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1

www.metla.fi/silvafennica ISSN 0037-5330 The Finnish Society of Forest Science The Finnish Forest Research Institute  

E-print Network

regarding basic concepts such as forest and forest area. A simple consequence is that the cross247 www.metla.fi/silvafennica · ISSN 0037-5330 The Finnish Society of Forest Science · The Finnish that the nations' applied definitions and concepts produce comparable estimates of the status of forests. In spite

Tomppo, Erkki

2

Proc. First IUFRO Rusts of Forest Trees WP Conf., 27 Aug 1998. Saanelka, Finland. Finnish Forest Research Institute. Research Papers 712: 275-283. 1998.  

E-print Network

Proc. First IUFRO Rusts of Forest Trees WP Conf., 2­7 Aug 1998. Saanelka, Finland. Finnish Forest Research Institute. Research Papers 712: 275-283. 1998. The distribution of white pine blister rust Research Station, Flagstaff, AZ E-mail: epvan@highfiber.com Summary White pine blister rust, Cronartium

3

Biotechnology as a Competitive Edge for the Finnish Forest Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have collected information by interviewing all identified parties within the Finnish forest sector who might have a potential biotechnology connection : university research groups, research institutions, small and medium-sized biotechnology-companies and up to the largest forest companies. The ultimate goal was to assess how resources have been allocated and biotechnologies utilized within the value chain of

Terhi Hakala; Olli Haltia; Raine Hermans; Martti Kulvik; Hanna Nikinmaa; Albert Porcar-Castell; Tiina Pursula

2007-01-01

4

Research in Art and Design in Finnish  

E-print Network

within the administrative sector of the Ministry of Education and receives its funding through the stateResearch in Art and Design in Finnish Universities Publications of the Academy of Finland 4/09 Evaluation Report #12;Research in Art and Design in Finnish Universities Publications of the Academy

Kaski, Samuel

5

The European Forest Institute and the Finnish Forest Research Institute: The supply of woody biomass from the forests in the EU can be  

E-print Network

biomass from the forests in the EU can be significantly increased The supply of woody biomass from. The theoretical biomass potential from the European forests in 2010 is nearly 1.3 billion m3 including bark and woody biomass from early thinnings in young forests. The potential is, however, reduced to about 750

6

BLOWING THE WHISTLE ON FINNISH FOREST CRIME Crime file -September 2006  

E-print Network

`frontier' style harvesting occurs in natural forests. Whilst the Finnish Government tries to assure pressure on remaining ancient forests, as well as further fragmenting the forests of north-west Russia

7

The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly

P. Merila; J. Derome; M. Lindgren

2007-01-01

8

Forest Research Annual Report  

E-print Network

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2000-2001 An agency of the Forestry Commission #12-SMITH Chief Research Officer Forest Research Members DR A.R. GRIFFIN Renewable Resources Division Shell Research Organisation Spring 2001 Advisory Committee on Forest Research Chief Executive Chief Research

9

Forest Research Coporate Plan  

E-print Network

Forest Research Coporate Plan 2006­2009 The research agency of the Forestry Commission #12;Forest Research Corporate Plan 2006­2009 1Corporate Plan 2006­2009 #12;Chief Executive Professor Jim Lynch Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham Surrey GU10 4LH Tel: 01420 22255 E-mail: research

10

Forest Research: Climate Change  

E-print Network

Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

11

Monitoring of forest condition in the Finnish-Russian border region  

SciTech Connect

Large industrial and population centers of NW Russia and Estonia are great sources of air pollutants, which is regarded as a threat to the vitality of forests also in Finland. Therefore, the monitoring of forest condition has been set as a central goal of the Finnish-Russian cooperation in the field of environmental protection in near-border districts. Except in the vicinity of emissions sources it has been difficult to distinguish in a scientifically reliable way antropogenic symptoms from natural disturbances and epidemics.

Maelkoenen, E.; Lumme, I. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)); Tikkanen, E. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Rovaniemi (Finland))

1994-12-01

12

Forest Research Annual Report  

E-print Network

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2005­2006 The research agency of the Forestry Commission #12;Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts I 2005­2006 Together with the Comptroller and Auditor to be printed 24 July 2006 HC 1407 The research agency of the Forestry Commission Edinburgh: The Stationery

13

Airborne forest fire research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

Mattingly, G. S.

1974-01-01

14

Forest Service Research Note  

E-print Network

U.S.O.A. Forest Service Research Note PSW-173 ABSTRACT: In pest control operations by the U- thion was applied by topical and aerosol treatments in the laboratory to 6th - instar populations from to the insecticide malathion than others? If so, why? In 1966, U.S. Forest Service pest control specialists sprayed

Standiford, Richard B.

15

THE FOREST BIOLOGY RESEARCH COOPERATIVE  

E-print Network

and management tools for sustainable biomass production suitable for forest biorefinery applications. CORE LARGETHE FOREST BIOLOGY RESEARCH COOPERATIVE MISSION: To optimize productivity, health and sustainability of intensively managed forest ecosystems by investigating the interactions among genetics

Watson, Craig A.

16

infrastructure Report by Forest Research  

E-print Network

Benefits of green infrastructure Report by Forest Research Promoting sustainable greenspace #12;Promoting sustainable greenspace #12;Defra research contract number WC0807 October2010 Promoting sustainable greenspace Benefits of green infrastructure Report by Forest Research #12;Benefits of green infrastructure

17

Public preferences for uncertain regeneration cuttings: a contingent valuation experiment involving Finnish private forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nordic countries, where general public enjoys access to private lands, private forests are intensively used for recreation. Private forest owners, however, do not have to take this use into account in their planning nor are they regulated to inform the public about cuttings. This uncertainty in forest amenities was analyzed in a contingent valuation (CV) survey in Finland. Respondents

Mika Rekola; Eija Pouta

2005-01-01

18

Economics of carbon sequestration with special reference to Finnish private forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern on the effects of rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere has created a possible new product of forestry, namely carbon sequestration. Forests can biologically sequester much more carbon than what takes place when forests are managed for the timber production (economic) objective. Because increased sequestration reduces the present value of timber returns, there is a need to analyse

Lauri Valsta; Jyri Mononen; Johanna Pohjola

19

Forest Research Wildfires in Wales  

E-print Network

Forest Research Wildfires in Wales: Executive Summary Matthew Jollands, Jake Morris and Andy Moffat The `Wildfires in Wales' project sought to characterise and understand the problem of wildfires in the South is available online at: www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/wildfiresinwales. #12;2 Scope of the problem Wildfires

20

Forest Research Dyfi Catchment and Woodland Research Platform  

E-print Network

Forest Research Dyfi Catchment and Woodland Research Platform The Dyfi Catchment and Woodland and tourism. The Dyfi Catchment and Woodland Research Platform is data-rich. Both existing and new data Richard Lucas. Forest Research Forest Research is the research agency of the Forestry Commission

21

Finnish Comprehensive School Students Contemplate the Forest Fires of Indonesia 1997 from Internet and Newspaper Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of the assignment for eighth-grade students was reporting on the forest fires in Indonesia in chronological order, from 26 August to 27 September 1997. The final stage of the assignment was composing a report in essay format. The goal of this presentation was to examine the historical interpretation of the events and to simultaneously

Wallin-Oittinen, Toini

2004-01-01

22

Publications Forest Research publishes a wide range  

E-print Network

for recreation and nature tourism ­ European COST Action E33 Forest School: a marvellous opportunity to learnPublications Forest Research publishes a wide range of material, from corporate reports and plans by Forest Research To obtain copies of FR publications, email: library@forestry.gsi.gov.uk or visit www

23

Forest Research Much more than trees  

E-print Network

Forest Research Much more than trees #12;Welcome to Forest Research. We are the research agency of the Forestry Commission, the UK Government department responsible for forestry. However, our research is about relevant, pressing and important. We are, for example, carrying out important research into protecting

24

Long-term changes in acidity and DOC in throughfall and soil water in Finnish forests.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to examine if any detectable trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sulphate (SO4-S) concentrations and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in throughfall (TF) and soil water (SW) could be found during 1990-2010 and to relate them to recent changes in decreased acid deposition. The study was conducted in seven boreal coniferous forest sites: four of which are managed and three unmanaged forests sites. Generally, temporal trend showed a significant decrease in SO4-S concentrations in bulk precipitation (BP), TF and SW. At some of the sites, there was an increasing tendency in BP and TF in the DOC concentrations. This feature coincides with decreasing SO4-S concentration, indicating that SO4-S may be an important driver of DOC release from the canopy. However, a slightly increased temperature, larger senescing needle mass and consequently increased decaying activity in the canopy may partly explain the increasing trend in DOC. In SW, no consistent DOC trend was seen. At some sites, the decreased base cation concentrations mostly account for the decrease in the ANC values in SW and TF. PMID:25096641

Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Starr, Mike; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Nieminen, Tiina M

2014-11-01

25

The Finnish \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural roots and images of the Finnish wilderness lie in its use as a source of livelihood practiced in southern and central Finland during the Middle Ages. There are statutory wilder- ness areas in Finland, but Finnish people consider many other areas as wilderness. It is important for management of the areas, statu- tory wilderness areas and the other

Ville Hallikainen

2000-01-01

26

[Forest degradation/decline: research and practice].  

PubMed

As one of the most critical environmental problems in the 21st century, forest degradation has been facing worldwide. There are many definitions about forest degradation, but its common features are the permanent loss of forests, stand structure destructed, forest quality decreased, and forest functions lowered. Forest decline or tree decline in fact is one of the causes of forest degradation, which includes the general reduction of trees in vigor, low level growth of trees in productivity, death of trees, and even, decline of soil fertility. Many researches indicated that deforestation is the permanent loss of forests in area, which is shifted to other land uses. Deforestation is the product of the interactions between environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political forces at work in any given country/region, and thus, more and more attention is focused on the negative socioeconomic and environmental effects after forest degradation, especially on the reduction of forest area induced by deforestation. The effects of any decisions or policies in national and international levels on forest degradation induced by deforestation have been paid attention as well. How to make efforts and strengthen the worldwide cooperation to combat the forest degradation induced by deforestation must be challenged to find appropriate solutions. There are many researches on forest decline, because of its complexity and uncertainties. The major causes of forest decline include: 1) pollution from both industry and agriculture, 2) stress factors, e.g., desiccation, 3) changes in stand dynamics, 4) decline disease of forest or diseases of complex etiology, 5) degradation of productivity and/or soil fertility in pure plantation forests. Forest degradation in China is similar to that all over the world, but with the characteristics in forest components, i.e., 1) secondary forests are the major forest resources, 2) China has the most plantation forests in the world, some of which have low qualities or functions. Based on the above reviews and perceptions on forest degradation and related practices, the main causes of contemporary forest degradation were summarized, and the general countermeasures for combating forest degradation/decline were given. PMID:17886658

Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Li, Feng-Qin

2007-07-01

27

Priorities for international forest research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world is moving towards knowledge-based societies. Economies are globalizing. The global public goods value of forests is being recognised at the same time that the traditional role of state forest agencies in production forestry is being taken over by multi-national corporations. At the same time emerging technologies are greatly enhancing our ability to assess and monitor forest attributes, process

Jeffrey A. Sayer; Neil Byron; Dennis Dykstra; Jerome K Vanclay

1997-01-01

28

25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Forest management research. 163.37 Section 163...REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations 163.37 Forest management research. The Secretary, with...authorized to perform forestry research activities to improve...

2010-04-01

29

Research Report Forests and carbon  

E-print Network

Fix Standard (CFS) Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCBS) Forest Carbon Standard (FCS) Gold establishing a `business as usual' baseline. This requires deter- mining a counterfactual for what would have

30

Research Update Seminar Resilient Forests  

E-print Network

in turn will help grow and sustain our forest resource into the future. The seminar is intended to give-1515 the human dimension 1515-1530 s for use 1530-1545 ity for any additional questions from afternoon Closing details of the cost centre, job code and account number to jv e costs.] re: ccount No.: this form by e

31

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts  

E-print Network

Biodiversity Action Plan. More recently, interest has shifted both nationally and internationally to consider the flood and pollution control functions of floodplain woodland. Forest Research's involvement began understand and help quantify these effects. Work on investigating the role of floodplain woodland in flood

32

Modelling the Abundance and Temporal Variation in the Production of Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) in Finnish Mineral Soil Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical models for the abundance and berry yield of V. myrtillus were constructed using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) techniques. The percentage coverage of bilberry was predicted as a function of site and stand characteristics using the permanent sample plots of the National Forest Inventory (NFI) in 1995. The number of bilberries was predicted as a function of percentage coverage

Jari Miina; Juha-Pekka Hotanen; Kauko Salo

33

Forest Research Opportunity Mapping for  

E-print Network

Pollution in the Lake District Samantha Broadmeadow and Tom Nisbet The Research Agency of the Forestry Mapping to reduce diffuse pollution in the LDNP | Broadmeadow & Nisbet | 20/07/2010 Opportunity mapping .....................................................................4 4.2 Land use and land use practices

34

Research Summary Cultural values of trees, woods and forests  

E-print Network

into forest management decisions, local products can be better promoted, development of tourism encouragedResearch Summary Cultural values of trees, woods and forests Forest managers have to take account of cultural values as one of the central themes of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM). These are accounted

35

Research Update Seminar Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, EH25 9SY  

E-print Network

with a brief overview of a number of different current topics. Forest Research has been supporting the industry to a pest or disease. This talk will outline new research and advice on species choice. 1045-1115 DevelopingResearch Update Seminar 17th March 2011 17th March 2011 Forest Research, Northern Research Station

36

Forest Research The Research Agency of the  

E-print Network

, reducing stress and improving mental health, reducing noise levels, cooling air in summer by giving shade that there is a growing body of research generally, but not unanimously, confirming the above benefits of street trees. However, few economic estimates of associated health impacts have so far been published for the effects

37

Using Qualitative Research Strategies in Cross-National Projects: The English-Finnish Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data

Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary

2009-01-01

38

Exploring invisible scientific communities: Studying networking relations within an educational research community. A Finnish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on making invisiblecolleges of educational science in Finlandvisible through analysing networking relationsbetween scientific research communities. Thestudy aims at developing methods to analyse theintensity and focus of social collaborationbetween educational research groups in order tounderstand internal relations of scientificdiscipline and support scientific evaluationwith information about participation andinformal communication beyond quantity ofpublished products. Informal and formalnetworking connections of

Palonen Tuire; Lehtinen Erno

2001-01-01

39

China forest park website differentiation rule and actuation mechanism research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the forest tourism rapidly developing, the network traveling market development is rapid, the traveling way personalization and the region traveling informationization strengthen unceasingly. The article researches forest park space and function differentiation rule, And uses the least squares method, uses the Eviews 5.0 software to analysis the local environment, the forest park supplies and the traveling market scale,

Bai Cui Ling; Qin An Chen

2010-01-01

40

Commercialization at Finnish Universities - Researchers Perspectives on the Motives and Challenges of Turning Science into Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

For developed countries, continuous innovation has been a prerequisite for economic growth for some time. Because radical innovations often require considerable slack and freedom in researching the relevant underlying phenomena, universities are considered the primary loci for generating knowledge leading to radical leaps in the development of platforms on which future technologies build. Thus, to facilitate the improvement of premises

Antti-Jussi Tahvanainen; Tuomo Nikulainen

2011-01-01

41

Forest plantations in the Midsouth, USA. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Plantation forestry is one means of controlling the temporal and spatial aspects of stand regeneration after harvest. Intensive plantation forestry can ultimately reduce harvesting pressure and disturbance on natural stands and and stands intended to be set aside for esthetics, recreation, or watershed protection. Reported here is the status of forest plantations in the Midsouth States. It is important to know if plantations are meeting their fullest potential and what shortcomings, if any, need to be addressed. Information gathered includes plantation area, forest type, ownership, volume, site class, and stockings. Additionally, comparisons were made to see if there was a difference between plantation and natural-stand volumes.

Rosson, J.F.

1995-09-01

42

Forest Research ISSUE 5 The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission1 | SERG Newsletter  

E-print Network

Forest Research ISSUE 5 The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission1 | SERG Newsletter The Newsletter of the Social and Economic Research Group Spring 2010 Welcome to the SERG newsletter. In this spring edition, we focus on urban forestry, a topic central to British forest policy. Community Forests

43

43 CFR 8224.1 - Use of the Fossil Forest Research Natural Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of the Fossil Forest Research Natural Area. 8224...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area 8224.1 Use of the Fossil Forest Research Natural...

2011-10-01

44

FOREST RESPONSE PROGRAM: NATIONAL RESEARCH ON FOREST DECLINE AND AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Forest Response Program (FRP) is a major research undertaking. t is fortunate to have the support of many of the nation's top scientists. he involvement of the Forest Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the broader scientific community gives the program a unique...

45

FR Corporate Plan The Research Agency of the Forestry CommissionForest Research  

E-print Network

FR Corporate Plan 2011-15 The Research Agency of the Forestry CommissionForest Research #12;FR Corporate Plan 2011-2015 www.forestry.gov.uk/forestresearch2 Foreword Forest Research's world-class research research. We're looking into a wide range of other important issues, from inspiring behaviour change

46

Forest and Forestry Research and Education in Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990, after the dramatic change in Mongolia's political and economic system, human impact on forest resources highly increased and became continuously degraded due to improper exploitation, forest fire, mining, pest and disease, uncontrolled grazing, and inadequate management which negatively affect its environmental conditions causing severe deforestation, desertification, and ecological stress in some regions of the country. Forestry research and

Nyam-Osor Batkhuu; Don Koo Lee; Jamsran Tsogtbaatar

2011-01-01

47

Research Article Airborne carbon deposition on a remote forested lake  

E-print Network

Research Article Airborne carbon deposition on a remote forested lake Nicholas D. Preston1 inputs of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (TPOC) were measured during summ- er stratification for an oligotrophic north temperate lake located in a forested watershed. These inputs were episodic and associated

Pace, Michael L.

48

The Finnish decision-making process to recommend a new vaccine: From vaccine research to vaccination policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThis article takes a closer look at the decision-making process to recommend a new vaccine in the light of the Finnish experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subject and methodsThe criteria for evidence-based knowledge are examined in order to consider how public health decision-making in the area\\u000a of immunisation evolves over time and from one context to the other on the basis of three of

Hanna Nohynek

2008-01-01

49

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 20032004126 Publications, research programmes,  

E-print Network

Latham, Helen Gray, Keith Kirby, Elizabeth Poulsom and Chris Quine (£17.50). Guideline Forests and water Forests and water Steve Gregory*, Tom Nisbet and Helen McKay* Forests and flooding Steve Gregory*, Tom Nisbet and Helen McKay* Technical Notes (free) 5 Chainsaw debuttressing of standing timber Colin Saunders

50

Thermocouple errors in forest fire research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperatures measured in forest fires are usually low because of radiant heat loss from thermocouples. The authors offer a\\u000a method, based on their recent experiments, for estimating true flame temperatures in the field.

J. D. Walker; B. J. Stocks

1968-01-01

51

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts  

E-print Network

and across regions Environmental and Human Sciences Influences of stand age and soil properties on forest battens are then classified using strength characteristics such as knots and wood density to produce

52

25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations 163.37...authorized Indian representatives' is authorized to perform forestry research activities to improve the basis for determining...

2011-04-01

53

25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations 163.37...authorized Indian representatives' is authorized to perform forestry research activities to improve the basis for determining...

2012-04-01

54

25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations 163.37...authorized Indian representatives' is authorized to perform forestry research activities to improve the basis for determining...

2013-04-01

55

25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.  

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations 163.37...authorized Indian representatives' is authorized to perform forestry research activities to improve the basis for determining...

2014-04-01

56

The Finnish public discussion of giftedness and gifted children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research in which the Finnish public discussion of giftedness and gifted children, and conceptions of giftedness and gifted children presented in it, were examined. The research was conducted by analyzing articles from the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat and the teachers periodical Opettaja, using the content analysis method. The results

Sonja Laine

2010-01-01

57

Virtues of visualisation: gambling in Finnish editorial cartoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do editorial cartoons represent gambling? What can visually oriented thinking give to gambling research? The answers are rooted in the expanding research about visual culture, methodologies and data in social sciences and cultural studies. The discussion about 170 editorial cartoons from the Finnish print media, from 1961 to 2005, shows how the cartoons profile the Finnish gambler and what

Pauliina Raento; Markus Meuronen

2011-01-01

58

Solar energy at Forest Research Solar Power at Alice Holt  

E-print Network

Solar energy at Forest Research Solar Power at Alice Holt research station provides a renewable to install a solar photovoltaic system to meet some of the research station's energy needs. #12;In January dioxide emissions, when compared with traditional forms of energy generation. · The solar installation

59

Puolin ja toisin: Suomalais-virolaista kielentutkimusta. AFinLAn vuosikirja 1998 (On Both Sides: Finnish-Estonian Research on Language. AFinLA Yearbook 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers included in this yearbook of the Finnish Society of Applied Linguistics (AFinLA) were presented at the 1998 AFinLA conference "Linguistics and Finland: Crossing the Gulf." Papers are in Finnish, Estonian, or English, but all have accompanying English abstracts. The topics discussed in the papers include the following: speed and accuracy

Luukka, Minna-Riitta, Ed.; Salla, Sigrid, Ed.; Dufva, Hannele, Ed.

