, Eero; Koskinen-Ollonqvist, Pirjo; Rouvinen-Wilenius, Päivi; Tuominen, Päivi; Mittelmark, Maurice B
Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 20072008 has been carried out in the SAFIR2010 programme. The steering group of SAFIR2010 consists of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), ...
There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:24858508
This publication sets out the key findings of the research project on the societal impacts of Finnish Defence Forces Technical Research Centre (PVTT). The project sought to test and operationalize the model for societal impact evaluation developed by VTT ...
In this study stochastic frontier cost function was used to estimate the teaching and research costs of Finnish hospitals. Predicted efficiency adjusted costs were calculated and compared to evaluate the current level of teaching and research reimbursement. The efficiency adjustment had significant impact on the marginal and average cost estimates of the teaching and research output. The results suggest that the average rate of teaching and research reimbursement should be approximately 14.6% of the total operating costs in university teaching hospitals. The main finding was that the university teaching hospitals were underfunded with respect to both research and teaching output. PMID:16612572
An autobiography of a female ecologist working in the Costa Rican rainforest is provided as an inspiration for girls. The scientist briefly tells her life story and describes her research activities. (LZ)
Controversy between alternative uses of forests in Finnish Upper Lapland has been going on for decades, and in recent years it has been escalated to a serious conflict. The core of the conflict is the adverse impacts of forestry on old forests which are important grazing areas for reindeer and which are regarded as intact nature and wilderness areas. This paper describes the experiences of applying multi-criteria decision analysis interview approach on this conflict. The approach provides tools for structuring the problem and preferences of the stakeholders as well as for analyzing the effects of different alternatives in a common framework. We focus on the practical experiences gained from the application of this approach in this context. Multi-criteria decision analysis was found to be a useful approach to evaluate the economic, ecological and cultural aspects of this intense conflict. The obtained experiences also support the view that the approach works best when tightly integrated into the planning process. PMID:21288630
Forest watershed research in the Southwest started in Arizona because of concerns about sediment inputs into the newly constructed Roosevelt Reservoir. The Summit Plots were established in 1925 to study the effects of vegetation establishment and mechanical soil stabilization on stormflow and sediment yields. In 1932 the Forest Service dedicated the Parker Creek Experimental Forest, later renamed Sierra Ancha Experimental
Daniel G. Neary; Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano; Malchus B. Baker
Finnish youth are found to be, despite their broad knowledge, uninterested in politics and in societal participation. As a remedy, international studies suggest enabling democratic experiences in schools. This article discusses an action research project aimed at developing deliberation-based democratic practice in an elementary classroom. Results…
Learning outcomes, as a conceptual base, are a recognised phenomenon in higher education. Advances in technology, such as web-based technologies in teaching, have facilitated learning efficiency, while such technologies relation to learning outcomes remains a popular topic of research. In this article, we have employed the feedback of 312 Finnish…
Land Surface Models (LSM) describe the material and energy fluxes between the atmosphere, vegetation and soils for climate models and earth system models. Especially, for past and future climate change studies, LSMs need to include ecosystem carbon cycle. Process-based forest growth models and ecosystem impact analysis models, on the other hand, benefit from stand-alone predictions of carbon cycle. In this study, we compared the predictions of GPP made with two modelling systems that are currently applied in Finland. The first one is JSBACH that is LSM of ECHAM6, which is now being applied in Finland with the REMO regional climate model. The second one is the eddy-flux-based GPP and water balance model PRELES that has recently been integrated with large-scale data sets to be run with inventory-based forest data and ground-based meteorological measurements. JSBACH was run with information about plant functional type fractions in 0.167 degree pixels. PRELES applied inventory-scaled information about forest structure on fine resolution (100 m). Both models used same weather data as inputs. When we compared the results of the two model systems, we found little difference between the model predicted annual GPP when aggregated over Finland. Spatial differences in annual GPP and its inter-annual variation over the simulation period (2000-2011) was also parallel, but differences were detected in the seasonal pattern of GPP. Two modelling system showed remarkable converge in predicted annual total GPP, but both models could benefit from a better understanding of timing of the season start and end, especially regarding deciduous species.
The recent Earth Summit in Rio has once again focused world attention on the importance of climate, human and biological interactions. nder programs such as the Forest Service Global Change Research Program (FSGCRP), scientists are exploring and assessing a variety of forest reso...
The recent Earth Summit in Rio has once again focused world attention on the importance of climate, human and biological interactions. Under programs such as the Forest Service Global Change Research Program (FSGCRP), scientists are exploring and assessin...
Forest fire retardant research was divided into five different study areas: (1) retardant effectiveness; (2) retardant physical properties; (3) retardant delivery systems; (4) retardant-caused corrosion; and (5) retardant environmental impact. Past resear...
Research conducted at CSIRO Forestry ana Forest Products and the Cooperative Research Centre for Hardwood Fibre and Paper Science (CRC-HFPS) has investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid, inexpensive method for assessing the pulpwood quality of plantation eucalypts. Michell and Schimleck (1) have published a review of this research. Since that review the methodology has been
Laurence R Schimleck; Carolyn A Raymond; Christopher L Beadle; Geoff M Downes; Peter D Kube; Jim French
This database contains publications in support of this group\\'s mission to create the science and technology needed to sustain and enhance southern forest ecosystems and the benefits they provide. The database can be searched by author, title, keyword, date range, and publication origin; publication number; and by the most recent publications added to the database. There are also online versions of Compass, a publication catalog of research products from scientists at SRS.
Research on the effects on birds of stand characteristics(content') is contrasted with studies of effe.cts of the landscape sunounding the stand (context'). These approaches are currently converging, and the future direction of forest bird research will be shaped by the balance between them. This balance will likely vary regionally, depending on the extent of forest fragmentation. I argue for greater
The document presents the national research plan for the Forest Response Program. The introduction provides an overview, a statement of the program objective, and a brief description of the program's organizational structure. A Program Foundations section...
Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…
The results of current research in higher education in Finland are described in 11 articles, published with the aim of reinforcing contacts with international researchers. Articles' titles and authors include: "University Development, Social Change, and Regional Policy" (Ari Antikainen); "Research on the Economics of Higher Education in Finland"…
In Finland the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) has launched two national research programmes on the safety of nuclear reactors for the period 1995-1998. The research programme on Reactor Safety (RETU) concentrates on the search of safe limits of nucl...
Members of family Carabidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) are a dominant group of terrestrial predators. National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC) of ForestResearch Institute, Dehradun (India) has a good collection of carabids rich in type material. Here we report the details of the type specimens of 139 species included in 49 genera, 24 tribes and 14 subfamilies. Colour automontaged photographs of each type along with its original labels are also included. PMID:24869540
Purpose: Management systems designed for the purposes of the industrial era are not sufficient to rise to the challenge of knowledge-creating organizations. This paper seeks to analyse how the motives and aims of top management and knowledge workers differ from each other. In order to avoid confrontation between managerialism and research work…
Objective: In keeping with the research goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), helps define climate change policy and develop best management prac...
The paper describes underlying causes of conflicts between local people in Bulungan ResearchForest (BRF), Indonesia with coal-mining and logging companies. Results show that conflict between local people and mining companies was triggered by the fact that the mining operation caused water and air pollution and soil degradation. Another cause for the conflict was the compensatory facilities (e.g. clean water,
This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.
An extensive R&D project—Life Cycle Assessment as a Tool for the Management of Environmental Issues in the Finnish Metals Industry—was carried out as part of the Finnish Environmental Cluster Research Programme 1998–2000. Life cycle inventory (LCI) data of the main product groups—steel plates and coils, steel bars, steel wires, stainless steel, copper, nickel, zinc and aluminium were produced and company
Jyri Seppälä; Sirkka Koskela; Matti Melanen; Matti Palperi
...disturb the natural, educational, and scientific research values of the Fossil Forest...area's existing natural, educational, and scientific research values, including paleontological study, excavation, and interpretation....
ilviculturists create desired forest conditions across the landscape and over time. Our job is to synthesize knowledge from many disciplines to develop prescriptions that produce desired forest conditions. In turn, forest conditions result in products and values for society. Silviculture and silviculture research help provide the scientific basis for land management decisions. Crucial roles for research silviculturists are mensurative studies
Dennis E. Ferguson; Victor J. Applegate; Philip S. Aune; Clinton E. Carlson; Kathleen Geier-Hayes; Russell T. Graham; Glenn L. Jacobsen; Theresa B. Jain; David C. Powell; Wayne D. Shepperd; John P. Sloan
The main purpose with the ecological station at Jaedraaas is to provide exprimental plots and laboratory facilities for education and research. The station is a department within the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The research area constitut...
This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…
With 207 million ha of forest covering 22% of its land area, China ranks fifth in the world in forest area. Rapid economic growth, climate change, and forest disturbances pose new, complex challenges for forestresearch and management. Progress in meeting these challenges is relevant beyond China, because China's forests represent 34% of Asia's forests and 5% of the worlds' forests. To provide a broader understanding of these management challenges and of research and policies that address them, we organized this special issue on contemporary forestresearch and management issues in China. At the national level, papers review major forest types and the evolution of sustainable forestry, the development of China's forest-certification efforts, the establishment of a forest inventory system, and achievements and challenges in insect pest control in China. Papers focused on Northern China address historical, social, and political factors that have shaped the region's forests; the use of forest landscape models to assess how forest management can achieve multiple objectives; and analysis and modeling of fuels and fire behavior. Papers addressing Central and South China describe the "Grain for Green" program, which converts low productivity cropland to grassland and woodland to address erosion and soil carbon sequestration; the potential effects of climate change on CO(2) efflux and soil respiration; and relationships between climate and net primary productivity. China shares many forest management and research issues with other countries, but in other cases China's capacity to respond to forest management challenges is unique and bears watching by the rest of the world. PMID:22075940
Carbon storage in forests in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region plays a significant role in the terrestrial carbon budget due to its largest forest coverage and forest growing stock among all the provinces in China. Nevertheless, scientific research on forest carbon is comparatively less as compared with the research on the main ecosystem, steppe in this area. We are still short of knowledge of forest carbon sequestration's rate, mechanism and potential in the area. Now we are conducting a research program aiming at making clear the above scientific issues. So knowing well previous research work and key findings is essential and helpful for our underway study. In this paper we reviewed the current knowledge, opportunity and challenges of forest carbon research in Inner Mongolia. The total carbon storage in forest of this region increased significantly from 0.417Pg carbon in 1949 to 0.719Pg carbon in 2008 with an annual increase of 2.842Tg~5.226Tg carbon and a dramatically increment of carbon storage in shrub. Carbon storage varied with dominant tree species, forest age and forest growth situation with an average forest carbon density of 42.68 t-C.hm?2, displaying a downtrend before 1980 and later a slow smooth uptrend. It is suggested that increase in vegetation carbon sequestration potential be achieved through selection of plant species and forest management.
The report summarizes research findings of the USDA Forest Service`s Global Change Research Program. Research highlights are presented at national and regional scales within the following topic areas: atmosphere\\/biosphere gas and energy exchange; ecosystem dynamics; disturbance ecology; and human activities and natural resource interactions. Selected topics are reviewed in depth with individual papers covering the global carbon cycle, climate scenarios,
R. Birdsey; R. Mickler; D. Sandberg; R. Tinus; J. Zerbe
Information gathered from 3078 permanent forest survey sample plots showed that nearly 0.9 million acres, or 10 percent of the nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) timberland in South Carolina is in forested tracts 10 acres or less. Forested tracts ranging from 11 to 100 acres accounted for the largest proportion of NIPF timberland. Forested tract size varied significantly by NIPF-ownership group. By NIPF-ownership group, the other corporate group recorded the highest average forested tract size of 3,802 acres. Volume of softwood growing stock as significantly higher in the larger tract size categories. Hardwood growing-stock volume per acre was significantly higher in the largest and smallest forested tract-size classes. Softwood growing-stock removals exceeded growth across all forested-parcel categories, whereas hardwood growing-stock growth surpassed hardwood removals in two tract-size classes.
Health data includes all content related to health in all data formats, document types, information systems, publication media and languages from all specialties, organisations, regions, states and countries. Capabilities to share, integrate and compare these data contents, clinical trial results and other evaluation outcomes together with telehealth applications for data processing are critical to accelerate discovery and its diffusion to clinical practice. However, the same ethical and legal frameworks that protect privacy hinder this open data and open-source code approach and the issues accumulate if moving data across national, regional or organisational borders. This can be seen as one of the reasons why many telehealth applications and health-research findings tend to be limited to very narrow domains and global results are lacking. The aim of this paper is to take steps towards establishing an international electronic repository and virtual laboratory of open data and open-source code for research purposes by comparing international, Australian and Finnish frameworks. The frameworks seem to be fundamentally similar; they apply the principles of accountability and adequacy to using and disclosing personal data. Their requirements to inform data subjects about the purposes of data collection and use before the dataset is collected, assure that individuals are no longer identifiable and to destruct data when the research activities are finished make sharing data and even secondary data difficult. Using the Internet or cloud services for sharing without proper approvals by ethics committees is technically not allowed if the data are stored in another country. The research community needs to overcome these barriers and develop a virtual laboratory, which operates on distributed data repositories. This empowers the community by enabling systematic evaluations of new technologies and research hypotheses on a rich variety of data and against existing applications, and subsequent tracking of quality improvements in time. PMID:23138090
This evolution of forest values is currently being widely discussed and debated in the forestry community. It is often claimed that a fundamental shift in forest values has taken place in recent decades. Gordon argued that a shift in public values is part of the explanation for the declining influence of the multiple-use sustained-yield paradigm of forest management. It is increasingly recognized that the values people hold about forest ecosystems are an important part of the social underpinning of ecosystem management, the emerging forest management paradigm. In either case, values play a critical role in identifying ecosystem management goals, setting the context for decisionmaking, and guiding our choices.
The USDA Forest Service has a long-established program to identify areas in national forests for designation as protected Research Natural Areas (RNAs). One ofthe goals is to protect high J quality examples of regional ecosystems for the purposes of maintaining biological diversity, conducting nonmanipulative research and monitoring, and fostering education. When RNAdesignation conflicts with other land uses, difficult choices must
Stephanie A. Snyder; Lucy E. Tyrrell; Robert G. Haight
Per-pixel maximum likelihood digital classification and photo interpretation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) composited images for a managed conifer forest were used to evaluate both land cover and forest structure characteristics. TMS channels 4, 7, 5 and 3, which were found to be optimal for forest vegetation analysis, used the full range of the Thematic Mapper's spectral capability. Photo interpretation results indicate that a false color composite from TMS channels 4, 7, and 2 provided the highest accuracies; the combination of improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of the Thematic Mapper yielded greater sensitivity to forest structural characteristics.
Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Spanner, M. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ulliman, J. J.; Brockhaus, J.
Since 1908, U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges have been dedicated to long-term interdisciplinary research on a variety of ecological and management questions. They encompass a wide diversity of life zones and ecoregions, and provide access to research infrastructure, opportunities for controlled manipulations, and integration with other types of long-term data. These features have facilitated important advances in a number of areas of avian research, including furthering our understanding of population dynamics, the effects of forest management on birds, avian responses to disturbances such as fire and hurricanes, and other aspects of avian ecology and conservation. However, despite these contributions, this invaluable resource has been underutilized by ornithologists. Most of the Experimental Forests and Ranges have had no ornithological work done on them. We encourage the ornithological community, especially graduate students and new faculty, to take advantage of this largely untapped potential for long-term work, linkage with long-term data sets, multiple disciplines, and active forest management. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Investigations with large-scale forest lysimeter research of the lowlands of Northeast Germany - Results and consequences for the choice of tree species and forest management Introduction At present about 28 % - i.e. 1.9 million hectares - of the Northeast German Lowlands are covered with forests. The Lowlands are among the driest and at the same time the most densely
The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Gila National Forest u...
The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Kaibab National Forest...
The iodine content of Finnish foods was analysed and the average daily intake of iodine estimated according to national food consumption statistics. The average calculated intake was 340 micrograms/d/person, although an extensive seasonal variation was found in the estimate for the summer season (280 micrograms) and for the winter season (400 micrograms). The intake is from 4 to 5 times greater now than it was in the mid 1950's, when endemic goitre was common in Finland. The most significant sources of iodine in the average Finnish diet are dairy products, which also cause the seasonal variation in intake. Iodized table salt and eggs are other important sources. The present level of intake can be considered adequate and the further intensification of prohylactic practices with iodine unnecessary. PMID:7085204
To determine the dynamics of the spatial extent of gallery forest on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area (KPRNA), aerial photographs taken over a 46 year time frame were digitized into an ARC-INFO Geographic Information System (GIs). A Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to collect ground control points to co-register the photographs for each year. Gallery forest areas for the
Christina L. Knight; John M. Briggs; M. Duane Nellis
The guide provides information on professional opportunities in natural resource management, planning, and research. Reasons for careers in forest service are presented and a brief description of the forest service is provided. Career opportunities in the following areas are described: forestry, engineering, geology, hydrology, landscape…
Since 1907 research and education have been the mission of the Harvard Forest is one of the oldest and most intensively studied forests in North America. Located in Petersham, Massachusetts, its 3000 acres of land have been a center of research and education since 1907. The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program, established in 1988 and funded by the National Science Foundation, provides a framework for much of this activity. An understanding of forest responses to natural and human disturbance and environmental change over broad spatial and temporal scales pulls together research topics including biodiversity studies, the effects of invasive organisms, large experiments and permanent plot studies, historical and retrospective studies, soil nutrient dynamics, and plant population and community ecological interactions. Major research in forest-atmosphere exchange, hydrology, and regional studies places the work in regional and global context, aided by modeling tools. Conservation and management research and linkages to policy have been part of the Forest since its beginning, and the approaches used in New England can often apply to international studies. [Copied from http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/research.html] In addition to more than 150 datasets, the Visual Information Access system at Harvard University Library makes nearly 900 images pertaining to Harvard Forestresearch available online to the public.
Administered by the U.S. Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Research Station, the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute is devoted "to providing the quality, peer-reviewed research necessary to develop guidelines and management practices that assure sustainable wild ecosystems endure for generations to come." The Institute website provides information about numerous research projects, staff, conferences, and more. Site visitors can also browse, or search for, over 500 Leopold Institute publications of which more than 100 are downloadable. Publications may be also be ordered free of charge by email or post. In addition, site visitors can link to several databases including the Wilderness and Recreation Impact Database, Wilderness Invaders-Surveys and Databases on Invasive & Exotic Species; National Wilderness Preservation System Database; and Wilderness Stewardship Reference System: Legislative, Administrative, and Judicial, and Scientific Information.
This final research report on Research in Support of Forest Management for the Savannah River Forest Station covers the period 1986 thru 1991. This report provides a list of publications resulting from research accomplished by SEFES scientists and their cooperators, and a list of continuing research study titles. Output is 22 research publications, 23 publications involving technology transfer of results to various user groups, and 11 manuscripts in pre-publication format. DOE funding contributed approximately 15 percent of the total cost of the research.
The overall objectives of this study are to: Evaluate Forest Service pest management activities by examining pest management policy and the effectiveness of present programs; describe options for program adjustment where appropriate. Most of the research ...
D. Cottingham F. D. Dottavio D. Dysart J. Hynson W. Reed
A search was conducted for quantitative Idaho research results on the effectiveness of the Idaho Forest Practices Act rules and regulations pertaining to timber harvest and forest road construction and maintenance. These rules and regulations are designated as the `best management practices` for the prevention of nonpoint source pollution from silviculture under provisions of the Federal Clean Water Act. For each practice, the relevant research results are summarized; more general summaries for related groups of practices are also provided.
Discusses the history of Finnish library work and the growing role of libraries; general features of Finnish public libraries (location, number of patrons, financing of libraries, personnel, acquisitions); organization of the libray system; and reformation of the state subsidy system and the public libraries act. (CT)
Recommendations for managing coarse woody debris after timber harvest were developed for 14 habitat types, ranging from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) habitat types of Arizona to subalpine fir (Abis lasiocarpa) habitat types of western Montana. Ectomycorrhizae were used as a bioindicator of health, productive forest soils. Undisturbed stands were studied to determine the optimum amounts of organic material for ectomycorrhizal activity. The management recommendations are intentionally conservative to ensure that enough organic matter is left after timber harvest to maintain long-term forest productivity.
The Upland forests of Micronesia and American Samoa can provide many social, ecological, and esthetic benefits for island inhabitants. Substantial upland areas (the majority of acreage on some islands) are now occupied by secondary and grassland/savanna vegetation: such areas represent opportunities for restoration, with both native forest cover and plantations of introduced species. The review briefly describes characteristics of the islands and the nature of existing and potential upland forests, including the most common upland tree species. Principal information needs and research opportunities are discussed for 10 subjects: watershed rehabilitation, forest restoration in secondary vegetation areas, basic ecology, soils and nutrient relationships, damaging agents, forest inventory and productivity assessment, silvicultural systems, valuation of forest products and services, threatened and endangered species, and description and protection of native forest habitats.
The purpose of this research was to study the shift from mono- to bi-referential spatial location in the language of Finnish children. Monoreferential location is based on the intrinsic properties of a referent object and the proximity relationship, and bireferential location requires coordinated spatial relationships involving referent objects and a projective relationship. Locative expressions which are monoreferential include: in\\/on\\/under and
Abstract The public Finnish social and health care system has been challenged by the economic crisis, administrative reforms and increased demands. Better integration as a solution includes many examples, which have been taken to use. The most important are the rewritten national and municipals strategies and quality recommendations, where the different sectors and the levels of care are seen as one entity. Many reorganisations have taken place, both nationally and locally, and welfare clusters have been established. The best examples of integrated care are the forms of teamwork, care management, emphasis on non-institutional care and the information technology.
Become an expert on the Rain Forest habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. All about Rainforests has lots of great facts about the Rain Forest! Rainforests of the world tells about different Rain Forests in the world. To find out about each one click on the words about different Rain Forests. To research about animals in the Rain Forest, visit Animals of the Rain Forest and Rain Forest Animals. Rain Forest Animals and Rain Forest also has more information about Rain ...
Accurate measurement and estimation of snow evaporation (sublimation) in forests is one of the important issues to the understanding of snow surface energy and water balance, and it is also an essential part of regional hydrological and climate models. This paper summarized the measurement and estimation methods of snow evaporation in forests, and made a comprehensive applicability evaluation, including mass-balance methods (snow water equivalent method, comparative measurements of snowfall and through-snowfall, snow evaporation pan, lysimeter, weighing of cut tree, weighing interception on crown, and gamma-ray attenuation technique) and micrometeorological methods (Bowen-ratio energy-balance method, Penman combination equation, aerodynamics method, surface temperature technique and eddy covariance method). Also this paper reviewed the progress of snow evaporation in different forests and its influencal factors. At last, combining the deficiency of past research, an outlook for snow evaporation rearch in forests was presented, hoping to provide a reference for related research in the future. PMID:24697085
The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Fishlake National Fore...
The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Flathead National Fore...
This paper presents the results of a study from highly erodible Idaho soils and provides information necessary to develop road design criteria and evaluate risks and trade-offs. Objectives of the study were to: quantify the volume of sediment deposition on slopes in relation to road features; determine the probability distribution of sediment travel distance; evaluate how sediment deposition occurs with respect to forest site conditions and downslope location of streams; determine the volume and particle size distribution of sediment deposits on slopes in relation to sediment travel distance; and investigate time trends in sediment deposition.
Catastrophes and manipulation of stocking levels are primary determinants of stand development and the appearance of future forest landscapes. Managers need stocking level guides particularly for sites incapable of supporting stocking levels presented in normal yield tables. To take advantage of information currently available the authors used some assumptions to relate growth basal area (GBA) to stand density index (SDI) and then create stocking level curves for use in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Use of these curves cannot be expected to eliminate all insect and disease problems, but the impact of mountain pine beetle should be moderated.
Forest Watch is a student-scientist partnership and education outreach program to study white pine health in New England. Primary and secondary students collect and process data on air pollution damage to forests near their schools, which is used by University of New Hampshire researchers, and compared with spectral data. These are then compared to tropospheric ozone data, beginning from 1991. Data spreadsheets for the student to enter forest biometric data and spectral curves are provided, as well as EOS-Webster satellite imagery, and GPS, ALTA, and Topo-Map activities forms. The student activities include forest stand assessment, laboratory assessment of damage symptoms, and image processing and data analysis of Thematic Mapper data around their school. There is information on teacher workshops and a message board.
The PI, Dr. Rob Hellstrom, has been studying snow cover at the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (HFR) station over the past three years (Hellstrom, 2008). This research has applied leading-edge sensor technology to measure the impact of various types of forest cover on winter and spring season snow accumulation and the newly installed wireless network at HFR provides
This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.
The history of Finnish psychiatry has been characterized by polarizations: priority in hospitals vs. outpatient care, centralized vs. decentralized organization, independent vs. integrated administration, biological vs. psychological treatments, private vs. public production, special psychiatric policies vs. general health policies. The independent psychiatric organizations on District level lasted from the 1920s until 1990. Since then, the formerly independent psychiatry was subordinated to General Hospital administration and the centralized system of state planning and financing of healthcare was gradually decentralized and run down. During the heavy Finnish economic recession of the early 1990 s, the cuts of the public sector were unfortunately focused most heavily on psychiatric services. The main focus of research and teaching has shifted from earlier emphasis on psychoanalytical approach to biological psychiatry since the late 1980s. The administrative position of psychiatry has been repeatedly changing and unstable during the last 20 years. At the level of the contents of the services, however, there have been many very positive and promising developments. Psychiatry has come closer to other specialties from its formerly isolated position, when the separate administrations have been integrated. Provision of outpatient services has increased remarkably, while the number of hospital beds has decreased radically. Interest and resources in research have increased remarkably, and numerous new and good quality psychiatric research reports are being published. PMID:21770822
This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of part of a comprehensive research project concerning the Finnish matriculation examination. The goal of the project was to explore the matriculation examination as a series of tests indicative of ability differences between individuals, regardless of their causes. The…
This article discusses global education in Finnish basic education with the help of two major publications in the field: the National Core Curriculum (2004) and the Global Education Programme (2007). The core values and goals of these documents are considered in the light of selected learning theories, and ongoing research is presented which…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…
The Short Rotation Woody Crops Program sponsors research on tree and crop physiology, genetic improvement, and biotechnology. Genetic improvement of cottonwoods (Populus spp.) has produced clones with average yields of 25 dry Mg/ha/y. Physiological resear...
This research report presents an economic analysis of the U.S. amd Canadian pulp and paper sector, and addresses the issue of paper recycling and its projected impact on the long-range timber outlock. The report describes the structure, data, and assumptions of a comprehensive economic model developed to simulate competitive future evolution of technology and markets for all products and fiber inputs of the U.S. and Canadian pulp and paper sector. The model was linked by iterative solution to the USDA Forest Service TAMMA/ATLAS model, which encompasses the lumber and plywood sectors, timber stumpage markets, and timber growth and inventory.