60

Long-Term Research at the USDA Forest Service's Experimental Forests and Ranges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from BioScience is on USDA Forest Service's long-term databases. The network of experimental forests and ranges administered by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service consists of 77 properties that are representative of most forest cover types and many ecological regions in the nation. Established as early as 1908, these sites maintain exceptional, long-term databases on environmental dynamics and biotic responses. Early research at these sites focused on silviculture, ecosystem restoration, and watershed management. Over time, many of the properties have evolved into a functional network of ecological observatories through common large-scale, long-term experiments and other approaches. Collaboration with other institutions and research programs fosters intersite research and common procedures for managing and sharing data. Much current research in this network focuses on global change and interdisciplinary ecosystem studies at local to global scales. With this experience in developing networks and compiling records of environmental history, the experimental forests and ranges network can contribute greatly to formation of new networks of environmental observatories.

ARIEL E. LUGO, FREDERICK J. SWANSON, OLGA RAMOS GONZLEZ, MARY BETH ADAMS, BRIAN PALIK, RONALD E. THILL, DALE G. BROCKWAY, CHRISTEL KERN, RICHARD WOODSMITH, and ROBERT MUSSELMAN (;)

2006-01-01

61

1998 Proceedings: Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Proceedings of the 1998 Puerto Rico conference on Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research (sponsored in part by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) are available at this Website. The proceedings include the program, abstracts from presentations and posters, and contact information for presenters.

62

The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher

Tirri, Kirsi

2014-01-01

63

RESPONSES OF FORESTS TO ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION. NATIONAL RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE FOREST RESPONSE PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The document presents the national research plan for the Forest Response Program. The introduction provides an overview, a statement of the program objective, and a brief description of the program's organizational structure. A Program Foundations section forms the heart of the r...

64

Biogeographical and taxonomic biases in tropical forest fragmentation research.  

PubMed

Despite several decades of research on the effects of fragmentation and habitat change on biodiversity, there remain strong biases in the geographical regions and taxonomic species studied. The knowledge gaps resulting from these biases are of particular concern if the forests most threatened with modification are also those for which the effects of such change are most poorly understood. To quantify the nature and magnitude of such biases, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on forest fragmentation in the tropics for the period 1980-2012. Studies included focused on any type of response of single species, communities, or assemblages of any taxonomic group to tropical forest fragmentation and on fragmentation-related changes to forests. Of the 853 studies we found in the SCOPUS database, 64% were conducted in the Neotropics, 13% in Asia, 10% in the Afrotropics, and 5% in Australasia. Thus, although the Afrotropics is subject to the highest rates of deforestation globally, it was the most disproportionately poorly studied biome. Significant taxonomic biases were identified. Of the taxonomic groups considered, herpetofauna was the least studied in the tropics, particularly in Africa. Research examining patterns of species distribution was by far the most common type (72%), and work focused on ecological processes (28%) was rare in all biomes, but particularly in the Afrotropics and for fauna. We suggest research efforts be directed toward less-studied biogeographic regions, particularly where the threat of forest fragmentation continues to be high. Increased research investment in the Afrotropics will be important to build knowledge of threats and inform responses in a region where almost no efforts to restore its fragmented landscapes have yet begun and forest protection is arguably most tenuous. Sesgos Biogeogrficos y Taxonmicos en la Investigacin de la Fragmentacin de Bosques Tropicales. PMID:25065550

Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

2014-12-01

65

University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research  

SciTech Connect

This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

Pendse, Hemant P.

2010-11-23

66

Research Summary Human dimensions of adaptive forest management  

E-print Network

Research Summary Human dimensions of adaptive forest management This study draws on international management is a systematic approach to learning from innovative resource management. Many of the challenges an iterative, experimental and collaborative approach to resource management. The terminology of adaptive

67

Metals in Finnish liqueurs.  

PubMed

The metal content of some representative Finnish berry liqueurs was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The berry liqueurs were prepared from cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus), cranberry (Vaccinum oxycoccus), lingonberry (Vaccinum vitis-idaea) and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). In addition some other Finnish berry, fruit and herbal liqueurs were analyzed. The trace elements studied were Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, and Zn. The level of poisonous metals in all the samples was very low: As less than 0.1, Cd less than 0.005 and Pb less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l. PMID:6464557

Harju, K; Ronkainen, P

1984-05-01

68

Climate change models and forest research  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated climate models have projected that global warming of 1.5[degrees]-4.5[degrees]C will take place over a period of 50-100 years (Bretherton et al. 1990). They also predict changes in the global water cycle in response to this warming. Some regions could become wetter while others become drier. Seasonal patterns of precipitation would likely change. Although historical and paleoclimatic records provide examples of a warmer earth in some geographic locations, other regions could experience conditions unlike those of any period in the earth's history (Cooperative Holocene Mapping Project 1988). General circulation models (GCM) offer one means of obtaining a portrait of what the climatological future holds based on our current understanding of the global environment. GCMs are powerful tools, but our knowledge of the processes and interactions that they attempt to model is incomplete. As many as 19 GCMs have been identified (Randall et al. 1992). No particular model can hope to be completely accurate; and, in fact, no two are in complete agreement concerning the present climate of our world. Nevertheless, policy recommendations must be made with the information available. Although the perfect climate forecast is still far in the future, we know enough to be able to make responsible use of the data produced by GCMs. Responsible use requires knowing which predictions have been evaluated against historical records and the degree to which processes critical to forest assessments are explicitly modeled (or missing) from a particular GCM. These insights can guide the scientist in selecting appropriate GCMs, using their predictions in particular applications, and interpreting the final results. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Cooter, E.J.; Eder, B.K.; LeDuc, S.K.; Truppi, L. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1993-09-01

69

Towards an international electronic repository and virtual laboratory of open data and open-source software for telehealth research: comparison of international, Australian and Finnish privacy policies.  

PubMed

Health data includes all content related to health in all data formats, document types, information systems, publication media and languages from all specialties, organisations, regions, states and countries. Capabilities to share, integrate and compare these data contents, clinical trial results and other evaluation outcomes together with telehealth applications for data processing are critical to accelerate discovery and its diffusion to clinical practice. However, the same ethical and legal frameworks that protect privacy hinder this open data and open-source code approach and the issues accumulate if moving data across national, regional or organisational borders. This can be seen as one of the reasons why many telehealth applications and health-research findings tend to be limited to very narrow domains and global results are lacking. The aim of this paper is to take steps towards establishing an international electronic repository and virtual laboratory of open data and open-source code for research purposes by comparing international, Australian and Finnish frameworks. The frameworks seem to be fundamentally similar; they apply the principles of accountability and adequacy to using and disclosing personal data. Their requirements to inform data subjects about the purposes of data collection and use before the dataset is collected, assure that individuals are no longer identifiable and to destruct data when the research activities are finished make sharing data and even secondary data difficult. Using the Internet or cloud services for sharing without proper approvals by ethics committees is technically not allowed if the data are stored in another country. The research community needs to overcome these barriers and develop a virtual laboratory, which operates on distributed data repositories. This empowers the community by enabling systematic evaluations of new technologies and research hypotheses on a rich variety of data and against existing applications, and subsequent tracking of quality improvements in time. PMID:23138090

Suominen, Hanna

2012-01-01

70

The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,

Ryhanen, Timo

2005-01-01

71

Forest Research ISSUE 8 The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission1 | SERG Newsletter  

E-print Network

Forest Research ISSUE 8 The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission1 | SERG Newsletter The Newsletter of the Social and Economic Research Group Autumn 2011 Welcome to the SERG newsletter. This autumn edition highlights the interdisciplinary nature of much of our research. Many complex and real-world land

72

Overview of Contemporary Issues of Forest Research and Management in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 207 million ha of forest covering 22% of its land area, China ranks fifth in the world in forest area. Rapid economic growth, climate change, and forest disturbances pose new, complex challenges for forest research and management. Progress in meeting these challenges is relevant beyond China, because China's forests represent 34% of Asia's forests and 5% of the worlds' forests. To provide a broader understanding of these management challenges and of research and policies that address them, we organized this special issue on contemporary forest research and management issues in China. At the national level, papers review major forest types and the evolution of sustainable forestry, the development of China's forest-certification efforts, the establishment of a forest inventory system, and achievements and challenges in insect pest control in China. Papers focused on Northern China address historical, social, and political factors that have shaped the region's forests; the use of forest landscape models to assess how forest management can achieve multiple objectives; and analysis and modeling of fuels and fire behavior. Papers addressing Central and South China describe the "Grain for Green" program, which converts low productivity cropland to grassland and woodland to address erosion and soil carbon sequestration; the potential effects of climate change on CO2 efflux and soil respiration; and relationships between climate and net primary productivity. China shares many forest management and research issues with other countries, but in other cases China's capacity to respond to forest management challenges is unique and bears watching by the rest of the world.

He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.

2011-12-01

73

Publications Forest Research publishes a wide range of material, from corporate reports and plans, to  

E-print Network

in tourism by Suzanne Martin (£10) Knowledge·innovation·sustainability: Forest Research brochure (free) AlicePublications Forest Research publishes a wide range of material, from corporate reports and plans-reviewed articles in scientific journals and produce books through external publishing houses. 50 Forest Research

74

Fire and green-tree retention in conservation of red-listed and rare deadwood-dependent beetles in Finnish boreal forests.  

PubMed

Habitat loss, fragmentation, and declining habitat quality have created an extinction debt in boreal forests, which could be partly reversed by deliberately improving the habitat quality in managed areas outside reserves. We studied the effects of green-tree retention and controlled burning on red-listed and rare, deadwood-dependent (saproxylic) beetles in a large-scale field experiment in eastern Finland. Our factorial study design included 24 sites dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and with three levels of green-tree retention (0, 10, and 50 m3/ha) and uncut controls. Twelve of the 24 sites were burned in 2001. We sampled beetles with 10 flight-intercept traps on each site during the years 2000-2002 (i.e., 1 pretreatment and 2 post-treatment years). A total sample of 153,449 individuals representing 1,160 beetle species yielded 2,107 specimens of 84 red-listed or rare saproxylic species. The richness of these species was higher on the burned than on the unburned sites, and higher levels of green-tree retention promoted species richness, but there were clear differences between the years. The richness of red-listed and rare saproxylic species increased in the first post-treatment year, evidently due to the treatments, continued to increase on the burned sites in the second post-treatment year, but decreased on the unburned sites. Our results showed that the living conditions of many red-listed and rare saproxylic species could be improved significantly with rather simple alterations to forest management methods. Controlled burning with high levels of green-tree retention creates resources for many saproxylic species, but increasing the levels of green-tree retention in unburned areas can also be beneficial. PMID:17181806

Hyvrinen, Esko; Kouki, Jari; Martikainen, Petri

2006-12-01

75

Forest Research Phytophthora lateralis Factsheet The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission Crown Copyright 2012  

E-print Network

Forest Research Phytophthora lateralis Factsheet The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission in Britain. Symptoms on Lawson cypress Phytophthora lateralis primarily attacks the roots of Lawson cypress cypress with Phytophthora lateralis root infections Figure 4: Basal lesions on Lawson cypress infected

76

Forest Research ISSUE 6 The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission1 | SERG Newsletter  

E-print Network

programme. Social science helps to inform the design of grants and other incentives for tree planting', organised by Forest Research's Social and Economic Research Group (SERG). The event reflected on the wealth process for continually improving management by learning from the outcomes of current management

77

Finnish care integrated?  

PubMed Central

Abstract The public Finnish social and health care system has been challenged by the economic crisis, administrative reforms and increased demands. Better integration as a solution includes many examples, which have been taken to use. The most important are the rewritten national and municipals strategies and quality recommendations, where the different sectors and the levels of care are seen as one entity. Many reorganisations have taken place, both nationally and locally, and welfare clusters have been established. The best examples of integrated care are the forms of teamwork, care management, emphasis on non-institutional care and the information technology. PMID:16896395

Niskanen, J. Jouni

2002-01-01

78

QUATERNARY RESEARCH 28,238-244 (1987) A Reexamination of Late-Pleistocene Boreal Forest Reconstructions  

E-print Network

-analytical episodes and the interpretations of boreal forest for the region, made in light of recent advancesQUATERNARY RESEARCH 28,238-244 (1987) A Reexamination of Late-Pleistocene Boreal Forest" and the proposal that boreal forest existed in the region in the late Pleistocene. These interpretations are now

Holliday, Vance T.

79

V International Conference on Forest Fire Research D. X. Viegas (Ed.), 2006  

E-print Network

after fire in mountain forests of the Central Alps Wohlgemuth T. Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, questions on the ecological resilience of these mountain forests after fires arise. On an 300 ha forest fire- and partially also man-induced wildfires were registered in the Alpine valleys (Tinner et al., 2006). Because

80

Research Summary Forests for recreation and nature tourism European COST Action E33  

E-print Network

Research Summary Forests for recreation and nature tourism ­ European COST Action E33 explored the first theme and, in particular, the integration of forest recreation and tourism the importance of natural factors (such as natural beauty, forest recreation and tourism into economies. Instead

81

Main Findings and Policy Implications from the Research Project Public Perceptions of Mountain Forests in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research project was carried out in order to obtain more knowledge of the attitudes of people living in the mountain areas of Switzerland towards forests, forestry and forest politics. A questionnaire was sent to 2160 private individuals and 72 communal councillors responsible for the forest in their own communes. It contained both questions which the respondents were asked to

Zimmermann Willi; Wild-Eck Stephan

82

Forest carbon research in Inner Mongolia: current knowledge, opportunity and challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon storage in forests in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region plays a significant role in the terrestrial carbon budget due to its largest forest coverage and forest growing stock among all the provinces in China. Nevertheless, scientific research on forest carbon is comparatively less as compared with the research on the main ecosystem, steppe in this area. We are still short of knowledge of forest carbon sequestration's rate, mechanism and potential in the area. Now we are conducting a research program aiming at making clear the above scientific issues. So knowing well previous research work and key findings is essential and helpful for our underway study. In this paper we reviewed the current knowledge, opportunity and challenges of forest carbon research in Inner Mongolia. The total carbon storage in forest of this region increased significantly from 0.417Pg carbon in 1949 to 0.719Pg carbon in 2008 with an annual increase of 2.842Tg~5.226Tg carbon and a dramatically increment of carbon storage in shrub. Carbon storage varied with dominant tree species, forest age and forest growth situation with an average forest carbon density of 42.68 t-C.hm-2, displaying a downtrend before 1980 and later a slow smooth uptrend. It is suggested that increase in vegetation carbon sequestration potential be achieved through selection of plant species and forest management.

Shuyong, Li; Mei, Huang; Shenggong, Li

2014-03-01

83

Research SummaryForest Research Social diversity and the forestry profession  

E-print Network

, medicine, social services and care, and retail. The wide range of roles on offer in the FCResearch SummaryForest Research Social diversity and the forestry profession National legislation a social marketing approach to try and understand ways to change application rates from BAME candidates

84

Safe and Encouraging Home Providing the Countdown to Leadership? Finnish Female Leaders' Childhood Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to dissect the connection between childhood homes and leadership. The study forms a part of a larger study on Finnish female leaders and their life paths. The following research question was set for this study: how did Finnish female leaders describe their childhood and home environment? It was studied through two

Hyvrinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu

2014-01-01

85

United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station  

E-print Network

United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station Research Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 8 p water repellency, vegetative cover, and other site characteristics. The median sediment yield in post

Flury, Markus

86

Forest statistics for Michigan`s northern lower peninsula unit, 1993. Forest Service research bulletin  

SciTech Connect

Michigan`s Northern Lower Peninsula Unit (fig. 1) is comprised of 33 counties. This region of the State is rich with resources that support a network of social, economic, and ecological processes that are forest dependent. The forest resource of the Unit presently supports an industry that operates on a sustaining basis. In 1990 nearly half of Michigan`s saw-log production--297 million board feet--was harvest in the Unit. The forests of the Northern Lower Peninsula are vital to the region. The forest contains a variety of both deciduous and coniferous forest species, which results in regionally unique ecosystems that contribute to biodiversity.

Leatherberry, E.C.

1994-10-30

87

Thematic Mapper simulator research for forest resource mapping in the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Per-pixel maximum likelihood digital classification and photo interpretation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) composited images for a managed conifer forest were used to evaluate both land cover and forest structure characteristics. TMS channels 4, 7, 5 and 3, which were found to be optimal for forest vegetation analysis, used the full range of the Thematic Mapper's spectral capability. Photo interpretation results indicate that a false color composite from TMS channels 4, 7, and 2 provided the highest accuracies; the combination of improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of the Thematic Mapper yielded greater sensitivity to forest structural characteristics.

Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Spanner, M. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ulliman, J. J.; Brockhaus, J.

1984-01-01

88

Avian research on U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges: Emergent themes, opportunities, and challenges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1908, U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges have been dedicated to long-term interdisciplinary research on a variety of ecological and management questions. They encompass a wide diversity of life zones and ecoregions, and provide access to research infrastructure, opportunities for controlled manipulations, and integration with other types of long-term data. These features have facilitated important advances in a number of areas of avian research, including furthering our understanding of population dynamics, the effects of forest management on birds, avian responses to disturbances such as fire and hurricanes, and other aspects of avian ecology and conservation. However, despite these contributions, this invaluable resource has been underutilized by ornithologists. Most of the Experimental Forests and Ranges have had no ornithological work done on them. We encourage the ornithological community, especially graduate students and new faculty, to take advantage of this largely untapped potential for long-term work, linkage with long-term data sets, multiple disciplines, and active forest management. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Stoleson, S.H.; King, D.I.; Tomosy, M.

2011-01-01

89

An imperative need for global change research in tropical forests.  

PubMed

Tropical forests play a crucial role in regulating regional and global climate dynamics, and model projections suggest that rapid climate change may result in forest dieback or savannization. However, these predictions are largely based on results from leaf-level studies. How tropical forests respond and feedback to climate change is largely unknown at the ecosystem level. Several complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the effects of climate change on tropical forests, but the results are conflicting, largely due to confounding effects of multiple factors. Although altered precipitation and nitrogen deposition experiments have been conducted in tropical forests, large-scale warming and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) manipulations are completely lacking, leaving many hypotheses and model predictions untested. Ecosystem-scale experiments to manipulate temperature and CO2 concentration individually or in combination are thus urgently needed to examine their main and interactive effects on tropical forests. Such experiments will provide indispensable data and help gain essential knowledge on biogeochemical, hydrological and biophysical responses and feedbacks of tropical forests to climate change. These datasets can also inform regional and global models for predicting future states of tropical forests and climate systems. The success of such large-scale experiments in natural tropical forests will require an international framework to coordinate collaboration so as to meet the challenges in cost, technological infrastructure and scientific endeavor. PMID:24128847

Zhou, Xuhui; Fu, Yuling; Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Bo; Luo, Yiqi

2013-09-01

90

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003200466 Monitoring of forest health in Britain  

E-print Network

tree health problems but provides information of relevance to studies of pollution effects, climate to incorporate older crops of the coniferous species. Plots were also established on private land to increase and Boswell, 1987). Forest decline was linked with air pollution by certain scientists and foresters during

91

Investigations with large-scale forest lysimeter research of the lowlands of Northeast Germany - Results and consequences for the choice of tree species and forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations with large-scale forest lysimeter research of the lowlands of Northeast Germany - Results and consequences for the choice of tree species and forest management Introduction At present about 28 % - i.e. 1.9 million hectares - of the Northeast German Lowlands are covered with forests. The Lowlands are among the driest and at the same time the most densely

J. Mller

2009-01-01

92

Chapter 4 Regional Hydrology [Draft August 2007] 2007 FORREX Forest Research Extension Society and B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range  

E-print Network

Chapter 4 ­ Regional Hydrology [Draft August 2007] © 2007 FORREX Forest Research Extension Society and B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range Eaton B., and R.D. Moore. 2007. Chapter 4 ­ Regional Hydrology [Draft]. In Compendium of Forest Hydrology and Geomorphology in British Columbia [In Prep.] R.G. Pike et

Eaton, Brett

93

Technical Report TR-014 May 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife  

E-print Network

Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife just like Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology

94

Research Summary Perspectives on forests and trees: a view from Vermont  

E-print Network

and community identity, conflict and confusion, and forest management. The research also explored key management Trust, Vermont Council on Rural Development and the National Community Forestry Centre. m involved in developing indicators to determine the health of its local forest. A total of 40 members

95

Research Summary Disturbance of wildlife and the recreational use of forests  

E-print Network

the social and cultural drivers behind human disturbance of wildlife through recreation, and identify gapsResearch Summary Disturbance of wildlife and the recreational use of forests Recreational of the range of impacts on wildlife and habitats from recreational activities in UK forests and woodlands

96

Forest Service Career Guide. Professional Opportunities in Natural Resource Management, Planning, and Research. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide provides information on professional opportunities in natural resource management, planning, and research. Reasons for careers in forest service are presented and a brief description of the forest service is provided. Career opportunities in the following areas are described: forestry, engineering, geology, hydrology, landscape

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

97

U.S. Forest Service-Rocky Mountain Research Station: Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Administered by the U.S. Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Research Station, the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute is devoted "to providing the quality, peer-reviewed research necessary to develop guidelines and management practices that assure sustainable wild ecosystems endure for generations to come." The Institute website provides information about numerous research projects, staff, conferences, and more. Site visitors can also browse, or search for, over 500 Leopold Institute publications of which more than 100 are downloadable. Publications may be also be ordered free of charge by email or post. In addition, site visitors can link to several databases including the Wilderness and Recreation Impact Database, Wilderness Invaders-Surveys and Databases on Invasive & Exotic Species; National Wilderness Preservation System Database; and Wilderness Stewardship Reference System: Legislative, Administrative, and Judicial, and Scientific Information.

98

Publications Forest Research publishes a wide range of  

E-print Network

of intensive environmental monitoring in British forests Elena Vanguelova, Nadia Barsoum, Suzanne Benham, Mark in Scotland Jonathan Hughes and Alice Broome 91 Greenspace establishment on brownfield land: the site

99

FOREST RESEARCH NOTES J I U.S.DEPARTMENT OFAGRICULTURE  

E-print Network

, 500 to 11., 000 feet. It coinmonly grows on sites occupied by big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata~ERBRUSH IN CALIFORNIAl/ By August L. Hormay Associate Forest Ec~logist INTRODUCTION Bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata D. C

Standiford, Richard B.

100

Sport As Life Content of Successful Finnish Amateur Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents research findings on Finnish male top athletes' education, occupation and family life in the span of life, time expenditure during active sport career, and their relations with sport career. The frame of reference is Festinger's theory of dissonance. The population was the most successful athletes in the Olym pic years from 1956 to 1972. The results are

Pauli Vuolle

1978-01-01

101

Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a

Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

2006-01-01

102

Material input of Finnish foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Report introduces the material input of 23 Finnish foodstuff groups and Brazilian soy transported to Finland. Material input of the foodstuffs is present- ed using the MIPS-method (Material Input per Service unit). All the foodstuffs are studied using the same system boundaries. The material flows are counted towards the material input until the foodstuff is off the shelf. Shop-going,

Tommi Kauppinen; Satu Lhteenoja; Michael Lettenmeier

103

Research SummaryForest Research Engaging with rivers: using imaginative and creative approaches as a learning tool  

E-print Network

Research SummaryForest Research Engaging with rivers: using imaginative and creative approaches communities. In the RIVERS project we tested the use of creative writing as a tool to engage with river but systematic review of research evidence on innovative approaches to participatory river basin planning m

104

FOREST RESEARCH "Enhancing the Forest Sector's contribution to equal access for disabled  

E-print Network

is explored below in the context of Scotland's woodlands and forests. This paper will look at some.1 The Disability Discrimination Acts, 1995, 2005 and the Disability Discrimination Regulations, 2003 The primary this primary purpose in regard to large businesses and concerns, this being extended to all regardless of size

105

Codes of Forest Practice and Related Research Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several major events in the early 1990s drew attention of the public and governments to the importance of forestry and the global environment. The first of these was the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 in Brazil. From this meeting there emerged the guiding principles of the 'Rio Declaration', the 'Forest Principles' covering the sustainable management

J. W. Turnbull; J. K. Vanclay

1999-01-01

106

European Journal of Forest Research ISSN 1612-4669  

E-print Network

-offprint is for personal use only and shall not be self-archived in electronic repositories. If you wish to self-Fix and BIOME-BGC, whose outputs are combined with forest volume data in order to describe the actual status

107

Forest education and research in India: Country report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical review of existing system of forestry education in India reveals that: (a) inadequacy of funds and staff with suitable educational background\\/qualifications remains as a major constraint to forestry development in India both in the context of new plantation establishment and resource management. Secondly, due to the fact that major part of forests has state ownership, education and training

K. M. Bhat

2005-01-01

108

Clive Brasier, Forest Research Flaws in international protocols  

E-print Network

Journal of Forest Science 40, suppl., S45- S56 (and online at www.scionresearch.com/nzjfs) Disclaimer #12... Europe is currently experiencing a stream of imported pathogens and pests ­ ­ a growing threat disease events in the UK alone: #12;0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1965 1969 1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005

109

[Measurement and estimation methods and research progress of snow evaporation in forests].  

PubMed

Accurate measurement and estimation of snow evaporation (sublimation) in forests is one of the important issues to the understanding of snow surface energy and water balance, and it is also an essential part of regional hydrological and climate models. This paper summarized the measurement and estimation methods of snow evaporation in forests, and made a comprehensive applicability evaluation, including mass-balance methods (snow water equivalent method, comparative measurements of snowfall and through-snowfall, snow evaporation pan, lysimeter, weighing of cut tree, weighing interception on crown, and gamma-ray attenuation technique) and micrometeorological methods (Bowen-ratio energy-balance method, Penman combination equation, aerodynamics method, surface temperature technique and eddy covariance method). Also this paper reviewed the progress of snow evaporation in different forests and its influencal factors. At last, combining the deficiency of past research, an outlook for snow evaporation rearch in forests was presented, hoping to provide a reference for related research in the future. PMID:24697085

Li, Hui-Dong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Wu, Jia-Bing

2013-12-01

110

Studies in Teaching: 2004 Research Digest. Proceedings of the Annual Research Forum at Wake Forest University (December, 2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These Proceedings document an educational research forum held at Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) on December 8, 2004. Table of contents and 26 research studies of high school teaching are included. Studies include: The Use of Authentic Materials in the K-12 French Program (Katherine Elizabeth Baird), Surveying Students: What

McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

2005-01-01

111

Suggested stocking levels for forest stands in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Catastrophes and manipulation of stocking levels are primary determinants of stand development and the appearance of future forest landscapes. Managers need stocking level guides particularly for sites incapable of supporting stocking levels presented in normal yield tables. To take advantage of information currently available the authors used some assumptions to relate growth basal area (GBA) to stand density index (SDI) and then create stocking level curves for use in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Use of these curves cannot be expected to eliminate all insect and disease problems, but the impact of mountain pine beetle should be moderated.

Cochran, P.H.; Geist, J.M.; Clemens, D.L.; Clausnitzer, R.R.; Powell, D.C.

1994-04-01

112

Monitoring Finnish Owls 19821996: Methods and Results  

E-print Network

), and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (Saurola 1985). The quality of the Finnish amateur ornitholo- gists (ca. 7-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaetus albicilla), Peregrine (Falco peregrinus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos

113

Finnish Students' Perceptions of a Visiting Professor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finnish nursing students (n=31) evaluated their experience with a visiting Fulbright professor. Students were satisfied with course content, teaching methods, and information about the U.S. health care system. They thought the professor should have been more knowledgeable about Finnish culture, education, and health care. (Contains 15 references.)

Haussler, Susan C.; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi

2003-01-01

114

Measuring the success of Finnish family farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to discuss the indicators used to evaluate success and to describe the success of Finnish family farms by using subjective and objective measurements of success. We used bookkeeping information and survey data from 296 Finnish farms. We found that the perceived success of farmers has five dimensions: Quality awareness; Family farm lifestyle; Managing farm

Heikki Mkinen; Leena Rantamki-Lahtinen; Matti Yltalo; Seppo Vehkamki

2009-01-01

115

Support for this study provided by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Princeton, WV. Research Update  

E-print Network

lumber distribution chain has not yet adapted to this new reality. Research was therefore needed to document the current state and to analyze ways of helping the industry adapt to the new economic reality in purchase orders, perceptions about A Publication from the Center for Forest Products Marketing

Buehrer, R. Michael

116

Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network.  

PubMed

Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006-2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O(3)) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH(3)) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to deposition of nutritional nitrogen (N) and could affect biodiversity changes. Higher that 50% contribution of acidic rain (pH?forest soils. Foliar N concentrations for Norway spruce (Picea abies), Silver fir (Abies alba), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) were normal, phosphorus (P) was high, while those of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and especially of manganese (Mn) were significantly below the typical European or Carpathian region levels. The observed nutritional imbalance could have negative effects on forest trees. Health of forests was moderately affected, with damaged trees (crown defoliation >25%) higher than 30%. The observed crown damage was accompanied by the annual volume losses for the entire research forest area up to 25.4%. High diversity and evenness specific to the stand type's structures and local climate conditions were observed within the herbaceous layer, indicating that biodiversity of the vascular plant communities was not compromised. PMID:22234644

Badea, Ovidiu; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Silaghi, Diana; Neagu, Stefan; Barbu, Ion; Iacoban, Carmen; Iacob, Corneliu; Guiman, Gheorghe; Preda, Elena; Seceleanu, Ioan; Oneata, Marian; Dumitru, Ion; Huber, Viorela; Iuncu, Horia; Dinca, Lucian; Leca, Stefan; Taut, Ioan

2012-12-01

117

44 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 INVASIVE FOREST PESTS: TRENDS AND IMPACTS  

E-print Network

44 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 INVASIVE FOREST PESTS: TRENDS Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 45 economic impacts of non-native forest insects exceed AND IMPACTS Deborah G. McCullough Michigan State University, Departments of Entomology and Forestry, East

118

WiFi Weather Station and Snow Depth Monitoring System for Snow Research at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PI, Dr. Rob Hellstrom, has been studying snow cover at the Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research (HFR) station over the past three years (Hellstrom, 2008). This research has applied leading-edge sensor technology to measure the impact of various types of forest cover on winter and spring season snow accumulation and the newly installed wireless network at HFR provides

Robert Hellstrm

2010-01-01

119

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003200454 Leisure landscapes: understanding the  

E-print Network

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003­200454 Leisure landscapes: understanding the role and woodlands for tourism is not new, their utilisation for leisure purposes is receiving new impetus to take part in leisure activities. The increasing interest in tourism is also a response

120

Research Summary Growing Places: a study of social change in The National Forest  

E-print Network

who live, work and spend their leisure time in the Forest area. Objectives This research aimed to is a significant driver of social change, highlighting ways in which this innovative and progressive model cover from 6% in 1991 to around one-third of the area. Working with the NFC and the FC, the `Growing

121

Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution on US forests  

E-print Network

Review Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution phytotoxic air pollutant over large areas of US forests. Abstract Tropospheric ozone (O3) was first Pollution 147 (2007) 489e506 www.elsevier.com/locate/envpol #12;2005). Responses can also be altered

122

Chapter 2. The Influence of Edges on Plant Communities: Research Frontiers for Forested Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT As landscapes become increasingly fragmented due to both natural and anthropogenic activities, the influence of edges on these landscapes has taken on even more significance. The influence of edges on forest structure and composition has been studied for decades, but researchers still lack general knowledge and a unifying theoretical framework linking edge influences to the overall structure and

Eugnie S. Euskirchen; Karen A. Harper; Qinglin Li

123

Atmospheric Deposition on Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) Plots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric deposition of the major elements was estimated from throughfall and bulk deposition measurements on 13 plots of the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) between 1995 and 2001. Independent estimates of the wet and dry deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) on these same plots were gained from combined simplified models. The highest deposition fluxes were measured at

Anne Thimonier; Maria Schmitt; Peter Waldner; Beat Rihm

2005-01-01

124

ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION ON SWISS LONG-TERM FOREST ECOSYSTEM RESEARCH (LWF) PLOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric deposition of the major elements was estimated from throughfall and bulk deposition measurements on 13 plots of the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) between 1995 and 2001. Independent estimates of the wet and dry deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) on these same plots were gained from combined simplified models. The highest deposition fluxes were measured at

ANNE THIMONIER; MARIA SCHMITT; PETER WALDNER; BEAT RIHM

2004-01-01

125

Young Children Learning for the Environment: Researching a Forest Adventure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field experiences for young children are an ideal medium for environmental education/education for sustainability because of opportunities for direct experience in nature, integrated learning, and high community involvement. This research documented the development--in 4-5 year old Prep children--of knowledge, attitudes and actions/advocacy in

Gambino, Agatha; Davis, Julie; Rowntree, Noeleen

2009-01-01

126

Puhumme Suomeksi (Let\\'s Speak Finnish)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn to speak the Finnish Language Try out these websites for some fun \\"learning language\\" adventures Verbix Verbix Foreign Languages for Travelers Foreign Languages for Travelers Goethe Tests: Multilingual Vocabulary Exercises Goethe Tests: Multilingual Vocabulary Exercises ...

Cannon, Mr.

2005-10-25

127

"Virtuoso Ideal Daddy": Finnish Children's Perceptions of Good Fatherhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research

Hietanen, Riika; Mtt, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

2013-01-01

128

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 143 SIMULATING THE INTERACTIONS OF FOREST STRUCTURE,  

E-print Network

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 143 SIMULATING THE INTERACTIONS OF FOREST, exotic invasive plants. Past studies suggest these multiple disturbances interact to shape species species including three major invasive tree species, and using a variety of forest fragmentation and fire

129

Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.

Gansner, D.A.; Quimby, J.W.; King, S.L.; Arner, S.L.; Drake, D.A.

1994-08-01

130

Liz O'Brien Social Research Group, Forest Research Trees and woodlands  

E-print Network

an important role in the case studies. Keywords: health, physical activity, psychological well. Editing: Jenny Claridge Design: Colourgraphic Arts/Jenny Claridge Photographs supplied by Forest Life Wheatcroft Printed by Colourgraphic Arts, Bordon, Hampshire GU35 9QE Enquires relating to this publication

131

Danish and Finnish PISA Results in a Comparative, Qualitative Perspective: How Can the Stable and Distinct Differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA Results Be Explained?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g.

Andersen, Frans Orsted

2010-01-01

132

Having, loving, and being: children's narrated well-being in Finnish day care centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to answer the following question: what do children tell about their well-being in Finnish day care centres? The theoretical and methodological framework of this study is based on a narrative approach. The research material was collected by participating in the everyday life of three groups of children and listening to their narratives. The research

Anna-Maija Puroila; Eila Estola; Leena Syrjl

2012-01-01

133

Forest management under changing climate conditions: Is timing a tool for Sustainable Forest Management? Relevant questions for research development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Change of climate conditions influence energy fluxes applicable to forest ecosystems. These affect cycles of nutrients and materials, primary productivity of the ecosystem, biodiversity, ecological functionality and, consequently, carbon equilibria of the forest ecosystem. Temporal factors influence physical, biological, ecological, and climatic processes and functions. For example, seasonality, cycles, periodicity, and trends in climate variables; tree growth, forest growth, and forest metabolic activities (i.e., photosynthesis and respiration) are commonly known to be time-related. In tropical forests, the impacts of changing climate conditions may exceed temperature and/or precipitation thresholds critical to forest tree growth or health. Historically, forest management emphasises growth rates and financial returns as affected by species and site. Until recently, the influence of climate variability on growth dynamics has not been influential in forest planning and management. Under this system, especially in climatic and forest regions where most of species are stenoecious, periodical wood harvesting may occur in any phase of growth (increasing, decreasing, peak, and trough). This scenario presents four main situations: a) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is decreasing: future productivity is damaged; the minimum biomass capital may be altered, and CO2 storage is negatively affected; b) harvesting occurs during a trough of the rate of growth: the minimum biomass capital necessary to preserve the resilience of the forest is damaged; the damage can be temporary (decades) or permanent; CO2 storage capacity is deficient - which may be read as an indirect emission of CO2 since the balance appears negative; c) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is increasing: the planned wood mass can be used without compromising the resilience and recovery of the forest; CO2 storage remains increasing; d) harvesting occurs during a peak period of growth: the wood mass harvested can be even higher than planned, and the rate of CO2 storage can be above the average. A real risk for SFM under changing climatic conditions is that negative effects may be amplified; critical thresholds of temperature and/or rainfall for tree growth and stress may be exceeded with impacts on growth response, resilience, and CO2 balance that are not completely known. Furthermore, temporal changes in silvicultural and harvesting operations may lead to increased carbon emissions. Under this scenario and the consequent risks to SFM forestry operations should be planned or scheduled in periods when climate variables influencing tree growth and stress are within the relative thresholds. In this way, silvicultural operations and harvesting are going to be optimised to climate variability and forest growth responses, rather than just forest timber production.

D'Aprile, Fabrizio; McShane, Paul; Tapper, Nigel

2013-04-01

134

Fifty Years of Watershed Research on the Fernow Experimental Forest, WV: Effects of Forest Management and Air Pollution in Hardwood Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1951, stream gaging was begun on five small headwater catchments on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, to study the effects of forest management activities, particularly timber harvesting, on water yield and quality. Results from these watersheds, and others gaged more recently, have shown that annual water yields increase in proportion to the basal area cut, and that

M. B. Adams; P. J. Edwards; J. N. Kochenderfer; F. Wood

135

Technical Report TR-013 March 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife  

E-print Network

Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife TR-013 Hydrology March 2001 Roberts Creek Study Forest: Pre-harvest chemical characteristics of three S6 creeks-751-7001 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

136

Finnish-Russian Commission for Scientific and Technological Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Autumn of 2005 Russia once again took its place as Finland's most significant trading partner. It seems that the confidence Finnish businesses have in Russia is increasing year after year, which is also reflected in the amount of investments made. The majority of the Finnish investments have been made in North-West Russia. The largest number of Finnish-owned companies

Riitta Kosonen

137

Forest Research C O R P O R AT E P L A N 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 8  

E-print Network

Forest Research C O R P O R AT E P L A N 2 0 0 5 ­ 2 0 0 8 The research agency of the Forestry Commission #12;Forest Research Corporate Plan 2005­2008 1Corporate Plan 2005­2008 #12;Chief Executive Professor Jim Lynch Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham Surrey GU10 4LH Tel: 01420 22255 E

138

MODELING THE FOREST TRANSITION: FOREST SCARCITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICE HYPOTHESES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An historical generalization about forest cover change in which rapid deforestation gives way over time to forest restoration is called ''the forest transition.'' Prior research on the forest transition leaves three important questions unanswered: (1) How does forest loss influence an individual landowner's incentives to reforest? (2) How does the forest recovery rate affect the likelihood of forest transition? (3)

Akiko Satake; Thomas K. Rudel

2007-01-01

139

Vocational Career Decision-Making of Finnish Upper Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to clarify the characteristics of Finnish upper secondary school students as vocational decision-makers. The focus was especially on what skills and competences were related to decision-making at different phases of the decision-making process. Altogether, 216 upper secondary school students filled in the

Merilinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

2014-01-01

140

Intercultural and Religious Sensitivity of Finnish Lutheran 7 th - 9th Grade Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presented a 29-item Intercultural and Religious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRSSQ) that is based on the Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS). Psychometric properties of the IRSS were tested with an empirical sample of 249 seventh, eighth and ninth grade students of the Finnish comp rehensive school attending Lutheran religious education. Two research questions were examined: 1)

Kristiina Holm; Petri Nokelainen; Kirsi Tirri

141

Confronting the Technological Pedagogical Knowledge of Finnish Net Generation Student Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported here is concerned with a critical examination of some of the assumptions concerning the "Net Generation" capabilities of 74 first-year student teachers in a Finnish university. There are assumptions that: (i) Net Generation students are adept at learning through discovery and thinking in a hypertext-like manner (Oblinger &

Valtonen, Teemu; Pontinen, Susanna; Kukkonen, Jari; Dillon, Patrick; Vaisanen, Pertti; Hacklin, Stina

2011-01-01

142

Finnish Upper Secondary Students' Collaborative Processes in Learning Statistics in a CSCL Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This design-based research project focuses on documenting statistical learning among 16-17-year-old Finnish upper secondary school students (N = 78) in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. One novel value of this study is in reporting the shift from teacher-led mathematical teaching to autonomous small-group learning in

Oikarinen, Juho Kaleva; Jrvel, Sanna; Kaasila, Raimo

2014-01-01

143

Having, Loving, and Being: Children's Narrated Well-Being in Finnish Day Care Centres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to answer the following question: what do children tell about their well-being in Finnish day care centres? The theoretical and methodological framework of this study is based on a narrative approach. The research material was collected by participating in the everyday life of three groups of children and listening to

Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila; Syrjala, Leena

2012-01-01

144

Not Babies Anymore: Young Children's Narrative Identities in Finnish Day Care Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the aim of deepening understanding of young children's identity construction, the study explores small stories produced in a Finnish day care center context. Small stories are understood as identity-constituting social practices that occur and recur in day care settings. Taking ideas on narrative ethnography as starting point, research

Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila

2014-01-01

145

Transforming Causal Logics in Finnish Adult Education: Historical and Moral Transitions Rewritten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to explore the historical representations of adulthood, citizenship and the ideal social bonds of an individual and the society in the transforming moral orders of Finnish adult education. The research is based on a thematic reading of data, which consist of texts written during the past 150 years by theorists of adult

Koski, Leena; Filander, Karin

2013-01-01

146

Special Features of the Finnish Labour Market and Challenges for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research synthesized from three studies of the Finnish labor market indicates that a rapidly changing working life in Finland (and the rest of Europe) sets many different challenges for the workforce. In Finland, the population is even more aged than in the other European Union (EU) member states, and the transition of older workers to retirement

Rouhelo, Anne; Ruoholinna, Tarita

147

Exploratory Water Budget Analysis of A Transitional Premontane Cloud Forest in Costa Rica Through Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecohydrology of transitional premontane cloud forests is not well understood. This problem is being addressed by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) study at the Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research & Education in Costa Rica. Exploratory analysis of the water budget within a 20-ha watershed was used to connect three faculty-mentored research areas in ecohydrology, climate, and soil sciences and highlight the roles of 12 undergraduate researchers from 12 different universities. The water budget model is Q = Pn - E - T + ?G + ?S where Q = runoff, Pn = net precipitation, E = evaporation, T = transpiration, and ?G and ?S are change in groundwater soil water storage, respectively. Additionally, Pn = Pg - I = Tf + Sf + D, where Pg = gross precipitation, I/?I = canopy interception or storage, Tf = throughfall, Sf = stemflow, and D = canopy drip. The following terms were well understood Pg (satellite = 34-mm and tower = 38.1-mm) and Q from a recently constructed v-notch weir. We moderately understand Tf + D (30.9-mm from an array of forest rain gages), ?I (7.2-mm) related to Sf, and T (10.4-mm measured with sapflow sensors). We found that soils were clay loam to silty loam textured Andisols on saprolitic tuft with a mean potential ?S of 398 mm H2O under laboratory conditions, but in the field the following terms are almost completely unknown and require further field studies including E, ?G, and ?S. Recent installation of piezometers will address ?G. Temporal scaling of measurements to a 1-week period was a challenge as well as the construction, deployment and calibration of instruments. However, this exploration allowed us to determine measurement uncertainties in the water budget, e.g., E, and to set future areas of research to address these uncertainties.