This article presents guidelines for making forecasts and draws inferences about research techniques.Inertia produces highly autocorrelated time series in which random events have lasting effects. Such series make it easy to draw incorrect inferences about causal processes. They also make it easy to predict accurately over the short run, using variants of linear extrapolation.In forecasting, simplicity usually works better than
The strategic planning of a forestresearch organization is based on anticipating the changes in the operational environment of the entire forest cluster and in the organization itself. Scanning operational environment to attain a systematic approach and support for a decision situation can be carried out by applying a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis, for example. In this
Leena A. Leskinen; Pekka Leskinen; Mikko Kurttila; Jyrki Kangas; Miika Kajanus
The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.
The San Dimas Experimental Forest (SDEF) was established in the early 1930s to document and quantify wildland hydrology in the semiarid chaparral-covered steeplands of southern California. Concomitantly, the nearly seventy years of accumulated watershed research in this fire-prone ecosystem has produced invaluable information on post-fire erosion and the effectiveness and consequences of post-fire erosion control treatments. On average, first-year post-fire
This seminar report summarizes ecosystem projects in forest damage research. Subject group 1 (model theory approaches) focuses on models which use statistical methods to detect and cover natural processes, and which simulate natural processes in a predefi...
Change of climate conditions influence energy fluxes applicable to forest ecosystems. These affect cycles of nutrients and materials, primary productivity of the ecosystem, biodiversity, ecological functionality and, consequently, carbon equilibria of the forest ecosystem. Temporal factors influence physical, biological, ecological, and climatic processes and functions. For example, seasonality, cycles, periodicity, and trends in climate variables; tree growth, forest growth, and forest metabolic activities (i.e., photosynthesis and respiration) are commonly known to be time-related. In tropical forests, the impacts of changing climate conditions may exceed temperature and/or precipitation thresholds critical to forest tree growth or health. Historically, forest management emphasises growth rates and financial returns as affected by species and site. Until recently, the influence of climate variability on growth dynamics has not been influential in forest planning and management. Under this system, especially in climatic and forest regions where most of species are stenoecious, periodical wood harvesting may occur in any phase of growth (increasing, decreasing, peak, and trough). This scenario presents four main situations: a) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is decreasing: future productivity is damaged; the minimum biomass capital may be altered, and CO2 storage is negatively affected; b) harvesting occurs during a trough of the rate of growth: the minimum biomass capital necessary to preserve the resilience of the forest is damaged; the damage can be temporary (decades) or permanent; CO2 storage capacity is deficient - which may be read as an indirect emission of CO2 since the balance appears negative; c) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is increasing: the planned wood mass can be used without compromising the resilience and recovery of the forest; CO2 storage remains increasing; d) harvesting occurs during a peak period of growth: the wood mass harvested can be even higher than planned, and the rate of CO2 storage can be above the average. A real risk for SFM under changing climatic conditions is that negative effects may be amplified; critical thresholds of temperature and/or rainfall for tree growth and stress may be exceeded with impacts on growth response, resilience, and CO2 balance that are not completely known. Furthermore, temporal changes in silvicultural and harvesting operations may lead to increased carbon emissions. Under this scenario and the consequent risks to SFM forestry operations should be planned or scheduled in periods when climate variables influencing tree growth and stress are within the relative thresholds. In this way, silvicultural operations and harvesting are going to be optimised to climate variability and forest growth responses, rather than just forest timber production.
This report deals with Finnish involvement in MNT projects and the relevance of Finnish MNT expertise from the space technology perspective. At least nine Finnish companies can be identified having strong focus on MNT or related technologies. Most of them...
Unveven-aged silvicultural practices can be used to regenerate and manage many eastern hardwood stands. Single-tree selection methods are feasible in stands where a desirable shade-tolerant commercial species can be regenerated following periodic harvests. A variety of partial cutting practices, including single-tree selection and diameter-limit cutting have been used for 30 years or more to manage central Appalachian hardwoods on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia. Results from these research areas are presented to help forest managers evaluate financial aspects of partial cutting practices. Observed volume growth, product yields, changes in species composition, and changes in residual stand quality are used to evaluate potential financial returns. Also, practical economic considerations for applying partial cutting methods are discussed.
The report estimates profitable logging opportunities existing in upland hardwood forests in 14 Southern States and demonstrates the impact of three alternative product-merchandizing options on profitable logging opportunities and profit margins.
The report estimates profitable logging opportunities existing in upland hardwood forests in 14 Southern States and demonstrates the impact of three alternative product-merchandizing options on profitable logging opportunities and profit margins.
May, D.M.; LeDoux, C.B.; Tansey, J.B.; Widmann, R.
“Shinrin-yoku”, which can be defined as “taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing”, has been receiving increasing\\u000a attention in Japan in recent years for its capacity to provide relaxation and reduce stress. Since 2004, the authors of this\\u000a paper have been involved in an investigation designed to ascertain the physiological effects of “Shinrin-yoku” within the\\u000a framework of the “Therapeutic
The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Medicine Bow National ...
We describe the behavior of a previously unstudied community of wild chimpanzees during opportunistic encounters with researchers in an unprotected forest-farm mosaic at Bulindi, Uganda. Data were collected during 115 encounters between May 2006 and January 2008. Individual responses were recorded during the first minute of visual contact. The most common responses were "ignore" for arboreal chimpanzees and "monitor" for terrestrial individuals. Chimpanzees rarely responded with "flight". Adult males were seen disproportionately often relative to adult females, and accounted for 90% of individual responses recorded for terrestrial animals. Entire encounters were also categorized based on the predominant response of the chimpanzee party to researcher proximity. The most frequent encounter type was "ignore" (36%), followed by "monitor" (21%), "intimidation" (18%) and "stealthy retreat" (18%). "Intimidation" encounters occurred when chimpanzees were contacted in dense forest where visibility was low, provoking intense alarm and agitation. Adult males occasionally acted together to repel researchers through aggressive mobbing and pursuit. Chimpanzee behavior during encounters reflects the familiar yet frequently agonistic relationship between apes and local people at Bulindi. The chimpanzees are not hunted but experience high levels of harassment from villagers. Human-directed aggression by chimpanzees may represent a strategy to accommodate regular disruptions to foraging effort arising from competitive encounters with people both in and outside forest. Average encounter duration and proportion of encounters categorized as "ignore" increased over time, whereas "intimidation" encounters decreased, indicating some habituation occurred during the study. Ecotourism aimed at promoting tolerance of wildlife through local revenue generation is one possible strategy for conserving great apes on public or private land. However, the data imply that habituating chimpanzees for viewing-based ecotourism in heavily human-dominated landscapes, such as Bulindi, is ill-advised since a loss of fear of humans could lead to increased negative interactions with local people. PMID:20806338
The purpose of this article is to discuss the indicators used to evaluate success and to describe the success of Finnish family farms by using subjective and objective measurements of success. We used bookkeeping information and survey data from 296 Finnish farms. We found that the perceived success of farmers has five dimensions: Quality awareness; Family farm lifestyle; Managing farm
Heikki Mäkinen; Leena Rantamäki-Lahtinen; Matti Ylätalo; Seppo Vehkamäki
This article discusses professionalism in early childhood education through the analytical tool of a research?based multi?level perspective that sees this as a cultural, communal, organisational, and individual phenomenon. Starting from an understanding of professionalism derived from a model of professional expertise, the article discusses the Finnish day?care context at the social and cultural level, followed by a discussion of field?specific
Reduced soil porosity and organic matter removal have been identified as common factors associated with loss of forest productivity (Powers et al. 1990). In both agriculture and forestry, management activities can modify soil porosity and organic matter with resultant impacts on vegetative growth. As part of a nationwide long-term soil productivity (LTSP) study soil porosity and organic matter are being experimentally manipulated on large plots to determine the impacts of such manipulations on growth and species diversity for a wide range of forest types.
The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size in Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire pig populations were studied using a whole genome SNP panel (Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip) and pedigree data. Genotypic data included 86 Finnish Landrace and 32 Finnish Yorkshire boars. Pedigree data included 608,138 Finnish Landrace 554,237 and Finnish Yorkshire pigs, and on average 15 ancestral generations were known for the reference animals, born in 2005 to 2009. The breeding animals of the 2 populations have been kept separate in the breeding programs. Based on the pedigree data, the current effective population size for Finnish Landrace is 91 and for Finnish Yorkshire 61. Linkage disequilibrium measures (D' and r(2)) were estimated for over 1.5 million pairs of SNP. Average r(2) for SNP 30 kb apart was 0.47 and 0.49 and for SNP 5 Mb apart 0.09 and 0.12 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Average LD (r(2)) between adjacent SNP in the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip was 0.43 (57% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Landrace and 0.46 (60% of the adjacent SNP pairs had r(2) > 0.2) for Finnish Yorkshire, and average r(2) > 0.2 extended to 1.0 and 1.5 Mb for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Effective population size estimates based on the decay of r(2) with distance were similar to those based on the pedigree data: 80 and 55 for Finnish Landrace and Finnish Yorkshire, respectively. Thus, the results indicate that the effective population size of Finnish Yorkshire is smaller than of Finnish Landrace and has a clear effect on the extent of LD. The current effective population size of both breeds is above the recommended minimum of 50 but may get smaller than that in the near future, if no action is taken to balance the inbreeding rate and selection response. Because a moderate level of LD extends over a long distance, selection based on whole genome SNP markers (genomic selection) is expected to be efficient for both breeds. PMID:21036932
The ecohydrology of transitional premontane cloud forests is not well understood. This problem is being addressed by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) study at the Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research & Education in Costa Rica. Exploratory analysis of the water budget within a 20-ha watershed was used to connect three faculty-mentored research areas in ecohydrology, climate, and soil sciences and highlight the roles of 12 undergraduate researchers from 12 different universities. The water budget model is Q = Pn - E - T + ?G + ?S where Q = runoff, Pn = net precipitation, E = evaporation, T = transpiration, and ?G and ?S are change in groundwater soil water storage, respectively. Additionally, Pn = Pg - I = Tf + Sf + D, where Pg = gross precipitation, I/?I = canopy interception or storage, Tf = throughfall, Sf = stemflow, and D = canopy drip. The following terms were well understood Pg (satellite = 34-mm and tower = 38.1-mm) and Q from a recently constructed v-notch weir. We moderately understand Tf + D (30.9-mm from an array of forest rain gages), ?I (7.2-mm) related to Sf, and T (10.4-mm measured with sapflow sensors). We found that soils were clay loam to silty loam textured Andisols on saprolitic tuft with a mean potential ?S of 398 mm H2O under laboratory conditions, but in the field the following terms are almost completely unknown and require further field studies including E, ?G, and ?S. Recent installation of piezometers will address ?G. Temporal scaling of measurements to a 1-week period was a challenge as well as the construction, deployment and calibration of instruments. However, this exploration allowed us to determine measurement uncertainties in the water budget, e.g., E, and to set future areas of research to address these uncertainties.
Washington-Allen, R. A.; Buckwalter, E. H.; Moore, G. W.; Burns, J. N.; Dennis, A. R.; Dodge, O.; Guffin, E. C.; Morris, E. R.; Oien, R. P.; Orozco, G.; Peterson, A.; Teale, N. G.; Shibley, N. C.; Tourtellotte, N.; Houser, C.; Brooks, S. D.; Brumbelow, J. K.; Cahill, A. T.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Gonzalez, E.; Hallmark, C. T.; McInnes, K. J.; Miller, G. R.; Morgan, C.; Quiring, S. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Roark, E.; Delgado, A.; Ackerson, J. P.; Arnott, R.
A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.
This document presents project summaries that demonstrate specific capabilities of interest to the forest, wood and paper industry in areas where PNL offers significant depth of experience or unique expertise. Though PNL possesses a wide range of capabilities across many of the technology-related issues identified by the industry, this document focuses on capabilities that meet the specific forest, wood and paper industry needs of the following research areas: forest inventory; human and environmental effects; energy and environmental tradeoffs; reduction of impacts of liquid effluent; solid wastes; removal of non-process elements in pulp and paper operations; life cycle assessment; and process measurement and controls. In addition, PNL can provide the forest, wood and paper industry with support in areas such as strategic and program planning, stakeholder communications and outreach, budget defense and quality metrics. These are services PNL provides directly to several programs within DOE.
This paper explores the dynamic potential inherent in stable looking technological systems. I follow a small Finnish heating business and describe how alternative production practices were established within Finnish forestry. The case shows an interesting development in a sector where local activities have traditionally been coordinated through standardised practices and the physical structure of the forest. My focus is on
Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research…
An equation is presented for predicting total height as a function of diameter outside bark at breast height for conifer species of the eastside pine type on the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest in northeastern California. Weighted nonlinear regression was used to estimate the equation coefficients. The equation, along with the species-specific regression coefficients, provides a reliable basis for estimating missing heights on inventory and growth plots.
Along term ecological research was carried out in a Hungarian oak forest, in "Bükk" National Park starting with 1972. During the faunistical studies 3,602 insect species and more than 200,000 individuals were collected. The dominant orders were Coleoptera (1,051 species), Lepidoptera (803 species), Hymenoptera (470 species) and Diptera (400 species). The relative species abundance (RSA) for all insects collected in all years of sampling period suggests a rather J shape curve than a not clear scaling property. This means that we were able to identify almost three quarters of the insect species from one ha European oak forest during the survey (from 1987 to 2003), and two third of the staphylinides expected. Considering the staphylinid fauna a total number of 160 species and 4,022 individuals were collected. The most widely occurring species in dominance order were: Ocypus biharicus, Pseudocypus mus, Atheta gagatina, Philonthus quisquiliarius, Oxypoda acuminate, Platydracus chalcocephalus, Atheta crassicomis, Latrimaeum atrocephalum, Haploglossa puncticollis, Philonthus succicola and Anotylus mutator. The pooled value of alpha diversity was 1.51. The Shannon-Weiner Index (H') was relatively high (3.29) in comparison with other studies. PMID:18831387
During the 1990s, a number of major changes occurred in forest policy in British Columbia. The Forest Practices Code was enacted in 1994, based largely on the best available science at the time. The Code was highly prescriptive, and is believed to have substantially increased the costs of forest operations in the province. Following criticisms of the Code and the
General Circulation Models (GCMs) have projected global warming of from 3 to 8 degrees F to take place over a period of from 50 to 100 years. The Forest Service Southern Global Change Program (SGCP) has proposed the use of GCM output as input to forest assessment models to estimate the potential impacts of climate changes on forests of the
Investigations with large-scale forest lysimeter research of the lowlands of Northeast Germany - Results and consequences for the choice of tree species and forest management Introduction At present about 28 % - i.e. 1.9 million hectares - of the Northeast German Lowlands are covered with forests. The Lowlands are among the driest and at the same time the most densely wooded regions in Germany. The low annual precipitation between 500 and 600 mm and the light sandy soils with their low water storage capacity and a high porosity lead to a limited water availability. Therefore the hydrological functions of forests play an important role in the fields of regional water budget, water supply and water distribution. Experimental sites Lysimeters are suitable measuring instruments in the fields of granular soils and loose rocks to investgate evaporation and seepage water. The usage of lysimeter of different construction has a tradition of more than 100 years in this region. To investigate the water consumption of different tree species, lysimeters were installed at Britz near Eberswalde under comparable site conditions. In the early 1970s nine large-scale lysimeters were built with an area of 100 m2 and a depth of 5 m each. In 1974 the lysimeters were planted, together with their environment, with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), larch (Larix decidua L.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] FRANCO) as experimental stands of 0.5 ha each according to the usual management practices. Therefore the "Large-scale lysimeters of Britz" are unparalleled in Europe. It was the initial aim of the experiment to find out the influence of the species and age of the growing stock growing on identical sandy soil under comparable weather conditions on both natural groundwater recharge and evaporation. Future forests in the north-eastern lowlands of Germany shall be mixed stands with as large a number of different species as possible. And this is also the aim of forest conversion in Land Brandenburg. The programme requires scientific attendance and foundation. In particular it shall be examined how the hydro-ecological conditions - which often are the limiting factor for forest growth in this area - would change with underplanted pine and larch and how these conditions may benefit from stand-structural and forestry measures. This is why several lysimeter stands were changed as follows: Ø Larch underplanted with beech Ø Scots pine underplanted with beech Ø Scots pine underplanted with oak Results Forests with their special hydrological properties have a substantial influence on the water budget, water supply and water distribution of entire landscapes. The tree species is of outstanding importance for deep seepage under forest stands. The sum of transpiration gives a rough overview about the water budget of the forest stand. More important for the detection of interactions between the compartments is the partitioning of the whole evaporation into individual evaporation components. Under the given precipitation and soil conditions, the course of interception and hence, the amount of seepage water depend on the crown structure in the stand. Depending on the amount of interception of the tree canopy and the duration of the leaching phase in spring, the mixed stands range between pure pine and pure beech. Making use of silvicultural methods and adequate stand treatment, forestry is able to control the water budget of landscapes.
Learn to speak the Finnish Language Try out these websites for some fun \\"learning language\\" adventures Verbix Verbix Foreign Languages for Travelers Foreign Languages for Travelers Goethe Tests: Multilingual Vocabulary Exercises Goethe Tests: Multilingual Vocabulary Exercises ...
Soil nutrient balances in the forest znoe of Nigeria to sustain cocoa production has been an object of research for some sixty years. After its introduction into the zone of West Africa in 1890, the area planted to cocoa increased rapidly to its present 1.5 million hectares and yield increased to peak of 310,000 tons in 1965. However, as early
The Wave Scattering Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington has developed a scattering model for forest or vegetation, based on the theory of electromagnetic-wave scattering in random media. The model generalizes the assumptions imposed by earlier models, and compares well with measurements from several forest canopies. This paper gives a description of the model. It also indicates how the model elements are integrated to obtain the scattering characteristics of different forest canopies. The scattering characteristics may be displayed in the form of polarimetric signatures, represented by like- and cross-polarized scattering coefficients, for an elliptically-polarized wave, or in the form of signal-distribution curves. Results illustrating both types of scattering characteristics are given.
Forest certification programs require program participants to manage for biodiversity using science-based information. Management\\u000a at the interface of retained wetland features and plantations provides opportunities to enhance wildlife diversity on commercial\\u000a pine forest lands. We review the scientific literature to document how wildlife in managed pine forests might benefit from\\u000a retention of isolated wetlands and riparian zones, and potential effects
Phillip D. Jones; Brice B. Hanberry; Stephen Demarais
Over the past several years, the undergraduate curriculum at many universities has been evolving to incorporate laboratory exercises and research projects to reinforce and support traditional classroom lectures. In particular, involving undergraduates in meaningful research projects is a key to providing them with the hands-on activities students are demanding. Unfortunately, two areas in the electrical engineering curriculum are suffering from a lack of meaningful hands-on learning activities: electromagnetics and communications. At many universities, electromagnetics is taught as a highly theoretical, highly mathematical class with the goal of providing students a deep understanding of Maxwells equations. Students that complete such a course generally struggle when faced with applying Maxwells equations to real-world electromagnetics problems such as transmission lines, antenna design, or wireless propagation. Introductory communications courses may have laboratory components, however, involving students in an undergraduate research project is an excellent mechanism to supplement and reinforce the laboratory exercises. This paper presents a summer undergraduate research experience that involved characterizing ultra wideband wireless propagation and position location in a forest environment. Four undergraduate students were selected to participate in the research experience. All four students had taken the basic electromagnetics and communications courses, although only one had prior hands-on experience. Additionally, the use of impulse ultra-wideband signals represented a new wireless communication scheme that students had to master at the beginning of the research experience. After an initial training period, students were tasked with site selection, experimental design, recording measurements, analyzing data, and troubleshooting equipment failures. Although it is too early to assess the impact of the research experience on these students careers, the experience appears to have been a success. All four students reported a greater depth of understanding of the concepts taught in electromagnetics and communications courses. Additionally, students gained valuable experience in developing and carrying out field experiments sometimes in less than ideal conditions and as a result of this experience, some students expressed a desire to pursue a graduate degree. Designing this research project also provided several valuable lessons to the instructors which will aid in the further development of hands-on learning activities for electromagnetics and communications courses.
This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the contribution of organic carbon and organic acids to the acid-base status of Finnish lakes, summarizing empirical organic acidity measurements (from 16 lakes) combined with the Finnish Lake Survey data ...
Recent attention has focused on riparian forest buffer systems for filtering sediment, nutrients, and pesticides entering from upslope agricultural fields. Studies in a variety of physiographic areas have shown that concentrations of sediment and agrichemicals are reduced after passage through a riparian forest. The mechanisms involved are both physical and biological, including deposition, uptake by vegetation, and loss by microbiological
Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure - Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, USA are summarized. Tropospheric ozone is st...
The unified content of EHRs promote shared understanding of patient data, information exchange between information systems and health care organizations, data retrieval from EHR and reuse of data for administrative purposes, statistical analysis or clinical research. The purpose of this study was to analyze to what extent Finnish national headings can be coded with the current version LOINC. Ten (37%) of national headings can be mapped to LOINC terms in clinical class. There were LOINC terms in other classes which correspond to headings. Furthermore, inconsistency exists in the names of headings. The need for mapping national headings to all terms in LOINC is needed. PMID:21685603
The article deals with the previous use of psychiatric health services and self-perceived mental health in Finnish prisoners. It forms part of the health survey of Finnish prisoners (the WATTU project). The project dealt with a sample of 1,099 Finnish prisoners. An analysis of cases not included showed that the results can be generalized to all Finnish prisoners.Psychiatric outpatient services
This book discusses recent changes in Finnish higher education, pinpointing the changes and analyzing what they mean. The chapters are: (1) "GeoPolitical and Cultural Coordinates for Finnish History" (Jussi Valimaa); (2) "A Historical Introduction to Finnish Higher Education" (Jussi Valimaa); (3) "Analysing Massification and Globalisation" (Jussi…
The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A History" (Yrjo…
An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and plant chemistry, O(3)-sensitive plant species, forest insects, and genetic changes in the Retezat and Tatra Mountains. Results of these investigations are presented in a GIS format to allow for a better understanding of the changes and the recommendations for effective management in these two areas. PMID:12676229
SILVAH, FIBER, NE-TWIGS, and OAKSIM simulators, commonly used in the northeastern United States, were evaluated by comparing predicted stand development with actual stand development records for periods ranging from 15 to 50 years. Results varied with stand parameter, forest type, projection length, and geographic area. Except in the spruce-fir forest type where FIBER stands out as the best simulator, no single simulator is clearly superior to the others for all locations within a forest type. In general, FIBER, NE-TWIGS, and SILVAH performed best in the northern hardwood (beech-birch-maple) forest type: NE-TWIGS and SILVAH performed best in the Allegheny hardwood (cherry-maple) forest type; SILVAH and OAKSIM performed best in the oak-hickory forest type; and SILVAH was most suitable in the transition hardwood (mixture of northern hardwoods and oaks) forest type. The results give growth and yield model users more information for selecting the simulator most suitable for their particular needs. The results also can be used as a diagnostic tool for growth and yield model development.
A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific Northwest Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. The design is flexible and can be used with many types of maps. The theory of point and change estimation is described, as well as estimates of variation that assess the statistical precision of estimates.
Max, T.A.; Schreuder, H.T.; Hazard, J.W.; Oswald, D.D.; Teply, J.
This study presented a 29-item Intercultural and Religious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRSSQ) that is based on the Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS). Psychometric properties of the IRSS were tested with an empirical sample of 249 seventh, eighth and ninth grade students of the Finnish comp rehensive school attending Lutheran religious education. Two research questions were examined: 1)
The aim of this paper is to explore the historical representations of adulthood, citizenship and the ideal social bonds of an individual and the society in the transforming moral orders of Finnish adult education. The research is based on a thematic reading of data, which consist of texts written during the past 150 years by theorists of adult…
This study has examined the success of Finnish-Swedish mergers and acquisitions. Both the success itself and the underlying reasons for success, or failure, have been in the focus of the study. The study has been based on a historical case study research ...
The aim of this study is to answer the following question: what do children tell about their well-being in Finnish day care centres? The theoretical and methodological framework of this study is based on a narrative approach. The research material was collected by participating in the everyday life of three groups of children and listening to…
The research reported here is concerned with a critical examination of some of the assumptions concerning the "Net Generation" capabilities of 74 first-year student teachers in a Finnish university. There are assumptions that: (i) Net Generation students are adept at learning through discovery and thinking in a hypertext-like manner (Oblinger &…
The use of the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer as instrument for calculating plant area index (PAI), and ultimately leaf area index (LAI), based on hemispherical gap-fraction measurements has been established through past studies. Ideally, these measurements are taken under diffuse light, which restricts their application to overcast conditions or short time windows during dusk and dawn. A promising and less restrictive alternative is digital cover photography (DCP), which provides estimates of crown porosity (?), and foliage (ff) and crown cover fractions (fc). From these, PAI can be calculated, which can then be corrected for the influence of woody canopy elements to obtain LAI. The method has been developed and tested in Eucalyptus forests and oak-savanna woodland, i.e. in open ecosystems where enough light can penetrate the canopy for sufficient scene illumination. This research seeks to explore the viability of DCP as a method of obtaining PAI and LAI for phenological research in closed forest ecosystems such as temperate broadleaf deciduous forests, where limited scene illumination especially under fully developed canopies and the seasonally changing influence of woody canopy elements to ?, ff and fc might pose methodological challenges. To test the performance of DCP under these conditions, weekly imaging of 33 long-term incremental biomass plots at a temperate broadleaf-deciduous-dominated forest (Harvard Forest) was undertaken with a digital single-lens reflex camera (Pentax K100D). To examine the role of changing scene illumination at different canopy development stages, the images were acquired in RAW format to allow maximum control over image exposure in the post-processing. Using a range of different exposure settings, DCP-based PAI estimates were then compared to PAI estimates obtained from gap-fraction measurements made with the LAI-2000 instrument (recomputed using only the first 7° ring) at the same plots, and with canopy greenness obtained with a webcam overlooking the forest canopy. Preliminary results show that DCP-PAI is generally lower than LAI-2000 DCP regardless of image exposure, with discrepancies being largest (~30%) under full canopy development. Using the two PAI estimates as spring phenological metrics in comparison to canopy greenness, the two PAI estimates indicate later onset of green-up than canopy greenness, but the three metrics broadly agree in terms of green-up rate. Our results demonstrate that especially PAI from DCP is a viable method to track spring phenology in closed forest ecosystems but more work is needed to correctly account for the influence of woody canopy elements.
Felts, E. S.; Sonnentag, O.; Ryu, Y.; Macfarlane, C.; Hufkens, K.; Keenan, T. F.; Friedl, M. A.; Richardson, A. D.
The chemical properties of the soil, nutrient status of the trees and stand production are examined in approximately 20-year-old liming experiment in the study. The material consist of 96 experiments in the pine and spruce stands.The following treatments ...
To protect, manage, and use forest resources effectively, the condition of these resources must be known. Concern about documented and potential effects of air pollutants in combination with other multiple, interacting stresses has been a major impetus be...