Washington-Allen, R. A.; Buckwalter, E. H.; Moore, G. W.; Burns, J. N.; Dennis, A. R.; Dodge, O.; Guffin, E. C.; Morris, E. R.; Oien, R. P.; Orozco, G.; Peterson, A.; Teale, N. G.; Shibley, N. C.; Tourtellotte, N.; Houser, C.; Brooks, S. D.; Brumbelow, J. K.; Cahill, A. T.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Gonzalez, E.; Hallmark, C. T.; McInnes, K. J.; Miller, G. R.; Morgan, C.; Quiring, S. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Roark, E.; Delgado, A.; Ackerson, J. P.; Arnott, R.

2012-12-01

148

TAPIR Finnish national geochemical baseline database  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil

Jaana Jarva; Timo Tarvainen; Jussi Reinikainen; Mikael Eklund

2010-01-01

149

Personnel Training in the Finnish Lutheran Church.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines various personnel positions in the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church (the largest organized religion in Finland), the basic training of Church personnel (cantors, theologians, deacons, youth leaders, financial administrators, preschool teachers), personnel structure of the Church, and training in the Church itself (familiarization

Lehtio, Pirkko

1985-01-01

150

Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results

H. Toivonen; A. Leppaenen; S. Ylaetalo; J. Lehtinen; J. Hokkinen; M. Tarvainen; T. Crawford; D. Glidewell; H. Smartt; J. Torres

1997-01-01

151

Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. METHODS: The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study.

Sari Laanter; Tarja Plkki; Anette Ekstrm; Anna-Maija Pietil

2010-01-01

152

Intention in School Choice among Finnish Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective

Raty, Hannu

2013-01-01

153

Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

Reinhardt, T.E.

1991-10-01

154

Responding to Agenda 2020: A technology vision and research agenda for America`s forest, wood and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

This document presents project summaries that demonstrate specific capabilities of interest to the forest, wood and paper industry in areas where PNL offers significant depth of experience or unique expertise. Though PNL possesses a wide range of capabilities across many of the technology-related issues identified by the industry, this document focuses on capabilities that meet the specific forest, wood and paper industry needs of the following research areas: forest inventory; human and environmental effects; energy and environmental tradeoffs; reduction of impacts of liquid effluent; solid wastes; removal of non-process elements in pulp and paper operations; life cycle assessment; and process measurement and controls. In addition, PNL can provide the forest, wood and paper industry with support in areas such as strategic and program planning, stakeholder communications and outreach, budget defense and quality metrics. These are services PNL provides directly to several programs within DOE.

Lang, K.S.

1995-03-01

155

Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 16GTR-NRS-P-105 USING MULTIPLE RESEARCH METHODS  

E-print Network

MULTIPLE RESEARCH METHODS TO UNDERSTAND FAMILY FOREST OWNERS John Schelhas1 Abstract.--Applied research generalization difficult. We need to identify key management questions, use multiple research methods and data

156

Teacher Students' MA Theses--A Gateway to Analytic Thinking about Teaching? A Case Study of Finnish Primary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finnish teacher education has been higher academic education since 1979. Thus, all primary school teachers graduate as Masters and they conduct an MA thesis. For this research 23 teachers were interviewed in order to determine their conceptions of reflection, teacher research and their future research intentions. These teacher students worked

Maaranen, Katriina

2010-01-01

157

Unemployment and health: experiences narrated by young finnish men.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that the experiences and consequences of unemployment can affect people differently depending on, for example, age and gender. The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish men's experiences of being unemployed as well as how their experiences of health emerged. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face to face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results showed that the young men were strongly negatively affected by being unemployed. They described how they had slowly lost their foothold. They also described feelings of shame and guilt as well as a flight from reality. The present results show that even young men who have only experienced shorter periods of unemployment, in this study periods between 2 and 6 months, are negatively affected, for example, with regard to their identity and emotional life. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of unemployment on men of different ages and living in different contexts. PMID:24899516

Bjrklund, Ove; Sderlund, Maud; Nystrm, Lisbet; Hggstrm, Elisabeth

2015-01-01

158

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS  

E-print Network

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS, with individual species distributions dependent on geography, habitat, and land use history. Invasive plant and Michigan. In long-infested plots where 99.9 percent of ash trees have died, there are many established ash

159

Characterization of psychrotolerant heterotrophic bacteria from Finnish Lapland.  

PubMed

A total of 331 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from various ecosystems of Finnish Lapland (68-69 degrees N) including forest soil, arctic alpine-tundra soil, stream water, lake and mire sediments, lichen and snow algae. Whole cell fatty acid and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and microscopy indicated that the isolates were dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, while only 20 Gram-positive strains were isolated. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences the isolates were members of alpha-, beta-, gamma-Proteobacteria, Gram-positives with low G+C content, Actinobacteria and the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides group. More than one-third of the isolates could be tentatively identified as Pseudomonas spp. which were particularly abundant in the alpine-tundra soils where they represented 60% of all isolates. Other frequently isolated Gram-negative taxa were Burkholderia sp., Collimonas sp., Pedobacter sp., Janthinobacter sp., Duganella sp., Dyella sp. and Sphingomonas sp. Growth temperature ranges and hydrolytic enzyme activities of selected ca.100 strains were screened. The strains were psychrotolerant growing generally at temperatures ranging from 0 to 30 degrees C, as 82% of the isolates grew at 0 degrees C while only 7% grew at 35 degrees C. Protease and lipase activities at 5 degrees C were detected in more than half of the strains while approximately 20% of the strains possessed amylase and/or cellulase activities. PMID:16564959

Mnnist, Minna K; Hggblom, Max M

2006-04-01

160

NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates: 3-D Characterization and Comparison of Vegetation Structure in a Tropical Premontane Wet Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) site hosted by Texas A&M University to allow selected undergraduate students to conduct original research on various aspects of the ecohydrology of understudied tropical pre-montane forest at the Texas A&M Soltis Center for Research and Education in Central Costa Rica. This particular study was conducted by 3 students under the guidance of 5 mentors who assisted in experimental design, equipment use, maintenance, and training, plant species identification and other logistical requirements. The goal of this study was to determine the change in 3-D structure of tropical premontane wet forest under 3 different land uses: a carbon tree farm, secondary logged forest, and primary unlogged forest. Traditional forest mensuration techniques including glass prisms (stand basal area), laser clinometers (height), vertical and horizontal PAR, spherical densiometers, and hemispherical photography (GAP fraction and LAI) and, root cores, and diameter-at-breast height (DBH) tapes were acquired in one 30-m diameter plot per land and use compared to similar metrics collected by a terrestrial scanning laser (TSL) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) at 400 MHz and 1.5 GHz across 3 land uses along an elevation gradient from ~380-masl to 525-masl. Besides discovery, another goal of this study was to see if the TSL and GPR can help meet the Tier 2 and 3 monitoring and verification goals of the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries for estimating above- and below-ground biomass using remote sensing. This is of particular importance because the GPR may be able to capture below-ground biomass in a more efficient manner than traditional coring and the TSL and GPR can capture data on highly sloped terrain where both airborne and satellite RADAR and LIDAR are limited. The 50, 000 pts/sec 532 nm TSL collected 3 to 5 scans per 30-m diameter plots at 4-cm spacing, 270 vertical, and 360 horizontal, generating a >100 million point cloud per site at 2-mm range accuracy. Registration within 2-mm RMSE yielded a 3-D virtual environment per site where tree measurements were made manually. Comparisons showed that GPR may be masked by high soil moisture. DBH error measures ranged from 0.6 to 5.18 % and height was 0.26 to 20.19 % for carbon farm to primary forest. The height comparison indicated that the laser clinometer consistently underestimated tree heights, particularly on the primary forest site where trees were over 35-m.

Washington-Allen, R. A.; Davis, K.; Falkowski, T.; Tarbox, B.; Delgado, A.; March, R.; Moore, G. W.; Tjoelker, M.; Gonzalez, E.; Houser, C.

2011-12-01

161

United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station  

E-print Network

. Abstract Coarse woody debris (CWD) provides important ecosystem services in forests and affects fire Paper RMRS-RP-80WWW June 2010 Coarse Woody Debris Assay in Northern Arizona Mixed-Conifer and Ponderosa woody debris assay in northern Arizona mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests. Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-80WWW

162

Katherine Tubby For over a decade, numerous volunteers have been involved in a Forest Research (FR)-  

E-print Network

Bleeding canker of horse chestnut: a growing threat? Gypsy moth and oak processionary moth in the UK and stately homes across England. The concept behind the project grew from the Forest Condition Survey ­ a pan-European annual survey of forest condition which has been carried out across the UK and other European countries

163

Research article Land use and forest cover on private parcels in the Upper Midwest USA,  

E-print Network

in the Netherlands. 777Landscape Ecology 18: 777­790, 2003. #12;Land-use changes in rural North America during 6 May 2003 Key words: Agricultural abandonment, Forest regrowth, Land use, Recreational development of land-use changes, especially abandon- ment of agriculture and dispersed development, on forest cover

Brown, Daniel G.

164

V International Conference on Forest Fire Research D. X. Viegas (Ed.), 2006  

E-print Network

pubescens, Pinus sylvestris) at 800 m a.s.l. to spruce (Picea abies) and open larch (Larix decidua) forests to predict (Del Moral and Wood, 1993). It has been shown that fire can promote dominance of a few species ranging from mixed oak-pine forests (Quercus pubescens, Pinus sylvestris) at 800 m a.s.l. to spruce (Picea

165

Expanding site productivity research to sustain non-timber forest functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern forests produce multiple products and services including timber, wildlife habitat, species bio- and genetic diversity, water quality and control, waste remediation, recreation, and carbon sequestration. All of these benefits must be produced in a sustainable manner to meet today's societal needs without compromising future needs. A forest site is productive to the extent that it provides some level of

D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger; Barbara Crane

2006-01-01

166

IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS - EMERGING RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure - Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, USA are summarized. Tropospheric ozone is st...

167

Fisher Research and the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project: Current Results and Future Efforts 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project was initiated on the Kings River Ranger District of the Sierra National Forest, California, in 1993, with fieldwork beginning in 1994. Knowledge of the ecology of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the Project area, and in the Sierra Nevada of California in general, is insufficient to develop empirically based management strategies or to

Brian B. Boroski; Richard T. Golightly

2002-01-01

168

Geochemistry and mineralogy of saprolite in Finnish Lapland  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ancient saprolite has developed on the Palaeoproterozoic granulite, granite gneiss and amphibolite bedrock of the VuotsoTankavaara area of central Finnish Lapland. The present day climatic regime in Finnish Lapland lies within the northern boreal zone and so the saprolite there can be regarded as fossil. Cores of saprolite were collected from 4 sections (42 samples) and analyzed chemically and

M. R Islam; V Peuraniemi; R Aario; S Rojstaczer

2002-01-01

169

Attitudes Toward Professional Foreign Players in Finnish Amateur Basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of foreign professional players may influence the host country's sport culture. To determine the attitudes toward foreign professionals in various Finnish amateur basketball leagues, all clubs (n = 55) playing basketball in the three highest Finnish leagues were interviewed by mailed questionnaire. The results indicated that recruitment of foreign pros was held to effect negatively the team spirit

Kalevi Olin

1984-01-01

170

Social Decision-Making Strategies among Finnish and Estonian Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares justifications for aggression and withdrawal in Finnish and Estonian adolescents. Evaluates responses given in a questionnaire asking participants to justify problem-solving strategies for two social problems. Concludes aggression may be perceived as more deviant in Finland. Finnish motivation for withdrawal is escaping harm, while

Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Terav, Tuuli

1998-01-01

171

British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these

Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

2010-01-01

172

Stand Delineation of Floodplain Forest in Nelson-Trevino Research Natural Area in the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, Winona District  

E-print Network

This study examined baseline forest inventory data collected through the forest stand delineation process within the Nelson-Trevino Research and Natural Area (RNA) in Buffalo County located in western Wisconsin. The Nelson-Trevino RNA consists of a unique floodplain ecosystem along the Upper Mississippi River System. Little research and minimal management has been undertaken in the RNA and it recognized that some level of management and data collection is necessary to maintain and monitor the integrity of this unique ecosystem (USFWS, 2006). Completing baseline forest inventory and stand delineation are the first steps towards addressing threats and concerns for the long term health of the floodplain forests within the RNA (USFWS, 2006). This research delineated forest stands and provides information on key parameters relating to the primary dominant over-story. Parameters included the forest stands dominant over-story species, diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height. The research delivers an accurate interpretation of the forest stands by summarizing, analyzing and organizing collected forest inventory field data.

Kyle Slifka; Wildlife Service

173

Concentrations of organotin compounds in various fish species in the Finnish lake waters and Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organotin compounds (OTCs) leaching from the antifouling paints used in boats and ships have contaminated many water areas worldwide. The purpose of this study was to obtain a general view of the organotin contamination in fish in Finnish lake areas and Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea using perch as the main indicator species. Perch sampling covered areas presumed as

Panu Rantakokko; Anja Hallikainen; Riikka Airaksinen; Pekka J. Vuorinen; Antti Lappalainen; Jaakko Mannio; Terttu Vartiainen

2010-01-01

174

The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 1. The pioneer research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After forest fires, the ash and the remaining vegetation cover on the soil surface are the main protection against erosion agents. The control ash exert on runoff generation mechanism was researched during the 90's (Cerd, 1998a; 1998b). This pioneer research demonstrated that after forest fires there is a short period of time that runoff and surface wash by water is controlled by the high infiltration rates achieved by the soil, which were high due to the effect of ash acting as a mulch. The research of Cerd (1998a; 1998b) also contributed to demonstrate that runoff was enhanced four month later upon the wash of the ash by the runoff, but also due to the removal of ash due to dissolution and water infiltration. As a consequence of the ephemeral ash cover the runoff and erosion reached the peak after the removal of the ash (usually four month), and for two years the soil erosion reached the peak (Cerd, 1998a). Research developed during the last decade shown that the ash and the litter cover together contribute to reduce the soil losses after the forest fire (Cerd and Doerr, 2008). The fate of the ash is related to the climatic conditions of the post-fire season, as intense thunderstorms erode the ash layer and low intensity rainfall contribute to a higher infiltration rate and the recovery of the vegetation. Another, key factor found during the last two decades that determine the fate of the ash and the soil and water losses is the impact of the fauna (Cerd and Doerr, 2010). During the last decade new techniques were developed to study the impact of ash in the soil system, such as the one to monitor the ash changes by means of high spatial resolution photography (Prez Cabello et al., 2012), and laboratory approaches that show the impact of ash as a key factor in the soil hydrology throughout the control they exert on the soil water repellency (Bod et al., 2012). Laboratory approaches also shown that the fire severity is a key factor on the ash chemical composition (Pereira and beda, 2010) and Pereira et al., 2012). Some of the new research challenges related to ash impact in the fire affected soils are related to the ash redistribution after the fire, the impact of ash in soil and water chemistry, the temporal changes of soil erosion, the control ash exert on vegetation recovery and the role to be played by ash in the best management of fire affected land. Those topics needs new ideas and new scientists such as Paulo Pereira show in the Part II of this abstract. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bod, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerd, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerd, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerd, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerd, A., and Doerr, S. H.2010. The effect of ant mounds on overland flow and soil erodibility following a wildfire in eastern Spain. Ecohydrology, 3, 392-401. Cerd, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Pereira, P., and beda, X. 2010. Spatial distribution of heavy metals released from ashes after a wildfire, Journal of Environment Engineering and Landscape Management, 18, 13-22. Pereira, P., Ubeda, X., Martin, D.A. 2012. Fire severity effects on ash chemical composition and extractable elements. Geoderma, 191, 105 - 114. Prez-Cabello, F., Cerd, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverra, M.T., Garca-Martn, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using hig

Cerd, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo

2013-04-01

175

Employees' Motivation for SPI: Case Study in a Small Finnish Software Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

In small software companies the resources available for SPI are often limited. With limited resources, the motivation of the\\u000a employees becomes one of the key factors for SPI. In this article, the motivational factors affecting a small companys SPI\\u000a efforts are discussed. In the research, we carried out interviews and a survey in a small Finnish software company considering\\u000a the

Anu Valtanen; Hanna-Miina Sihvonen

2008-01-01

176

Pacific northwest region vegetation and inventory monitoring system. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific Northwest Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. The design is flexible and can be used with many types of maps. The theory of point and change estimation is described, as well as estimates of variation that assess the statistical precision of estimates.

Max, T.A.; Schreuder, H.T.; Hazard, J.W.; Oswald, D.D.; Teply, J.

1996-12-01

177

Cutin composition of five finnish berries.  

PubMed

The raw cutin (i.e., extractive-free isolated cuticular membrane) fraction from Finnish berries, sea buckthorn (Hippopha rhamnoides), black currant (Ribes nigrum), cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), was depolymerized by NaOMe-catalyzed methanolysis. The composition of cutin monomers was determined by GC-(EI)MS analysis either as methyl esters or as TMSi esters, with OH groups derivatized to TMSi ethers. There was a notable difference in the degree of depolymerization, ranging from 6 to 47%. The extractive-free berry cuticle, that is, raw cutin, thus contains <50% polyester polymer cutin. The predominant cutin monomers were C(16) and C(18) omega-hydroxy acids with midchain functionalities, mainly epoxy and hydroxyl groups. Typically, the major compounds were 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid. The amount of epoxyacids was rather high in sea buckthorn ( approximately 70%) and cranberry ( approximately 60%), compared with the other berries. The black currant cutin differed from that of the other berries with a significant portion of hydroxyoxohexadecanoic acid ( approximately 12% of total monomers). This investigation of the cuticular hydroxy acids of five Finnish berries is part of the exploitation of the northern natural resources related to the chemical composition, nutritional value, and sensory properties. PMID:16417304

Kallio, Heikki; Nieminen, Riikka; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Hakala, Mari

2006-01-25

178

DNA-barcoding clarifies species definitions of Finnish Apatania (Trichoptera: Apataniidae)  

E-print Network

DNA-barcoding clarifies species definitions of Finnish Apatania (Trichoptera: Apataniidae) Juha-barcoding clarifies species definitions of Finnish Apatania (Trichoptera: Apataniidae). -- Entomol. Fennica 21: 1�11. Alltheknown8FinnishApataniaKolenatispecieswereanalysedusingtheDNA barcoding method. The Finnish species were

Wahlberg, Niklas

179

Vegetation in group-selection openings: Early trends. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Nine openings that ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 acres and were grouped into small, medium, and large size classes comprised the initial group-selection cut on the Boggs Mountain State Forest in north central California. Five growing seasons after site preparation by pile and burn, 81 plant species in 35 families were present. Forbs, ferns, graminoids, manzanita, other shrubs, and ponderosa pine seedlings were sampled in a variety of environments that ranged from the surrounding forest to near plot centers. Few statistically significant differences were found among opening sizes, but developing trends suggest that significant differences will occur in the near future. Many statistical differences were present when the location of the vegetation in the forest and openings was tested. In general, the density of manzanita, other shrubs, and ferns in the openings was greater than that in the forest. Cover of pine seedlings, manzanita, ferns, and forbs showed similar trends.

McDonald, P.M.; Anderson, P.J.; Fiddler, G.O.