C. J. Palmer K. H. Ritters T. Strickland D. L. Cassell G. E. Byers
The Upland forests of Micronesia and American Samoa can provide many social, ecological, and esthetic benefits for island inhabitants. Substantial upland areas (the majority of acreage on some islands) are now occupied by secondary and grassland/savanna v...
Forest fire caused damages of property and loss of human life. Detecting a forest fire and get the location is very significant in the fire early warning. More early and more prompt detecting fire and determining fire position as far as possible could avoid and reduce loss of the disaster. At present there are three ways regarding the forest fire early warning and location determining which included: monitoring form Remote Sense Satellite image, manual observation and patrols, and automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video. Overall evaluation regarding the three location technologies in forest fire early warning, the CCD camera detecting method is suitable in the fire rapid Response. An automatic forest fire surveillance system was running to detect the fire by using visible light images from the remote cameras. If a forest fire was detected, an alarm will be activated. The observation point elevation values, vertical offsets, horizontal and vertical scanning angles, and scanning distances will be also be sent to the central control room. The spatial orientation will be computed and showed on the electronic map. Key location technologies based on CCD camera included the image processing technique for automatically detecting forest fire and the visibility analyzes technique for the digital elevation model. Jing gang Mountain which locates in Jiangxi province of China is taken as an example. With the help of this automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video and visibility analyzes, scientists and government administrators can make decision-supporting easily when they know exactly where a forest fire is. At last the shortage of CCD camera detecting method was discussed. We cannot depend on CCD camera detecting equipment and technologies only. With foundation of the automatic video frequency supervisory system, we should also strengthen manual observation and satellite remote sensing monitor.
The total forest area of the 14 SADC member countries is estimated at 262.8 million ha, representing about 29% of the total land area. Annual rates of deforestation in the member states range from 0.75% to 2.2% with Angola and Malawi having the lowest and highest rates of deforestation, respectively. While existing statistics on forest resources have to be updated
Discusses the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's reading literacy study in Finland. Shows that, although language-minority students are often expected to have lower achievement in school, students from Swedish-speaking homes in Finland scored almost as well as their Finnish-speaking counterparts on extensive…
This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite…
The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective…
Biodeterioration is associated with virtually all types of wood structures, including bridges, mine timbers, utility poles, marine structures, and railroad ties. Scientists in the Biodeterioration of Wood Unit at the Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, are exploring new approaches for detecting and preventing wood decay. The report describes progress in developing immunological procedures for detecting decay. The report also describes simple in-place preventive and remedial treatments for protecting wood from biodeterioration by mold, sapstain, and decay fungi. Timber has been estimated to increase in value nearly 24 times between the stump and delivery of the finished product. Thus, research that improves the service-life of wood has potential for high financial return.
The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant\\u000a differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA\\u000a studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g. reading, science and\\u000a math, while Danish students score
To protect, manage, and use forest resources effectively, the condition of these resources must be known. oncern about documented and potential effects of air pollutants in combination with other multiple, interacting stresses has been a major impetus behind the development of mo...
This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.
Summary The harmonisation of a sub-set of forest health attributes suitable for aggregating, through scales ranging from individual trees to the operational forest management unit and up to the national level, has been achieved in countries such as the USA and Canada. In Australia, however, data collected on forest health is currently obtained on an ad hoc basis with only
C. Stone; T. Wardlaw; R. Floyd; A. Carnegie; R. Wylie
The spectral and directional reflection properties of pine forest understory in Suonenjoki, Finland were measured using a newly developed transportable field goniospectrometer under direct sunlight or plant lamp. The samples represent the most typical types in Finnishforests. Large differences between species were found. Wax-leaved shrubs such as lingonberry and blueberry proved to be strong forward scatterers, whereas lichen and
Jouni I. Peltoniemi; Sanna Kaasalainen; Jyri Näränen; Miina Rautiainen; Pauline Stenberg; Heikki Smolander; Sampo Smolander; Pekka Voipio
The Forest Resources Committee reports that, while there was little new legislation in the first session of Congress, regulations were developed for implementing the 1976 National Forest Management Act and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act. New bills were introduced that deal with forestry assistance, research, and extension programs. Administrative actions included the development of guidelines and standards
Robert H. Strand; Richard A. Lawrence; Robert D. Day Jr.
In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.
The alkylresorcinol (AR) content and relative homologue composition were determined in 9 Latvian and 11 Finnish soft breads. ARs were extracted with hot 1-propanol and quantified, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The total AR content (?g/g dry matter) varied from 560 to 840 in rye breads, from 500 to 700 in Finnish mixed rye and wheat flour breads, from 200 to 300 in Latvian mixed rye and wheat flour breads and from 25 to 30 in white wheat breads. Rye and white wheat breads in the two countries varied only slightly in AR content, but there were wide variations in AR content in mixed flour breads. The AR contents in soft breads could be indicators of bran or fibre content, but not of whole-grain flour content. PMID:22816971
This chapter is based on a number of research projects on offender profiling and homicidal crime scene behavior carried out\\u000a at the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. This specific study investigated homicidal recidivism in Finland and analyzed\\u000a offense and offender characteristics in these cases. The results diverge in many respects from the previous research findings\\u000a attributed to serial homicide and
Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level, but not growth rate of vocabulary in both Finnish…
Silvén, Maarit; Voeten, Marinus; Kouvo, Anna; Lundén, Maija
Point of plot data are commonly available for mapping forest landscapes. Because such data are sampled, mapping a complete coverage usually requires some type of interpolation between plots. SAS/GRAPH software includes the G3GRID procedure for interpolating or smoothing this type of data to map with G3D or GCONTOUR procedures. However, the smoothing process in G3GRID is not easily controlled, nor can it be used to display missing data within rectangular grid maps. These shortcomings motivated development of SAS code that prepares point data for display in mapping units. This code links well with the rest of the SAS system to allow for powerful, easily controlled data analysis within mapping units. Examples are given for mapping forest vegetation with the GMAP procedure.
The report includes the framework represented as a matrix of potential threats and attributes of wilderness character. Cells in the matrix represent the impacts of threats on each attribute. Potential application of the matrix are described. An application of the matrix to the wildernesses in the Forest Service's Northern Region (northern Idaho and Montana) suggests that fire management is the most significant threat to those wildernesses and that aquatic systems are the most threatened wilderness attribute.
The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but in the long term, the supply is uncertain and cause for concern. Hardwoods need to be recognized in forest management in the Pacific Northwest.
Previously, various persistent pesticides were used extensively in the production of seedlings at Finnishforest nurseries. The extent and magnitude of the risks arising from the consequent environmental contamination are largely unknown. Therefore, we selected two representative nurseries for which we conducted tiered health risk assessments (HRA) using risk-based benchmarks and two calculation tools (SSL and Risc-Human software). Ecological risk
This research investigates horse trail impacts to gain an improved understanding of the relationship between various levels of horse use, horse trail management alternatives, and subsequent horse trail degradation. A survey of existing horse trails on the Hoosier National Forest was used to collect data on use-related, environmental and management factors to model horse trail impacts. Results are analyzed to identify which factors are most easily manipulated by managers to effectively avoid and minimize horse trail impacts. A specific focus includes evaluating the relative effect of trail use level, surfacing, grade, and water control on indices of erosion and trafficability such as trail cross sectional area, estimated erosion, muddiness, and incision. Overall, the Hoosier National Forest horse trails could be significantly improved by relocating or closing inherited trails that directly ascend slope or are excessively steep, reducing the distance between water control structures, and by applying gravel to harden trail surfaces and reduce soil erosion. A set of Best Management Practices for trails are included as a product of this work, with recommendations based on this research.
The US Army Corps of Engineers North Atlantic Division, Baltimore District (CENAB), intends to design and construct a medical and dental research facility for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) at Forest Glen, Maryland. Because almost 100% of the proposed building site is located on an uncontrolled landfill that was thought to possibly contain medical, toxic, radioactive, or hazardous waste, it was assumed that remediation of the site might be necessary prior to or in conjunction with excavation. To assess (1) the need for remediation and (2) the potential hazards to construction workers and the general population, the Baltimore District contracted with Argonne National Laboratory to undertake a site characterization and risk assessment and to develop a foundation-excavation plan. The results of the site characterization and a qualitative risk assessment have been presented in a previous report. This report presents the foundation-excavation plan. 38 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.
Hambley, D.F.; Harrison, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Foster, S.A.; Schweighauser, M.J. (Clement Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States))
In this paper the focus is on identifying the technological linkages between the Finnish nanotechnology community and the large established companies. These linkages represent potential diffusion paths for nanotechnology. The technological linkages are first observed at a broader level in comparison with the technological strengths of the Finnish industries, and then in more detail at the level of companies. In
Objective. Literature on women's experiences with climacterium is mostly based on patients or on North American women. In this study, the experiences and opinions of Finnish women were investigated. Study Design. In 1989, a questionnaire was sent to a representative sample of 45–64-year-old Finnish women (n = 2000); 1713 (86%) responded, of which 1308 were postmenopausal. Results. Most women (87%)
Heavy metals were analyzed from reindeer by the Finnish National Veterinary and Food Research Institute. The analyses were part of a larger project during the period 1990-1993, in which residues in vegetables, milk, berries, fish and reindeer were monitored. The main aim of the reindeer study was to investigate possible differences between the heavy metal contents of reindeer samples from northern, eastern, western and southern Lapland. Another objective of the study was also to clarify the environmental effects of industrial activities in the Kola Peninsula and in Tornio on the food products of Finnish Lapland. Analyses of organochlorine compounds from reindeer samples were also performed, but these results will be published later after a larger number of samples has been studied. Results of the reindeer analyses were also compared with previous reindeer and elk studies of the Finnish National Veterinary Institute (1980) and Neimi (1993) and with two Norwegian studies (roslie 1984 and 1986). 13 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.
Rintala, R.; Venaelaeinen, E.R.; Hirvi, T. [Finnish National Veterinary and Food Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)
Affiliated with Duke University, the Forest History Society (FHS) "links the past to the future by identifying, collecting, preserving, interpreting, and disseminating information on the history of interactions between people, forests, and their related resources..." Founded in 1946, FHS offers extensive resources for anyone interested in the history of forests. This website contains links to FHS archives, research and publications, U.S. Forest Service history, searchable databases, and more. The searchable databases include a sizeable bibliography "containing annotated descriptions of over 34,000 books, articles, and dissertations on topics in the fields of forest, conservation, and environmental history."
George Keller's criticism of the state of higher education research is discussed. An alternative model of the relationship between research and policy, some valuable contributions of higher education research, and steps for improving the quality and impact of that research are described. (MLW)
The importance of forests as carbon sources or sinks depends, in part, upon stand age, which in turn is generally dependent on time since last disturbance. Uncertainties in North American carbon fluxes originate from poor understanding of forest dynamics, specifically disturbance and regeneration. The North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, which supports North American Carbon Program (NACP) science goals, is improving understanding of North American forest dynamics through integration of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service (USFS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) field observations and biennial Landsat imagery to evaluate disturbance and regrowth patterns over the last ~ 35 years. NAFD Phase I (2005-2008) detailed forest disturbance history from Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) for 23 sample locations across the United States. Results of Phase I NAFD disturbance mapping reveal generally high rates of forest disturbance (0.5 - 3.0% per year across the U.S). These rates vary both spatially and temporally. Ongoing Phase II (2008-2011) work is refining the Phase I approach. Additional sample locations in the conterminous U.S are being added to reduce error in nationwide disturbance estimates. Detection of partial disturbances is being improved by moving toward annual rather then biennial LTSS. This is being accomplished with cloud clearing through image merging to provide within-growing season clear surface views. Additional elements of the NAFD Phase II work include partnering with Canada and Mexico to better understand North American continent-wide forest dynamics. We are also extending our effort to consider regrowth dynamics using the FIA data to support both radiative transfer modeling and synthesis of FIA and the remote sensing data to estimate biomass accumulation trends. We are also collaborating with other NACP- investigators where the NAFD products inform their alternate approaches (modeling and/ or accounting) for carbon assessment. Soon we are planning on implementing model-based estimators for the purpose of developing nationwide maps of disturbance rates, a product currently widely sought by carbon modelers.
Thomas, N.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J.; Cohen, W. B.; Moisen, G. G.; Huang, C.; Kennedy, R. E.; Healey, S. P.; Powell, S. L.; Schleeweis, K.; Hinds, A.; Rishmawi, K.
Language-and culture-specific norms are needed for research on emotion-laden stimuli. We present valence and arousal ratings for 420 Finnish nouns for a sample of 996 Finnish speakers. Ratings are provided both for the whole sample and for subgroups divided by age and gender in light of previous research suggesting age- and gender-specific reactivity to the emotional content in stimuli. Moreover, corpus-based frequency values and word length are provided as objective psycholinguistic measures of the nouns. The relationship between valence and arousal mainly showed the curvilinear relationship reported in previous studies. Age and gender effects on valence and arousal ratings were statistically significant but weak. The inherent affective properties of the words in terms of mean valence and arousal ratings explained more of the variance in the ratings. In all, the findings suggest that language- and culture-related factors influence the way affective properties of words are rated to a greater degree than demographic factors. This database will provide researchers with normative data for Finnish emotion-laden and emotionally neutral words. The normative database is available in Database S1.
Soderholm, Carina; Hayry, Emilia; Laine, Matti; Karrasch, Mira
In this lesson plan students learn about different types of forests - temperate deciduous forests, temperate evergreen forests, and tropical rain forests. Students will concentrate on the tropical rain forest and learn about the Congo Trek made by the explorer Michael Fay through the African rain forest.
Analyses of the foreign expansion of firms based on economics have recently been supplemented with institutionally-oriented studies demonstrating that foreign expansion is partly conditioned by the institutional environment in which the expanding firms are embedded. In this paper, we join this emerging stream of research with an empirical study on three Finnish-based paper industry firms from 1994 to 2000. By
The aim of the Kangaroo research project was to enhance the well-being of children under three years of age in Finnish day-care centres. In this experimental intervention study adults were encouraged to take a more sensitive and active role especially during "free play." In six Kangaroo groups and five control groups adults (N = 28) and children…
The purpose of the research reported in this paper -- (1) to describe in general terms the teaching of English as a foreign language in Finnish secondary schools, (2) to define method as it relates to language teaching and to develop an instrument to measure method as a quantitative value or a point on a continuum, and (3) to evaluate the…
This study explores the perceptual vowel space of the Finnish and German languages, which have a similar vowel system with eight vowels, /?/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /y/ /æ??/ /ø/. Three different prototypicality measures are used for describing the internal structuring of the vowel categories in terms of the F1 and F2 formant frequencies: The arithmetic mean (centroid) of the F1-F2 space of the category (Pc), the absolute prototype of the category (Pa), and the weighted prototype of the category (P?), in which the stimulus formant values are weighted by their goodness rating values. The study gave the following main results: (1) in both languages, the inter-subject differences were the smallest in P?, and on the order of Difference Limen (DL) of F1-F2 frequencies for all of the three measures, (2) the Pa and P? differed significantly from the centroid, with the absolute prototypes being the most peripheric, (3) the vowel systems of the two languages were similar (Euclidean distances in P? of Finnish and German 7-34 mels) although minor differences were found in /e/, / ø/, and /u/, and (4) the mean difference of the prototypes from some earlier published production data was 100-150 mels. PMID:24606288
How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…
The total deposition of nitrogen was estimated at 10 plots in the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research Programme for 1 year (1999\\/2000) using two methods: (1) the throughfall method, using bulk precipitation and throughfall measurements as input data for the canopy budget model; and (2) the inferential method, based on measurements of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide with passive samplers and
Maria Schmitt; Lotti Thöni; Peter Waldner; Anne Thimonier
This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service and their collaborators (SRTC, SREL, and several universities) in wetlands monitoring and research on the Savannah River Site. This report describes the rationales, methods, and results (when available) of these studies and summarizes and integrates the available information through 1996.
We explore the relationship between current research directions in human health and environmental and public health policy. Specifically, we suggest there is a link between the continuing emphasis in biomedical research on individualized, therapeutic solutions to human disease and the increased reliance on individual choice in response to environmental and/or public health threats. We suggest that continued research emphasis on these traditional approaches to the exclusion of other approaches will impede the discovery of important breakthroughs in human health research necessary to understand the emerging diseases of today. We recommend redirecting research programs to interdisciplinary and population-focused research that would support a systems approach to fully identifying the environmental factors that contribute to disease burden. Such an approach would be able to address the interactions between the social, ecological, and physical aspects of our environment and explicitly include these in the evaluation and management of health risks from environmental exposures.
Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.
Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, E. E.
The cumulative impacts component of EPA's wetlands research arises from a concern that many individual permit applications for wetland alteration involve seemingly minimal change, yet collectively their impact may be significant. Numerous studies have doc...
To achieve the first objective, the P20 will provide pilot funds for two collaborative research projects, one in prostate cancer chemopreventive agents and the other in glioblastoma cell mobility and resistance to therapeutics.
The cumulative impacts component of EPA's wetlands research arises from a concern - that many individual permit applications for wetland alteration involve seemingly minimal change, yet collectively their impact may be significant. umerous studies have documented the potential be...
Forest stand structure, understory composition, and tree seedling composition are described for eight permanent tenth-hectare plots established in Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir, western larch, and interior Douglas-fir forest cover types in northwestern Montana. Sites have been protected as examples of old-growth stands since the establishment of the Coram Research Natural Area in 1937. Plot data clearly illustrate a successional trend toward shade-tolerant conifiers, placing old-growth stands at risk of loss from succession or catastrophic fire. Management issues associated with use of prescribed fire to maintain old-growth characteristics in natural areas are discussed.
We review results and implications from recent wildlife studies that followed from the 1997 Tongass Land Management Plan (TLMP) and identify information needs and directions for research, development, and application. Sustained population viability of wildlife species was identified as a major issue in the TLMP planning process. Several species were identified as management indicator species, and research was conducted to
Thomas A. Hanley; Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende
From 1920 to 1989, approximately 847,000ha of Alaska spruce (Picea spp.) forests were infested by spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis). From 1990 to 2000, an extensive outbreak of spruce beetles caused mortality of spruce across 1.19 million ha of forests in Alaska; approximately 40% more forest area than was infested the previous 70 years. This review presents some of the most
Richard A. Werner; Edward H. Holsten; Steven M. Matsuoka; Roger E. Burnside
At two different locations in northeast California, an interdisciplinary team of scientists is initiating long-term studies to quantify the effects of forest manipulations intended to accelerate andlor enhance late-successional structure of eastside pine forest ecosystems. One study, at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest, uses a split-plot, factorial, randomized block design. Twelve 100-ha. split plots provide for three replications of two levels
Steve Zack; William F. Laudenslayer; T. Luke George; Carl Skinner; William Oliver
Higher education and research in Finland are discussed, with attention to Finnish society, the general structure of the Finnish education system, the higher education system, and scientific research. Specific concerns include the following: the social system, the demographic and economic structure, the comprehensive school, secondary education and…
This report describes attrition in the Finnish conscript service and identifies variables that predict attrition and their relative strength as determined by various statistical models. Subjects were 2,003 conscripts, 211 of whom were separated before com...
The design, operation, and properties of the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO) are presented. FIGIFIGO is a portable instrument for the measurement of surface Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) for samples with diameters of 10 – 50 cm. A set of polarising optics enable the measurement of linearly polarised BRF over the full solar spectrum (350 – 2,500 nm). FIGIFIGO is designed mainly for field operation using sunlight, but operation in a laboratory environment is also possible. The acquired BRF have an accuracy of 1 – 5% depending on wavelength, sample properties, and measurement conditions. The angles are registered at accuracies better than 2°. During 2004 – 2008, FIGIFIGO has been used in the measurement of over 150 samples, all around northern Europe. The samples concentrate mostly on boreal forest understorey, snow, urban surfaces, and reflectance calibration surfaces.
Researchers have been analyzing the costs of carbon sequestration for approximately twelve years. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the carbon sequestration cost studies of the past dozen years that have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the forestry option. Several conclusions emerge. While carbon sequestration cost studies all contain essentially the same components they are not comparable on
Development and management of plantations to support wood-energy programs have been aggressively promoted in the Philippines since 1979. Over 60,000 hectares of energy plantations have been planted under government-supported programs. The paper documents the problems and accomplishments of these programs and describes plantation establishment, maintenance, protection, growth and yield, harvesting, and wood transport. Research priorities for improving energy-farm operations are also suggested.
The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) research staff has the experience and expertise needed to make us world renowned among forest products research organizations and an unbiased source of information. FPL researchers have longevity, with an average of 20...
This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Ha...
In the past several years, thousands of Pacific yew trees were stripped of their bark from which the cancer-fighting compound taxol is obtained. Research has determined that the wood from the Pacific yew does not yield enough taxol to supplement the supply from the bark. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess the quantity and quality of lumber that could be produced from debarked yew logs. A sample of good quality yew logs were chosen, sawn, edged, and graded, and volume and quality of the lumber were determined. Although the yew logs contained drying splits, spiral grain, and internal decay, and often were fluted and knobby, the lumber produced from these logs is considered attractive and suitable for specialty uses.
Presently, on the one hand the interest in public benefit such as soil and water conservation brought by forest is swelling, on the other the unsoundness of forest poses a social problem with rapid increase of the belated thinning forest. However, generally it is fact that the importance of a sound forest is not fully understood, also the consensus for
Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)
Data are reviewed on the extent of global forests, management, protection, certification and ownership, as well as implications for sustainable forest management as defined by the Montreal Process criteria. According to FAO, as of 2000, the world had 3.9 billion hectares (ha) of forests with 187 million ha (5%) in forest plantations. Drawing on additional surveys and our research, we
Jacek P. Siry; Frederick W. Cubbage; Miyan Rukunuddin Ahmed
The main goal of the study is to describe the process of innovation management and its effects on innovations in the Finnishforest industry. The target is to produce new information about the present state of the industry.s innovation activity, innovatio...
Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Fasety improvements...
This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connec...
The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.
This article seeks to expand the research on the adoption of social networking Web sites in electoral politics beyond the U.S. by exploring the use and impact of the YouTube video-sharing Web site in the 2007 Finnish national elections. Focusing on uploaded videos featuring candidates, the study shows that YouTube played a marginal role in the elections. Only 6% of
The isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in Finnish groundwaters was studied as part of two hydrogeological research programs during 1995–2001. A groundwater data set of 983 samples with good geographical coverage and a long-term groundwater data set from 19 study sites were included. The isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwaters shows a systematic shift from higher ?18O
Annually, more than 6000 work-related injuries occur on Finnish farms. One-fourth of these injuries are classified as severe, resulting in considerable economic losses to agricultural enterprises and the national economy. The injury rate among farmers is more than twice that among all employees on average. This study aimed to identify the risk factors that should be considered when targeting interventions, thus improving their cost-effectiveness. The expected injury cost (EIC) risk index method, which combines the probability of injuries with their severity and costs, was implemented. The potential risk factors included the type of agricultural operation, worker characteristics (gender, age), agricultural work tasks performed, and the geographical location of the farm enterprise. Crop production emerged as the type of agricultural operation with the highest risk index (1.12). The lowest risk index was in sheep and goat husbandry operations (0.35). The risk index was higher for men compared to women (1.11 vs. 0.77). The highest risk age group was farmers from 55 to 59 years of age (1.36). Farmers under 40 (0.17 to 0.89) and over 65 years old (0.70) had the lowest injury risks. No evidence was found that dangerous regions are concentrated in certain geographical parts of the country. The most common agricultural work tasks in which injuries occurred were the repair and maintenance of machinery and equipment, the transportation and relocation of animals, and milking. These accounted for more than one-third of all compensated work injuries in 2005. The identified risk factors could be considered when setting priorities in injury prevention and resource allocation. PMID:22458014
This international research report consists of five papers discussing five different topics in education. "Views on the Implementation of the Curriculum--Experiences of the Finnish Practice" (P. Kansanen) analyzes research results regarding the national curriculum for the Finnish comprehensive school system and compares them with a similar system…
This paper describes the ideas, data and methods to produce Finnish Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC2006) classification. This version is based on use of existing national GIS data and satellite images and their automated processing, instead of visual interpretation of satellite images. The main idea is that land use information is based on GIS datasets and land cover information interpretation of satellite images. Because Finland participated to CLC2000-project, also changes between years 2000 and 2006 are determined. Finnish approach is good example how national GIS data is used to produce data fulfilling European needs in bottom-up fashion.
The article summarises the results of a multidisciplinary research project on the effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system. It examines the main strengths and weaknesses of EIA as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool. The study concludes that EIA has achieved a meaningful role in the environmental policy toolbox in Finland and has clearly enhanced the possibilities for high-quality environmental decision making. The research cites the liaison authority system as a clear strength of the Finnish EIA system in its enabling a single regional authority to specialise in and gain wide experience on EIA issues. In examining potential weaknesses of the regime, the article concludes that the key constraint on EIA effectiveness is inadequacy of the action-forcing mechanisms at the decision-making phase. The primary means to improve the effectiveness of EIA would be to strengthen the legal provisions on development consents. On the whole, the research indicates that the EU and Finnish legislation and guidance on environmental impact assessment provide a good framework for effective utilisation of the instrument.
Poeloenen, Ismo, E-mail: Ismo.Polonen@uef.f [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Law, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Hokkanen, Pekka, E-mail: email@example.com [Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for Central Finland, P.O. Box 250, FIN-40101 (Finland); Jalava, Kimmo, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)
Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.
Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of ...
Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5-5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10-8) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P?=?1.5×10-117). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR?=?0.84, P?=?3×10-4), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers. PMID:25078778
The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFP) for personal uses such as hobbies and handicrafts, cooking and canning, and recreation is an important pursuit for many residents in Alaska (Pilz and others 2006). Five categories of NTFP have been designat...
The key stakeholders of the Finnish engineering education collaborated during 2006-09 to reform the system of education, to face the challenges of the changing business environment and to create a national strategy for the Finnish engineering education. The work process was carried out using participatory work methods. Impacts of sustainable development (SD) on engineering education were analysed in one of the subprojects. In addition to participatory workshops, the core part of the work on SD consisted of a research with more than 60 interviews and an extensive literature survey. This paper discusses the results of the research and the work process of the Collaboration Group in the subproject of SD. It is suggested that enhancing systematic dialogue among key stakeholders using participatory work methods is crucial in increasing motivation and commitment in incorporating SD in engineering education. Development of the context of learning is essential for improving skills of engineering graduates in some of the key abilities related to SD: systemic- and life-cycle thinking, ethical understanding, collaborative learning and critical reflection skills. This requires changing of the educational paradigm from teacher-centred to learner-centred applying problem- and project-oriented active learning methods. PMID:22095059
Tropical paleoecologists use a combination of mud-water interface and modern pollen rain samples (local samples of airborne pollen) to interpret compositional changes within fossil pollen records. Taxonomic similarities between the composition of modern assemblages and fossil samples are the basis of reconstructing paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. Surface sediment samples reflect a time-averaged accumulation of pollen spanning several years or more. Due to experimental constraints, modern pollen rain samples are generally collected over shorter timeframes (1–3 years) and are therefore less likely to capture the full range of natural variability in pollen rain composition and abundance. This potentially biases paleoenvironmental interpretations based on modern pollen rain transfer functions. To determine the degree to which short-term environmental change affects the composition of the aerial pollen flux of Neotropical forests, we sampled ten years of the seasonal pollen rain from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and compared it to climatic and environmental data over the same ten-year span. We establish that the pollen rain effectively captured the strong seasonality and stratification of pollen flow within the forest canopy and that individual taxa had variable sensitivity to seasonal and annual changes in environmental conditions, manifested as changes in pollen productivity. We conclude that modern pollen rain samples capture the reproductive response of moist tropical plants to short-term environmental change, but that consequently, pollen rain-based calibrations need to include longer sampling periods (?7 years) to reflect the full range of natural variability in the pollen output of a forest and simulate the time-averaging present in sediment samples. Our results also demonstrate that over the long-term, pollen traps placed in the forest understory are representative samples of the pollen output of both canopy and understory vegetation. Aerial pollen traps, therefore, also represent an underutilized means of monitoring the pollen productivity and reproductive behavior of moist tropical forests.