1997-12-01

180

A Comparison of the Views of Finnish and US Teachers, Administrators and Parents on Appropriate Educational Practice for Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the views of Finnish and US preschool teachers, administrators and parents on appropriate educational practices for children aged 3?5. To obtain a measure of their attitudes toward quality practices with children, a 26?item instrument was adapted from Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth Through Age 8. Researchers

James L. Hoot; Rene Parmar

1996-01-01

181

China Forest Park e-Commerce Differentiation Rule and Actuation Mechanism Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the rapidly increasing in the number of forest tourism sites, e-commerce is beginning to take shape,tourism network market is growing rapidly and regional tourism information is continuously enhance, the Paper Study the Differential rule of Forest Park e-commerce space and function Variation;And uses the least squares method, uses the Eviews5.0 software to analysis,establishes the mathematical model, summarizes the

Cui Ling Bai; An Chen Qin

2010-01-01

182

Some Approaches to the Research of Forest Soils Affected by Acidification in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil acidification in mountainous regions of the Czech Republic presents a serious problem. This paper summarizes several projects dealing with this problem exploiting different methods and having different objectives: 1) Long-term soil and forest development in the Krkonoe Mountains. 2) Soil and forest development along an elevation transect in the umava Mountains. 3) Long-term effects of liming. 4) Comparison of

Lubo Bor?vka; Vilem Podrzsk; Lenka Mldkov; Ivan Kune; Ond?ej Drbek

2005-01-01

183

Forest Service United States Department of Agriculture Pacific Northwest Research Station PNW-GTR-541  

E-print Network

Lance, Ellen Weintraub. 2002. Montague Island marmot: a conservation assessment. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-541. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 12 p. The hoary marmot, from Montague Island, south-central Alaska, was classified as a distinct subspecies based on smaller size and skull characteristics relative to other island and mainland populations. The taxonomic validity of the Montague Island marmot (Marmota caligata sheldoni) is questionable, as conclusions were based on the analysis of no more than eight specimens. With the exception of one relatively recent sight record, Montague Island marmots have not been reported or collected since the early 1900s. A conservation concern exists, particularly owing to the unknown population status and questionable taxonomy of this island endemic subspecies that may be negatively affected by land management practices. Keywords: Hoary marmots, island endemics, Marmota caligata sheldoni, Montague Island, Montague Island marmot, taxonomy. Montague Island Marmot Contents 1 Background 1 Purpose and Need 1 A Brief Description of Montague Island 2 A Brief History of Human Use of Montague Island 3 Current Status of the Montague Island Marmot 4 Review of Technical Knowledge 4 Distribution 4 Systematics 4 Breeding Biology and Demography 4 Movements 5 Habitat Use 5 Food Habits 5 Effects of Land Management and Other Human Activities 6 Conservation Concerns 6 Demographics 6 Survival 6 Proportional Use of Habitat 7 Management Issues 7 Montague Island Marmot Response to Management Actions 7 Risk Assessment 7 Approaches to Montague Island Marmot Conservation 7 Information Needs 8 Conclusion 8 English Equivalents 9 References 1 Background Purpose and Need Montague Island mar...

July Montague Island; United States; Ellen Weintraub Lance

184

Suicidal behavior among Finnish fire setters.  

PubMed

Histories of serious suicide attempts and slashing were investigated among Finnish fire setters. Medical and criminal records of 304 fire setters were examined to compare those who had attempted suicide with those who had not, and those who had slashed themselves with those who had not using biological, diagnostic, and demographic variables. Major mood disorders, father's alcoholism, and suicidal motive of fire setting (self-immolation) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Paternal violent alcoholism, father's criminality, and suicidal motive of fire setting were significantly associated with slashing. Among fire setters, non-lethal slashing is a predictor of serious suicidality. Associations between psychiatric diagnoses, family history, and suicidality among fire setters are similar to those reported for suicidal patients with mood and substance abuse diagnoses. Therefore, studying fire setters, who exhibit an extremely high incidence of suicidal behavior, is an effective way to elucidate psychobiology of suicidal behaviors. PMID:9477009

Repo, E; Virkkunen, M; Rawlings, R; Linnoila, M

1997-01-01

185

Mass Media and Public Opinion: Report of the Soviet-Finnish Seminar (5th, Moscow, USSR, May 18-22, 1987). Publications Series B, Number 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compilation of papers from a joint Finnish-Russian seminar on problems of communication research, this collection presents diverse opinions and results from researchers and observers in both countries. The titles of the papers and their authors are as follows: (1) "Role of Research and Training in Mass Communication and Public Opinion" (Pertti

Jyrkiainen, Jyrki, Comp.

186

Measuring a Roller Coaster: Evidence on the Finnish Output Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output gap-which measures the deviation of actual output from its potential-is frequently used as an indicator of slack in an economy. This paper estimates the Finnish output gap using various empirical methods. It evaluates these methods against economic history and each other by a simulated out-of-sample forecasting exercise for Finnish CPI inflation. Only two gap measures, stemming from a

Andreas Billmeier

2004-01-01

187

The Structure of Crime-Scene Actions in Finnish Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of crime-scene actions in Finnish homicides was analyzed using the theoretical distinction between instrumental and expressive aggression. Thirty-eight crime-scene actions were derived from the files of single-offender, single-victim Finnish homicides (N = 502). A multidimensional scaling procedure was used to investigate their structure. An expressive core indicating an emotional and impulsive attack without any indication of planning or

PEKKA SANTTILA; DAVID CANTER; THOMAS ELFGREN; HELIN HKKNEN

2001-01-01

188

U.S. - ROMANIAN COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH ON AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration between the Romanian and American scientists and land managers on evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution of ozone and its effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests was part of a large international study conducted in 1997-1999. For the first time we documented that ambient concentrations of ozone in many locations of the Carpathians, including the Romanian sites, are toxic

ANDRZEJ BYTNEROWICZ; OVIDIU BADEA; FLAVIU POPESCU; MIHAI TANASE; W. FRACZEK; R. MUSSELMAN

189

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003200488 Practical measures to encourage  

E-print Network

and exciting market about which practising foresters know very little. This lack of knowledge is understandable a barrier to future opportunities, we have to improve our knowledge of woodfuel production particularly in the areas of supply and storage. The fledgling woodfuel industry in the UK is developing along two very

190

Causal Explanation of Indonesian Forest Fires: Concepts, Applications, and Research Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems with studies, claims, and assumptions that have been made about the causes of fires in Indonesia's tropical moist forests are identified, and the kinds of concepts, methods, prioritizing, and data needed to resolve the problems are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to studying ignitions, studying fire susceptibility and fire behavior, and using the goal of causal explanation to guide

Andrew P. Vayda

2006-01-01

191

Research Summary Enhancing the forest sector's contribution to equal access for disabled people  

E-print Network

authorities to eliminate unlawful discrimination against disabled people, promote positive attitudes towards groups in society. The Disability Discrimination Act 2005 broadened the requirement to promote equality aimed to: massess the duties placed on the forest sector by the 1995 and 2005 Disability Discrimination

192

Tropical forest responses to increasing atmospheric CO2: current knowledge and opportunities for future research  

E-print Network

, accepted 21 March 2013, published online 16 May 2013 Introduction The rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrationTropical forest responses to increasing atmospheric CO2: current knowledge and opportunities, France. H Corresponding author. Email: lcernusak@gmail.com Abstract. Elevated atmospheric CO2

Bermingham, Eldredge

193

Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

Dail, David Bryan [University of Maine

2012-08-02

194

Plants in the forest canopy: some reflections on current research and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are one of the sessile components of the forest canopy, and consequently quantitative studies of plant components are more widely available than for some of their mobile counterparts. From a global perspective, several exciting and innovative canopy access tools have been designed over the past few decades that have facilitated the expansion our understanding of canopy plants. These include

Margaret D. Lowman

2001-01-01

195

Plants in the forest canopy: some reflections on current research and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are one of the sessile components of the forest canopy, and consequently quantitative studies of plant com- ponents are more widely available than for some of their mobile counterparts. From a global perspective, several exciting and innovative canopy access tools have been designed over the past few decades that have facilitated the expansion our understanding of canopy plants. These

Margaret D. Lowman

2001-01-01

196

1USDA Forest Service Research Note. PSW-RN-426. 2004. Wooster, John; Hilton, Sue.  

E-print Network

- partment of Agriculture; 16 p. Large woody debris (LWD) was inventoried in 1999 in five streams where LWD Large woody debris (LWD) is a fundamental component of streams in forested watersheds. LWD can provide-RN-426 February 2004 Large Woody Debris Volumes and Accumulation Rates in Cleaned Streams in Redwood

Standiford, Richard B.

197

Pathogenic bacteria in Finnish bulk tank milk.  

PubMed

While the quality of raw cow milk in Finland is known for its high hygienic standard, with the national average total bacterial count being below 10(4) CFU/mL annually, the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in Finnish raw milk is underreported. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes, thermophilic Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., stx-positive Escherichia coli (STEC), coagulase-positive staphylococci, Yersinia spp., and Bacillus cereus group in raw cow milk samples collected from bulk tanks at 183 Finnish farms. Additionally, the hygienic quality of the milk was studied by determining the total bacterial and E. coli counts. L. monocytogenes was detected in 5.5% of the milk samples, with concentrations varying from <1 to 30 CFU/mL. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. or Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. STEC with Shiga toxin-encoding stx2 was detected in 2.7% of the samples. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected in 7.7% of the samples; however, all isolates were negative for ail, suggesting that they were non-pathogenic. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were detected in 34.4% of the samples, with an average concentration of 25 CFU/mL in the positive samples. Members of the B. cereus group were detected in 20.8% of the samples, with an average concentration of 1 CFU/mL in the positive samples. No relationship was detected between E. coli or the total bacterial count and the presence of pathogenic bacteria, which suggests that pathogens can be present also in farms with excellent production hygiene. Although the concentration of pathogenic bacteria in fresh raw milk was mainly relatively low, it should be borne in mind that some of the pathogenic bacteria can survive and multiply at refrigeration temperatures and may cause a disease with a very low infectious dose. Thus, consumption of raw milk and related products poses a potential risk for food poisoning. PMID:23373473

Ruusunen, Marjo; Salonen, Marleena; Pulkkinen, Hanna; Huuskonen, Marianne; Hellstrm, Sanna; Revez, Joana; Hnninen, Marja-Liisa; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Lindstrm, Miia

2013-02-01

198

Grazing on regeneration sites encourages pine seedling growth. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the seedlings were significantly taller, with longer leaders with season-long grazing than without

R. D. Ratliff; R. G. Denton

1995-01-01

199

Mental symptoms among Finnish farm entrepreneurs.  

PubMed

The prevalence of mental symptoms among Finnish farm entrepreneurs in 2004 and 1994 was examined in two cross-sectional studies. The aim was also to examine associations between symptoms and background factors. Two random samples for computer-assisted telephone interviews comprised 1,182 full-time farmers in 2004 and 928 farmers in 1992. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the associations in the 2004 sample. Symptoms of weakness or fatigue and insomnia or difficulties in falling asleep were the most common symptoms in the 2004 survey, and both of these symptoms increased statistically significantly when comparing with the 1992 and 2004 surveys. Strenuousness of life and agricultural work had an association with mental symptoms. Forestry as a production sector and over two weeks of pesticide usage during the previous growing season also elevated the risk of mental symptoms. Moreover, illness or injury as well a lack of support from social relationships was associated with mental symptoms. One in four farm entrepreneurs had symptoms of weakness or fatigue in 2004. This result and the possible association between mental symptoms and pesticide usage needs special attention and further actions by health care services and other agricultural networks. PMID:19572488

Kallioniemi, Marja Kristiina; Simola, Ahti Jarkko Kalervo; Kymlinen, Hanna-Riitta; Vesala, Hannu Tapio; Louhelainen, Jarmo Kysti

2009-06-01

200

Improving the accuracy of multisource forest inventory estimates to reducing plot location error a multicriteria approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is introduced to reassign satellite image information to field plot data of forest inventory by a multicriteria approach. The method can be utilised in satellite-image-aided forest inventories, e.g., as in the Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (FMS-NFI) since 1990. This inventory method presumes that the field sample plots are geographically accurately located and each individual field plot can

Merja Halme; Erkki Tomppo

2001-01-01

201

The challenge of information service development for private forest owners: The Estonia and Finland cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates forest ownership objectives and the need for information among Estonian and Finnish private forest\\u000a owners based on two surveys. The motivation for the analysis is the fragmenting private forest ownership in Europe. The broad\\u000a lines of ownership objectives are found to be similar in both countries, and can be described under the dimensions of economic\\u000a objectives, intangible

Ritva Toivonen; Erno Jrvinen; Karoliina Lindroos; Anna-Kaisa Rm; Pekka Ripatti

2005-01-01

202

Research for the development of best management practices for minimizing horse trail impacts on the Hoosier National Forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This research investigates horse trail impacts to gain an improved understanding of the relationship between various levels of horse use, horse trail management alternatives, and subsequent horse trail degradation. A survey of existing horse trails on the Hoosier National Forest was used to collect data on use-related, environmental and management factors to model horse trail impacts. Results are analyzed to identify which factors are most easily manipulated by managers to effectively avoid and minimize horse trail impacts. A specific focus includes evaluating the relative effect of trail use level, surfacing, grade, and water control on indices of erosion and trafficability such as trail cross sectional area, estimated erosion, muddiness, and incision. Overall, the Hoosier National Forest horse trails could be significantly improved by relocating or closing inherited trails that directly ascend slope or are excessively steep, reducing the distance between water control structures, and by applying gravel to harden trail surfaces and reduce soil erosion. A set of Best Management Practices for trails are included as a product of this work, with recommendations based on this research.

Aust, M.W.; Marion, J.L.; Kyle, K.

2005-01-01

203

Interactions of fire regimes and land use in the central Rio Grande Valley. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present evidence of dramatic modifications of pre-existing ecological systems by human activities. Our research group at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted extensive studies of fire history in forested ecosystems at more than 60 sites throughout Arizona and New Mexico. Our studies suggest that most of these areas existed in a semi-natural state, litte affected by human populations, before the introduction of large numbers of livestock around the turn of the 20th century. Natural dynamics of biomass accumulation, climatic regimes, and lightning ignitions can account for fire frequencies documented at most sites studied. Recognizable human impacts before the 20 century were probably limited to high use areas and high value resources.

Baisan, C.H.; Swetnam, T.W.

1997-05-01

204

The role of the New Zealand forest industry injury surveillance system in a strategic ergonomics, safety and health research programme.  

PubMed

Forestry is among the most hazardous of all industry sectors internationally. In New Zealand, highest work-related morbidity and mortality incidence rates are found in the logging sector. The New Zealand Forest Industry Accident Reporting Scheme (ARS) is a forestry injury surveillance system maintained by the Centre for Human Factors and Ergonomics (COHFE). The paper highlights the pivotal role of an industry-wide injury surveillance system in an industry-specific strategic research programme, giving examples of the use of ARS data in identification of priority areas for ergonomics, safety and health research attention, for safety awareness feedback to the industry, and in the evaluation of injury countermeasures. An analysis of injury patterns and trends for one high-risk forestry operation (skid work) is presented to illustrate both the capabilities and limitations of the ARS in its present stage of development. PMID:12236648

Bentley, T A; Parker, R J; Ashby, L; Moore, D J; Tappin, D C

2002-09-01

205

Global Forest Ownership: Implications for Forest Production, Management, and Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 86% of the 3.9 billion ha of the world's forests are publicly owned. Aggregate statistical analy ses of forest data and the research literature indicate that private forests provide more market based goods such as timber, with private forest lands producing a higher proportion of industrial wood than their share of land ownership, while public lands produce more proportionately

Jacek P. Siry; Frederick W. Cubbage; H. Newman

2009-01-01

206

Leguminous ground covers could reduce herbicide use in forestry. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Establishing tree seedlings in mixed stands after harvesting is difficult without adequate vegetation control. Artificial regeneration can be used to ensure desirable future stands, but competing vegetation decreases survival and growth. Vegetation control can be costly and laborious. Large amounts of herbicides are used annually in forest management to reduce vegetation that competes with trees for growing space, nutrients, water, light, and other essential components. Using herbicides to control weeds is economical, but may not always be environmentally acceptable. One alternative is to establish nitrogen-fixing (legume) ground covers, which may suppress the more competitive weeds and enrich the soil.

Ponder, F.

1994-01-01

207

Grazing on regeneration sites encourages pine seedling growth. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the seedlings were significantly taller, with longer leaders with season-long grazing than without grazing. Treatment comparisons for plant group and non-plant percent cover differed only for litter and bare soil, but cover and composition of bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey) were greater without grazing.

Ratliff, R.D.; Denton, R.G.

1995-12-31

208

Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industry's Extensive Transition.  

PubMed

The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008-2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

Pahkin, Krista; Nielsen, Karina; Vnnen, Ari; Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Leppnen, Anneli; Koskinen, Aki

2014-10-27

209

Expected injury cost indices on Finnish farms.  

PubMed

Annually, more than 6000 work-related injuries occur on Finnish farms. One-fourth of these injuries are classified as severe, resulting in considerable economic losses to agricultural enterprises and the national economy. The injury rate among farmers is more than twice that among all employees on average. This study aimed to identify the risk factors that should be considered when targeting interventions, thus improving their cost-effectiveness. The expected injury cost (EIC) risk index method, which combines the probability of injuries with their severity and costs, was implemented. The potential risk factors included the type of agricultural operation, worker characteristics (gender, age), agricultural work tasks performed, and the geographical location of the farm enterprise. Crop production emerged as the type of agricultural operation with the highest risk index (1.12). The lowest risk index was in sheep and goat husbandry operations (0.35). The risk index was higher for men compared to women (1.11 vs. 0.77). The highest risk age group was farmers from 55 to 59 years of age (1.36). Farmers under 40 (0.17 to 0.89) and over 65 years old (0.70) had the lowest injury risks. No evidence was found that dangerous regions are concentrated in certain geographical parts of the country. The most common agricultural work tasks in which injuries occurred were the repair and maintenance of machinery and equipment, the transportation and relocation of animals, and milking. These accounted for more than one-third of all compensated work injuries in 2005. The identified risk factors could be considered when setting priorities in injury prevention and resource allocation. PMID:22458014

Sinisalo, A

2012-01-01

210

Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA.

Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01

211

PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher

Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

2014-01-01

212

Publications of the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society -23 New Developments in Artificial  

E-print Network

Publications of the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society - 23 New Developments in Artificial Intelligence and the Semantic Web Proceedings of the 12th Finnish Artificial Intelligence Conference STeP 2006 Kauppinen, Jukka Kortela, Mikko Laukkanen, Tapani Raiko, and Kim Viljanen Finnish Artificial Intelligence

Hyvönen, Eero

213

Alice Holt has been intensely studied by scientists since the 1950s. As a result, Forest Research (FR),  

E-print Network

the forest and environment interact, as well as demonstrating the possible effects of climate change. Their findings have helped shape international policies on pollution and sustainable forest management such as ecology, sustainability, biodiversity and climate change, Alice Holt Forest can also support emerging

214

Modeling the population dynamics of pacific yew. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

A study of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) population dynamics in the mountains of western Oregon and Washington was based on a combination of long-term population data and computer modeling. Rates of growth and mortality were low in mature and old-growth forest stands. Diameter growth at breast height ranged from 0 to 3 centimeters per decade. The annual mortality rate for individuals greater than 5 centimeters in diameter at breast height was about 1 percent of the population. A matrix population model was constructed by using these and other fundamental data on yew population dynamics. The model was designed to perform population viability analyses of yew under various harvest regimes. Model projections suggested a slow rate of recovery from major disturbance.

Busing, R.T.; Spies, T.A.

1995-05-01

215

Research Report ReproGraphic Services is Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) chain-of-  

E-print Network

as biomarkers for overall tobacco exposure. Professor Tom Novotny makes the case for banning cigarette butts with grant support from California's Tobacco Related Disease Research program. Impacting HIV SDSU researchers

Ponce, V. Miguel

216

The effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system - What works, what doesn't, and what could be improved?  

SciTech Connect

The article summarises the results of a multidisciplinary research project on the effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system. It examines the main strengths and weaknesses of EIA as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool. The study concludes that EIA has achieved a meaningful role in the environmental policy toolbox in Finland and has clearly enhanced the possibilities for high-quality environmental decision making. The research cites the liaison authority system as a clear strength of the Finnish EIA system in its enabling a single regional authority to specialise in and gain wide experience on EIA issues. In examining potential weaknesses of the regime, the article concludes that the key constraint on EIA effectiveness is inadequacy of the action-forcing mechanisms at the decision-making phase. The primary means to improve the effectiveness of EIA would be to strengthen the legal provisions on development consents. On the whole, the research indicates that the EU and Finnish legislation and guidance on environmental impact assessment provide a good framework for effective utilisation of the instrument.

Poeloenen, Ismo, E-mail: Ismo.Polonen@uef.f [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Law, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Hokkanen, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.hokkanen@ely-keskus.f [Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for Central Finland, P.O. Box 250, FIN-40101 (Finland); Jalava, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.j.jalava@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

2011-03-15

217

Contingent valuation study of the value of reducing fire hazards to old-growth forests in the Pacific northwest. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A contingent valuation methodology was applied to old-growth forests and critical habitat units for the Northern Spotted Owl in Oregon to esimate the economic value to the public in knowing that rare and unique ecosystems will be protected from fire for current and future generations. Generalizing to the whole state, the total annual willingness-to-pay of Oregon residents ranges from $49.6 to $99 million. In terms of old-growth forests protected from fire, the value is $28 per acre.

Loomis, J.B.; Gonzalez-Caban, A.; Gregory, R.

1996-07-01

218

Three levels of integrating ecology with the conservation of South American temperate forests: the initiative of the Institute of Ecological Research Chilo, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of native species assemblages and that of indigenous cultures that once characterized the temperate forests of southern Chile have experienced a process of homogenization ever since the Spanish conquest. Today this process continues to erode both biotic and cultural diversity. With the goal of linking ecological research with actions to conserve the biological and cultural richness of this

Ricardo Rozzi; JOHN SILANDER JR; Juan J. Armesto; Peter Feinsinger; Francisca Massardo

2000-01-01

219

Forest Research Schematic diagram of the life cycle of Agrilus biguttatus on native oak trees in Britain -from egg to adult  

E-print Network

Forest Research Schematic diagram of the life cycle of Agrilus biguttatus on native oak trees through 5 instar phases before pupation. Acute oak decline (AOD) is a condition of mature native oak in Britain that appears to be increasing. Affected trees are identified by symptoms of profuse stem bleeding

220

CHAPTER 2NOAA Operations, Research, & Facilities By Line Office Incident Meteorologist Joel Curtis (second from left) monitors a forest fire with local firefighters in Derby, Montana  

E-print Network

(second from left) monitors a forest fire with local firefighters in Derby, Montana #12;#12;2-31 CHAPTER 2 importance to the nation's economy and further emphasizing the need for access to data and sound science Lakes ecosystems. This research provides the strong science foundation required to effectively man- age

221

Forest Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students learn about different types of forests - temperate deciduous forests, temperate evergreen forests, and tropical rain forests. Students will concentrate on the tropical rain forest and learn about the Congo Trek made by the explorer Michael Fay through the African rain forest.