Haselhorst, Derek S.; Moreno, J. Enrique; Punyasena, Surangi W.
The etiology and pathogenesis of male breast cancer (MBC) are poorly known. This is due to the fact that the disease is rare, and large-scale genetic epidemio- logic studies have been difficult to carry out. Here, we studied the frequency of eight recurrent Finnish BRCA2 founder mutations in a large cohort of 154 MBC patients (65% diagnosed in Finland from
Kirsi Syrjäkoski; Tuula Kuukasjärvi; Kati Waltering; Karin Haraldsson; Anssi Auvinen; Åke Borg; Tommi Kainu; Olli-P Kallioniemi; Pasi A. Koivisto
This longitudinal study on Finnish families was conducted to identify developmental differences in family-level communication among mothers, fathers, and their infants during the second half of the infant's first year, and associations with infants' later language and communicative skills. We examined coregulated communication of parent-infant…
In Finland compound fertilizers have been supplemented with selenium (Se) since 1984. In 1998, the Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry raised the Se supplementation level in fertilizers from 6 to 10 mg Se\\/kg fertilizer. The reason for this revision was mainly the decreasing trend in the Se content of foods and daily Se intake due, to the lower level
Heikki Rainio; Riitta Rankanen; Eija-Riitta Venäläinen
Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatria - tion, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War.
Jukka U. Palo; Minttu Hedman; Niklas Söderholm; Antti Sajantila
Our purpose was to find out to what extent civil servants—managers, specialists, and experts—in 13 Finnish ministries have confidence in their management systems. We defined trust as a kind of deep sentiment, more fundamental than mere acceptance, satisfaction or legitimacy. Trust and mistrust are strong motivators for cooperation and collaboration. They are logical outcomes of social interaction in terms of
In 2004 the Finnish National Board of Education launched a new curriculum framework that includes principles, instructional aims, and a brief list of content by subject areas. The intent of this framework is that teachers should interpret the core curriculum at the local level and apply it in their own schools and classrooms. This approach…
Finland's successful PISA "literacy results reflect" the foundation of the Finnish education system, which could be characterised by the words equality, equity and individual support. However, international interest in this PISA success has not focused on curricular aspects, and yet the core curriculum specifies teaching and learning practices in…
The Russo-Finnish War of 1939-1940 presents several lessons and pertinent examples of operational design, both well and poorly crafted. It can serve as an important case study, specifically in regard to the capabilities of a smaller force operating withou...
The purpose of the study was to determine how and when the personnel of the Finnish National Opera are exposed to noise and whether exposure depends on musical selection of repertoire. Additionally, an evaluation of sound exposure level due to individual rehearsals was included. The measurements were done using individual noise dosimeters and fixed-point measurements. From the measurements, annual noise
Heli M. Laitinen; Esko M. Toppila; Pekka S. Olkinuora; Kaarina Kuisma
This paper is a case study on the use of active learning techniques in an upper-level engineering course at the Helsinki University of Technology. The paper describes how these techniques were introduced and successfully used within the Finnish university classroom. The cultural subtext is explored and attention is given to teaching techniques…
Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is especially prevalent in Finland and the existence of a founder mutation has been previously inferred from the fact that 95% of Finnish DTD chromosomes have a rare ancestral haplotype found in only 4% of Finnish control chromosomes. Here we report the identification of the Finnish founder mutation as a GT-> GC transition (c.-26 + 2T > C) in the splice donor site of a previously undescribed 5'-untranslated exon of the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene (DTDST); the mutation acts by severely reducing mRNA levels. Among 84 DTD families in Finland, patients carried two copies of the mutation in 69 families, one copy in 14 families, and no copies in one family. Roughly 90% of Finnish DTD chromosomes thus carry the splice-site mutation, which we have designated DTDST(Fin). Unexpectedly, we found that nine of the DTD chromosomes having the apparently ancestral haplotype did not carry DTDST(Fin), but rather two other mutations. Eight such chromosomes had an R279W mutation and one had a V340del deletion. We consider the possible implications of presence of multiple DTD mutations on this rare haplotype. PMID:10482955
Hästbacka, J; Kerrebrock, A; Mokkala, K; Clines, G; Lovett, M; Kaitila, I; de la Chapelle, A; Lander, E S
THIS SKETCH COMPRISES THE FINAL OR MORPHOPHONEMIC STAGE OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR OF SPOKEN STANDARD FINNISH. THE PRINCIPLE CHAPTERS DEAL WITH STEM FORMATION, SUFFIX-ALLOMORPH SELECTION, MORPHOPHONEME SEQUENCE RULES, AND PHONETIC RULES. FOLLOWING THIS ANALYSIS ARE THE TERMINAL (PHONETIC) SYMBOLS, INDEXES OF SYMBOLS AND SUFFIXES, A GLOSSARY, A…
Finns are proud of their uniformly high-quality schools. Unlike in the United States, where parents fret about getting their children into "good" and often private schools with restrictive enrollment, virtually all schools are public, and most Finnish parents send their children to the school closest to their home. Teaching is a desirable…
The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…
Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…
This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 13 male and 13 female Finnish Olympians (matched by age and profession) to isolate the critical events that occurred in their lives that had an impact on the development of their talent. This sample ranged from pairs of college students to professional scientists in their mid careers and was drawn from a larger
Recent research has identified global Holocene climate instability. Oscillations at c. 2500 year intervals, identified in ocean and ice core records, are thought to be driven by solar variation. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC), a regulator of climate, oscillates with quasi-periodicities of c. 1500 years, the cause and spatial expression of which is uncertain. This project investigates how these subtle oscillations influenced the climate of northern Scandinavia through high-resolution, multi-proxy analysis (diatoms, isotope geochemistry, organic content, particle size, biogenic silica) of a lacustrine sediment sequence in Northern Finland. The resulting high-resolution, multi-proxy climate record clarifies the role of the THC in driving terrestrial climate change in this region. A 1.99m sediment core was extracted from Sirrajärvi, Northern Finnish Lapland in March 2012. Lake Sirrajävri (69.761619oN, 26.892815oE) is located 208 m.a.s.l. and lies at the boreal forest-alpine tundra ecotone. It is surrounded by low alpine heaths and isolated stands of birch (Betula pubescens spp. tortuosa). The lake is situated within a nature reserve, and <4km to Kevo subarctic research station, which houses a meteorological station with >50 yrs. of observations. The lake, which is 0.182 km2 in area and 11.2m deep at the centre, is ice covered between Sept. and May. The duration of lake ice cover is the main influencing factor on lake physio- chemistry and thus diatom ecology. The lake is hydrologically open and ?18O analysis of its waters (-11.2‰) predominantly reflects the mean annual weighted isotopic composition of precipitation. The core has been dated at 11160 yrs BP at 195cm and 2810 yrs BP at 69cm. In addition, sediment was collected from 30 lakes along a north-south transect in Finland in July 2012 to form the basis of a diatom-based transfer function, used to identify the major influencing variable(s) on diatom species assemblages which, in turn, is used in a quantitative reconstruction. In addition, monthly monitoring of Lake Sirrajävri ice cover and diatom population dynamics (ongoing since March 2011) further informs palaeoenvironmental interpretation. The resulting high-resolution, multiproxy (diatom, ?18Odiatom, ?13Corganic, C/N, particle size, organic content) palaeoclimate reconstruction provides a much-needed additional record in an area dominated by a complex relationship between the North Atlantic THC and regional terrestrial climate.
This tutorial discusses the concept of forest succession, the stages of development which forest plants follow as they grow or re-grow following an event such as a forest fire or insect infestation. Topics include the role of pioneer species, the transition to longer-lived plants such as lodgepole pine, Douglas fir, and subalpine fir, and the transition to climax species such as cedars, hemlocks and spruce. There is also a discussion of the lifespan of climax forests and the wildlife species that inhabit the forest in each stage of succession. A quiz and glossary are provided.
Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerdà and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnica
This book presents the papers given at a conference on the effects of acid rain on forests. The conference was sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Topics considered at the conference included the status of US research on acid deposition and its effects contributing factors to the decline of forests, evidence for effects on ecosystems, the effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems in North America and Europe, forest management, and future scientific research programs and management approaches.
Jointly developed by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station and Southern Regional Extension Forestry, this website has multiple online encyclopedias regarding the forests of the Southern United States, as well as one that covers the environmental threats facing all North American forests. This website is very user-friendly, both for visitors who are not natural resource professionals and those who are. For those visitors who are involved in the forest sciences, this website helpfully provides "scientific results, conclusions, and impacts with management needs and issues." On the left side of the page is a menu which allows the visitor to peruse the site through a thematic lens, or a global one. To view by theme, click on "Thematic" at the top of the menu. The themes visitors can click on include "So. Appalachian", "So. Pine Beetle", and "So. Fire Science". Under each theme are a multitude of clickable subthemes. For those visitors looking for a global view of the site, click on "Global" at the top of the menu. Topics include "Landscape", "Ecology", "Socio-Economics", and "Forest Health Protection". Forest scientists interested in contributing new scientific content to the Forest Encyclopedia Network can click on "Help" at the top of the website, which will take them to a link on the left side of the page entitled "Author Help".
Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.
Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.
Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1) understand the importance of environmental features, 2) to assess the predictability of forest fires using environmental variables, and 3) to compare RF with other machine learning algorithms for this particular case study. Risk maps were plotted by estimating the burned area taking into account the environmental variables and according to the most relevant selected variables. Key words: Random Forest, classification and regression trees, forest fires, risk maps. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References - Breiman L., 2001, Random Forest, Machine Learning, vol. 45-1: 5-32. - Oliveira S., Oehler F., San-Miguel-Ayanz J., Camia A., Pereira J.M.C., 2012, Modeling spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Mediterranean Europe, Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 275: 117-129.
Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.
OBJECTIVE Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is involved in the process of vascular calcification. We investigated whether OPG is associated with the development and progression of diabetes complications in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Serum OPG was measured in 1,939 adults with T1D participating in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study. Patients with end-stage renal disease (dialysis or transplantation) at baseline were excluded from analysis. Data on cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality during follow-up were verified from hospital discharge registries (ICD codes) and the Finnish National Death Registry, respectively. The follow-up time was 10.4 ± 2.0 (mean ± SD) years. RESULTS Only patients with macroalbuminuria and/or renal impairment had elevated OPG concentrations, when compared with participants without overt kidney disease. Patients with retinopathy or CV disease also had higher OPG concentrations, but this was attributable to their higher frequency of chronic kidney disease. OPG predicted an incident CV event (hazard ratio 1.21 [95% CI 1.01–1.45]; P = 0.035) and peripheral vascular disease/amputation events (1.46 [1.13–1.88]; P = 0.004) during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS We showed that serum OPG is an independent predictor of CV complications. OPG may be directly involved in extraosseous calcification, resulting in stiffening of the arteries and subsequent vascular insufficiency in patients with T1D.
Background Job satisfaction of staff is an essential outcome variable in research when describing the work environment of successful hospitals. Numerous studies have evaluated the topic, but few previous studies have assessed the job satisfaction of all staff in hospital settings. It is important to discover if there are any unsatisfied groups of people working in hospitals, the aspects they are unsatisfied with and why. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction of all staff working at a Finnish university hospital, identify differences in job satisfaction between staff groups, and explore the relationship between their self-evaluated quality of work and job satisfaction. Methods Data were collected from 1424 employees of the hospital using the web-based Kuopio University Job Satisfaction Scale survey instrument in autumn 2010. The research data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Frequency and percentage distributions, as well as mean values, were used to describe the data. A non-parametric test (Kruskal–Wallis test) was used to determine the significance of differences in scores between different groups of staff members and between quality evaluations. Results The overall job satisfaction of the employees was good. They rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent. The areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making. Physicians formed the most satisfied group, nurses and maintenance staff were the least satisfied, and office and administrative staff were fairly satisfied. Staff who rated the quality of work in their units as high usually also considered their job satisfaction to be excellent. Conclusions Every staff member has an influence on job satisfaction in her/his unit. A culture of participation should be developed and maintained in the units and the whole hospital to ensure that all staff feel they play important roles in the hospital. A university hospital is a complex, continuously changing work environment. Managers of the hospital should continuously evaluate job satisfaction and quickly react to the results gained.
An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)
The stand exams conducted in western Montana over 50 years ago provide a valuable source of information on prefire suppression and preharvest condition of the region's forests. Of the early exam estimates of stand origin, 52 percent were within 20 years of estimates taken from stand exams conducted in the 1980's, and 73 percent were within 60 years. There was no significant bias toward either higher or lower age estimates. The early stand exam data can give an accurate estimate of stand age distributions over large areas.
The authors recently described the climate, geology, soils, and the biotic structure and dynamics of four contrasting ecosystems dominated by quaking and bigtooth aspen (Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata). Other papers describe how those ecosystems responded to perturbation. Common to most of those papers were biomass estimates for the tree and shrub layers. The authors derived the estimators from weight and dimensional analysis of a subsample of stems measured on sample plots. They found much variability among sites that could not be adequately explained by stand or soils data. These equations should be useful in estimating woody plant components of similar forests on upland soils in the Upper Great Lakes region.
Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) maintains the national indoor radon measurement database in Finland. The analysis of the database material supplements information on radon situation collected by random sampling surveys. The 92,000 dwellings in the database are not a representative sample of the Finnish housing stock. However, the bias is compensated by calculating radon parameters in 1-km(2) cells and weighting the cells by the number of dwellings in the cell. Both the database material and a recent random sampling survey show that radon concentrations in new Finnish houses have been decreasing since the 1990s. This positive trend is clearly stronger in radon-prone areas where preventive measures are nowadays commonly implemented in new construction. The changeover to mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation together with the increase in crawl-space foundations has also contributed to the decrease in the concentrations. PMID:21478173
Valmari, T; Mäkeläinen, I; Reisbacka, H; Arvela, H
This book contains selected research papers presented at seminars held throughout the year 2000 in Finland by members of the Finnish Association for Research in Mathematics and Science Education (FARMSE) and students at the Finnish Graduate School of Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry Education. This volume also contains papers professor Laurence…
This article presents the characteristics of the life-lines drawn by older Finnish men and women. The study was part of the Evergreen Project, Finland. Seventy-eight persons aged 83-87 participated in an interview, in which they were asked to draw a life-line. The life-line was drawn on a standardized sheet as a continuous line which showed the…
The aim of the study reported here was to examine whether the concept of eco-efficiency is incorporated into Finnish EMAS reports. The analysis was based on the frameworks proposed by the WBCSD (Measuring eco-efficiency. A guide to reporting company performance. Geneva: World Business Council for Sustainable Development; 2000) and Müller and Sturm (http:\\/\\/www.ellipson.com\\/download\\/studies\\/studies\\/EcoEfficiency_Indicators_e.pdf). Our empirical sample consisted of 40 EMAS
Palsas at Lake Ahkojavri (69°35?N, 26°11?E), western Utsjoki, Finnish Lapland, display very marked effects of surface erosion. Mainly westerly winds have caused the removal of a layer of peat, in some cases more than 40 cm thick, from the palsa surface. The surface peat of one eroded palsa is radiocarbon dated to 2710±70 years BP. Many palsas with heights of
STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence and the extent of treatment of varicose veins in a Finnish population. DESIGN--A prevalence study in a defined cohort was performed by using a mailed questionnaire. The method's validity was tested in a random sample of 166 individuals who were studied clinically. SUBJECTS--In 1989 a questionnaire was mailed to every resident born in 1929, 1939,
J Laurikka; T Sisto; O Auvinen; M Tarkka; E Läärä; M Hakama
The occurrence of psychosomatic symptoms and their associations with school performance and some sociodemographic characteristics (family structure, number of siblings, birth order, the parents' socioeconomic status) was studied among all eighth-grade pupils (n=2246) in secondary schools in a Finnish town. The same pupils were re-examined twice: after 5 months and after 17 months. The mean age of the pupils at
A LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) instrument measures the 3-D structure of a ponderosa pine forest stand in Coconino National Forest near Flagstaff, Arizona, on July 13, 2009. The LiDAR observations support research on remote sensing of forest biomass and carbon sequestration by the USGS Southwe...
Timber harvesting and mechanical site preparation can reduce site productivity if they excessively disturb or compact the soil. Volcanic ash-influenced soils with low undisturbed bulk densities and rock content are particularly susceptible. The study evaluates the effects of harvesting and site preparation on changes in the bulk density of ash-influenced forest soils in northern Idaho. Three different levels of surface organic matter were studied. Soil samples were taken before and after harvesting to determine the extent and depth of compaction. Soil bulk densities increased significantly after extensive compaction from site preparation, especially when little logging slash and surface organic matter were left on the soil surface. As site preparation intensity increased, bulk density increased significantly at greater depths in the soil profile. Although ash-influenced soils have naturally low bulk densities, they can easily be compacted to levels that limit growth. The experimental site has been designated as part of the Forest Service's national long-term site productivity study into the impacts of organic matter depletion and soil compaction on stand development.
This investigation examined differences in motor skill development between Finnish children (12 boys, 8 girls) with mild intellectual disability and typically developing Finnish children between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Ulrich's Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) assessed the performances of 20 children with intellectual disability and an age- and sex-matched sample of 20 children without disabilities. Videotaped performances were assessed by the authors who were very familiar with the TGMD-2. The group with intellectual disability performed at a statistically significantly lower level on the Gross Motor Quotient, Locomotor, and Object Control subtests of TGMD-2, compared to the group without intellectual disability. The delay was equivalent to 3 to 4 years behind the Finnish normative group in gross motor development. In five out of 12 subtests, the group with intellectual disability achieved 0% mastery. Given low gross motor skills, children with intellectual disability require additional fundamental motor skill training in their active school or free time. PMID:23829155
We calculate scenarios for the mean sea level on the Finnish coast by combining the land uplift, wind-induced changes in the local sea level, and large-scale sea level rise due to changes in ocean density and circulation and melting of land-based ice. The wind-induced changes were estimated by utilising their correlation with the zonal geostrophic wind, which explains 84-89% of the observed interannual variability of sea level on the Finnish coast. Future scenarios were based on the geostrophic wind projections from nine global circulation models. Land uplift rates are 4.1-9.9 mm/yr, determined from the observations after filtering out the wind-induced effect. A 26-155 cm range for the global mean sea level rise up to 2100 was obtained by combining several recently published scenarios. This rise is geographically unevenly distributed, and on the Finnish coast it is estimated to be only 24-126 cm. Relative sea level change in the Gulf of Finland in 2000-2100 is projected to be + 29 cm (- 22 to + 92 cm). A change of - 5 cm (- 66 to + 65 cm) is projected for the Bothnian Sea, and - 27 cm (- 72 to + 28 cm) for the Bothnian Bay, where the land uplift is stronger.
Johansson, Milla M.; Pellikka, Hilkka; Kahma, Kimmo K.; Ruosteenoja, Kimmo
The relationship between the amount and conposition of organic matter of a forest floor and the structure of the soil arthropod community was investigated in a temperate mixed forest of beech and pine trees. Seven enivronmental variables, i.e. broad leaves, pine needles, twigs, roots, others, total organic matter (sum of broad leaves, pine needles, twigs and others) and water content,
In this lesson, students will assume the role of a Department of Forestry Ranger one of whose major concerns is forest fires. Using NASA Surface Scene Type data (biomes) and Monthly Equivalent Water Thickness Land Mass Change Data from 2006, the students will determine areas at high risk for forest fire development.
In Turkey illegal cutting takes place, which cannot be controlled. Legal cuttings have also been done by several state forest enterprises. As a result, the amount of wood raw material produced by forest enterprises legally and by forest villagers illegally has exceeded the potential capacity of the forest. According to the research related to Macka and other Turkish state forests, the state forests have been decreasing day by day. This is because the amount of wood raw material taken from the forests has exceeded the production potential of the forest. That study concluded that the Macka and other Turkish forests will be exhausted after 64 and 67 years, respectively. This study also examined both establishing and exploiting energy forests near the forest villages and producing fuel briquettes manufactured using the residues of agriculture, forestry, and stock breeding to diminish the demand for illegal fuel wood cutting from the state forests.
Tuerker, M.F.; Ayaz, H.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey)
On a medium site in northern California, a tanoak-mixed shrub community was given several treatments (manual release two and three times, a combination chainsaw and cut surface herbicide treatment, two foliar herbicides, and a tank mix of the two herbicides) to study its development in both a natural (control) and treated condition. The herbicides were 2,4-D, Garlon 3A, and Garlon 4, each applied two times. Survival of planted Douglas-fir seedlings was recorded for 11 years and growth was quantified for 9 years after the last treatment application. In addition to Douglas-fir, data are presented individually for the two most abundant species (tanoak and snowbrush), for greenleaf manzanita, and for the hardwood tree and shrubs combined. The treatment response data, cost information, and plant community relationships provides the forest land manager with knowledge on how to attain some specific plant communities in the future, and their developmental potentials.
In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s, a series of studies was installed in the central hardwood forest to determine if size of clearcut opening affects the growth rate and species composition of new stands. In 1991, about 30 years after cutting, stand data were collected in 89 openings ranging in size from 0.04 to 1.61 acres. The number of stems per acre increased with opening size; however, the number of shade-tolerant species constituted a greater proportion of the stand in small openings (<0.5 acre), while the porportion of shade-intolerant species increased in larger openings. Results of this study indicate that opening size has a major influence on stand characteristics after about 30 years.
The authors investigated the distribution of biomass and nutrients in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murryana Dougl.) ecosystems on pumice soils in south-central Oregon. Sixty-three trees were sampled to develop equations for estimating dry weights of tree crowns, boles, bark, and coarse roots from diameter at breast height and height. The concentrations of total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur were determined for each of these components. Biomass, nutrient concentrations, and nutrient contents of the associated vegetation, forest floor, woody debris, fine roots, and soil horizons also were determined. An example stand illustrates the use of these data for determining the effects of bole versus whole-tree harvesting on nutrient capital in a lodgepole pine ecosystem.
This report furnishes a list of compiled and ongoing studies and a list of publications which resulted from the research accomplished by Institute scientists and other collaborators. The research accomplished can be placed in four categories: I. Research on borrow pit rehabilitation with 12 publications; II. Research on artificial regeneration of southern pines with 34 publications; III. Research on artificial regeneration of eastern hardwoods with 16 publications; and IV. Cooperative research with the University of Georgia on biochemical aspects of mycorrhizae with 5 publications. Major accomplishments of this research are: 1. Procedures to successfully reclaim borrow pits with sludge, subsoiling and seedlings with specific mycorrhizae. 2. Protocols to successfully artificially regenerate southern pines (particularly ling leaf pine) and certain eastern hardwoods. 3. Basic understanding of the biochemistry of mycorrhizae and the discovery of a new pathway for sucrose utilization in plants. 67 refs.
In this activity, students will set up a model forest using plastic bottles to observe changes caused by differences in wind speed and forest density. An extension to the activity will allow students to explore the concept of evapotranspiration. From this activity students will understand that living organisms in an ecosystem can have profound effects upon the local atmosphere, changes in vegetation can have profound effects upon wind speed, and models are useful to researchers in understanding the shaping of ecosystems. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.
This video from Jean Michel Cousteau: Ocean Adventures, describes the unique, interdependent characteristics of an underwater kelp forest ecosystem and explores the delicate balance of life between sea otters, urchins, and the kelp plant.
The arrival of Somalis in Finland was a defining experience for many people. The sight of young Somalis arriving by train on Finnish TV gave the impression that Finland was under invasion. It has been 14 years since that first Somali shock (Allas 1993) and it often feels like nothing has changed. The Finnish media had a huge role in
The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…
This article examines the use and choice of address pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish students in various situations. The study is based on a questionnaire on address usage distributed to university students in the city of Vaasa in Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate potential differences between the use of T and V in Finnish…
The emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and…
Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa
Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…
Purpose – To explore the present logistics performance of Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to analyse the relationship between logistics performance and financial performance in these firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The dataset comprises 424 SMEs that participated in a nationwide Finnish logistics survey in 2006. Logistics performance measures were derived from the survey data, and based on these values
Juuso Töyli; Lotta Häkkinen; Lauri Ojala; Tapio Naula
This eye movement study investigated the use of two types of segmentation cues in processing long Finnish compounds. The cues were related to the vowel quality properties of the constituents and properties of the consonant starting the second constituent. In Finnish, front vowels never appear with back vowels in a lexeme, but different quality…
Bertram, Raymond; Pollatsek, Alexander; Hyona, Jukka
THIS INDIANA UNIVERSITY PUBLICATION IS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND REVISION OF THE FINNISH ORIGINAL "SUOMEN KIELEN RAKENNE JA KEHITYS," (OTAVA, HELSINKI, 1941 AND 1946). CHAPTERS IN PART I TREAT--(1) THE PHONETIC STRUCTURE OF FINNISH, (2) HISTORICAL PHONOLOGY, (3) THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OR PARTS OF SPEECH, AND (4) INFLECTION AND DERIVATION. CHAPTERS…
It has been recognized that to increase the competitiveness of Finnish higher education institutions in the global education market international graduates' employability must be enhanced. International graduates from Finnish higher education institutions are rarely employed in Finland for a number of reasons, such as the language barrier and a…
The angiotensin-converting enzyme DD gene is associated with poor prognosis in Finnish sarcoidosis patients. A. Pietinalho, K. Furuya, E. Yamaguchi, Y. Kawakami, O. Selroos. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes may reflect prognosis in sarcoidosis. They were determined in 59 Finnish sarcoidosis patients and 70 healthy control subjects. The prognosis of the sarcoidosis patients was determined after
A. Pietinalho; K. Furuya; E. Yamaguchi; Y. Kawakami; O. Selroos
The roots of teacher training in Finland extend to the 1860s. The evolution of teacher training was closely connected to the history of elementary education and changes in educational policy and the Finnish society. Recently, the Finnish educational system and its teacher education programs have fared extremely well in international comparisons.…
The selection due to the "healthy worker effect" was estimated from a random sample of the total Finnish population. The sample of 20 000 people was followed for changes in occupations from 1960 to 1970 and for deaths in 1971-5. Those entering the active work force had a standard mortality ratio of 70, indicating a healthy population selection effect. Those staying in the same occupational category from 1960 to 1970 had a 20% lower mortality than those who did not. This survivor population effect was due to changes to another occupational group and to early retirement. These factors had an inverse effect on the survival history of an occupational group.