222

Forest Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest

Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

223

Nebraska's Forests Resource Bulletin  

E-print Network

reviewers included Rich Widmann (NRS-FIA) and Ralph Johnson (Nebraska Forest Service). Published by. Meneguzzo, Susan J. Crocker, Mark D. Nelson, Charles J. Barnett, Brett J. Butler, Grant M. Domke, Mark H, Newtown Square, PA. Brett J. Butler is a research forester with the FIA program, Northern Research Station

224

GIS Data Services Specialist Forest disturbance and carbon cycling Location: Newton Square, Pennsylvania (U.S. Forest Service Northern Research Station)  

E-print Network

GIS Data Services Specialist ­ Forest disturbance and carbon cycling Location: Newton Square Geographic Information System (GIS) and data management support for developing spatial databases sets and in applying analysis techniques and models within a GIS framework. A Master's or PhD degree

Lichstein, Jeremy W.

225

Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious

Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

2014-01-01

226

Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice

Vainio, Annukka

2011-01-01

227

Formal corporate social responsibility reporting in Finnish listed companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse CSR reporting in large Finnish listed companies, focusing on the following questions: what kinds of motives and objectives appear behind CSR reporting, what kinds of documents are used in CSR reporting, and what kind of information related especially to CSR policy, stakeholders, as well as economic, social and environmental responsibilities,

Ulla Kotonen

2009-01-01

228

Developing Females' Talent: Case Studies of Finnish Olympians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 13 male and 13 female Finnish Olympians (matched by age and profession) to isolate the critical events that occurred in their lives that had an impact on the development of their talent. This sample ranged from pairs of college students to professional scientists in their mid careers and was drawn from a larger

Kirsi Tirri

229

A tradeoff between reproduction and growth in contemporary Finnish women  

E-print Network

to other function(s). In humans, there is still relatively little evidence that, in women, i.e., the sexA tradeoff between reproduction and growth in contemporary Finnish women Samuli Helle Section; final revision received 27 November 2007 Abstract Women have been suggested to trade growth in height

Helle, Samuli

230

Families, Not Parents, Differ: Development of Communication in Finnish Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study on Finnish families was conducted to identify developmental differences in family-level communication among mothers, fathers, and their infants during the second half of the infant's first year, and associations with infants' later language and communicative skills. We examined coregulated communication of parent-infant

Haapakoski, Maija; Silven, Maarit

2009-01-01

231

Narrative Semantic Web --Case National Finnish Epic Kalevala  

E-print Network

on the semantic web as semantic structures [1] that can be used for enriching end-user reading experience for browsing web pages enriched with semantic links, and to various RDF browsers. However, in our system: 1Narrative Semantic Web --Case National Finnish Epic Kalevala Eero Hyv¨onen, Tuomas Palonen

Hyvönen, Eero

232

Mass Communication Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A suggested curriculum to be used to teach mass communications in Finnish comprehensive schools is described. Instead of concentrating on either an aesthetic or medium-bound (e.g., film education) approach, this curriculum focuses on the mass media as social institutions and on developing in young people a critical, thoughtful approach to mass

Finnish Broadcasting Co., Helsinki.

233

Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial

Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Bjrk, Lars G.

2014-01-01

234

Young Children's Well-Being in Finnish Stepfamilies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changing family relationships as a result of divorce are considered a potential threat to children's well-being. This study investigates the well-being of children under the age of eight years in Finnish stepfamilies from the viewpoint of the mother. The goal of this study is to explore how the structural characteristics of the stepfamily and the

Broberg, Mari

2012-01-01

235

ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1

Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Nrhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

2014-01-01

236

Pain Alleviation in Animals: Attitudes and Practices of Finnish Veterinarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire was sent to 911 Finnish veterinarians to assess their attitudes and practices to pain relief in animals. Responses to statements about recognition and treatment of pain were either to agree or to disagree. The pain caused by specified surgical and clinical conditions was rated. Inquiries were also posed about the number of analgesics available and their use in

M Raekallio; K. M Heinonen; J Kuussaari; O Vainio

2003-01-01

237

THE FINNISH GREAT DEPRESSION: FROM RUSSIA WITH LOVE Yuriy Gorodnichenko  

E-print Network

THE FINNISH GREAT DEPRESSION: FROM RUSSIA WITH LOVE * Yuriy Gorodnichenko UC Berkeley and NBER, Higher School of Economics, "Macroeconomics across Time and Space" at the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, BREAD Conference on Development Economics and Society for Economic Dynamics. We also gratefully

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

238

Pathfinding in the Research Forest: The Pearl Harvesting Method for Effective Information Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of empirical research has become important for everyone involved in education and special education. Policy, practice, and informed reporting rely on locating and understanding unfiltered, original source material. Although access to vast amounts of research has been greatly facilitated by online databases, such as ERIC and PsychInfo,

Sandieson, Robert

2006-01-01

239

Maintaining wildlife habitat in southeastern Alaska: implications of new knowledge for forest management and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review results and implications from recent wildlife studies that followed from the 1997 Tongass Land Management Plan (TLMP) and identify information needs and directions for research, development, and application. Sustained population viability of wildlife species was identified as a major issue in the TLMP planning process. Several species were identified as management indicator species, and research was conducted to

Thomas A. Hanley; Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende

2005-01-01

240

A national collaboration process: Finnish engineering education for the benefit of people and environment.  

PubMed

The key stakeholders of the Finnish engineering education collaborated during 2006-09 to reform the system of education, to face the challenges of the changing business environment and to create a national strategy for the Finnish engineering education. The work process was carried out using participatory work methods. Impacts of sustainable development (SD) on engineering education were analysed in one of the subprojects. In addition to participatory workshops, the core part of the work on SD consisted of a research with more than 60 interviews and an extensive literature survey. This paper discusses the results of the research and the work process of the Collaboration Group in the subproject of SD. It is suggested that enhancing systematic dialogue among key stakeholders using participatory work methods is crucial in increasing motivation and commitment in incorporating SD in engineering education. Development of the context of learning is essential for improving skills of engineering graduates in some of the key abilities related to SD: systemic- and life-cycle thinking, ethical understanding, collaborative learning and critical reflection skills. This requires changing of the educational paradigm from teacher-centred to learner-centred applying problem- and project-oriented active learning methods. PMID:22095059

Takala, A; Korhonen-Yrjnheikki, K

2013-12-01

241

Forest Density Mapping in the Lower 48 States: A Regression Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis (SO-FIA) research unit conducted a project to map the distribution of forest lands for the entire United States. Forest types a...

Z. Zhu

1994-01-01

242

Investigating the cross-cultural validity of DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder: evidence from Finnish and UK samples.  

PubMed

The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) reformulation of autism spectrum disorder has received empirical support from North American and UK samples. Autism spectrum disorder is an increasingly global diagnosis, and research is needed to discover how well it generalises beyond North America and the United Kingdom. We tested the applicability of the DSM-5 model to a sample of Finnish young people with autism spectrum disorder (n = 130) or the broader autism phenotype (n = 110). Confirmatory factor analysis tested the DSM-5 model in Finland and compared the fit of this model between Finnish and UK participants (autism spectrum disorder, n = 488; broader autism phenotype, n = 220). In both countries, autistic symptoms were measured using the Developmental, Diagnostic and Dimensional Interview. Replicating findings from English-speaking samples, the DSM-5 model fitted well in Finnish autism spectrum disorder participants, outperforming a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) model. The DSM-5 model fitted equally well in Finnish and UK autism spectrum disorder samples. Among broader autism phenotype participants, this model fitted well in the United Kingdom but poorly in Finland, suggesting that cross-cultural variability may be greatest for milder autistic characteristics. We encourage researchers with data from other cultures to emulate our methodological approach, to map any cultural variability in the manifestation of autism spectrum disorder and the broader autism phenotype. This would be especially valuable given the ongoing revision of the International Classification of Diseases-11th Edition, the most global of the diagnostic manuals. PMID:24113342

Mandy, William; Charman, Tony; Puura, Kaija; Skuse, David

2014-01-01

243

United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station  

E-print Network

McHugh, Jack Cohen, Dave Calkin, Rick Stratton, Larry Bradshaw, Ned Nikolov #12;You may order Publications Distribution Rocky Mountain Research Station 240 West Prospect Road Fort Collins, CO 80526 Graham, Russell; Finney, Mark; McHugh, Chuck; Cohen, Jack; Calkin, Dave; Stratton, Rick; Bradshaw, Larry; Ned

Fried, Jeremy S.

244

43 CFR 8224.1 - Use of the Fossil Forest Research Natural Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...under 2920.2-2 of this title by the Director, New Mexico State Office, Bureau of Land Management, P.O. Box 1449, Santa Fe, NM 87504-1419. Permits shall be issued only to institutions and individuals engaged in research, museum, or...

2012-10-01

245

A Review of Forest Carbon Sequestration Cost Studies: A Dozen Years of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have been analyzing the costs of carbon sequestration for approximately twelve years. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the carbon sequestration cost studies of the past dozen years that have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the forestry option. Several conclusions emerge. While carbon sequestration cost studies all contain essentially the same components they are not comparable on

Kenneth R. Richards; Carrie Stokes

2004-01-01

246

New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and

Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Ovidiu Badea; Ion Barbu; Peter Fleischer; Witold Fr?czek; Vladimir Gancz; Barbara Godzik; Krystyna Grodzi?ska; Wojciech Grodzki; David Karnosky; Milan Koren; Marek Krywult; Zbigniew Krzan; Roman Longauer; Blanka Mankovska; William J. Manning; Michael McManus; Robert C. Musselman; Julius Novotny; Flaviu Popescu; Daniela Postelnicu; Wies?aw Prus-G?owacki; Pawe? Skawi?ski; Stefan Skiba; Robert Szaro; Stefan Tamas; Cristian Vasile

2003-01-01

247

Energy plantations in the Republic of the Philippines. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Development and management of plantations to support wood-energy programs have been aggressively promoted in the Philippines since 1979. Over 60,000 hectares of energy plantations have been planted under government-supported programs. The paper documents the problems and accomplishments of these programs and describes plantation establishment, maintenance, protection, growth and yield, harvesting, and wood transport. Research priorities for improving energy-farm operations are also suggested.

Durst, P.B.

1987-07-01

248

Bird species dynamics in a managed southern boreal forest in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of 10-year variation (19932002) in a bird species community were studied in a managed southern boreal forest in Finland using yearly repeated bird censuses. Specifically, effects of logging on cavity-nesting bird species of coniferous and mixed woods were examined. Logging was based on the recommendations of new forestry practices, which have been designed to maintain biodiversity in Finnish forests.

Raimo Virkkala

2004-01-01

249

Food allergy in Finnish children aged 1 to 6 years.  

PubMed

Food allergy was studied in a total of 866 Finnish children aged 1, 2, 3 and 6 years in the Helsinki region. The diagnosis was based on history as well as on elimination and challenge performed at home concerning fish, citrus fruit and eggs. The prevalence of food allergy was 19% at one year of age, increased to a peak of 27% at three years, and thereafter decreased to 8% at six years of age. The most common allergenic foods were citrus fruit, tomato, eggs, strawberry and fish. A positive history of food allergy could be confirmed by challenge in about half of the cases in the younger age groups and in 100% at six years of age. The data indicate that food allergy is common in Finnish children. PMID:7180451

Kajosaari, M

1982-09-01

250

The complexity of safety in wilderness guiding in Finnish Lapland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how safety is understood and practised by wilderness guides leading nature excursions with international customers in Finnish Lapland. Commercial nature tourism services in Lapland are not considered adventure-oriented since risk-taking is not an integral part of the guided services. The study shows that even though perceived as low-risk activities, risks are present in a significant part of

Outi Rantala; Jarno Valkonen

2011-01-01

251

Characteristics of Workplace Learning Among Finnish Vocational Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Finnish VET, students work experience is explicitly defined as workplace learning, instead of the practice of already\\u000a learnt skills. Therefore, vocational students learning periods in the workplace are goal-oriented, guided and assessed. This\\u000a paper examines the characteristics of students workplace learning and compares them with the characteristics of employees\\u000a workplace learning. The data were collected with an Internet questionnaire

Anne Virtanen; Pivi Tynjl; Kaija Collin

2009-01-01

252

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia clinical manifestations in 108 Finnish patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is an autosomal recessive metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with short-limbed short stature, hypoplastic hair, and defective immunity and erythrogenesis. We have analysed the clinical outcome of 108 Finnish patients. Birth length was below ?2.0 SD in 70% of the patients; the adult heights ranged from ?11.4 SD to ?5.2 SD. The sitting height percentage was increased in all but 4

O. Miikitie; I. Kaitila

1993-01-01

253

Psychosomatic symptoms among 1416 year old Finnish adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of psychosomatic symptoms and their associations with school performance and some sociodemographic characteristics (family structure, number of siblings, birth order, the parents' socioeconomic status) was studied among all eighth-grade pupils (n=2246) in secondary schools in a Finnish town. The same pupils were re-examined twice: after 5 months and after 17 months. The mean age of the pupils at

Hillevi Aro; Olavi Paronen; Seppo Aro

1987-01-01

254

Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed

Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

2014-01-01

255

International Conference MANAGING FORESTS  

E-print Network

? 8-11 October 2012 ­ Edinburgh, Scotland Third Announcement & CALL FOR ABSTRACTS Hosted by IUFRO of forest ecosystems. This meeting will enable researchers, practitioners and policymakers to present that will help adapt forests to meet changes in climate and in societal demands. For example, the findings

256

Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration

Pentti Hakkila

2006-01-01

257

Measuring motor skills in Finnish children with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

This investigation examined differences in motor skill development between Finnish children (12 boys, 8 girls) with mild intellectual disability and typically developing Finnish children between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Ulrich's Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) assessed the performances of 20 children with intellectual disability and an age- and sex-matched sample of 20 children without disabilities. Videotaped performances were assessed by the authors who were very familiar with the TGMD-2. The group with intellectual disability performed at a statistically significantly lower level on the Gross Motor Quotient, Locomotor, and Object Control subtests of TGMD-2, compared to the group without intellectual disability. The delay was equivalent to 3 to 4 years behind the Finnish normative group in gross motor development. In five out of 12 subtests, the group with intellectual disability achieved 0% mastery. Given low gross motor skills, children with intellectual disability require additional fundamental motor skill training in their active school or free time. PMID:23829155

Rintala, Pauli; Loovis, E Michael

2013-02-01

258

The necessity for the research on the relationship between transition of forest floor vegetation accompanying thinning and function of soil and water conservation in artificial sugi(Cryptomeria japonica) forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, on the one hand the interest in public benefit such as soil and water conservation brought by forest is swelling, on the other the unsoundness of forest poses a social problem with rapid increase of the belated thinning forest. However, generally it is fact that the importance of a sound forest is not fully understood, also the consensus for

OOHARA Hideki

2007-01-01

259

Natural resource consumption caused by Finnish households  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is based on the results of the first phase of a research project on the natural resource consumption of households. The MIPS concept (material input per service unit) was chosen to assess the relevance of different activities and products of private households. The study covers the most common foods and drinks, ways of constructing houses, modes of transport,

Satu Lhteenoja; Michael Lettenmeier; Tommi Kauppinen; Karoliina Luoto; Tiina Moisio

260

Performance Dialogs Implemented in a Finnish University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses performance dialogs (PDs) in the university context in Finland. These are held annually between employers and employees. The study was carried out to assess the efficacy of this technique. Research methods included an electronic questionnaire over two different years delivered to the whole staff of the Department of Teacher

Takala, Marjatta; Keskinen, Soili

2014-01-01

261

Forest Fire Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

Zucca, Carol; And Others

1995-01-01

262

A sustainable forest fuel system in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important question for bioenergy is how a comprehensive use of forest fuel will influence the environment. Swedish scientists have contributed significantly to improving knowledge within this sector. This paper summarizes current research results on forest fuel and soil conditions, how ashes should be returned, forest fuel as a means to counteract the effects of nitrogen deposition, forest fuel and

Anna Lundborg

1998-01-01

263

Assessing Urban Forest Effects and Values  

E-print Network

management programs and to integrate urban forests within plans to improve environmental quality the understanding of the urban forest resource, improve urban forest policies, planning and management, provide dataAssessing Urban Forest Effects and Values Northern Research Station Resource Bulletin NRS-43 United

264

Research on Mathematics and Science Education: From Beliefs to Cognition, from Problem Solving to Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains selected research papers presented at seminars held throughout the year 2000 in Finland by members of the Finnish Association for Research in Mathematics and Science Education (FARMSE) and students at the Finnish Graduate School of Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry Education. This volume also contains papers professor Laurence

Ahtee, Maija, Ed.; Bjorkqvist, Ole, Ed.; Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.; Vatanen, Virpi, Ed.

265

Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. The role of tropical forests on the world carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Tropical forests constitute about half of the world's forest and are characterized by rapid rates of organic matter turnover and high storages of organic matter. Tropical forests are considered to be one of the most significant terrestrial elements in the equation that balances the carbon cycle of the world. As discussed in the paper by Tosi, tropical and subtropical latitudes are more complex in terms of climate and vegetation composition than temperate and boreal latitudes. The implications of the complexity of the tropics and the disregard of this complexity by many scientists is made evident in the paper by Brown and Lugo which shows that biomass estimates for tropical ecosystems have been overestimated by at least 100%. The paper by Brown shows that that rates of succession in the tropics are extremely rapid in terms of the ability of moist and wet forests to accumulate organic matter. Yet, in arid tropical Life Zones succession is slow. This leads to the idea that the question of whether tropical forests are sinks or sources of carbon must be analyzed in relation to Life Zones and to intensities of human activity in these Zones. The paper by Lugo presents conceptual models to illustrate this point and the paper by Tosi shows how land uses in the tropics also correspond to Life Zone characteristics. The ultimate significance of land use to the question of the carbon balance in a large region is addressed in the paper by Detwiler and Hall.

Brown, S.; Lugo, A. E.; Liegel, B. [eds.

1980-08-01

266

Forest Service Research Note  

E-print Network

uses a heat-resistant anemometer. 1 Two electrical pulses are produced for each revolution of the anemometer rotor. A frequency-to-voltage converter converts these pulses to an analog signal and averages Figure 1.--A portable weather station (A) is set up for opera- tion; (B) anemometer, wind vane

Standiford, Richard B.

267

Forest Service Research Note  

E-print Network

to speed at 20 feet above obstructions are as follows:l Height anemometer above obstruction (feet) 30 40 so For example, a 40 m.p .h. wind observed at an anemometer 60 feet above obstruction would be #12;40 x 0 a look- out tower, over-the-cab anemometer ex- posure is more reliable than other al- ternatives . All

Standiford, Richard B.

268

Forest Research Phytophthora austrocedrae  

E-print Network

; D indicates infected; LD indicates live-dead junction with tongue of infection extending phloem, ie where the orange brown phloem meets the healthy white phloem. This is known as the live-dead junction (see Figs 3 and 5b). With P. austrocedrae the live-dead junction will often be seen as an area

269

Forest Service Research Note  

E-print Network

: 453--414.12 Lindane -Y-isomer L--174.7 Pinus ponderosa+ 145.719. 92 Dendroctonus brevicomis +145.719. 92 Dendroctonus]ponderosa + 145.719. 92 Ips con fusu s +174.7 Pinus ponder- osa--453--414. 12 Lindane

Standiford, Richard B.

270

Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industrys Extensive Transition  

PubMed Central

The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (20082009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

PAHKIN, Krista; NIELSEN, Karina; VNNEN, Ari; MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; LEPPNEN, Anneli; KOSKINEN, Aki

2014-01-01

271

Logistics and financial performance : An analysis of 424 Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To explore the present logistics performance of Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to analyse the relationship between logistics performance and financial performance in these firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The dataset comprises 424 SMEs that participated in a nationwide Finnish logistics survey in 2006. Logistics performance measures were derived from the survey data, and based on these values

Juuso Tyli; Lotta Hkkinen; Lauri Ojala; Tapio Naula

2008-01-01

272

Health Knowledge Construction and Pedagogical Style in Finnish Health Education Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the construction of health knowledge in the Finnish national curriculum and recent Finnish health education textbooks, at primary and secondary levels of education. The authors examine the visual and textual content of the textbooks in an attempt to identify their pedagogical style and approach to

Kosonen, Anna-Liisa; Haapala, Irja; Kuurala, Sade; Mielonen, Salla; Hanninen, Osmo; Carvalho, Graca S.