Objective To improve pharmacy education through integrating theory and practice, coherent constructively aligned course entities, and enhanced deep-level learning. Design The reform was conducted collaboratively with faculty and staff members, students, and stakeholders in pharmacy. The curriculum, syllabus, and teaching methods were assessed through evaluations and research, conducting core content analyses, and measuring the workload of pharmacy education courses. The new curriculum, launched in August 2005, consists of 6 strands, comprised of different courses which run through the entire program. Assessment Three years after the introduction of the reformed curriculum, the results of the reform are being evaluated. Ongoing assessments of teaching and learning will reveal how the education at the faculty level has developed since the reform. These assessment procedures are an integral part of the faculty's quality assurance program. Conclusion The integration of practical training and theoretical studies was improved with personal study plans introduced to enhance students’ learning.
Recent research emphasizes the contribution of environmental as well as genetic factors to the etiology of autism but studies testing associations between chemical exposures and autism have been limited. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has previously been associated with decrements in cognitive and developmental performance. We conducted a pilot study in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism (FiPS-A). Seventy-five cases with autism and 75 controls matched on sex, birth year, urbanization and maternal age were sampled from first-born children in the Finnish Maternity Cohort, which includes over 1 million births. The study sample included births occurring from 1991 to 2000. Subjects were followed up for autism through 2007. DDT, DDE, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-156, PCB-170, PCB-180, hexachlorobenzene, and BDE-47 were measured in archived maternal serum samples taken during pregnancy using gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Correlations between pollutant measures were assessed and mechanistically-related weighting schemes for summarizing PCB levels were compared. Case and control differences were assessed using graphical and statistical methods. All analytes, with the exception of DDT and BDE-47, were detected above the limit of quantification in all samples. The correlation between levels of individual PCB congeners and weighted summary measures was high (0.71-1.00). Paired t-tests revealed no significant differences between cases and controls for log-transformed mean values of any analyte; however, in an adjusted model the odds ratio for autism was 1.91 (p=0.29) and 1.79 (p= 0.36) respectively, for subjects with total PCBs and DDE above the 90th percentile of control values. Levels of prenatal PCB exposure in FIPS-A were similar to levels previously correlated with poorer neurodevelopmental measures in other populations. Further study in a larger sample will be required to fully determine whether exposure to high POP levels are associated with autism diagnosis in the population.
Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Rantakokko, Panu V.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; Surcel, Helja-Marja; McKeague, Ian W.; Kiviranta, Hannu A.; Sourander, Andre; Brown, Alan S.
The Colville Study was developed in 1994 to identify and evaluate a series of management options for achieving ecosystem objectives in dense stands of small diameter trees while also producing wood products. The Colville National Forest selected the Rocky II Timber Sale as an example of this type of stand that needed management to achieve the following goals: (1) create late successional forest structure, (2) decrease forest health risk from fire, insects, and disease, (3) improve wildlife habitat by providing large green trees and snags, and (4) improve stand aesthetics by decreasing stand density. The Colville Study was divided into four technical focus areas: Silviculture and Ecology, Forest Operations, Timber Conversion, and Economics.
Willits, S.; Barbour, R.J.; Tesch, S.; Ryland, D.; McNeel, J.
To test a forest ecosystem model in the OTTER (Oregon ecosystem research) project, it is desirable to find forest canopy parameters via radar remote sensing measurements. Conventionally, forest biomass, along with quantities such as the leaf area index, drive the model. It is shown that the radar backscatter is not uniquely related to biomass. A sensitivity study is carried out using a forward scattering model to determine the variation of radar cross section as a function of several forest parameters. The results are used to find suitable quantities to recover via radar experiments. A parameter estimation scheme is developed to calculate some preliminary statistical properties of the forest.
Based on the forest inventory data and single tree biomass model, the forest biomass in the sampling plots in Changbai Mountain forest region was calculated, and, by using the estimated forest biomass from four periods' remote sensing data and based on high accuracy remote sensing models, the changes of regional forest biomass were analyzed. In the meanwhile, the driving factors such as meteorological factors, management factors, and socio-economic factors that caused forest biomass change were selected by bootstrap method, and the driving model of forest biomass change in different time period was set up by using partial least-squares method. The Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) values representing the importance of each of the factors affecting the forest biomass change in study region were calculated. The results showed that the influence of human activity factors (VIP values) on Changhai Mountain forest biomass changes was less than that of natural factors, suggesting that the national forest protection policy for forest regions had played an obvious role. Our research broadened the content of forest biomass change driving analysis, and the introduction of calculating VIP value, which can quantitatively represent the influence of driving factors to forest biomass change, provided a new way for the quantitative analysis on forest biomass change. PMID:21548287
The report presents 59 summary tables of forest statistics for land in southern Idaho outside National Forests. The tables show forest land area, tree numbers, wood volume and growth, and tree mortality organized by ownership, stand, and tree classification variables. These stimates are derived from summarization of 292 field plots and over 100,000 photo points using a two-phase sample design. Of the 292 field plots, 91 were remeasurements of plots established in 1981. The sampling was done in 1991 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit located in Ogden, UT. Besides presenting detailed tables, the report briefly explains key FIA terminology, overviews the table formats, highlights some results, and discusses inventory design and data reliability.
University of Muenster's Palaeobotanical Research Group provides this site with links to Web sources dealing with Paleozoic forests. One educational highlight of the site is the regularly updated introductory text, "History of Palaeozoic Forests," by Hans Kerp, Head of the Palaeobotanical Research Group at Muenster. Available in both English and German, this text features information on the earliest land plants, Carboniferous swamps, and the first flowering plants, among other things. Here, readers will find overviews of biostratigraphic issues such as the existence of the Palaeophytic-Mesophytic boundary. The figures are comprised of Stratigraphic columns, illustrated landscape reconstructions, and paleogeographic maps. Other sections of the site include research, publications, news, and links to palaeobotany-related museums, societies, and courses.
Climate response to anthropogenic land cover change happens more locally and occurs on a shorter time scale than the global warming due to increased GHGs. Over the second half of last Century, peatlands were vastly drained in Finland to stimulate forest growth for timber production. In this study, we investigate the biophysical effects of peatland forestation on near-surface climate conditions in Finland. For this, the regional climate model REMO, developed in Max Plank Institute (currently in Climate Service Center, Germany), provides an effective way. Two sets of 15-year climate simulations were done by REMO, using the historic (1920s; The 1st Finnish National Forest Inventory) and present-day (2000s; the 10th Finnish National Forest Inventory) land cover maps, respectively. The simulated surface air temperature and precipitation were then analyzed. In the most intensive peatland forestation area in Finland, the differences in monthly averaged daily mean surface air temperature show a warming effect around 0.2 to 0.3 K in February and March and reach to 0.5 K in April, whereas a slight cooling effect, less than 0.2 K, is found from May till October. Consequently, the selected snow clearance dates in model gridboxes over that area are advanced 0.5 to 4 days in the mean of 15 years. The monthly averaged precipitation only shows small differences, less than 10 mm/month, in a varied pattern in Finland from April to September. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis was conducted on the peatland forestation area with a 23% decrease in peatland and a 15% increase in forest types. 11 day running means of simulated temperature and energy balance terms, as well as snow depth were averaged over 15 years. Results show a positive feedback induced by peatland forestation between the surface air temperature and snow depth in snow melting period. This is because the warmer temperature caused by lower surface albedo due to more forest in snow cover period leads to a quicker and earlier snow melting. Meanwhile, surface albedo is reduced and consequently surface air temperature is increased. Additionally, the maximum difference from individual gridboxes in this area over 15 years of 11 day running means of daily mean surface air temperature reaches 2 K, which is four times as much as the maximum difference of 15-year regional average of that. This illustrates that the spring warming effect from peatland forestation in Finland is highly heterogeneous spatially and temporally.
Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Backman, Leif; Henttonen, Helena M.; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; Laaksonen, Ari
Celiac disease (CD), or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a common multifactorial disorder resulting from intolerance to cereal prolamins. The only established genetic susceptibility factor is HLA-DQ, which appears to explain only part of the overall genetic risk. We performed a genomewide scan of CD in 60 Finnish families. In addition to strong evidence for linkage to the HLA region at 6p21.3 (Zmax>5), suggestive evidence for linkage was found for six other chromosomal regions—1p36, 4p15, 5q31, 7q21, 9p21-23, and 16q12. We further analyzed the three most convincing regions—4p15, 5q31, and 7q21—by evaluation of dense marker arrays across each region and by analysis of an additional 38 families. Although multipoint analysis with dense markers provided supportive evidence (multipoint LOD scores 3.25 at 4p15, 1.49 at 5q31, and 1.04 at 7q21) for the initial findings, the additional 38 families did not strengthen evidence for linkage. The role that HLA-DQ plays was studied in more detail by analysis of DQB1 alleles in all 98 families. All but one patient carried one or two HLA-DQ risk alleles, and 65% of HLA-DQ2 carriers were affected. Our study indicates that the HLA region harbors a predominant CD-susceptibility locus in these Finnish families.
There is a paucity of studies examining psychopathy in comparable samples of violent individuals with and without psychotic illness. The main goal of the study was to assess the prevalence and nature of psychopathic traits as measured by PCL-R among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Further, the impact of co-morbid psychopathy on the homicidal incidents, as well as the associations of psychopathy and offender background factors, among offenders with schizophrenia was investigated. A retrospective study was performed using extensive forensic psychiatric evaluation reports and crime reports as sources of information. The sample consisted of 72 homicide offenders with schizophrenia and 72 controls without psychotic illness. Psychopathic features were prevalent among Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia, although for the most parts to a lesser extent compared to other homicide offenders. Like non-mentally ill psychopathic offenders, offenders with schizophrenia and many psychopathic traits are likely to present early starting problems in many areas of life and they also commit homicides that resemble other psychopathic offenders' in their choice of victims, intoxication and post-offense behavior. The observed prevalence of psychopathic traits highlights the importance of psychopathy assessment among violence-prone individuals with schizophrenia. In most respects, offenders with schizophrenia and high levels of psychopathic traits seem to be similar to psychopathic offenders without psychotic illness, which has implications for early intervention and management. PMID:21925734
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to literature on corporate social responsibility by comparing CSR reporting between co-operative organizations and listed companies. The authors aim to illustrate whether the different values and principles of co-operatives and public limited companies result in differences in CSR reporting between these organization types. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – First, the authors introduce the
Pasi Tuominen; Terhi Uski; Iiro Jussila; Ulla Kotonen
In Finland physics teachers have Master's degree in physics and pedagogical studies (60 cr). In addition they have introductory and intermediate studies (60 cr) in minor subjects, normally in mathematics and chemistry. The degree consists of 300 cr minimum and takes 5 years or more. In Bachelor studies (180 cr), almost identical in all Finnish universities, student teachers do the same physics courses than physicists (70 cr). Few exceptions can be found, e.g. in Joensuu we have two laboratory courses (5 cr) for student teachers. Part of pedagogical studies (25 cr) and some minor subject studies are included in Bachelor studies. Master studies (120 cr) differ more from university to university. Some universities do not make a difference between student teachers and forthcoming physicists but for instance the Universities of Joensuu and Helsinki offer several special courses for student teachers. These special courses include elements from different areas, e.g. the history of physics or the philosophy of physics, or the courses can concentrate on students' pre-knowledge or to foster students' conceptual and structural understanding of physics. In addition master's thesis can be done in the area of physics education. In summary, significant differences between universities can only be found in Master studies. However, there is no evidence that special courses for teachers produce better results than traditional master's physics courses. In fact most of the Finnish in-service physics teachers have done the traditional physics courses that do not include any influence from physics education research. Teacher education is surely one factor underlying the top scores of Finnish students. However, it is not only one and many other reasons can also be presented. )
Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.
In Quebec, forest stations are defined as forest units that are reasonably homogeneous in terms of forest composition and site characteristics - as expressed by surficial deposit and moisture regime - and within which similar operational constraints for silvicultural potential and productivity levels may be expected. In the course of developing a field guide to the forest stations of the Amos Lowlands Ecological Region in northwestern Quebec, classifications of 12 site types and 72 forest stations (38 forest cover types or 16 general cover types) were developed. The classifications were based on a hybrid approach involving cluster analysis of forest ecological units inventoried in subregional studies, classical classification and ordination analyses performed on a regional biophysical inventory database, and empirically associating forest cover types to site types. The guide, while similar to other published forest ecosystem classification guides, emphasizes forest dynamics by presenting forest stations common to a given site type according to their successional stage. Field keys and general interpretations of forest potential and operational constraints are included in the guide. A summary description of the guide and accompanying documents is provided. A first draft has been distributed recently for feedback from industrial and government foresters and researchers in the region. Analyses of inventory data is continuing and modifications will be incorporated into a second draft before publication in 1995. PMID:24198009
Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of ResearchResearch Networks Funding Information About
DATA: Forest Inventory and Analysis data, TOOLS: isee Player, Spreadsheet application. SUMMARY: Compare field collected data with results produced by a forest biomass model to understand the process and challenges scientists face when doing terrestrial carbon cycle research.
Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in other parts of North America. This paper describes some of the complex biological relationships that determine health and productivity of forests and that make it difficult to distinguish effects of airborne chemicals from effects of natural stress. It describes four major research approaches for assessment of the effects of airborne chemicals on forests, and it summarizes current understanding of the known and possible effects of airborne chemicals on forest trees in North America and Europe. It also briefly describes the major air quality and forest health research programs in North America, and it assesses how ell these programs are likely to meet information needs during the coming decade. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.
To understand the potential effects of forest policies on sustaining biological diversity at broad scales, we used spatial simulation models to evaluate current and potential future habitat availability over 100 yr for three focal species: Pacific Fisher ( Martes pennanti), Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus). The habitats of these species represent a broad range of spatial
High school level and higher description with pictures of kelp forests and their associated fauna. In addition to pictures of large and small kelps, site includes photos of urchins, otters, and starfish. Topics covered include succession, zonation, predation, and predator-defense. The kelp life cycle is briefly discussed.
The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has made available this biological resource on caterpillars. "Caterpillars of Eastern Forests," by David L. Wagner and others, is a field guide on the eastern region's most frequently encountered species. The guide includes "species descriptions, life cycle and morphology information, and tips on photographing, rearing, collecting, and preserving specimens." The resource may be downloaded as .zip files or read online.
Forest health ecological risk assessment is an important factor in forest resources management. In this paper, we selected forest fire, forest disease-pest disasters and acid rain as main risk sources, described the risk resources by probability, intensity and distributing, and mapped each risk source. The endpoints were the damages that the risk acceptor might and these damages might cause ecosystems' organization and function changing under the uncertainty risk sources. Endpoints of forest might compose of productivity descent, reducing biodiversity, forest degrading, forest ecological function declining, furthermore, forest disappearing. We described exposure in terms of intensity, space, and time. In the exposure and hazard analysis, we used fragile index to show frangibility or resistibility (resistibility is reverse to frangibility), and analyzed the damages by different risk sources. Risk assessment and management was the integrated phase of the research. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of risk sources, all risk index were overlaid in the China map by GIS, which divided the region into 30 ecological risk sub-zones (provinces), according to risk index of each risk sub-zone, and the forest in China was divided into six levels of risk zones. In every level of risk zones, we also put forward the countermeasures for forest health ecological risk management. The result of assessment could provide scientific basis for forest management. PMID:15146655
In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.
Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.
Comparison of forest protection between regions in Europe is extremely difficult, because there is such wide variation of strategies, procedures and constraints; the way forests have been used historically and their present closeness to nature also varies, and furthermore so does the definition of what constitutes a forest. For the European Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) in 2003, forest protection has been harmonised into three categories for the sake of comparison: protection to safeguard biodiversity, protection of landscape and specific natural features, and protective forest functions. There is no single, uniform and universal model and no internationally agreed target with respect to the percentage of forests which should be protected. What is more important than a fixed percentage level of forested area (e.g. 5 or 10%) is that the protection network should be biogeographically and ecologically representative and accordingly distributed on a regional basis. Long-term practical experience and research have proved that conservation of different species of organisms can be assured by appropriate silvicultural management of multifunctional production forests. Consequently, the focus of debate in Europe appears to shift more and more from total protection in segregated areas to 'precision protection' and to combining protection and timber production in the holistic, integrated concept of modern management of forest areas.Advances in regional ecological planning and the growing adoption of naturalistic forest management practices have slowed the decline of the biological diversity in the multifunctional production forests. However, this fact is not yet widely and sufficiently acknowledged and appreciated. There is consequently a political and scientific need for continued study of the effects of naturalistic silvicultural management on the biodiversity of forests. Information from such research is crucially needed before new and additional protection networks and schemes are set up on a large-scale. Protection by voluntary contracts between parties is a workable model concept for European forestry based on private forest ownership. In small private forests, patches of forest worth protecting are often small and located within production forests. Forest certification can contribute to the efforts of maintaining biodiversity in multifunctional production forests and offers an instrument of independently monitoring and verifying that forests are managed according to the agreed criteria. Forest certification is not an alternative or a means of increasing forest protection, because as a voluntary process it cannot guarantee the permanence of protected areas or deal with issues of finance and compensation. PMID:12659801
The proposed eight-acre building site for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) facility is a former uncontrolled landfill. As a prerequisite to foundation design and to formulation of an excavation plan, it was necessary to characterize the landfill materials and to conduct a qualitative human risk assessment. Chemical analysis of surface-water, groundwater, and landfill soils followed the analytical protocol promulgated under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Contract Laboratory Program for its Target Compound List of contaminants. This protocol was used to determine concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/pesticides, inorganic compounds, radioactive materials, asbestos, and many of the metals analyzed. 49 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.
Harrison, W.; Nashold, B.; Meshkov, N.K.; Tome, C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Energy Systems Div.); Boparai, A.S.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Chemical Technology Div.); Sandberg, S.A. (Hydro-Terra, Inc., Columbia, MD (USA)); Foster, S.A.; Schweighauser, M.J. (Clement Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (USA)); Russell, J.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Biologi
To respond to the demands of clinical practice and the needs of rehabilitation, a Finnish audiometric sentence test is being developed. The test consists of 10 sets of 10 sentences, each set serving as an independent test. The test is scored by words (50 per set). Homogeneity between the sets was guaranteed by a number of linguistic and phonetic criteria, controlled by using the Virko Sentence Analyzer, a programme especially constructed for the purpose. Recognition tests for the validation of the sentence sets were made with young normally hearing adults (n = 70; age group 18-25 years). Psychometric recognition properties of the test are described. The selection process of the final 10 sentence sets is illustrated. PMID:11318458
Määttä, T K; Sorri, M J; Huttunen, K H; Välimaa, T T; Muhli, A A
We tested the construct validity of a two-dimensional model of high status, consisting of social acceptance and perceived popularity (hereafter, acceptance and popularity) among Finnish children and adolescents. In addition, we investigated the correlates of the two forms of high status, as well as their relations to resource control. Participants were 563 boys and girls in grades four and eight, that is, aged 10-11 and 14-15. CFA and SEM models supported the hypothesis of acceptance and popularity representing distinct, yet associated constructs that have partly different correlates. Acceptance and popularity were most closely connected among grade four students, particularly among boys. Prosocial behaviour was associated with acceptance, whereas peer-valued characteristics (physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and aggression were related especially to popularity. Popularity, but not acceptance, was positively related to resource control. PMID:21848752
Caravita, Simona C S; Pöyhönen, Virpi; Rajala, Irene; Salmivalli, Christina
This article describes the relationship between adolescent subjective well-being and experiences of family violence reported by a sample of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents living in one Finnish municipality (N = 1,393). Survey results found that experiences of family violence were common. The logistic regression model showed that experiences of violence were associated with adolescents' feeling of inner disequilibrium and markedly strong relationships with friends. In additional, adolescents who experienced family violence rated their health as poorer than adolescents from nonviolent homes. They also surprisingly reported being satisfied with their life and did not necessarily identify their need for help. Although adolescents are resilient and have some resources to cope with violence, nurses and other professionals should attend more carefully to adolescents' reports of health and behavioral problems and assess for the presence of family violence and school bullying. PMID:22274937
The study maps out orthodontic care in Finnish municipal health centres in 2001, describes changes during the previous ten years reported by chief dental officers, and assesses the views of orthodontists on current public orthodontic services. The data were collected by questionnaires sent to all health centres and all orthodontists in Finland. Of all 0-18-year-olds, 11% were receiving orthodontic treatment with an appliance (range 2-43% among the health centres). The most frequently used appliances were headgear, quadhelix, and fixed appliances. Limited economic resources and the lack of orthodontic expertise were mentioned by the chief dental officers as factors decreasing the volume of services. The orthodontists mentioned the large regional variation and the lack of national guidelines as the most important aspects that should be improved on a national basis. To bring about improvement, they suggested increasing the number of specialist orthodontists and the delegation of orthodontic tasks to auxiliaries. PMID:20339453
Pietilä, Ilpo; Pietilä, Terttu; Varrela, Juha; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Alanen, Pentti
Considerable effort has been expended trying to understand how forest landscapes respond hydrologically to natural (e.g. fire) or anthropogenic (e.g. harvesting) disturbance. However, comparable emphasis has not been placed on assessing whether and how these landscapes recover from such disturbances. Hydrological recovery can be defined as the restoration of hydrologic characteristics (e.g. evapotranspiration rates, soil infiltrability) of disturbed and managed sites to a near pre-disturbance condition. Improved and sustainable use of forest resources depends on better knowledge of the spatial and temporal aspects of recovery of hydrologic properties and processes affected by forest disturbance. This enhanced understanding is particularly pressing given such issues as the implications of climate change for forest ecosystems and the transition of forest management in many regions from forestry for wood, pulp and paper to forest harvesting for biofuels, where the potential magnitude of forest disturbances and hydrological recovery times are largely unknown. Initial studies of hydrological recovery focused on streamflow changes at the basin scale due to forest disturbance and regeneration, while more recent work has examined a variety of hydrologic properties and processes across a range of scales. The differing approaches that are currently used to assess hydrological recovery will be examined, drawing examples of recovery rates of various hydrologic processes in different forest landscapes. Counter-intuitive findings of this research will be highlighted, efforts to incorporate models of hydrological recovery into forest management strategies will be reviewed, and important avenues for future research will be discussed.
According to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act it is licensee's responsibility to ensure safe use of nuclear energy. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is the regulatory body responsible for the state supervision of the safe use of nuclear power in Finland. One essential prerequisite for the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants is that lessons are learned from the operational experience. It is utility's prime responsibility to assess the operational events and implement appropriate corrective actions. STUK controls licensees' operational experience feedback arrangements and implementation as part of its inspection activities. In addition to this in Finland, the regulatory body performs its own assessment of the operational experience. Review and investigation of operational events is a part of the regulatory oversight of operational safety. Review of operational events is done by STUK basically at three different levels. First step is to perform a general review of all operational events, transients and reactor scram reports, which the licensees submit for information to STUK. The second level activities are related to the clarification of events at site and entering of events' specific data into the event register database of STUK. This is done for events which meet the set criteria for the operator to submit a special report to STUK for approval. Safety significance of operational events is determined using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques. Risk significance of events and the number of safety significant events are followed by STUK indicators. The final step in operational event assessment performed by STUK is to assign STUK's own investigation team for events deemed to have special importance, especially when the licensee's organisation has not operated as planned. STUK launches its own detail investigation once a year on average. An analysis and evaluation of event investigation methods applied at STUK, and at the two Finnish nuclear power plant operators Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) was carried out by the Technical Research Centre (VTT) on request of STUK at the end of 1990s. The study aimed at providing a broad overview and suggestions for improvement of the whole organisational framework to support event investigation practices at the regulatory body and at the utilities. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the adequacy and reliability of event investigation analysis methods and practices in the Finnish nuclear power industry and based on the results to further develop them. The results and suggestions of the research are reviewed in the paper and the corrective actions implemented in event investigation and operating experience procedures both at STUK and at utilities are discussed as well. STUK has developed its own procedure for the risk-informed analysis of nuclear power plant events. The PSA based event analysis method is used to assess the safety significance and importance measures associated with the unavailability of components and systems subject to Technical Specifications. The insights from recently performed PSA based analyses are also briefly discussed in the paper. PMID:15231350
Self-reported short or long sleep duration has been repeatedly found to be associated with increased mortality and health risks. However, there is still an insufficient amount of detailed knowledge available to characterize the short and long sleep duration groups in general population. Consequently, the underlying mechanisms potentially explaining the health risks associated with short and long sleep duration are unclear. In the present study, the self-reported sleep duration in a sample of Finnish general population was studied, and its possible associations with such factors as self-perceived health, sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, sleep difficulties and daytime concomitants were analyzed. In particular, an effort was made to define mutually statistically-independent determinants of sleep duration. In the Finnish Health 2000 Survey, a representative sample of 8,028 subjects of 30 years of age or older and a sample of 1,894 subjects of 18-29 years of age were invited to take part in the health interview and health examination. The participation rate of the study was over 80%. The most important and statistically-independent determinants of short and long sleep duration were gender, physical tiredness, sleep problems, marital status, main occupation and physical activity. However, in the multivariable model they only accounted for approximately 16% of the variance in sleep duration in short and long sleepers, suggesting multiple sources of variance. The present study also suggests a dose-response like relationship between the sleep duration and many of its determinants within both short and long sleepers. A more detailed analysis of the clinical status of the short and long sleep duration groups is needed to evaluate the possible importance of these findings for health risks associated with sleep duration. PMID:16911030
Different approaches are being taken to clarify the role of various factors in the development of physical activity behaviors. Genetic studies are a new area of physical activity research and also the motives for physical activity have been widely studied. The purpose of this paper is to review the findings emerging from the longitudinal genetic studies on leisure-time physical activity and to evaluate the associations between motivational factors and leisure-time physical activity. The focus is to review recent findings of longitudinal Finnish twin studies. The results of the latest longitudinal Finnish twin studies point to the existence of age-specific genetic and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity. Variations in environmental factors seem to explain the observed deterioration in leisure-time physical activity levels. A decline in genetic influences is seen first from adolescence to young adulthood and again from the age of thirty to the mid-thirties. In the Finnish twin participants, mastery, physical fitness, and psychological state were the major motivation factors associated with consistent leisure-time physical activity behavior. The results also indicate that intrinsic motivation factors may be important for engagement in leisure-time physical activity.