2009-01-01

273

The Negotiation Process toward the New Salary System in the Finnish University Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001 the Finnish government decided that the state sector should develop a new salary system that would take more fully into account the actual outcomes and demands of particular posts. Subsequently, in June 2006, an agreement on a new salary system for the Finnish university sector was reached between the negotiating parties, the employers and

Kekale, Jouni

2008-01-01

274

Antibiotic prophylaxis patterns of Finnish dentists performing dental implant surgery.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. The peri-operative use of prophylactic antibiotics in clinically healthy patients undergoing dental implant surgery is very common in Finland. While antibiotics are prescribed with the hope of preventing both local and systemic complications, their application and utilization is not uniform. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the variation in prescribing patterns among Finnish dentists performing dental implant placement operations. This study also aimed to examine the possible relationship between early implant removal and the use of the prophylactic antibiotics in Finland. Materials and methods. The National Institute for Health and Welfare in Finland granted permission to access the Finnish Dental Implant Register. The peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis prescribing patterns were assessed in a total of 110 543 dental implant placement procedures and 1038 dental implant removal operations performed in Finland between April 1994 and April 2012. Results. A total of 61 different antibiotics or combinations were prescribed peri-operatively during implant placements in Finland between 1994-2012. Phenoxymethylpenicillin was the most commonly prescribed drug (72.2%). No statistically significant difference in early implant removal rates could be found between patients who had or had not received peri-operative prophylaxis. However, patients who had received peri-operative prophylaxis had statistically significant longer implant survival rates. Conclusion. There is a variation in antibiotic prescribing patterns among Finnish dentists placing dental implants. The results suggest that the use of prophylactic antibiotics has little effect on the prevention of primary implant surgery-related complications and, hence, success rates. PMID:24791607

Pyysalo, Mikko; Helminen, Mika; Antalainen, Anna-Kaisa; Sndor, George K; Wolff, Jan

2014-11-01

275

International and Comparative Viewpoint on Productitive Development in Finland (in Finnish with an English abstract\\/summary)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finnish value added per hour in 1997 was lower than it was in EU15, the US, Germany and Sweden. In manufacturing and in five of its sub-industries, as well as in construction and wholesale the Finnish level of labour productivity was higher than in the aforementioned countries. Finnish labour productivity was on par with EU15 by 2004. In four manufacturing

Janne Huovari; Jukka Jalava

2007-01-01

276

A REPORT ON FINNISH EDUCATION AND THE EDUCATIONAL USE OF ICTs WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON LANGUAGE EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to introduce the Finnish educational system and to describe how Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been integrated into it, with a special focus on language education. The report first presents an overview of the Finnish educational system. Secondly, it deals with foreign language teaching in Finnish higher education. It then describes how national

Maija Tammelin

277

Maternal Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Recent research emphasizes the contribution of environmental as well as genetic factors to the etiology of autism but studies testing associations between chemical exposures and autism have been limited. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has previously been associated with decrements in cognitive and developmental performance. We conducted a pilot study in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism (FiPS-A). Seventy-five cases with autism and 75 controls matched on sex, birth year, urbanization and maternal age were sampled from first-born children in the Finnish Maternity Cohort, which includes over 1 million births. The study sample included births occurring from 1991 to 2000. Subjects were followed up for autism through 2007. DDT, DDE, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-156, PCB-170, PCB-180, hexachlorobenzene, and BDE-47 were measured in archived maternal serum samples taken during pregnancy using gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Correlations between pollutant measures were assessed and mechanistically-related weighting schemes for summarizing PCB levels were compared. Case and control differences were assessed using graphical and statistical methods. All analytes, with the exception of DDT and BDE-47, were detected above the limit of quantification in all samples. The correlation between levels of individual PCB congeners and weighted summary measures was high (0.71-1.00). Paired t-tests revealed no significant differences between cases and controls for log-transformed mean values of any analyte; however, in an adjusted model the odds ratio for autism was 1.91 (p=0.29) and 1.79 (p= 0.36) respectively, for subjects with total PCBs and DDE above the 90th percentile of control values. Levels of prenatal PCB exposure in FIPS-A were similar to levels previously correlated with poorer neurodevelopmental measures in other populations. Further study in a larger sample will be required to fully determine whether exposure to high POP levels are associated with autism diagnosis in the population. PMID:23591055

Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Rantakokko, Panu V.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; Surcel, Helja-Marja; McKeague, Ian W.; Kiviranta, Hannu A.; Sourander, Andre; Brown, Alan S.

2013-01-01

278

Variability within the 10-Year Pollen Rain of a Seasonal Neotropical Forest and Its Implications for Paleoenvironmental and Phenological Research  

PubMed Central

Tropical paleoecologists use a combination of mud-water interface and modern pollen rain samples (local samples of airborne pollen) to interpret compositional changes within fossil pollen records. Taxonomic similarities between the composition of modern assemblages and fossil samples are the basis of reconstructing paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. Surface sediment samples reflect a time-averaged accumulation of pollen spanning several years or more. Due to experimental constraints, modern pollen rain samples are generally collected over shorter timeframes (13 years) and are therefore less likely to capture the full range of natural variability in pollen rain composition and abundance. This potentially biases paleoenvironmental interpretations based on modern pollen rain transfer functions. To determine the degree to which short-term environmental change affects the composition of the aerial pollen flux of Neotropical forests, we sampled ten years of the seasonal pollen rain from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and compared it to climatic and environmental data over the same ten-year span. We establish that the pollen rain effectively captured the strong seasonality and stratification of pollen flow within the forest canopy and that individual taxa had variable sensitivity to seasonal and annual changes in environmental conditions, manifested as changes in pollen productivity. We conclude that modern pollen rain samples capture the reproductive response of moist tropical plants to short-term environmental change, but that consequently, pollen rain-based calibrations need to include longer sampling periods (?7 years) to reflect the full range of natural variability in the pollen output of a forest and simulate the time-averaging present in sediment samples. Our results also demonstrate that over the long-term, pollen traps placed in the forest understory are representative samples of the pollen output of both canopy and understory vegetation. Aerial pollen traps, therefore, also represent an underutilized means of monitoring the pollen productivity and reproductive behavior of moist tropical forests. PMID:23320089

Haselhorst, Derek S.; Moreno, J. Enrique; Punyasena, Surangi W.

2013-01-01

279

Forest Research A N N U A L R E P O R T A N D A C C O U N T S 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 4  

E-print Network

of the Department of Animal and Plant Studies University of Sheffield Secretary DR P.H. FREER-SMITH ResearchForest Research A N N U A L R E P O R T A N D A C C O U N T S 2 0 0 3 ­ 2 0 0 4 The research agency of the Forestry Commission #12;Forest Research A N N U A L R E P O R T A N D A C C O U N T S 2 0 0 3 ­ 2 0 0 4

280

Child-rearing goals of Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mothers.  

PubMed

In the present study, the child-rearing goals of mothers of 4- to 6-year-old children from Estonia, Finland, and Sweden were compared. The developed Child-Rearing Goals Questionnaire consisted of three different tasks: open-ended questions, item rating, and item ranking. All mothers were similar in valuing highly self-maximization, but differed in emphasis on traditional child-rearing goals (e.g., conformity, obedience, politeness, being hard-working, etc.). The Swedish mothers tended to stress the characteristics connected with self-maximization as well as self-confidence and children's happiness, but did not value the traditional child-rearing goals. The Estonian mothers attached a great significance both to the traditional characteristics and to self-maximization. The Finnish mothers also stressed both traditional and non-traditional values, but to a lesser extent than the Estonians. The Swedish and Finnish mothers' child-rearing goals were relatively homogeneous. In contrast, the Estonian mothers were generally less focused on any specific goal. Mothers with a lower level of education stressed traditional goals more than mothers with a higher level of education. The results are discussed in the light of the possible effect different cultural contexts have on maternal child-rearing goals: bringing up children in stable welfare societies (such as Sweden and Finland) in contrast to a rapidly changing society (such as Estonia). PMID:18028071

Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel; Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu

2007-12-01

281

Forest pathology in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

Gardner, D. E.

2003-01-01

282

The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerd, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerd and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerd and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bod, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerd, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerd, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerd, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerd, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerd, A., beda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., beda, X., Cerd, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerd, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualizacin en mtodos y tcnica

Pereira, Paulo; Cerd, Artemi

2013-04-01

283

"You call it forest, I call it woods."  

E-print Network

) · Definition · Majority forest land is in private ownership. ~ 50 - 60% US (Butler and Leatherberry 2004; Egan1 "You call it forest, I call it woods." Incorporating Meaning in Forest ManagementForest, Conclusions, Implications for Professional Practice · Ongoing research Private forest landowners (PFLs

Gray, Matthew

284

Naxi Women: Protection and Management of Forests in Lijiang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief introduction to the research sites, this article describes Naxi patterns of forest ownership, the role of community forest guards, community rules governing forest use and management, management of the public mountain, traditional spiritual beliefs related to forest management, and the impact of social and policy factors on local forests and liveli hoods. Within this context, the Naxi

Yang Fuquan; Xi Yuhua

2001-01-01

285

Valuation of consumption and sale of forest goods from a Central American rain forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers recognize that society needs accurate and comprehensive estimates of the economic value of rain forests to assess conservation and management options. Valuation of forests can help us to decide whether to implement policies that reconcile the value different groups attach to forests. Here we have measured the value of the rain forest to local populations by monitoring the foods,

Ricardo Godoy; David Wilkie; Han Overman; Adoni Cubas; Glenda Cubas; Josefien Demmer; Kendra McSweeney; Nicholas Brokaw

2000-01-01

286

Promoting Sustainable Forest Industry Development in the State of Indiana -Forest Products WEB Community Creation  

E-print Network

Promoting Sustainable Forest Industry Development in the State of Indiana - Forest Products WEB, M.B.A. Goals: 1. Data research and entry for online Indiana forest products industry directory. 2, products, equipment services and educational products. 4. Help to promote the Indiana forest products web

287

The Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle in NE Fennoscandia: a nearly continuous record from Sokli (Finnish Lapland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreholes from the Sokli basin in Finnish Lapland have recovered a unique sequence of diamicts interlayered with fine-grained sediments that are rich in fossils. The diamicts are interpreted as till beds deposited by the Fennoscandian Ice-Sheet. The fine-grained intercalations seem to represent a series of warm stages that include one interglacial and three interstadials. The interglacial is characterized by a mixed taiga pollen assemblage and corresponds to a distinct diatom gyttja bed. The interstadials show progressively colder floras from open birch forest to arctic forest limit to shrub tundra. Their sediments comprise gyttja interlayered with wood and sand (interstadial 1); sands grading into sandy gyttja (interstadial 2); and sands overlain by laminated silt and clay (interstadial 3). The interstadial 2 and 3 deposits are underlain by diamict and are interpreted as deglaciation sequences. Silts with a tundra pollen assemblage separate the interglacial and interstadial 1 deposits. Luminescence dating evidence indicates that the interglacial bed most probably represents the NW European mainland Eemian Interglacial (marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e). The interstadial 1, 2 and 3 deposits are tentatively correlated with the Early Weichselian Brrup and Odderade Interstadials and an interstadial of Middle Weichselian age, respectively (MIS 5c, 5a and 3, respectively). The correlation implies that the easternmost part of the ice-divide zone of the Fennoscandian continental ice-sheet was deglaciated during part of MIS 3.

Helmens, Karin F.; Rsnen, Matti E.; Johansson, Peter W.; Jungner, Hgne; Korjonen, Kari

2000-11-01

288

Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.

Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.

1996-05-01

289

Kelp Forest  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Kelp forests are often called the rainforest of the sea. They support wide varieties of marine life. Sea otters are both a sentinal and a keystone species for the health of kelp forests. Without sea otters, there is a shift in the ecosystem that can severly damage the kelp forests. USGS scientists s...

290

Trials of mixed-conifer plantings for increasing diversity in the lodgepole pine type. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Greater forest diversity is needed in the lodgepole pine forest cover type--particularly, along and east of the Continental Divide in Montana--if large-scale losses from cyclical bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent wildfires are to be reduced. Three species were compared to lodgepole pine in a test of mixed-species planting in three ecological habitat types of the lodgepole pine type. Differences in seedling survival, condition, and growth were observed among species and among habitat types by the fifth year after planting. The results indicate Englemann spruce and Douglas-fir can be used to attain mixed-species stands by interplanting naturally regenerated lodgepole pine seedling stands. Western larch probably can succeed only when planted in moist Douglas-fir, spruce, or the warmer subalpine fir habitat types east of the Continental Divide. Because of greater frost tolerance, western larch x alpine larch hybrids are promising for increasing forest diversity in some of the colder subalpine fir habitat types.

Cole, D.M.

1993-03-01

291

The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission  

E-print Network

The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission Forest Research Woods and Forests in British Society:progress in research and practice Bianca Ambrose-Oji & Karen Fancett (Eds.) Forest Research Monograph: 3 #12;2 Forests in British Society First published in 2011 by Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH

292

Forest Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial discusses the concept of forest succession, the stages of development which forest plants follow as they grow or re-grow following an event such as a forest fire or insect infestation. Topics include the role of pioneer species, the transition to longer-lived plants such as lodgepole pine, Douglas fir, and subalpine fir, and the transition to climax species such as cedars, hemlocks and spruce. There is also a discussion of the lifespan of climax forests and the wildlife species that inhabit the forest in each stage of succession. A quiz and glossary are provided.

293

Forest Encyclopedia Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly developed by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station and Southern Regional Extension Forestry, this website has multiple online encyclopedias regarding the forests of the Southern United States, as well as one that covers the environmental threats facing all North American forests. This website is very user-friendly, both for visitors who are not natural resource professionals and those who are. For those visitors who are involved in the forest sciences, this website helpfully provides "scientific results, conclusions, and impacts with management needs and issues." On the left side of the page is a menu which allows the visitor to peruse the site through a thematic lens, or a global one. To view by theme, click on "Thematic" at the top of the menu. The themes visitors can click on include "So. Appalachian", "So. Pine Beetle", and "So. Fire Science". Under each theme are a multitude of clickable subthemes. For those visitors looking for a global view of the site, click on "Global" at the top of the menu. Topics include "Landscape", "Ecology", "Socio-Economics", and "Forest Health Protection". Forest scientists interested in contributing new scientific content to the Forest Encyclopedia Network can click on "Help" at the top of the website, which will take them to a link on the left side of the page entitled "Author Help".

294

Modeling the impacts of the Finnish Climate Strategy on air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an example of how air pollution models can be used together with energy system models to study the impacts of climate change mitigation strategies on air pollution. As many mitigation measures of greenhouse gases (GHGs) affect the use of fossil fuels in energy production, they can have important side-effects on other air pollution problems. This paper studies on a national scale the impacts of the planned GHG reduction measures on multiple air pollution problems in Finland, concentrating on acidification of forest soils and lakes, tropospheric ozone levels harmful to humans and vegetation and on emissions of fine particles. The air pollutant emission scenarios with the alternative energy choices are calculated for about 200 large point sources, assuming the present emission limit legislation. Disperse emissions are treated at municipality level. The analysis extends to the year 2020. The implementation of the Kyoto protocol in Finland would induce notable reductions of multiple air pollutant emissions and related environmental impacts. A 6-11% reduction in ecosystems threatened by acidification in Southern and Central Finland would be achieved with the Finnish Climate Strategy alone. Substantial improvement in ozone levels would be reached in all scenarios compared to the current situation. The measures of the Climate Strategy could reduce the harmful ozone levels by a further 3%. The measures of the Climate Strategy would not significantly affect the primary particulate emissions in the future because the emissions from large power plants are already effectively controlled. Contrary to the fuel choices of the large units, expanded use of small-scale wood combustion can result in considerable increases of both fine particulate and VOC emissions.

Syri, S.; Karvosenoja, N.; Lehtil, A.; Laurila, T.; Lindfors, V.; Tuovinen, J.-P.

295

Helping self-mutilating adolescents: descriptions of Finnish nurses.  

PubMed

This study focused on the views of Finnish nurses in regards to providing help for adolescents who self-mutilate. Nine nurses participated, and when the interviews and written descriptions were qualitatively analysed, four main categories of information emerged. The first category comprises the nurses' views on self-mutilation. The second category describes the people who are able to be helpers. The third category describes the content of help, which is made up of a variety of acts provided by non-health professionals that promote the healthy development of adolescents. The fourth category describes care provided by nurses to adolescents who self-mutilate. Guidelines for caring for self-mutilating adolescents are needed, including information on the phenomenon of self-mutilation. PMID:22468591

Rissanen, Marja-Liisa; Kylma, Jari; Laukkanen, Eila

2012-04-01

296

Exposure of workers to mites in Finnish groceries.  

PubMed

We assessed the mite exposure of workers in Finnish groceries by collecting samples of settled dust in 5 different grocerys. Mites were counted and identified microscopically. Mite allergen (Der p 1 and Der f 1) content of dust was analyzed with 2-site ELISA. Mites were found in 20-100 % of the samples, both from storage and salesrooms. Seven samples (8 %) contained more than 100 mites per gram dust and 3 additional samples (6 %) more than 500 mites per gram dust, the suggested limits for mite sensitization and acute allergic symptoms, respectively. Most of the mites were storage mites belonging to Astigmata (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae) or Prostigmata (tarsonemids). House dust mites were found only occasionally. One dust sample out of 15 contained Der p 1, and none contained Der f 1. PMID:17196012

Harju, Anu; Husman, Tuula; Merikoski, Raisa; Pennanen, Sirpa

2006-01-01

297

Indiana's Forests Resource Bulletin  

E-print Network

personnel included Gary Brand, Mark Hatfield, Jay Solomakos, and James Blehm. Report reviewers included Joey, Barry T. Wilson, Jeff Settle, Ron J. Piva, Charles H. Perry, Dacia M. Meneguzzo, Susan J. Crocker, Brett. Meneguzzo is a research forester with FIA, Northern Research Station, St. Paul, MN. Charles H. (Hobie) Perry

298

Forest Fires in a Random Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1) understand the importance of environmental features, 2) to assess the predictability of forest fires using environmental variables, and 3) to compare RF with other machine learning algorithms for this particular case study. Risk maps were plotted by estimating the burned area taking into account the environmental variables and according to the most relevant selected variables. Key words: Random Forest, classification and regression trees, forest fires, risk maps. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References - Breiman L., 2001, Random Forest, Machine Learning, vol. 45-1: 5-32. - Oliveira S., Oehler F., San-Miguel-Ayanz J., Camia A., Pereira J.M.C., 2012, Modeling spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Mediterranean Europe, Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 275: 117-129.

Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhal; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.

2013-04-01

299

Forest commons and local enforcement  

PubMed Central

This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements. PMID:18768821

Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

2008-01-01

300

Forest commons and local enforcement.  

PubMed

This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements. PMID:18768821

Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

2008-09-01

301

Wetfall Deposition and Precipitation Chemistry for a Central Appalachian Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although extensive research on acidic deposition has been directed toward spruce-fir forests, less research has been done on the impacts of air pollution on eastern montane hardwood forests. The purpose of this study was to describe precipitation chemistry for several Appalachian hardwood forest sites at or near the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) to assess the potential for problems associated with

Frank S. Gilliam; Mary Beth Adams

1996-01-01

302

Methods and practices used in incident analysis in the Finnish nuclear power industry.  

PubMed

According to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act it is licensee's responsibility to ensure safe use of nuclear energy. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is the regulatory body responsible for the state supervision of the safe use of nuclear power in Finland. One essential prerequisite for the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants is that lessons are learned from the operational experience. It is utility's prime responsibility to assess the operational events and implement appropriate corrective actions. STUK controls licensees' operational experience feedback arrangements and implementation as part of its inspection activities. In addition to this in Finland, the regulatory body performs its own assessment of the operational experience. Review and investigation of operational events is a part of the regulatory oversight of operational safety. Review of operational events is done by STUK basically at three different levels. First step is to perform a general review of all operational events, transients and reactor scram reports, which the licensees submit for information to STUK. The second level activities are related to the clarification of events at site and entering of events' specific data into the event register database of STUK. This is done for events which meet the set criteria for the operator to submit a special report to STUK for approval. Safety significance of operational events is determined using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques. Risk significance of events and the number of safety significant events are followed by STUK indicators. The final step in operational event assessment performed by STUK is to assign STUK's own investigation team for events deemed to have special importance, especially when the licensee's organisation has not operated as planned. STUK launches its own detail investigation once a year on average. An analysis and evaluation of event investigation methods applied at STUK, and at the two Finnish nuclear power plant operators Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) was carried out by the Technical Research Centre (VTT) on request of STUK at the end of 1990s. The study aimed at providing a broad overview and suggestions for improvement of the whole organisational framework to support event investigation practices at the regulatory body and at the utilities. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the adequacy and reliability of event investigation analysis methods and practices in the Finnish nuclear power industry and based on the results to further develop them. The results and suggestions of the research are reviewed in the paper and the corrective actions implemented in event investigation and operating experience procedures both at STUK and at utilities are discussed as well. STUK has developed its own procedure for the risk-informed analysis of nuclear power plant events. The PSA based event analysis method is used to assess the safety significance and importance measures associated with the unavailability of components and systems subject to Technical Specifications. The insights from recently performed PSA based analyses are also briefly discussed in the paper. PMID:15231350

Suksi, Seija

2004-07-26

303

Factors behind leisure-time physical activity behavior based on Finnish twin studies: the role of genetic and environmental influences and the role of motives.  