Different approaches are being taken to clarify the role of various factors in the development of physical activity behaviors. Genetic studies are a new area of physical activity research and also the motives for physical activity have been widely studied. The purpose of this paper is to review the findings emerging from the longitudinal genetic studies on leisure-time physical activity and to evaluate the associations between motivational factors and leisure-time physical activity. The focus is to review recent findings of longitudinal Finnish twin studies. The results of the latest longitudinal Finnish twin studies point to the existence of age-specific genetic and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity. Variations in environmental factors seem to explain the observed deterioration in leisure-time physical activity levels. A decline in genetic influences is seen first from adolescence to young adulthood and again from the age of thirty to the mid-thirties. In the Finnish twin participants, mastery, physical fitness, and psychological state were the major motivation factors associated with consistent leisure-time physical activity behavior. The results also indicate that intrinsic motivation factors may be important for engagement in leisure-time physical activity. PMID:24809061
Silvicultural practices used on national forests are changing as a re- sult of the shift to ecosystem management. As a result, the species mix, size, quality, and quantity of woody material that may be removed are changing. In a combined, multidisciplinary effort, Forest Service research units at the Forest Products Laboratory, Pacific Northwest and Southern Research Stations, North- eastern Forest
Kenneth Skog; David GreenY; R. James Barbour; John Baumgras; Alexander Clark
This report focuses on the management of contractual claims where the domestic conditions of contracts differ from the international conditions of contracts. The reasons why claims are not pronounced in Finnish practice are analyzed in form of comparison ...
Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish NPPs describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also de...
Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvement...
Objectives: Based on previous epidemiological studies, high fat and meat consumption may increase and fiber, calcium, and vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. We sought to address these hypotheses in a male Finnish cohort.
Pirjo Pietinen; Nea Malila; Mikko Virtanen; Terryl J. Hartman; Joseph A. Tangrea; Demetrius Albanes; Jarmo Virtamo
Background As part of the Northwest Forest Plan, large areas have been designated on many federal forests in western Oregon to provide critical habitat for plants and animals that are associated with old-growth habitat. Some of the structural characteristics often considered typical of old forests include large-diameter overstory trees, large standing and fallen dead trees, and one or more understory layers (Figure 1). However, not all of these areas are currently in old-growth conditions. Many of them contain young (<40 years), uniformly dense Douglas-fir stands that regenerated after timber harvest. The original management goal for these stands was to produce high yields of timber and associated wood products. With implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994, the management objective shifted to accelerating development of old-growth characteristics by enhancing structural and biological diversity of these areas. A major challenge today is how to promote these structural characteristics in younger stands. Researchers have been asking if lessons can be learned from the development of our current old growth and applied to management of younger stands. Dr. John Tappeiner and his university and agency research partners are helping to answer this question by examining the differences in development between old-growth and young stands in western Oregon. Understanding how the structure of these old forests developed may provide a model for management of young stands, especially when the management goal is to provide habitat for species associated with older forests.
Tappeiner, John; Poage, Nathan; Erickson, Janet L.
Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.
Objective. To examine the use of prescription drugs in Finnish women before and during pregnancy and lactation.Methods. A register-based study linking four nation-wide registers in Finland: the Maternal Grants Register, the Drug Prescription Register, and the Special Refund Register (all maintained by the Social Insurance Institution in Finland; KELA), and the Finnish Population Register. The study included all women applying
Heli Malm; Jaana Martikainen; Timo Klaukka; Pertti J. Neuvonen
A project implemented to study the effects of space weather on the Finnish natural gas pipeline was started in August 1998. The aims of the project were (1) to derive a model for calculating geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) and pipe-to-soil (P\\/S) voltages in the Finnish natural gas pipeline, (2) to perform measurements of GIC and P\\/S voltages in the pipeline
Antti Pulkkinen; Ari Viljanen; Kari Pajunpää; Risto Pirjola
The structure of nursing documentation in Finland is based on the nursing process model and nursing diagnosis, interventions and outcomes are documented using a standardized nursing terminology. Patient related information is produced and stored in an electronic form at multiple sites. Patient care intensity classification is one of the essential pieces of nursing core data belonging to the structural data of an electronic patient record supported by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of cross-mapping Finnish Classification of Nursing Diagnosis/Needs (FiCND), Nursing Interventions (FiCNI) and the most commonly used patient intensity classification in Finland, the Oulu Patient Classification (OPC). These databases enable evaluation, analysis and utilisations of data for administrative and research purposes. The end product is a cross-mapped classification material in The Institute for Health and Welfare (before National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, STAKES) to use in every electronic patient record systems in Finland. PMID:19592974
American Forests is a world leader in planting trees for environmental restoration, a pioneer in the science and practice of urban forestry, and a primary communicator of the benefits of trees and forests. In addition to information about reforestation projects, this website contains several features that are useful to educators and professionals. A kid's section contains learning materials and classroom activites, downloadable in PDF format. A personal carbon dioxide calculator allows one to determine one's own impact on global warming. For professionals or planners, there is a free trial download of CityGreen 4.0. This GIS application allows modeling of benefits from tree planting, such as reduction in stormwater runoff, energy savings, air quality improvements, and carbon storage.
Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. PMID:20036449
Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y
...Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest Service is seeking comments...Wilderness Research Institute, USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research...Wilderness Research Institute, USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Station...Missoula, Montana. Scientists working at the Research Institute...
Forests account for 33 percent of the U.S. land area, process nearly two-thirds of the fresh water supply, and provide water to 40 percent of all municipalities or about 180 million people. Water supply management is becoming more difficult given the increasing demand for water, climate change, increasing development, changing forest ownership, and increasingly fragmented laws governing forest and watershed management. In 2006, the US National Research Council convened a study on the present understanding of forest hydrology, the hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape, and research and management needs for sustaining water resources from forested landscapes. The committee concluded that while it is possible to generate short-term water yield increases by timber harvesting, there are a variety of reasons why active forest management has only limited potential to sustainably increase water supplies. These include the short-term nature of the increases in most environments, the timing of the increases, the need for downstream storage, and that continuing ground- based timber harvest can reduce water quality. At the same time, past and continuing changes in forest structure and management may be altering water supplies at the larger time and space scales that are of most interest to forest and water managers. These changes include the legacy of past forest management practices, particularly fire suppression and clearcutting; exurban sprawl, which permanently converts forest land to nonforest uses; effects of climate change on wildfires, insect outbreaks, forest structure, forest species composition, snowpack depth and snowmelt; road networks; and changes in forest land ownership. All of these changes have the potential to alter water quantity and quality from forests. Hence, the baseline conditions that have been used to estimate sustained water yields from forested watersheds may no longer be applicable. Stationarity also can no longer be assumed for the long-term control watersheds that have served as the cornerstone for most watershed-scale forest hydrology studies. The net result is that forest and water managers are facing greater uncertainty about future water supplies, water quality, and aquatic ecosystems, and their planning must consider a broader range of future scenarios than in the past. In this presentation, we outline a way forward for the research community to address the challenging questions of the future related to forests and water, and we chart a path for the involvement of various stakeholder groups to engage in water resources research, monitoring and policy formation.
Jones, J. A.; Achterman, G. L.; Alexander, L. E.; Brooks, K. N.; Creed, I. F.; Ffolliott, P. F.; MacDonald, L.; Wemple, B. C.
The overall objective of the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) research activity is to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of forest ecosystem evolution over a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Primary emphasis is being placed on assessing the ecosystem dynamics associated with the transition zone between northern hardwood forests in eastern North America and the predominantly coniferous forests of the more northerly boreal biome. The approach is to combine ground-based, airborne, and satellite observations with an integrated forest pattern and process model which is being developed to link together existing models of forest growth and development, soil processes, and radiative transfer.
Invasions by nonindigenous forest insects can have spectacular effects on the biodiversity, ecology, and economy of affected areas. This introduction explores several critical issues that are generally relevant to invasions by forest in- sects to provide an extended background for this special issue of the Cundiun Jourrtal ($* fi)re,st Research and highligllts the key findings of the papers included in
Eckehard G. BrockerhofV; Andrew M. Liebhold; Hewe Jactel
Forest fire control is a challenging research problem involving a non-stationary environ- ment and multiple cooperating agents. In this paper we describe the application of en- forced sub-populations (ESP) to evolve neu- ral network controllers that solve dierent instances of the forest fire control problem. Our system works by initially generating sub- goals and assigning subgoals to the dierent agents.
Country-wide estimates of forest biomass are the major driver for estimating and understanding carbon pools and flux, a critical component of global change research. mportant determinants in making these estimates include the areal extend of forested lands and their associated bi...
This volume in the series ''Ecological Studies'' provides an overview and synthesis of research on the structure and function of taiga forest ecosystems of interior Alaska. The first section discusses the nature of the taiga environment and covers climate, forest ecosystem distribution, natural regeneration of vegetation, and the role of fire. The second edition focuses on environmental controls over organism
K. Van Cleve; Chapin Fs III; P. W. Flanagan; L. A. Viereck
Acid deposition's threat to fresh water and forest environments became an issue in the late 1960s. Acid deposition and forest nutrient cycling then began to be researched in greater co-operation. This thesis studies nutrient cycling processes in Norway sp...
Since 2004, we have conducted a series of studies of the effect of forest therapy on human health and established forest therapy as a new preventive strategy. We have found that forest therapy has many beneficial effects on human health. However, there is almost no study dealing with the possibility of clinical applications of forest therapy. In this review, we discuss the possibility of clinical applications of forest therapy from the following viewpoints: 1. Forest therapy can decrease blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic nerve activity, and levels of stress hormones, such as urinary adrenaline and noradrenaline, and can increase parasympathetic nerve activity, suggesting its preventive effect on hypertension. 2. Forest therapy can also decreace the scores for anxiety, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion and increase the score for vigor in the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test, suggesting its preventive effect on mental depression. 3. Forest therapy can increase the activity and number of human natural killer (NK) cells and the intracellular levels of anticancer proteins, suggesting its preventive effect on cancers. 4. These findings suggest that forest therapy may have preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases. However, the above preventive effects of forest therapy should be confirmed in clinical research. PMID:24858507
One-hundred and two ongoing projects and 66 completed projects are described in this survey of educational research in Finland. This is the second English-language survey of Finnish educational research, the first of which covered the years 1971-72. The research projects are concerned with such topics as educational objectives; curriculum;…
Jyvaskyla Univ. (Finland). Inst. for Educational Research.
This study investigated the sensitivity of managed boreal forests to climate change, with consequent needs to adapt the management to climate change. Model simulations representing the Finnish territory between 60 and 70 degrees N showed that climate change may substantially change the dynamics of managed boreal forests in northern Europe. This is especially probable at the northern and southern edges of this forest zone. In the north, forest growth may increase, but the special features of northern forests may be diminished. In the south, climate change may create a suboptimal environment for Norway spruce. Dominance of Scots pine may increase on less fertile sites currently occupied by Norway spruce. Birches may compete with Scots pine even in these sites and the dominance of birches may increase. These changes may reduce the total forest growth locally but, over the whole of Finland, total forest growth may increase by 44%, with an increase of 82% in the potential cutting drain. The choice of appropriate species and reduced rotation length may sustain the productivity of forest land under climate change. PMID:18024332
Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli; Nuutinen, Tuula; Korhonen, Kari T; Strandman, Harri
The Forest Response Program is a US Environmental Protection Agency and USDA Forest Service interagency research program on the effects of acidic deposition ('acid rain') on trees and forests. The program plans to use a diversity of models to accomplish several goals. Two primary...
Studies of the variation in tropical plant species diversity and itsrelationship with environmental factors are largely based on research intropical moist\\/wet forests. Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), incontrast, have been poorly investigated. In this paper we present data from 20Mexican SDTF sites sampled to describe the magnitude of floristic diversity inthese forests and to address the following questions: (i) to
Petri Vaattovaara (1), Tuukka Petäjä (2), Jorma Joutsensaari (1), Pasi Miettinen (1), Boris Zaprudin (1,6), Aki Kortelainen (1), Juha Heijari (3,7), Pasi Yli-Pirilä (3), Pasi Aalto (2), Doug R. Worsnop (4), and Ari Laaksonen(1,5) (1) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (2) University of Helsinki, Finland (3) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (4) Aerodyne Research Inc., USA (5) Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland (6) Currently at University of Turku, Finland (7) Currently at Maritime Research Centre, Finland Email address of the Corresponding author: Petri.Vaattovaara@uef.fi The geographical extent of the tropical, temperate and boreal forests is about 30% of the Earth's land surface. Those forests are located around the world in different climate zones effecting widely on atmospheric composition via new particle formation. The Boreal forests solely cover one third of the forests extent and are one of the largest vegetation environments, forming a circumpolar band throughout the northern hemisphere continents, with a high potential to affect climate processes . In order to more fully understand the possible climatic effects of the forests, the properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in varying conditions (e.g. a change in meteorological parameters or in the concentrations of biogenic and antropogenic trace gases) need to be better known. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer ) and the UFH-TDMA (ultrafine hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer ) methods parallel to shed light on the evolution of the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions (via physic-chemical properties) at a virgin boreal forest site in varying conditions. The measurements were carried out at Hyytiälä forest station in Northern Europe (Finland) during 15 spring nucleation events. We also carried out a statistical analysis using linear correlations in order to explain the variability in the composition behaviour of the particles during multiple nucleation events. The overall results show a clear anthropogenic influence on the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions during the events. The SO2/MTOP and NOx/MTOP (MTOP, monoterpene oxidation products) ratios explain most strongly the variation in the nucleation mode composition during clean and pollution-affected events, suggesting also the importance of organic sulfur compounds, in addition to other sulfur, nitrogen and organic compounds, in particle formation, composition and properties. During the cleanest events, MTOP explain significantly the time behaviour of the 10 nm particle composition with an estimated organic fraction of over 95%.  P. Tunved et al., 2006, Science, 312, 261-263.  P. Vaattovaara et al., 2005, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 3277-3287.  K. Hämeri et al., 2000, J. Geophys. Res. 105(D17), 22231-22242.  K. Sellegri et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 373-384.  M. Boy et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 863-878.
Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with "pristine" reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems using crowdsourced or repurposed data for which baselines or external validations are not available. PMID:24743325
Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with “pristine” reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems using crowdsourced or repurposed data for which baselines or external validations are not available.
Several studies have reported poorer infant outcome among immigrants, but contrary evidence also exists. Between 1940 and 1999 more than a half million Finns emigrated to Sweden, which made Finns the largest minority group in Sweden. Our aim was to investigate fertility trends, parturients' background and pregnancy outcomes among Finns in Sweden, and to compare the findings with those obtained among Swedes in Sweden and Finns in Finland. The data came from the Finnish and Swedish Medical Birth Registers for the years 1987-1998. All deliveries by women born in Finland and having given birth in Sweden (N=33874) were compared with a 10% sample of all deliveries by Swedish parturients in Sweden (N=108549) and of all Finnish deliveries (n=75133). Among Finns in Sweden, the number of live births per 1000 women aged 15-49 years declined significantly in the late 1990s. The change in the total fertility rate was less dramatic: the rate for Finns in Sweden followed the total Swedish rate although it remained from 5% to 10% higher up to the mid-1990s. Finns who had given birth in Sweden were older, had a higher parity and a higher prevalence of previous miscarriages, and smoked more often than did Swedes in Sweden or Finns in Finland. The crude infant outcomes of Finns having given birth in Sweden were equal to those among Swedes in Sweden (except for the incidence of small for gestational age), but poorer than in Finland. Biological factors explained the differences between Finns in Sweden and Finland in being small for gestational age, and biological factors and smoking explained the difference in prematurity. The difference in low birth weight remained statistically significant (3.9% versus 3.6% among singletons). In conclusion, fertility trends followed the pattern prevailing in the resident country. The relatively good outcome of children whose mothers were born in Finland but who had given birth in Sweden can partly be explained by the healthy migrant effect. PMID:12927474
Gissler, Mika; Pakkanen, Milla; Olausson, Petra Otterblad
This research employs a contingent valuation method (CVM) to estimate the respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) to gain use and control rights to a natural forest resource at the Adaba-Dodola Forest Priority Area (ADFPA) in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia. The analysis was based on data collected from 295 households residing in and around the forest resource. Both binary probit
On the basis of the researches conducted on mycotic diseases of the pine in the insular pine forests of Transural forest-steppe the following conclusions were made: On pine seedlings in the nurseries of insular pine forests, the most widespread fungi belo...
The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.
Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and carbon concentration in the biomass. It quantifies the sources of change of a nation's forests. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. Among 50 nations with extensive forests reported in the Food and Agriculture Organization's comprehensive Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, no nation where annual per capita gross domestic product exceeded $4,600 had a negative rate of growing stock change. Using the Forest Identity and national data from the Assessment report, a single synoptic chart arrays the 50 nations with coordinates of the rates of change of basic variables, reveals both clusters of nations and outliers, and suggests trends in returning forests and their attributes. The Forest Identity also could serve as a tool for setting forest goals and illuminating how national policies accelerate or retard the forest transitions that are diffusing among nations.
Kauppi, Pekka E.; Ausubel, Jesse H.; Fang, Jingyun; Mather, Alexander S.; Sedjo, Roger A.; Waggoner, Paul E.
This study explores how Finnish men from two occupational groups describe food in their everyday life. The concept of masculinity is used in interpreting men's food-related behaviours and beliefs. Data are drawn from semi-structured interviews in the 1990s with twenty carpenters and twenty engineers involved in the building trade. The paper presents analyses of the similarities and differences in how the men talked about meat; vegetables; beer and wine as parts of meals; food as energy, health and pleasure; and cooking. The results show variation both between and within occupational groups. The men did not stress the role of meat, but rather emphasised the role of vegetables. The carpenters tended to favour meat whereas the engineers had a more positive attitude to vegetables. Eating was described as an everyday routine needed to refuel the body and stay healthy. In addition, the engineers talked about the pleasures of eating. The men described cooking as optional or exceptional. The carpenters seemed to more actively embrace hegemonic masculinity and reject what is feminine than the engineers, who have reformulated their definition of masculinity to encompass concerns with health. This study suggests that both masculinity and occupational class play a role in male food-related practices and preferences. PMID:11562157
Mortality among workers in the Finnish pulp and paper industry was evaluated in a retrospective cohort study of 3520 workers who had been employed continuously for at least one year between 1945 and 1961. Six subcohorts were formed according to six work areas: sulphite, sulphate, paper, and board mills, maintenance department, and power plant. National mortality rates were used for comparison. The mortality of a cohort of 1290 sawmill workers was also studied in order to have a socially, geographically, and occupationally similar group without the exposures typical of the pulp and paper industry for comparison. Smoking habits were surveyed. Mortality was followed up until 31 December 1981. Overall mortality for the entire cohort did not differ from that expected (1044 obs, 1029.4 exp, SMR 101), but there was an excess of deaths from diseases of the circulatory system among the men (489 obs, 404.9 exp, SMR 121). This was due to the excess of deaths from ischaemic heart disease found among the men at the sulphite, sulphate, and paper mills, maintenance department, and power plant, but not at the sawmill. The existing smoking data did not explain this finding and it may therefore be associated with occupational exposures.
Background Finland has since 1972 had a primary health care system based on health centres run and funded by the local public authorities called ‘municipalities’. On the world map of primary health care systems, the Finnish solution claims to be the most health centre oriented and also the widest, both in terms of the numbers of staff and also of different professions employed. Offering integrated care through multi-professional health centres has been overshadowed by exceptional difficulties in guaranteeing a reasonable access to the population at times when they need primary medical or dental services. Solutions to the problems of access have been found, but they do not seem durable. Description of policy practice During the past 10 years, the health centres have become a ground of active development structural change, for which no end is in sight. Broader issues of municipal and public administration structures are being solved through rearranging primary health services. In these rearrangements, integration with specialist services and with social services together with mergers of health centres and municipalities are occurring at an accelerated pace. This leads into fundamental questions of the benefits of integration, especially if extensive integration leads into the threat of the loss of identity for primary health care. Discussion This article ends with some lessons to be learned from the situation in Finland for other countries.
The research was carried out on sandy natural forest ecosystems in sandy forest-steppe ecotone in the northern area of China\\u000a from 1980's. In this paper, we introduced the concept and origin, distribution and actuality, types and succession of sandy\\u000a natural forests in the northern area of China. The conservation value and strategy for sandy natural forests were also discussed.\\u000a We
Zou Chun-jing; Han Shi-jie; Zhang Jun-hui; Wang Chen-rui; Zhou Yu-mei
Describes age structure of nine old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands in western Montana. Interprets the influence of past fires and 20th century five exclusion on stand structure. Gives implications for management to restore and maintain these forests for multiple resource values.
Despite the increased expansion into areas away from floodplains and the resulting increase in experimental timber tree management by small landholders, basic ecological knowledge about managing native tree species in secondary forests on terra firme sites in the Amazon basin is sparse. I examine the use of stand thinning as a technique for aiding the active reintroduction of a diverse
Studies of the history and current status of forest resources in Northeast China have become important in discussions of sustainable forest management in the region. Prior to 1998, excessive logging and neglected cultivation led to a series of problems that left exploitable forest reserves in the region almost exhausted. A substantial decrease in the area of natural forests was accompanied by severe disruption of stand structure and serious degradation of overall forest quality and function. In 1998, China shifted the primary focus of forest management in the country from wood production to ecological sustainability, adopting ecological restoration and protection as key foci of management. In the process, China launched the Natural Forest Conversion Program and implemented a new system of Classification-based Forest Management. Since then, timber harvesting levels in Northeast China have decreased, and forest area and stocking levels have slowly increased. At present, the large area of low quality secondary forest lands, along with high levels of timber production, present researchers and government agencies in China with major challenges in deciding on management models and strategies that will best protect, restore and manage so large an area of secondary forest lands. This paper synthesizes information from a number of sources on forest area, stand characteristics and stocking levels, and forest policy changes in Northeastern China. Following a brief historical overview of forest harvesting and ecological research in Northeast China, the paper discusses the current state of forest resources and related problems in forest management in the region, concluding with key challenges in need of attention in order to meet the demands for multi-purpose forest sustainability and management in the future.
The second full annual inventory of Indianas forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies n...
B. T. Wilson C. W. Woodall J. Settle M. N. Webb R. J. Piva
Covering roughly half of the basin landmass, forests are a vital inland component of the Great Lakes basin ecosystem. Adding forest indicators to the SOLEC suite has been a priority in recent years, and SOLEC 2004 will be marked by the submission of data on the first three indicators of forest health. Healthy forests are crucial to maintaining and restoring
Research on the potential applications of microwave remote sensing in agriculture is conducted in the Netherlands by the ROVE team. Since active microwave remote sensing, featuring its all-weather capability, also seems to be a promising tool for forest classification, especially on a global scale, the Wageningen Agricultural University started a new working group in co-operation with the ROVE team in
This podcast features current research of Harvard scientists monitoring the flow of carbon through the forest, an accompanying essay, and an audio slideshow that focuses on land changes in the region over the past centuries.
There is growing research interest in the ethnobiology, socio-economics and management of mangrove forests. Coastal residents who use mangroves and their resources may have considerable botanical and ecological knowledgeable about these forests. A wide variety of forest products are harvested in mangroves, especially wood for fuel and construction, tannins and medicines. Although there are exceptions, mangrove forest products are typically
Bradley B. Walters; Patrik Rönnbäck; John M. Kovacs; Beatrice Crona; Syed Ainul Hussain; Ruchi Badola; Jurgenne H. Primavera; Edward Barbier; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
Land cover quickly changes in the Mediterranean area: forest progress on agricultural abandoned lands when scattered urban zone progress into forest areas. As forest fire risk in linked to spatial arrangements, land cover change implies quick changes in forest fire risk level. Cartographic fire risk models elaborated by research for engineering are usually static, and do not take into account
The forests of Siberia play an important role in absorbing carbon dioxide. Resent increases in forest fires, due to both human negligence and global warming, appear to cause significant damage to the forests. In the present research, basic models were established to evaluate changes in land area and carbon flux by forest fires and by disturbances of permafrost. Basic data
Traditional practices of woodland harvesting have left rectangular-shaped voids in forested landscapes. However, recent research devoted to conserving biological diversity in disturbed forests has suggested that the generation of forest clearcuts should attempt to resemble those created naturally by fire with respect to size, distribution, and composition of species. In this paper, textural and statistical techniques for examination of forest
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forestry Research Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Forestry Research Advisory Council will meet in...Apple, Designated Federal Officer, Forestry Research Advisory Council, USDA...
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forestry Research Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Forestry Research Advisory Council will meet in...meeting is to discuss emerging issues in forestry research. DATES: The meeting will...
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forestry Research Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Forestry Research Advisory Council will meet in...Apple, Designated Federal Officer, Forestry Research Advisory Council, USDA...
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forestry Research Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Forestry Research Advisory Council will meet in...meeting is to discuss emerging issues in forestry research. DATES: The meeting will...
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forestry Research Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Forestry Research Advisory Council will meet in...meeting is to discuss emerging issues in forestry research. DATES: The meeting will...
Industrial Ecology is an industrial environmental management concept with an analogy in the natural ecosystem. In an ecosystem, materials are recycled between organisms, and energy is embedded in the matter of the food chain, while the only external input to the system as a whole is the solar energy. An Industrial Ecosystem is a system where the industrial actors use
Jouni Korhonen; Margareta Wihersaari; Ilkka Savolainen
During recent decades the amounts of nutrients discharged to Finnish surface waters have markedly decreased. This has been achieved by considerable investments in water protection, which were made mainly to improve municipal and industrial wastewater purification. We investigated whether these water protection measures have decreased phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in Finnish rivers and lakes. In addition, possible trends in chlorophyll
A. Räike; O.-P. Pietiläinen; S. Rekolainen; P. Kauppila; H. Pitkänen; J. Niemi; A. Raateland; J. Vuorenmaa
The acquisition of English sentential complementation by adult native speakers of Finnish was investigated. Forty-three Finnish university students were administered a written test consisting of production tasks, subcategorization and syntactic categories, and comprehension items. Cross sectional data were analyzed to determine whether an…
Approximately 42% of Canada is covered by forests, which in turn can be subdivided into nine distinct forest ecozones. Many forested ecozones are located in northern Canada, where cold winters and cool summers provide forest environments that are less well-understood than those in more temperate locations. A number of major developments in recent years have stressed the need for enhanced understanding of hydrological processes in these forest landscapes. These include an increased emphasis on sustainable forest management in Canada as well as major scientific initiatives (e.g. BOREAS) examining water, carbon and energy fluxes in forest ecosystems, with a particular focus on boreal and subarctic forests. Recent progress in our understanding of forest hydrology across Canada is reviewed. Studies of hydrological processes across the spectrum of forest ecozones are highlighted, as well as work on hydrological responses to forest disturbance and recovery. Links between studies of hydrological processes in Canada's forests and other fields of research are examined, with particular attention paid to ongoing efforts to model hydrological impacts and interactions with the climate, biogeochemistry, geomorphology and ecology of forested landscapes.
The extinction of the Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) from Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest prompted research into the causes of ecological change in the montane forests of Costa Rica. Subsequent analysis of meteorological data has suggested that warmer global surface and tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures contribute to an observed decrease in cloud cover at Monteverde. However, while recent studies
K. J. Anchukaitis; M. N. Evans; N. T. Wheelwright; D. P. Schrag
The terms "technical" and "technology" are widely used by educators, workplace practitioners, and the general public. Seldom, however, is there a written explanation of a technologist's or technician's attributes (Hansen, 1994; Ropohl, 1997). What do technicians know and do? Also absent from public consciousness is a sense of what constitutes the design or problem-solving process which precedes any technological act. By comparison, media depictions of technology as computers, electronics, and tools are widespread and the public appetite for these depictions is extensive. In teacher education and in schooling itself the subject through which technical skills and knowledge are imparted suffers from confusion about definition as well. What is technical thinking? What is technical aptitude? Why is it that technology teachers can recognize this ability when it is observed in students but they, and educators generally, have difficulty documenting the essence of it in writing? To expose what it means to be a technologist, the investigators in this research project examine what students in Finland's schools learn in their study and practice of technology. Why, you might ask, would the authors attempt to better understand what it means to have a technical orientation or technical ability by studying school children, in this case Finnish children? The answer has two parts. First, from a research perspective, children's responses to adult inquiries are often more informative and authentic than those of adults. Secondly, teachers of technology have had to think about their field, especially how to teach it. In doing so, they have to know about the substance of their subject. By comparison, practicing technicians and technologists may not have been required to think through what they know and do, much less express it. Target Audience: General Public
The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal and bullying specific actions to prevent the emergence of new cases of bullying, stop ongoing bullying, and reduce the negative consequences of victimization. The program has been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial involving 234 Finnish schools and during broad dissemination across Finnish schools (the evaluation involving almost one thousand schools) with positive findings. The program content and the implementation model are presented in this article, and the findings from the evaluation studies are summarized. PMID:22504790
BACKGROUND—Previous studies have suggested that, in addition to genetic liability and environment in early childhood, intrauterine life also influences the risk for asthma beyond childhood. Low birth weight, prematurity, young maternal age, and maternal smoking have all shown an association with asthma. The effect of perinatal factors on the risk for asthma in relation to familial and social risk factors was studied in a nationwide population-based sample of adolescent twins. In addition to a distribution of birth characteristics among twins which differs from that of singletons, data on twins enable a distinction to be made between genetic and environmental sources of variation.?METHODS—Questionnaires were sent to five consecutive birth cohorts of Finnish 16 year old twins born in 1975-9 and to their parents (3065 families). The outcome measure was life time prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma in these adolescents. The association between asthma and potential risk factors was assessed by multiple logistic regression and discordant twin pair analysis.?RESULTS—Risk for asthma increased with increasing ponderal index (p for trend <0.01) and decreasing maternal age (p for trend <0.05). Among the 25% of twins with the highest ponderal index, the odds ratio for asthma was 1.82 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.79) compared with those in the lowest 25%. Neither birth weight, gestational age, nor Apgar score was associated with asthma. When perinatal risk factors were combined with familial and social risk factors, ponderal index, maternal smoking, parental asthma, and sibship size were all significant independent determinants of asthma in these adolescents.?CONCLUSIONS—The risk for asthma in adolescent twins increases with increasing ponderal index when adjusted for familial and social factors.??
Rasanen, M.; Kaprio, J.; Laitinen, T.; Winter, T.; Koskenvuo, M.; Laitinen, L.
Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study. PMID:23316078
Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. Results At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Conclusion Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals.
Palo, Jukka U.; Hedman, Minttu; Soderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti
A large number of radiocarbon dates from charcoal layers buried beneath stacked solifluction lobes at Pippokangas, in the northern boreal zone of Finnish Lapland, are used to reconstruct a Holocene history of solifluction. Although the site is surrounded by Scots pine forest, the solifluction lobes occur on the lower slopes of a kettle hole, the microclimate of which prevents the growth of trees. Samples from the upslope end of charcoal layers have enabled the recognition of four synchronous phases of solifluction lobe initiation: 7400-6700, 4200-3400, 2600-2100 and 1500-500 cal. yr BP. Rates of lobe advance are shown to be lobe-dependent and age-dependent: initially, average rates were commonly 0.14-0.19 cm yr-1, later falling to 0.02-0.07 cm yr-1 or less as the lobes approached the bottom of the slope. The absence of charcoal prior to 8000 cal. yr BP, together with single IRSL and TL dates, indicate a relatively stable early Holocene landscape. The onset of solifluction around 7400 cal. yr BP. appears to have followed the immigration of pine around the site, which increased the frequency of forest fires. Phases of solifluction activity seem to have been triggered by millennial-scale variations in effective moisture (the climatic hypothesis), rather than episodic burning of the surface vegetation cover (the geoecological hypothesis), although climate may also have affected fire frequency and severity. Copyright
Matthews, John A.; Seppälä, Matti; Dresser, P. Quentin
In the second part of my review of the Finnish Disease Heritage (FDH), I discuss the settling of Finland; factors influencing the genes of a population, such as agriculture versus hunting/fishing/gathering, trading and cultural relations, wars and other kinds of violence, and bottlenecks; relatives of the Finns in the light of classical European studies, classical Finnish studies, mtDNA and Y-chromosomal studies; the genes of the Finns today, characterizing FDH, the east-west difference among Finns, and minorities in Finland, viz. the Lapps or Saami and Swedish-speaking Finns. PMID:12627296
The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p?0.01) against all the tested pathogens was found from willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) honeys. This is the first report on antimicrobial activity of Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae.
The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p < 0.01) against all the tested pathogens was found from willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) honeys. This is the first report on antimicrobial activity of Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378
As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.
Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.
Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking
Research on the effects of creating group-selection openings of various sizes on breeding birds habitat use in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Creation of 0.5-ha group selection openings in southern bottomland forests should provide breeding habitat for some field-edge species in gaps and habitat for forest-interior species and canopy-dwelling forest-edge species between gaps provided that enough mature forest is made available.
The program aims at selecting and improving highly productive forest tree species for short term biomass production. Sites where this forest biomass production could be established appear marginal for high quality forest production. Research should also b...
We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity vary regionally, and major volcanic eruptions do not always result in regional cooling. A response of tree growth at the Kola Peninsula to climatic changes due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions was revealed. For example, Dalton minimum of solar activity (1801-1816 AD) and Laki (1783 AD) and Tambora (1815 AD) volcanic eruptions appeared to cause the greatest ring-width reduction and cooling. The minima of solar activity Sporer (1416-1534 AD) and Maunder (1645-1715 AD) were as well accompanied by temperature decreases. Intervals with an absence of significant volcanic eruptions correspond to intervals of increased ring-width values. A superposed epoch analysis of 19 large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI>5) volcanic events revealed a significant suppression of tree growth for up to 8 years following volcanic eruptions. The similar effect (supression of tree growth after powerful volcanic eruptions) was obtained under analysis of the 7641-year supra-long pine tree-ring chronology for Finnish Lapland. Our results documenting the regional climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity permit us to understand the dynamics of the climate system and its response to external forcing. This work is financially supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.
Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Timonen, M.; Mielikainen, K.; Helama, S.; Kanatjev, A. G.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.
Scientists in West Germany and the USA are involved in intensive efforts to ascertain the cause or causes of the declines in their forests. Ongoing research was discussed at an October 1983 symposium on air pollution and forest productivity, held in Washington, D.C., and sponsored by the Izaak Walton League of America and Pennsylvania State University. The dieback of spruce in the Northeast is relatively well-known. It was revealed at the symposium, however, that forests in other areas of the U.S. may be showing signs of stress and damage and that species other than spruce are affected. Samuel B. McLaughlin of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) pointed out that red spruce, shortleaf pine, hickory, yellow birch, pitch pine, hemlock, and Fraser fir are declining in East Tennessee. He noted that these decline together with those in New England suggest that decreased productivity in several tree species has been occurring over a broad scale during the past two decades. One commonly held view is that acid deposition is causing the decline of forests in both Europe and the U.S. At the symposium, a number of different opinions about possible causes were expressed, ranging from drought to ozone to combinations of pollutants, including acid deposition, ozone and trace metals. Possible causes that were not subjects of active inquiry were disease and insects. Most researchers in the field believe there is little evidence that one of these is the primary damaging agent.
Background Physical activity (PA) and sleep are related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. The interrelationship between these behaviors has been studied, but there remain questions regarding the association of different types of PA, such as occupational, commuting, and leisure time to sleep, including quality, duration and sufficiency. It is also unclear to what extent sleep affects peoples’ PA levels and patterns. Our aim is to investigate the interrelationship between PA and sleep behaviors in the Finnish population, including employment status and gender. Methods The study comprised population based data from the FINRISK 2012 Study. A stratified, random sample of 10,000 Finns, 25 to 74 years-old, were sent a questionnaire and an invitation to a health examination. The participation rate was 64% (n?=?6,414). Latent class analysis was used to search for different underlying profiles of PA and sleep behavior in men and women, respectively. Models with one through five latent profiles were fitted to the data. Based on fit indicators, a four-class model for men and women, respectively, was decided to be the best fitted model. Results Four different profiles of PA and sleep were found in both men and women. The most common profile of men comprised 45% of the total participants, and in women, 47%. These profiles were distinguished by probabilities for high leisure time PA and sleep, subjectively rated as sufficient, as well as sleep duration of 7–7.9 hours. The least common profiles represented 5% (men) and 11% (women) of the population, and were characterized by probabilities for physical inactivity, short sleep, and evening type for women and morning type for men. There was also one profile in both genders characterized by likelihood for both high occupational PA and subjectively experienced insufficient sleep. Conclusions The use of latent class analysis in investigating the interrelationship between PA and sleep is a novel perspective. The method provides information on the clustering of behaviors in people and the profiles found suggest an accumulative nature of leisure time PA, and better sleep. Our data also suggest that high levels of occupational PA are associated with shorter and poorer sleep.
Background: Contaminated food and drink are the primary sources of traveler's diarrhea (TD). Identification of the characteristics that make a traveler more prone to TD is needed to improve prevention and therapy of this illness. Methods: We evaluated, by questionnaire, the association of dietary errors with TD among 933 adult Finnish tourists vacationing in Morocco. A stool specimen was obtained from patients in the group that developed TD at the onset of the diarrheal episode, and from all participants in the study on their return to Finland. Results: Only 5% of the 933 subjects who responded to the questionnaire, and who gave a stool sample, had adhered strictly to generally accepted recommendations. About 45% made five or more dietary errors during the trip; of these, 75% consumed raw vegetables, 65% salads, 33% puddings, 32% mayonnaise or other cold dressings, 31% consumed food bought from street vendors, 29% consumed cold meat, 18% cold sandwiches, 4% drank tap water, and 2% consumed raw meat. The age of the subjects did not correlate with the number of dietary errors. Subjects who had been abroad during the preceding 12 months committed more dietary errors than those who had not (mean 3.9 versus 4.5; p <.001). Also, subjects who spent 2 weeks in Morocco committed more dietary errors than those who spent only 1 week (mean 4.0 versus 4.8; p <.001). However, no association between TD and the number of dietary errors was observed. Differences with respect to eating habits were not observed between subjects, with or without TD or with or without an identified pathogen in stool specimens. There was no correlation between eating habits and the presence, or absence, of a specific pathogen in the stool sample; this is with the exception of Campylobacter spp: subjects with this pathogen consumed steak tartar or salad more often than did other subjects. Conclusions: Etiologic agents are so ubiquitous in this high-risk area that instructions to avoid certain foodstuffs commonly thought to be contaminated may be to some extent without value. Moreover, dietary self restraint proved to be impossible in the real situation. (J Travel Med 2:77-84, 1995) PMID:9815366
Forest hydrological models help us to understand the natural processes in forest. The forest has huge active surface available for evaporation processes. The amount of precipitation decreases after reaching the canopy. The throughfall arrives at the forest litter. The rainfall retention of the litter is the litter interception. In this paper a hydrologic model was employed for estimation of forest litter interception of a middle-aged sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) stand. The discussed forest litter interception is an important element of the water balance of the forest and can be an important parameter of the rainfall runoff models in forested area. The research catchment in Hidegvíz Valley near Sopron provides valuable data for testing such kind of hydrologic models. Antecedent water content and the storage capacity of the forest litter are the main parameters of the model. The antecedent water content of the litter was estimated by the daily precipitation and temperature data, collected in Hidegvíz Valley research catchment in a three years long measurement period (2006-2008). The measurements were done by own developed instrument, where the undisturbed forest litter samples are enclosed in frames and it was measured on stationary place in every time step. Our model estimation for litter interception was 5-7% of gross precipitation. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004. The research of Zoltán Gribovszki was supported by the European Union and the State of Hungary, co-financed by the European Social Fund in the framework of TÁMOP 4.2.4. A/2-11-1-2012-0001 'National Excellence Program'.
Zagyvai-Kiss, Katalin Anita; Kalicz, Péter; Gribovszki, Zoltán
We present data from two old growth stands on Lolo National Forest representing habitats that contrast with larch stand. One of the stands is a mixture of pine and larch on a steep upland slope and the other is larch dominated in a frost-prone valley bottom evidently at the cold limits of ponderosa pine. We also synthesize and compare age-class data, basal areas (BA), and Stand Density Indexes (SDI) for the entire range of old growth stands that we have sampled to represent the historical frequent fire types in western Montana.
Forests play a significant role in economic development. In addition to their important influence on the environment, they provide innumerable products of vital use to man. The ecological usefulness of forests is most readily observed in their beneficial ...
This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the seventh inventory of Georgias forest resources. Data on the extent, condition, and classification of forest land and associated timber volumes, growth, removals, and mortality are described an...
Highlights efforts by government agencies to eradicate marijuana on the national forests. Follows Forest Service special agents as they track growers, culminating in arrests and destruction of plants. Primary audience: Hunters, backpackers, law enforcemen...
In this video presentation, Jerry Franklin, Review author Gordon Bonan, and Perspective author Valerie Kapos discuss the importance of understanding the influence of forests on climate and some of the challenges of global forest governance.
Since 1972, twelve scientists representing several research disciplines have collaborated in integrated studies to determine the chronic effects of photochemical oxidant air pollutants on a western mixed conifer forest ecosystem. An enormous amount of data has been collected, des...
Many universities and colleges own forestland. Although these lands can be worth billions of dollars, most are devoted to the institutional goals of education, research, and outreach. These forests become an integral part of the university and serve as teaching and research laboratories. They are usually called university or college forests or…
A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA…
Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle
This article is based on a phenomenographic study that focuses on identifying the pedagogical conceptions of Finnish teachers of transnational dances. The purpose is to uncover and understand teachers' conceptions concerning the implications of the cultural contexts of their specific dance forms for their pedagogical practices. Through a…
This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs…
The article discusses how to strengthen educational use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Finnish schools. The conceptions and experiences of the successful integration of ICT in everyday school settings are reported. Participant observations in 20 schools in different parts of Finland were carried out, including discussions…
The U.S. attitude toward Finland during the Cold War years reveals much about U.S. society and politics. In particular, the war between Finland and the Soviet Union during 1939 and 1940 (Finnish Winter War) and the way in which the United States reacted to it at the time and in the years following World War II has relevance for better…
This article sets out to explore how academics make sense of the current transformations of higher education and what kinds of academic identities are thereby constructed. Based on a narrative analysis of 42 interviews with Finnish academics, nine narratives are discerned, each providing a different answer as to what it means to be an academic in…
The aim of the present study was to explore how Finnish university-based subject teacher educators perceived their professional identity. Several factors related to professional identity were analysed. Subject teacher educators are initially subject teachers who have proceeded to the doctorate level. They form a small academic group within a larger faculty milieu with only partial responsibility for a teacher education
The aim of the present study was to explore how Finnish university-based subject teacher educators perceived their professional identity. Several factors related to professional identity were analysed. Subject teacher educators are initially subject teachers who have proceeded to the doctorate level. They form a small academic group within a larger faculty milieu with only partial responsibility for a teacher education
Different stochastic frontier models for panel data are used to estimate education production functions and the efficiency of Finnish general upper secondary schools. Grades in the matriculation examination are used as an output and explained with the comprehensive school grade point average, parental socio-economic background, school resources,…
Background: Early school leaving and dropout are widely recognized as problems, leading to further marginalization and exclusion of young people from society at large. The Finnish government has set a target that, by the year 2008, 96% of those who complete compulsory education will continue without interruption in secondary education or in the…
The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether or not auditor gender has an impact on the magnitude of corporate earnings management in small- and medium-sized private Finnish firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines the association between auditor gender and earnings management of private firms by means of multiple linear regression analysis. In this analysis the paper
Jyrki Niskanen; Jukka Karjalainen; Mervi Niskanen; Jussi Karjalainen
The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…
Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria
Mussel incubation was used to compare two Finnish watercourses, which have been contaminated by effluents from pulp mills and are known to be polluted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Lake mussels (Anodonta Piscinalis) incubated in 1998 and 2004 in the rivers Kymijoki and Vuoksi were analysed for PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), naphthalenes (PCNs), diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), hydroxy diphenyl
Jaana Koistinen; Sirpa Herve; Päivi Ruokojärvi; Jani Koponen; Terttu Vartiainen
Sexual body image was examined in a population-based sample of 9,532 Finnish men and women, age 18 to 49 years. More than one half of women and men were satisfied with their genitals, one half of the women were satisfied with their breasts. Higher levels of genital satisfaction were related to higher frequencies of sexual behavior and better sexual function
Monica Ålgars; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Ada Johansson; Minja Westerlund; N. Kenneth Sandnabba
This article analyses how Finnish parents of sixth graders in a comprehensive school act in the local "school markets" of the case city. The parents' subject positions as choosers are reflected on and explored in relation to the discourses and resources they use when discussing their school choices. The data were gathered in 2009 by administering…
A study aims to examine cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that executive function deficit (EFD) was more frequent in ADHD groups than in those without ADHD.
Loo, Sandra K.; Humphrey, Lorie A.; Tapio, Terttu; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Yang, May H.; Dang, Jeff; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.
A study was begun in the Fall of 1965 concerning the need for psychiatric treatment and mental health counselling among Finnish university students. The project comprises psychiatric, somatico-medical, psychological and sociological investigations. Students who had started their studies in four universities or technical and commercial colleges at the university level in Helsinki at the beginning of the Fall semester 1965,
Yrjö O. Alanen; Reijo Holmström; Vilja Hägglund; Klaus W. Karlsson; Pekka Tienari; Kauko Vauhkonen; Kari Savonen; Juhani Hirvas; Marjatta Marin
We are conducting a genome scan at an average resolution of 10 centimorgans (cM) for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in 716 affected sib pairs from 477 Finnish families. To date, our best evidence for linkage is on chromosome 20 with potentially separable peaks located on both the long and short arms. The unweighted multipoint maximum logarithm of odds score
Soumitra Ghosh; Richard M. Watanabe; Elizabeth R. Hauser; Timo Valle; Victoria L. Magnuson; Michael R. Erdos; Carl D. Langefeld; James Balow Jr.; Delphine S. Ally; Kimmo Kohtamaki; Peter Chines; Gunther Birznieks; Hong-Shi Kaleta; Anjene Musick; Catherine Te; Joyce Tannenbaum; William Eldridge; Shane Shapiro; Colin Martin; Alyson Witt; Alistair So; Jennie Chang; Ben Shurtleff; Rachel Porter; Kristina Kudelko; Arun Unni; Leonid Segal; Ravi Sharaf; Jillian Blaschak-Harvan; Johan Eriksson; Tuula Tenkula; Gabriele Vidgren; Christian Ehnholm; Eva Tuomilehto-Wolf; William Hagopian; Thomas A. Buchanan; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Richard N. Bergman; Francis S. Collins; Michael Boehnke
Invasions of exotic species often involve a rapid evolutionary change in the introduced populations. Elodea canadensis is an invasive aquatic weed native to North America. Our aims were to reveal the evolutionary consequences of invasion to\\u000a the population genetic structure of the presumably clonal E. canadensis in Finland and to test the hypothesis that the whole Finnish population originates from
T. Huotari; H. Korpelainen; E. Leskinen; K. Kostamo
Interviews with 16 Finnish expatriate managers and their Indonesian subordinates (n=20) revealed major differences in opinions of leadership styles and work habits. All managers had adjusted their style to their cultural surroundings, but to varying degrees: active, moderate, selective, or limited. (Contains 56 references.) (SK)
Finnish curriculum guidelines for early education emphasise play and creative activities as significant factors in healthy child development. Constructivist theory loosely frames the guidelines, but the recommended approach lacks precise developmental goals. Since 1996, we have carried out a narrative learning project with vertically integrated…
The study evaluated the effect of repeated reading on reading speed among 36 Finnish-speaking poor readers in Grades 4 to 6. A switching replications design was applied: Group A (n = 20) received training first, and during this period Group B (n = 16) acted as a control group. After a midpoint test, the design was switched. The training material…
Huemer, Sini; Aro, Mikko; Landerl, Karin; Lyytinen, Heikki
A group of 116 Finnish fifth- through ninth-graders used a problem-solving technology and crafts curriculum with computers; a control group (n=151) used traditional crafts curriculum and instruction. Results for motor skill development, technical knowledge, and emotional engagement suggest that all students should receive a balanced curriculum of…
The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the genre of the reviewed scientific articles published in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science") during its history. The aim was to bring a critical approach to writing in nursing science and to discuss the dominant conventions of scientific writing in nursing. A total of 27 journals, which…
It is common in the world's languages for the same causative constructions to express two kinds of meanings: that of 'permitting' and that of 'instigating' (i.e. 'letting someone do something' and 'having someone do something'). This dual meaning is particularly common in analytical causatives. This dual nature of causative constructions may be observed in the Finnish language as well. I
We evaluated the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) in the assessment of psychopathology in a Finnish population of children with intellectual disability. Disruptive behaviour was more common in children with mild intellectual disability, and problems with social interaction and communication in those with moderate, severe or profound…
Structured checklists have been used to supplement psychiatric assessment of children with normal intelligence, but for children with intellectual disability, only a few checklists exist. We evaluated the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in the assessment of psychopathology in Finnish children with intellectual disability. The CBCL was completed by…
Koskentausta, Terhi; Iivanainen, Matti; Almqvist, Fredrik
Using survey data on Finnish local politicians (n = 364) we examine the extent to which political orientation affects attitudes towards and perceptions of competitive tendering in social and health service provision. Expectation of cost benefits turns out to be the most important factor accounting for willingness to increase the usage of competitive tendering. The perceived positive impact of tendering on local
Sami Fredriksson; Olli Hyvärinen; Mikko Mattila; Hanna Wass
"Finnish Lessons" is a first-hand, comprehensive account of how Finland built a world-class education system during the past three decades. The author traces the evolution of education policies in Finland and highlights how they differ from the United States and other industrialized countries. He shows how rather than relying on competition,…
OBJECTIVE--To assess comprehensively the validity of the data in the Finnish Medical Birth Registry (MBR) by the combined use of several controls and internal analysis of the data. DESIGN--The MBR data were individually linked to a medical record sample (n = 775) and to all perinatal death certificates in 1987. The data were also compared with annual hospital statistics. The
We assessed the validity and determined cut-off scores for the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A population sample of 8-year-old children (n = 4,408) was rated via the ASSQ by parents and/or teachers, and a subgroup of 104 children was examined via structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school…
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively neonatal health and maternal background among a sample of children taken into custody and placed in foster care and to investigate the relation between medical and social risk in the neonatal period. Method: The data-linkage study combined two registries: the Finnish Medical…
Kalland, Mirjam; Sinkkonen, Jari; Gissler, Mika; Merilainen, Jouni; Siimes, Martti A.
Modern computer-based molecular modelling opens up new possibilities for chemistry teaching at different levels. This article presents a case study seeking insight into Finnish school teachers' use of computer-based molecular modelling in teaching chemistry, into the different working and teaching methods used, and their opinions about necessary…
This article examines the Finnish day-care centre out of a neo-Weberian-Bourdieuan frame of reference. The leading idea is that the day-care centre field is continuously shaping as a result of both inner struggles and struggles with other fields. The state, the education system, and trade unions act as the dealers of professional playing cards.…
Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the…
The geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in the Finnish natural gas pipeline have been measured at one site in southern Finland since November 1998. We give an overview of this long and uniform time series covering one sunspot maximum. We also briefly discuss the conventional magnetic activity indices K and Ak, and, additionally, the range of the magnetic field and of
A. Viljanen; A. Pulkkinen; R. Pirjola; K. Pajunpää; P. Posio; A. Koistinen
In dietary studies the food composition data are needed for assessing intake of study subjects. A database for this purpose should include content for foods as consumed, i.e. the database should include brands and dishes described by recipes. The progress made in developing the national Finnish food composition database for dietary studies at the National Public Health Institute is presented.
Marja-Leena Ovaskainen; Liisa M. Valsta; Jukka Lauronen
This paper sheds light onto a poorly presented group of professionals--teachers with dyslexia in Finnish and English further and higher educational settings. The purpose of this qualitative study was, firstly, to discover what teachers with dyslexia could tell us about the manifestation of dyslexia and the challenges they face in the practice of…
A study examined the extent to which Finnish horticulture graduates' assessments of their work force competencies differ from those of their teachers and employers. Questionnaires were sent to all 68 plant production graduates of the University of Helsinki's plant production program from 1990-1993, a sample of 38 employers representing…
Little is known about how other than cancer pain related issues are represented in medical education. A standardised questionnaire was mailed to all medical students who graduated from the five Finnish medical schools in 2001. A total of 387 students received the questionnaire and 41% responded. The students had to evaluate the quantity and the quality of pain teaching. The
This study examined the reactions of Finnish people to an incident at a Russian nuclear power plant. A random sample of 1280 subjects from four different towns in Southern Finland was sent a questionnaire 6 weeks after the incident. Return rate was 55%. Subjects were asked their interpretation of the situation, their contentedness with information delivery and their perception of
This study examined the intercultural sensitivity of Finnish 12-16-year-old secondary school students (N=549) with a 23-item Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ICSSQ). The ICSSQ is based on Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which is a conceptual tool to situate certain reactions towards cultural…
Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors of growth-oriented atmosphere in a Finnish polytechnic institution of higher education with categorical exploratory factor analysis, multidimensional scaling and Bayesian unsupervised model-based visualization. Design/methodology/approach: This study was designed to examine employee perceptions of…
This paper focuses on the representation of post-productive countryside in Finland by exploring how the rural is presented in the context of second home tourism. Being an integral part of rural areas and their history, second homes are an established example of the post-productive consumption of countryside. The international and Finnish…
The paper studies the relationship between organisational memory, team work and organisational learning. A development project carried out by a Finnish labour protection ofice during 1988-1992 is taken as a case study. During the development project the labour protection inspectors radically changed their work orientation and practices. At the same time as creating a new way of working the inspectors
In this paper, we focus on Finnish pre-service elementary teachers' (N = 269) and upper secondary students' (N = 1,434) understanding of division. In the questionnaire, we used the following non-standard division problem: "We know that 498:6 = 83. How could you conclude from this relationship (without using long-division algorithm) what 491:6 = ?…
Abstract The etiology and pathogenesis of male breast cancer (MBC) are poorly known. This is due to the fact that the disease is rare, and large-scale genetic epidemiologic studies have been difficult to carry out. Here, we studied the frequency of eight recurrent Finnish BRCA2 founder mutations in a large cohort of 154 MBC patients (65% diagnosed in Finland from 1967 to 1996). Founder mutations were detected in 10 patients (6.5%), eight of whom carried the 9346(-2) A>G mutation. Two novel mutations (4075 delGT and 5808 del5) were discovered in a screening of the entire BRCA2 coding region in 34 samples. However, these mutations were not found in the rest of the 120 patients studied. Patients with positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were often BRCA2 mutation carriers (44%), whereas those with no family history showed a low frequency of involvement (3.6%; P < .0001). Finally, we found only one Finnish MBC patient with 999 del5, the most common founder mutation in Finnish female breast cancer (FBC) patients, and one that explains most of the hereditary FBC and MBC cases in Iceland. The variation in BRCA2 mutation spectrum between Finnish MBC patients and FBC patients in Finland and breast cancer patients in Iceland suggests that modifying genetic and environmental factors may significantly influence the penetrance of MBC and FBC in individuals carrying germline BRCA2 mutations in some populations.
Syrjakoski, Kirsi; Kuukasjarvi, Tuula; Waltering, Kati; Haraldsson, Karin; Auvinen, Anssi; Borg, Ake; Kainu, Tommi; Kallioniemi, Olli-P; Koivisto, Pasi A
The study suggests that the prominent driving force behind corporate social responsibility (CSR) is companies’ long-term profitability, supported by company leadership and efficiency, competitiveness, and the ability to anticipate the future. The long evolution of Finnish companies since the 18th century has created fertile ground for responsibility. Despite the absence of significant moral or ethical guidance, the thinking of the
In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of…
This volume in the series ''Ecological Studies'' provides an overview and synthesis of research on the structure and function of taiga forest ecosystems of interior Alaska. The first section discusses the nature of the taiga environment and covers climate, forest ecosystem distribution, natural regeneration of vegetation, and the role of fire. The second edition focuses on environmental controls over organism activity with discussions on growth and nutrient use, nitrogen fixation, physiological ecology of mosses, and microbial activity and element availability. The final section considers environmental controls over ecosystem processes with discussions of processes, plant-animal interactions, and a model of forest growth and yield.
Van Cleve, K.; Chapin, F.S. III; Flanagan, P.W.; Viereck, L.A.
This report furnishes a list of compiled and ongoing studies and a list of publications which resulted from the research accomplished by Institute scientists and other collaborators. The research accomplished can be placed in four categories: I. Research ...
The Western Conifers Research Cooperative is part of the national Forest Response Program (FRP). The FRP is a federal program designed to determine the current and potential effects of atmospheric deposition on forests in the United States. Research is conducted regionally within...
(1) After negotiations with the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, a national programme to promote prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of sleep apnoea for the years 2002-2012 has been prepared by the Finnish Lung Health Association on the basis of extensive collaboration. The programme needs to be revised as necessary, because of the rapid development in medical knowledge, and in appliance therapy in particular. (2) Sleep apnoea deteriorates slowly. Its typical features are snoring, interruptions of breathing during sleep and daytime tiredness. Sleep apnoea affects roughly 3% of middle-aged men and 2% of women. In Finland, there are approx. 150,000 sleep apnea patients, of which 15,000 patients have a severe disease, 50,000 patients are moderate and 85,000 have a mild form of the disease. Children are also affected by sleep apnea. A typical sleep apnea patient is a middle-aged man or a postmenopausal woman. (3) The obstruction of upper airways is essential in the occurrence of sleep apnoea. The obstruction can be caused by structural and/or functional factors. As for structural factors, there are various methods of intervention, such as to secure children's nasal respiration, to remove redundant soft tissue, as well as to correct malocclusions. It is possible to have an effect on the functional factors by treating well diseases predisposing to sleep apnoea, by reducing smoking, the consumption of alcohol and the use of medicines impairing the central nervous system. The most important single risk factor for sleep apnoea is obesity. (4) Untreated sleep apnoea leads to an increase morbidity and mortality through heart circulatory diseases and through accidents by tiredness. Untreated or undertreated sleep apnoea deteriorates a person's quality of life and working capacity. (5) The goals of the Programme for the prevention and treatment of sleep apnoea are as follows: (1) to decrease the incidence of sleep apnoea, (2) to ensure that as many patients as possible with sleep apnoea recover, (3) to maintain capacity for work and functional capacity of patients with sleep apnoea, (4) to reduce the percentage of patients with severe sleep apnoea, (5) to decrease the number of sleep apnoea patients requiring hospitalisation and (6) to improve cost effectiveness of prevention and treatment of sleep apnoea. (6) The following means are suggested for achieving the goals: (1) to promote prevention of obesity, weight loss and weight control; (2) to promote securing of nasal respiration in child patients and removal of obstructing redundant soft tissues; (3) to promote the correction of children's malocclusions, (4) to enhance knowledge about risk factors and treatment of sleep apnoea in key groups, (5) to promote early diagnosis and active treatment, (6) to commence rehabilitation early and individually as a part of treatment and (7) to encourage scientific research. (7) On the national level, the occurrence of sleep apnoea can be prevented, for example, by encouraging weight control. The programme gives examples of such measures and appeals to various authorities and voluntary organisations to reinforce their collaboration. Preventive measures should be individualised, and based on due consideration. (8) The efficacy of diagnosing sleep apnoea should be increased. Attention should be paid to the symptoms of risk group patients at different units of the primary and occupational health care. Even mild forms of the disease should be treated appropriately. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease involve cooperation between the primary and specialised health-care sectors. Methods of treatment are (1) treatment of obesity, (2) positional therapy, (3) reduction of the use of medicines impairing the central nervous system, (4) reduction of smoking and the consumption of alcohol, (5) devices affecting the position of the tongue and lower jaw, (6) treatment with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP-treatment), (7) surgical methods of treatment and (8) rehabilitation. (9) The hierarchy of referrals in the prevention and treat
Laitinen, L A; Anttalainen, U; Pietinalho, A; Hämäläinen, P; Koskela, K
Describes a unit on rain forests in which first graders studied about rain forests, built a classroom rain forest, and created a bulletin board. They also graphed rainfall, estimated body water, and estimated the number of newspapers that could be produced from one canopy tree. (MKR)
Cloud cover in tropical humid forests can pose serious operational constraints on Landsat TM and SPOT HRV instrumentation, given their respective orbital frequencies of 16 and 26 days. SAR data intrinsically precludes such problems; the increase of data acquisition frequency to daily rates, as with the NOAA AVHRR instrument, also bears consideration. It is deemed essential that SAR data-related research be expedited, in order to ascertain inherent SAR information for tropical forests in a timely and cost-effective manner.
This research explores the potential benefits of fusing active and passive medium-resolution satellite-borne sensor data for forest structural assessment. Image fusion was applied as a means of retaining disparate data features relevant to modelling and mapping of forest structural attributes in even-aged (4–11 years) Eucalyptus plantations, located in the southern KwaZulu-Natal midlands of South Africa. Remote-sensing data used in this
Mutations in NPHS1, which encodes nephrin, are the main causes of congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) in Finnish patients, whereas mutations in NPHS2, which encodes podocin, are typically responsible for childhood-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in European populations. Genotype-phenotype correlations are not well understood in non-Finnish patients. We evaluated the clinical presentation, kidney histology, and disease progression in non-Finnish CNS cases by mutational screening in 107 families (117 cases) by sequencing the entire coding regions of NPHS1, NPHS2, PLCE1, WT1, LAMB2, PDSS2, COQ2, and NEPH1. We found that CNS describes a heterogeneous group of disorders in non-Finnish populations. We identified nephrin and podocin mutations in most families and only rarely found mutations in genes implicated in other hereditary forms of NS. In approximately 20% of cases, we could not identify the underlying genetic cause. Consistent with the major role of nephrin at the slit diaphragm, NPHS1 mutations associated with an earlier onset of disease and worse renal outcomes than NPHS2 mutations. Milder cases resulting from mutant NPHS1 had either two mutations in the cytoplasmic tail or two missense mutations in the extracellular domain, including at least one that preserved structure and function. In addition, we extend the spectrum of known NPHS1 mutations by describing long NPHS1 deletions. In summary, these data demonstrate that CNS is not a distinct clinical entity in non-Finnish populations but rather a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. PMID:20507940
Relationships between the condition of 200 forest stands in The Netherlands and stress factors were researched by means of multiple linear regression. Forest condition indices used were defoliation, crown transparency and foliar composition. Data were gat...
C. M. A. Hendriks J. van den Burg J. H. Oude Voshaar E. P. van Leeuwen
This bulletin briefly describes research activities in the field of curriculum development for comprehensive and upper secondary schools in Finland. The comprehensive schools, established by law in 1963, offer a uniform curriculum to all Finnish students for the first nine years of school. After attending the comprehensive school, students may…
The carbon stores and dynamics of tropical forests are the subject of major international scientific and policy attention. Research associated with the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) has generated substantial advances in our understanding of the cycling of carbon at selected forest sites in Brazilian Amazonia and generated new insights into how these processes may vary across the wider Amazonian region. Here we report on aspects of this new understanding. We present, in particular, a comprehensive synthesis of carbon cycling in three focal LBA sites (Manaus, Tapajõs, and Caxiuanã), drawing on studies of productivity, litterfall, respiration, physiology, and ecosystem fluxes. These studies are placed in the context of the wider Amazonian region by utilizing the results of the Amazon Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR) and other forest plots. We discuss the basin-wide distribution of forest biomass derived by combining these plots and a suite of satellite data, and examine the dynamics of carbon cycling in the context of regional carbon stores in the forest. Particular attention is drawn to the strong relationship between forest productivity and turnover, which suggests that higher levels of forest productivity increase forest dynamism rather than forest biomass. We conclude by discussing what the scientific priorities should be for a synthetic region-wide understanding of the carbon dynamics and stores of Amazonian forests.
Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Girardin, Cecile; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.
A recently completed research program (TREES) employing the global imaging capabilities of Earth-observing satellites provides updated information on the status of the world's humid tropical forest cover. Between 1990 and 1997, 5.8 +\\/- 1.4 million hectares of humid tropical forest were lost each year, with a further 2.3 +\\/- 0.7 million hectares of forest visibly degraded. These figures indicate that
Frédéric Achard; Hugh D. Eva; Hans-Jürgen Stibig; Philippe Mayaux; Javier Gallego; Timothy Richards; Jean-Paul Malingreau
Background The role of forests in the global carbon cycle has been the subject of a great deal of research recently, but the impact of management practices on forest soil dynamics at the stand level has received less attention. This study used six forest management experimental sites in five northern states of the US to investigate the effects of silvicultural treatments (light thinning, heavy thinning, and clearcutting) on forest floor and soil carbon pools. Results No overall trend was found between forest floor carbon stocks in stands subjected to partial or complete harvest treatments. A few sites had larger stocks in control plots, although estimates were often highly variable. Forest floor carbon pools did show a trend of increasing values from southern to northern sites. Surface soil (0-5 cm) organic carbon content and concentration were similar between treated and untreated plots. Overall soil carbon (0-20 cm) pool size was not significantly different from control values in sites treated with partial or complete harvests. No geographic trends were evident for any of the soil properties examined. Conclusions Results indicate that it is unlikely that mineral soil carbon stocks are adversely affected by typical management practices as applied in northern hardwood forests in the US; however, the findings suggest that the forest floor carbon pool may be susceptible to loss.
The Boreal Forest Watch program was initiated in the fall of 1994 to act as an educational outreach program for the BOREAS project in both the BOREAS Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA). Boreal Forest Watch (13FW) was designed to introduce area high school teachers and their students to the types of research activities occurring as part of the BOREAS study of Canadian boreal forests. Several teacher training workshops were offered to teachers from central and northern Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba between May, 1995 and February, 1999; teachers were introduced to techniques for involving their students in on-going environmental monitoring studies within local forested stands. Boreal Forest Watch is an educational outreach program which brings high school students and research scientists together to study the forest and foster a sustainable relationship between people and the planetary life-support system we depend upon. Personnel from the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC), with the cooperation from the Prince Albert National Park (PANP), instituted this program to help teachers within the BOREAS Study Areas offer real science research experience to their students. The program has the potential to complement large research projects, such as BOREAS, by providing useful student- collected data to scientists. Yet, the primary goal of BFW is to allow teachers and students to experience a hands-on, inquiry-based approach to leaming science - emulating the process followed by research scientists. In addition to introducing these teachers to on-going BOREAS research, the other goals of the BFW program were to: 1) to introduce authentic science topics and methods to students and teachers through hands-on, field-based activities; and, 2) to build a database of student-collected environmental monitoring data for future global change studies in the boreal region.
Concerns about environmental effects of large scale deforestation have prompted efforts to map forests over large areas using various remote sensing data and image processing techniques. Basic research on the spectral characteristics of forest vegetation are required to form a basis for development of new techniques, and for image interpretation. Examination of LANDSAT data and image processing algorithms over a portion of boreal forest have demonstrated the complexity of relations between the various expressions of forest canopies, environmental variability, and the relative capacities of different image processing algorithms to achieve high classification accuracies under these conditions. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data may in part provide the means to interpret the responses of standard data and techniques to the vegetation based on its relatively high spectral resolution.
The paper examines, by climax conifer series, historical and current roles of many important pathogens and insects of interior Northwest coniferious forests and their unique responses to changing successional conditions resulting from management. Future research on forest pathogens and insects should address three primary subject areas: insect and pathogen population dynamics in managed and unmanaged forests; ecological roles and effects of native and introduced pathogens and insects; and effects of natural disturbances and management practices on native insects, pathogens, and their natural enemies.
ABSTRACT Inter-community forest associations,play an important role in the community,forestry sector in many countries, providing benefits such as political representation, technical forestry services, and production cooperation.They face challenges related to collective action, representation and legitimacy among their heterogeneous memberships. In Mexico, despite the vast research on common-property forest systems, no systematic study has been done on forest associations. This paper
Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions; EU-FP-7 e-infra ENVRI "Common Operations of Environmental Research Infrastructures" project. New Siberian research infrastructure and data products should be developed in line with the ACTRIS, ICOS and ENVRI approaches. Furthermore, The Pan-Eurasian Experiment will be supported iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem - Atmosphere Processes Study) bringing the PEEX under umbrella of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The permafrost regions and boreal forests of the Pan Eurasian area can be identified as a hot spot of climate change research in a global scale. PEEX experiment can be considered as a crucial part of the strategic aims of several international and national roadmaps for climate change research and the development of next-generation research infrastructures. In this work we present the overall Science Plan for the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and report on the progress made in two PEEX science workshops organized in Helsinki in October 2012 and in Moscow in February 2013.
The primary goal of this research was to improve monitoring of temperate forest change using remote sensing. In this context, change includes both clearing of forest due to effects such as fire, logging, or land conversion and forest growth and succession. The Landsat 7 ETM+ proved an extremely valuable research tool in this domain. The Landsat 7 program has generated an extremely valuable transformation in the land remote sensing community by making high quality images available for relatively low cost. In addition, the tremendous improvements in the acquisition strategy greatly improved the overall availability of remote sensing images. I believe that from an historical prespective, the Landsat 7 mission will be considered extremely important as the improved image availability will stimulate the use of multitemporal imagery at resolutions useful for local to regional mapping. Also, Landsat 7 has opened the way to global applications of remote sensing at spatial scales where important surface processes and change can be directly monitored. It has been a wonderful experience to have participated on the Landsat 7 Science Team. The research conducted under this project led to contributions in four general domains: I. Improved understanding of the information content of images as a function of spatial resolution; II. Monitoring Forest Change and Succession; III. Development and Integration of Advanced Analysis Methods; and IV. General support of the remote sensing of forests and environmental change. This report is organized according to these topics. This report does not attempt to provide the complete details of the research conducted with support from this grant. That level of detail is provided in the 16 peer reviewed journal articles, 7 book chapters and 5 conference proceedings papers published as part of this grant. This report attempts to explain how the various publications fit together to improve our understanding of how forests are changing and how to monitor forest change with remote sensing. There were no new inventions that resulted from this grant.
Williams, Darrel (Technical Monitor); Woodcock, Curtis E.
7. View southwest, east facade of Lake Forest (original Forest Cottage structure incorporated into renamed structure) - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY
3. View northeast, west facade of Lake Forest (original Forest Cottage structure incorporated into renamed structure) - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY
4. View southeast, west facade of Lake Forest (original Forest Cottage structure incorporated into renamed structure) - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY
The research concentrated on two fronts: (1) defining relationships between land use complex and nitrate and sediment concentrations; and (2) developing a method for assessing the extent of potential and water quality improvements available through land management options and their associated costs. In this work, selected basins of the Fish River (Alabama) were delineated, land use/land cover types were classified, and "contributing zones" were delineated using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) analytical tools. Water samples collected from these basins were analyzed for their nutrient contents. Based on measured nitrate and sediment concentrations in basin streams, a linkage model was developed. This linkage model relates land use/land cover with the pollution levels in the stream. The linkage model was evaluated at three different scales: (1) the basin scale; (2) the contributing zone scale; and (3) the stream buffer/riparian zone scale. The contributing zone linkage model suggests that forests act as a sink or transformation zone. Residential/urban/built-up areas were identified as the strongest contributors of nitrate in the contributing zones model and active agriculture was identified as the second largest contributor. Regression results for the "land use/land cover diversity" model (stream buffer/riparian zone scale) suggest that areas that are close (adjacent) to the stream and any disturbances in these areas will have major impacts on stream water quality. The economic model suggests the value of retiring lands from agricultural land uses to forested buffers varies from 0 to 3067 per hectare, depending on the types of crops currently grown. Along with conversion costs, this land value forms the basis for estimates of the costs of land management options for improving (or maintaining) water quality throughout the study area. The model also shows the importance of stream-side management zones, which are key to maintenance of stream water quality.
In this study, we conducted the experiment to compare the whiteness perception of Finnish and Japanese observers. The rank order of perceived whiteness among seven nearly white Munsell chips (Value is 9.25 or 9.5, Chroma is 0, 0.5 or 1.0) under the fluorescent lamps of correlated color temperatures of 3000K, 5000K, and 6700K was determined. Observing condition employed in the two laboratories was exactly the same as well as the experimental procedure. In 3000K condition, the results of Japanese and Finnish observers agreed with each other quite well, while as the correlated color temperature becomes higher, the results from the two laboratories showed different tendencies. Negative correlation was found between the whiteness rank order and the metric chroma for all of the results.
Background Rare, heterozygous germline mutations in the RAD51C gene have been found in breast and ovarian cancer families. In the Finnish population, we have identified two founder mutations in RAD51C that increase the risk of ovarian cancer but not breast cancer in the absence of ovarian cancer. Risk for other cancers has not been studied. Methods To study the role of RAD51C mutations in other common cancer types, we genotyped the Finnish RAD51C founder mutations c.837?+?1G?>?A and c.93delG in 1083 prostate cancer patients and 802 colorectal cancer patients using TaqMan Real-Time PCR. Results No RAD51C mutations c.837?+?1G?>?A or c.93delG were detected among the prostate or colorectal cancer patients. Conclusions The results suggest that the RAD51C mutations do not predispose to prostate or colorectal cancer.
The geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in the Finnish natural gas pipeline have been measured at one site in southern Finland since November 1998. We give an overview of this long and uniform time series covering one sunspot maximum. We also briefly discuss the conventional magnetic activity indices K and Ak, and, additionally, the range of the magnetic field and of its time derivative, as indicators of the GIC activity. The measured GIC data formed the basis of the development of a nowcasting service (GIC Now!), which was implemented within the European Space Agency Space Weather Applications Pilot Project. The service provides a near-real-time view of the geomagnetic activity level and nowcast estimates of GIC and pipe-to-soil voltages in the Finnish natural gas pipeline system. We describe the operation and validation of this service in this paper.
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) vary widely in their ability to use tense/agreement inflections depending on the type of language being acquired, a fact that current accounts of SLI have tried to explain. Finnish provides an important test case for these accounts because: (1) verbs in first and second person permit null subjects whereas verbs in third person do not; and (2) tense and agreement inflections are agglutinating and thus one type of inflection can appear without the other. Probes were used to compare the verb inflection use of Finnish-speaking children with SLI, and both age-matched and younger typically developing children. The children with SLI were less accurate, and the pattern of their errors did not match predictions based on current accounts of SLI. It appears that children with SLI have difficulty learning complex verb inflection paradigms apart from any problem specific to tense and agreement.
This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies within the…
Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.
The northeastern US is the focus of this month's continuing series on acid deposition. There is evidence that US forests are showing some of the same signs of decline as those in Europe, but there is no clean explanation as to the cause of deterioration. The decline is most evident in the red spruce above 6350 feet in North Carolina despite the lack of drought in the area. A study of mycorrhizae on Mount Mitchell found a significant level of deterioration at the higher elevations. Greenhouse efforts to simulate acid rain conditions on Mount Mitchell, where lead and copper soil concentrations are unusually high, do not rule out other contributing factors, such as ozone or airborne nitrogen. There is no strong correlation between the Black Forest studies and the findings in North Carolina, but researchers agree upon the need for more data and for standardized monitoring.
Heuristics are often used in forest planning due to the size and nonlinear structure of many problems. Heuristics have been\\u000a used at all levels of forest planning: strategic, tactical, and operational. An important strength of heuristics is their\\u000a ability to capture the essence of the planning problem. The solution methods for forest-planning problems reflect the wide\\u000a range of problems being
This volume provides a survey of quantitative methods, guiding the reader through formulation and analysis of models that address forest management problems. The authors use simple mathematics, graphics, and short computer programs to explain each method. Emphasizing applications, they discuss linear, integer, dynamic, and goal programming; simulation; network modeling; and econometrics, as these relate to problems of determining economic harvest schedules in even-aged and uneven-aged forests, the evaluation of forest policies, multiple-objective decision making, and more.
The Birch Aquarium at Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers this Web site as part of the Aquarium's online educational series, Voyager Science. Geared toward younger kids, this site introduces the kelp forest and related concepts with great photos, informative descriptions, and a few interactive activities. The Sheltering Forest focuses on the many animals that make their home in the kelp forest, emphasizing the interdependence of organisms in the kelp ecosystem. Simple at-home experiments and online activities are also included.
Morphological and genetical differences of twenty Finnish tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) genotypes were studied. The genotypes were distinguishable by morphology, and number of flower heads, which correlated positively\\u000a with height of the plant and height of the corymb. The mean nuclear DNA content in the leaves of tissue-cultured tansy plantlets\\u000a was 8.86?pg, and variation between genotypes was 27%. The genotypes were
Background As reforms in publicly funded health systems rely heavily on competition, it is important to know if and how public providers\\u000a react to competition. In many European countries, it is empirically difficult to study public providers in different markets,\\u000a but in Finnish occupational health services, both public and private for-profit and non-profit providers co-exist. We studied\\u000a possible differences in public
In this study, we conducted the experiment to compare the whiteness perception of Finnish and Japanese observers. The rank order of perceived whiteness among seven nearly white Munsell chips (Value is 9.25 or 9.5, Chroma is 0, 0.5 or 1.0) under the fluorescent lamps of correlated color temperatures of 3000K, 5000K, and 6700K was determined. Observing condition employed in the
Miyoshi Ayama; Marjukka Eloholma; Mikko Hyvaerinen; Tetsuya Eda; Daisuke Kon; Kenji Mukai; Sueko Kanaya; Liisa Halonen
\\u000a This chapter provides an empirical assessment of the current availability of e-government services on the Internet provided\\u000a by Finnish municipalities. Finland can be considered as an advanced Nordic information society. Moreover, service provision\\u000a is steered and legitimized by national and local policies. Current e-government provision logic reflects broader social conditions\\u000a and theories (e.g. new public management) together with issues of
All cases of bacteremia caused solely byEscherichia coli in 1977–1979, 1987–1989, and 1993–1994 in a Finnish university hospital were reviewed retrospectively to determine the clinical manifestations, the outcome, and the prognostic factors. In 332 episodes, mortality during the month after the first positive blood culture was 17%. This figure diminished during the study period from 23% in the 1970s to
A. Kuikka; A. Sivonen; A. Emelianova; V. V. Valtonen
Abstract Conclusion: The Finnish Matrix Test is the first sentence test in noise for the Finnish language. It was developed according to the HearCom standards and provides reliable speech intelligibility measurements with highly comparable results with the other international matrix tests. Objectives: The aim of the study was to develop an accurate speech intelligibility test in noise for the Finnish language that is comparable across different languages. Methods: We chose a matrix sentence test, which comprises a base matrix of 10 names, verbs, numerals, adjectives and nouns. Test lists were formed from this matrix quasi randomly, providing test sentences of the same syntactical structure. The speech material corresponds to everyday spoken language and the phoneme distribution is representative of the Finnish language. The test was optimized by determining the speech recognition thresholds of the individual words and subsequently by applying level corrections of up to ±3 dB. Evaluation measurements were performed to check the equivalence of the different test lists with respect to speech intelligibility and to provide reference values for further clinical applications. Results: After training, the mean speech recognition threshold (SRT) and the slope of the final test lists were -10.1 ± 0.1 dB signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR)and 16.7 ± 1.2%/dB, respectively (measurements at constant level; inter-list variability). The mean SRT and the slope of the test subjects were -10.1 ± 0.7 dB SNR and 17.5 ± 2.2%/dB (measurements at constant level; inter-subject variability). The expected SRT range for normal-hearing young adults for adaptive measurements is -9.7 ± 0.7 dB SNR. PMID:24807850
Concern about potential health hazards of nitrate, nitrite and N?nitroso compounds necessitates calculations of exposures to these compounds and their distribution in normal populations. This study describes dietary intake of nitrate (NO 3), nitrite (NO 2) and N?nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) among 5304 adult men and 4750 women, who participated in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey in 1967–72. Food consumption
Background Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects the human respiratory tract and causes pertussis or whooping cough. The disease has resurged in many countries including Finland where the whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been used for more than 50 years. Antigenic divergence has been observed between vaccine strains and clinical isolates in Finland. To better understand genome evolution in B. pertussis circulating in the immunized population, we developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray for comparative genomic analysis of Finnish strains isolated during the period of 50 years. Methodology/Principal Findings The microarray consisted of 3,582 oligonucleotides (70-mer) and covered 94% of 3,816 ORFs of Tohama I, the strain of which the genome has been sequenced . Twenty isolates from 1953 to 2004 were studied together with two Finnish vaccine strains and two international reference strains. The isolates were selected according to their characteristics, e.g. the year and place of isolation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Genomic DNA of the tested strains, along with reference DNA of Tohama I strain, was labelled and hybridized. The absence of genes as established with microarrays, was confirmed by PCR. Compared with the Tohama I strain, Finnish isolates lost 7 (8.6 kb) to 49 (55.3 kb) genes, clustered in one to four distinct loci. The number of lost genes increased with time, and one