PubMed

Different approaches are being taken to clarify the role of various factors in the development of physical activity behaviors. Genetic studies are a new area of physical activity research and also the motives for physical activity have been widely studied. The purpose of this paper is to review the findings emerging from the longitudinal genetic studies on leisure-time physical activity and to evaluate the associations between motivational factors and leisure-time physical activity. The focus is to review recent findings of longitudinal Finnish twin studies. The results of the latest longitudinal Finnish twin studies point to the existence of age-specific genetic and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity. Variations in environmental factors seem to explain the observed deterioration in leisure-time physical activity levels. A decline in genetic influences is seen first from adolescence to young adulthood and again from the age of thirty to the mid-thirties. In the Finnish twin participants, mastery, physical fitness, and psychological state were the major motivation factors associated with consistent leisure-time physical activity behavior. The results also indicate that intrinsic motivation factors may be important for engagement in leisure-time physical activity. PMID:24809061

Aaltonen, Sari; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko

2014-01-01

304

Vegetation of uncultivated arable land under different management in Finnish and Russian Karelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation of uncultivated arable land under modern, cereal\\/forage cropping in Finnish Karelia (n=10) and old fashioned hay cultivation in Russian Karelia (n=10) was compared in terms of their species composition. The plots (n=160) were located in field margins, fallow fields and non-intensively used or abandoned hay fields unploughed over the last five years. In the TWINSPAN classification, the Finnish

Juha Jantunen; Kimmo Saarinen

2002-01-01

305

The health of Swedish-speaking and Finnish-speaking schoolchildren in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background It is well known that Swedish-speaking adults in Finland have higher life expectancy and better health than their Finnish-speaking counterparts. Among young people, similar comparisons have been scarce. The present paper aims to compare the health of Swedish-speaking and Finnish-speaking schoolchildren. Methods Survey data from 1997, representing children at grades 8 and 9 of compulsory school in a bilingual

J. M. Saarela; F. S. A. Finnas

2004-01-01

306

World's forests  

SciTech Connect

An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)

Sedjo, R.A.; Clawson, M.

1982-10-01

307

In: Forest Ecology Research Horizons ISBN: 1-60021-490-8 Editor: Nole C. Verne, pp. 147-166 2007 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.  

E-print Network

Adirondack Ecological Center, SUNY Environmental Science and Forestry, 6312 State Route 28N, Newcomb, NY in the central Appalachian Mountains of the eastern USA. Forests in this region have undergone profound forest

Abrams, Marc David

308

T. R . Nisbet of Forest Research and C. D. Evans of Centre for Ecology and Hydrology March 2014 Forestry and surface water  

E-print Network

Forestry and surface water acidification Forests and forest management practices can affect surface water to have peaked in the 1970s when emissions were greatest and led to surface waters draining catchments 1970s. Concern that conifer forests could be contributing to the `acid waters problem' that affected

309

Development of a mixed shrub-tanoak-douglas-fir community in a treated and untreated condition. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

On a medium site in northern California, a tanoak-mixed shrub community was given several treatments (manual release two and three times, a combination chainsaw and cut surface herbicide treatment, two foliar herbicides, and a tank mix of the two herbicides) to study its development in both a natural (control) and treated condition. The herbicides were 2,4-D, Garlon 3A, and Garlon 4, each applied two times. Survival of planted Douglas-fir seedlings was recorded for 11 years and growth was quantified for 9 years after the last treatment application. In addition to Douglas-fir, data are presented individually for the two most abundant species (tanoak and snowbrush), for greenleaf manzanita, and for the hardwood tree and shrubs combined. The treatment response data, cost information, and plant community relationships provides the forest land manager with knowledge on how to attain some specific plant communities in the future, and their developmental potentials.

McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.

1996-08-01

310

Unearthing Secrets of the Forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forests are a defining feature for large areas of the Pacific northwestern United States from northern California to Alaska. Coniferous temperate rainforests in the western Cascade and coastal mountain ranges are appreciated for their aesthetic value and abundant natural resources. Few people recognize the riches beneath the forest floor; yet, soil is a key ecosystem component that makes each type of forest unique. Soils harbor immense biological diversity and control the release of water and nutrients that support life above ground. Understanding how carbon and nutrients cycle in forests, known as forest biogeochemistry, is crucial for evaluating forest productivity, composition, diversity, and change. At the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, research in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Laboratory focuses on nutrient cycling in five themes: climate change, nutrition and sustainability, fire effects, restoration, and forest-stream linkages. This research is essential to understand the entire forest ecosystem and to use the best science available to make informed policy and management decisions.

Beldin, Sarah I.; Perakis, Steven S.

2009-01-01

311

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and

Donald L. Dahlsten; David L. Rowney

1983-01-01

312

Measuring Forest Structure with LiDAR  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) instrument measures the 3-D structure of a ponderosa pine forest stand in Coconino National Forest near Flagstaff, Arizona, on July 13, 2009. The LiDAR observations support research on remote sensing of forest biomass and carbon sequestration by the USGS Southwe...

2009-12-08

313

Wildland Fire Behavior & Forest Structure Environmental Consequences  

E-print Network

Wildland Fire Behavior & Forest Structure Environmental Consequences Economics Social Concerns Root Diseases in Coniferous Forests of the Inland West: Potential Implications of Fuels Treatments Root Diseases Technician with the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory

314

Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center 2008 Annual Report  

E-print Network

and Biological Sciences #12;2 Overview Hutcheson Memorial Forest (HMF) is a long-term research station that has. More than 250 scientific publications have been produced using data obtained from HMF and the station the centerpiece of HMF, the old-growth forest (hereafter the Old Forest). Today HMF covers approximately 96

315

Colorado Statewide Forest Resource Assessment and Strategy  

E-print Network

for economically important wildlife species · Density of recreation opportunity · Wildland-urban interface #12 of Wildlife Colorado Forest Restoration Institute Colorado State Forest Service Colorado State Forest of Land Management US Fish and Wildlife Service USFS Rocky Mountain Region USFS Rocky Mountain Research

316

Research on: A. Reclamation of borrow pits and denuded lands; B. Biochemical aspects of mycorrhizae of forest trees  

SciTech Connect

This report furnishes a list of compiled and ongoing studies and a list of publications which resulted from the research accomplished by Institute scientists and other collaborators. The research accomplished can be placed in four categories: I. Research on borrow pit rehabilitation with 12 publications; II. Research on artificial regeneration of southern pines with 34 publications; III. Research on artificial regeneration of eastern hardwoods with 16 publications; and IV. Cooperative research with the University of Georgia on biochemical aspects of mycorrhizae with 5 publications. Major accomplishments of this research are: 1. Procedures to successfully reclaim borrow pits with sludge, subsoiling and seedlings with specific mycorrhizae. 2. Protocols to successfully artificially regenerate southern pines (particularly ling leaf pine) and certain eastern hardwoods. 3. Basic understanding of the biochemistry of mycorrhizae and the discovery of a new pathway for sucrose utilization in plants. 67 refs.

Marx, D.H. (comp.)

1990-12-01

317

Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will assume the role of a Department of Forestry Ranger one of whose major concerns is forest fires. Using NASA Surface Scene Type data (biomes) and Monthly Equivalent Water Thickness Land Mass Change Data from 2006, the students will determine areas at high risk for forest fire development.

318

Technical Report TR-014 May 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife  

E-print Network

Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife TR-014 Tools9T 6E9, 250-751-7001 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

319

Integrated primary health care: Finnish solutions and experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Finland has since 1972 had a primary health care system based on health centres run and funded by the local public authorities called municipalities. On the world map of primary health care systems, the Finnish solution claims to be the most health centre oriented and also the widest, both in terms of the numbers of staff and also of different professions employed. Offering integrated care through multi-professional health centres has been overshadowed by exceptional difficulties in guaranteeing a reasonable access to the population at times when they need primary medical or dental services. Solutions to the problems of access have been found, but they do not seem durable. Description of policy practice During the past 10 years, the health centres have become a ground of active development structural change, for which no end is in sight. Broader issues of municipal and public administration structures are being solved through rearranging primary health services. In these rearrangements, integration with specialist services and with social services together with mergers of health centres and municipalities are occurring at an accelerated pace. This leads into fundamental questions of the benefits of integration, especially if extensive integration leads into the threat of the loss of identity for primary health care. Discussion This article ends with some lessons to be learned from the situation in Finland for other countries. PMID:19590612

Kokko, Simo

2009-01-01

320

Chromosomal regions underlying noncoagulation of milk in Finnish Ayrshire cows.  

PubMed

About 10% of Finnish Ayrshire cows produce noncoagulating milk, i.e., milk that does not form a curd in a standard 30-min testing time and is thus a poor raw material for cheese dairies. This phenomenon is associated with peak and midlactation, but some cows produce noncoagulating milk persistently. A genomewide scan under a selective DNA pooling method was carried out to locate genomic regions associated with the noncoagulation of milk. On the basis of the hypothesis of the same historical mutation, we pooled the data across sires. Before testing pools for homogeneity, allele intensities were corrected for PCR artifacts, i.e., shadow bands and differential amplification. Results indicating association were verified using daughter design and selective genotyping within families. Data consisted of 18 sire families with 477 genotyped daughters in total, i.e., 12% of each tail of the milk coagulation ability. Data were analyzed using interval mapping under maximum-likelihood and nonparametric methods. BMS1126 on chromosome 2 and BMS1355 on chromosome 18 were associated with noncoagulation of milk across families on an experimentwise 0.1% significance level. By scanning gene databases, we found two potential candidate genes: LOC538897, a nonspecific serine/threonine kinase on chromosome 2, and SIAT4B, a sialyltransferase catalyzing the last step of glycosylation of kappa-casein on chromosome 18. Further studies to determine the role of the candidates in the noncoagulation of milk are clearly needed. PMID:18780756

Tyrisev, Anna-Maria; Elo, Kari; Kuusipuro, Arja; Vilva, Veijo; Jnnen, Isto; Karjalainen, Heidi; Ikonen, Tiina; Ojala, Matti

2008-10-01

321

Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers  

PubMed Central

Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

2014-01-01

322

Mechanical and chemical release in a 12-year-old ponderosa pine plantation. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A 12-year-old ponderosa pine plantation on the Tahoe National Forest in northern California was mechanically treated with a Hydro-Ax in an attempt to increase the survival and growth of the planted seedlings. Other release methods were not feasible because the shrubs in the mixed-shrub community (greenleaf manzanita, mountain whitethorn, bittercherry, coffeberry) were too large (3 to 5 feet tall) and well developed. Additional treatments were a chemical treatment, in which 2,4-D was applied to a portion of the study site that had been treated with the Hydro-Ax 1 year previously, and control. Eleven growing seasons after treatment (1993), average pine crown cover was statistically higher in the mechanical treatment (Hydro-Ax alone) than in the control. This was the only significant enhancement of pine growth by the Hydro-Ax alone. Mean pine diameter and height did not differ statistically from the control after 11 years. In contrast, the Hydro-Ax plus herbicide (chemical) treatment statistically increased pine crown cover, height, and diameter over the Hydro-Ax alone and the control. Mean crown cover was 104 percent greater in the treated trees than for pines in the control, height was 45 percent greater, and diameter was 47 percent greater. Relative costs were $225 per acre for the Hydro-Ax alone (mechanical) and $273 per acre for the Hydro-Ax + herbicide (chemical). Altogether, the most cost-effective treatment was Hydro-Ax + herbicide (chemical).

Fiddler, G.O.; McDonald, P.M.

1997-04-01

323

Stability and change in minerotrophic peatlands, Sierra Nevada of California and Nevada. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Minerotrophic peatlands or fens in California's Sierra Nevada are small wet meadows surrounded by mixed conifer forest. The dynamics of vegetation change at the meadow edge and the ages and development of fens were investigated, in the Sagehen Creek Basin near Truckee, California, through the use of radiocarbon dating of peat, pollen studies, examination of processes of peat development and accumulation, stand age analysis of trees around peatlands, and evaluation of tree-ring variation. These approaches were used to evaluate both short- and long-term changes. Fens varied in age from more than 8000 years to less than 1000 years old. Results suggest that overall fen development proceeds rapidly, with peat buildup dependent upon adequate moisture supply. During fen development trees repeatedly invade and retreat from the fen edges. The timing of invasions appear unrelated to events such as human disturbance and climatic change. Instead, changes are most likely to result from alterations in groundwater supply in interaction with tree establishment, longevity, and water uptake. Little evidence was found that accepted successional models which emphasize predictable and gradual vegetational development apply to fens in the Sagehen Basin.

Bartolome, J.W.; Erman, D.C.; Schwarz, C.F.

1990-02-01

324

Concentrations of organotin compounds in various fish species in the Finnish lake waters and Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Organotin compounds (OTCs) leaching from the antifouling paints used in boats and ships have contaminated many water areas worldwide. The purpose of this study was to obtain a general view of the organotin contamination in fish in Finnish lake areas and Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea using perch as the main indicator species. Perch sampling covered areas presumed as less contaminated and areas suspected as more contaminated. Besides perch, 12 other species were sampled from sites presumed as less contaminated. OTCs measured were mono-, di- and tributyltin, mono-, di-, and triphenyltin and dioctyltin. The sum concentration of OTCs (SigmaOTCs) in perch in the least contaminated areas of the Baltic Sea were around 20 ng/g fresh weight (fw) and less than 10 ng/g fw in lake areas. In heavily contaminated areas of the Baltic Sea 150-500 ng/g fw in perch were detected. In lake areas the maximum SigmaOTCs in perch was only 30 ng/g fw. With regard to the other species in the Baltic Sea, salmon, sprat, flounder, whitefish, vendace and lamprey contained low concentrations (SigmaOTCs mainly less than 20 ng/g fw), whereas in pike, pike-perch, burbot and bream concentrations were higher. SigmaOTCs in lake fish were generally lower than in the Baltic Sea. In a distance gradient study, SigmaOTCs in perch decreased quickly from nearly 200 ng/g fw at a contaminated harbor area to 35 ng/g fw during a distance of 5 km. Further decrease was slower and reached 15 ng/g fw at 100 km. In a size dependence study triphenyltin showed better correlation with the fish length than tributyltin for all species studied, i.e. for perch (0.16 vs 0.26), pike-perch (0.13 vs 0.24) and roach (0.46 vs 0.80). High correlation for roach may be partly explained by smaller number of samples collected and small length range. PMID:20303571

Rantakokko, Panu; Hallikainen, Anja; Airaksinen, Riikka; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Lappalainen, Antti; Mannio, Jaakko; Vartiainen, Terttu

2010-05-15

325

@ SOUTH EST FOREST SERVICE  

E-print Network

MORE CAL A-POPPY N STUBBLE F Raymond D. Ratliff USDA Forest Service Research Note PSW-271 N972 poppy studied in an old field and a stubble field near Madera, California. The stubble field had more poppy a harsh microcbate or redues competition or both will favor Cafifornia-poppy and that this variety tends

Standiford, Richard B.

326

PACIFIC SOUTHWEST FOREST SERVICE  

E-print Network

, and reduction of moisture content of leaves and fine twigs with a desiccant. Seventy percent of green fuels were, BERKELEY,CALIFORNIA 94701 Experiment Station An Experimental Prescribed Burn to REDUCE FUEL HAZARD IN CHAPARRAL Lisle R. Green U.S.D.A. Forest Service Research Note PSW-216 1970 ABSTRACT: The feasibilityof

Standiford, Richard B.

327

Wisconsin's Forests Resource Bulletin  

E-print Network

, Michael Downs, Michael Hough, Gary Inhelder, Daniel Johnson, Michael Johnson, Mike Kangas, Paul Kodanko Printed on recycled paper #12;Charles H. Perry, Vern A. Everson, Brett J. Butler, Susan J. Crocker, Sally with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WNDR), Madison, WI. Brett J. Butler is a research forester

328

Pacific Southwest Forest & Range  

E-print Network

replacement. Vanes and cups were balanced by spot welding small pieces of stainless steel to the light members ---.......... J- J·. U.S.O.A. Forest Service Research Note PSW-181 I ' I I ABSTRACT: Heat-resistant anemometers- ment ; anemometers; fire weather data; wind velocity. OXFORD: 431.6--U533.601 - -015. Heat- Resistant

Standiford, Richard B.

329

Trees and forests in British society  

E-print Network

Trees and forests in British society Ten years of social science Forest Research is the research increasingly found themselves needing to deal with social issues and impacts. The '90s also saw increasing). As well as demonstrating the social impacts of projects, our social researchers have helped facilitate

330

Interspecific variation in soil compaction sensitivity among forest floor species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed at exploring the response of herbaceous plant species to soil compaction in forest soils. The research was conducted in central Belgium, in a 4383 ha beech forest. Of the 107 taxa studied, the cover of 65 species (61%) was significantly related to soil compaction. Twenty four forest species (58% of all forest species tested) showed significant

S. Godefroid; N. Koedam

2004-01-01

331

A Carbon Estimation System: Rural and Urban Forest Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based software developed by the Forest and Wildlife Research Center (FWRC) at Mississippi State University (MSU) in cooperation with the Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory (MIFI) provides southeastern United States forest landowners with the biometrical tools necessary to help them evaluate their forest inventories for sequestered carbon. The software not only estimates carbon but also provides biomass, volume, and dry

Emily B. Schultz; Thomas G. Matney; Stephen C. Grado; John W. Jones; Donald L. Grebner; Patrick A. Glass

332

Wind Dynamics and Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will set up a model forest using plastic bottles to observe changes caused by differences in wind speed and forest density. An extension to the activity will allow students to explore the concept of evapotranspiration. From this activity students will understand that living organisms in an ecosystem can have profound effects upon the local atmosphere, changes in vegetation can have profound effects upon wind speed, and models are useful to researchers in understanding the shaping of ecosystems. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

333

Kelp Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from Jean Michel Cousteau: Ocean Adventures, describes the unique, interdependent characteristics of an underwater kelp forest ecosystem and explores the delicate balance of life between sea otters, urchins, and the kelp plant.

Kqed

2009-04-16

334

Trends of phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a concentrations in Finnish rivers and lakes in 19752000  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent decades the amounts of nutrients discharged to Finnish surface waters have markedly decreased. This has been achieved by considerable investments in water protection, which were made mainly to improve municipal and industrial wastewater purification. We investigated whether these water protection measures have decreased phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in Finnish rivers and lakes. In addition, possible trends in chlorophyll

A. Rike; O.-P. Pietilinen; S. Rekolainen; P. Kauppila; H. Pitknen; J. Niemi; A. Raateland; J. Vuorenmaa

2003-01-01

335

Implications of regulation based on the IPPC directive A review on the Finnish pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the impacts of integrated environmental permits on the environmental performance of Finnish pulp and paper industry. It assesses the performance of the Finnish pulp and paper mills in relation to the EU best available techniques (BAT) associated emission levels and compares the emission limit values and product specific emissions of the mills with non-integrated permits to those

Kimmo Silvo; Timo Jouttijrvi; Matti Melanen

2009-01-01

336

Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national

Roivainen, Eka

2013-01-01

337

Hand Asymmetry Does Not Relate to Key Life History Traits in Post-Menopausal Contemporary Finnish Women  

E-print Network

Hand Asymmetry Does Not Relate to Key Life History Traits in Post-Menopausal Contemporary Finnish such relationships using hand FA and several key life history traits in 209 post-menopausal Finnish women born between 1946 and 1958. Asymmetry measurements were based on scans of the hands and the life histories

Helle, Samuli

338

Anti-Racist Strategies in Finnish Children's Literature: Physical Appearance and Language as Signifiers of National Belonging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines anti-racist strategies employed in Finnish children's literature. The examples from four stories illustrate that certain physical characteristics and cultural markers can become strong signifiers of nationality, that is Finnishness. The characters in these stories have to cope with experiences of exclusion and loneliness

Pesonen, Jaana

2013-01-01

339

Snuff use and smoking in Finnish olympic athletes.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the prevalence of smoking and snuff use in Finnish elite athletes. Of all the athletes (n = 494) financially supported by the National Olympic Committee, 446 completed a structured questionnaire (response rate 90.3 %) in 2002. A control group (n = 1504, response rate 80.2 %) comprised an age-matched sample from the population-based sample collected by the National Public Health Institute. Any smoking was reported by 11.4 % of the athletes (3.6 % daily and 7.8 % occasionally) and by 38.3 % of the controls (28.1 % and 10.2 %). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, OR (95 % CI) for any smoking was highest 0.42 (0.23 - 0.77) for athletes in skill-based events and lowest 0.06 (0.02 - 0.17) for endurance athletes as compared with controls. Snuff use was reported by 24.6 % of the athletes (9.6 % daily and 15.0 % occasionally) and by 3.7 % of the controls (1.8 % and 1.9 %). The adjusted OR (95 % CI) for any snuff use was highest 15.6 (9.55 - 25.6) for team-sport athletes and lowest 3.33 (1.54 - 7.21) for endurance athletes as compared with controls. Although snuff use in the general female population is rare, also female athletes did use snuff. Though prevalence of daily smoking among athletes was one-seventh of the respective figure for the general population, prevalence of daily snuff use was five-fold that of controls. Tobacco free elite athletes are valuable in health counselling because athletes are considered role models influencing their peers and the sport. Sport associations are challenged to ban all forms of tobacco. PMID:16802255

Alaranta, A; Alaranta, H; Patja, K; Palmu, P; Prttl, R; Martelin, T; Helenius, I

2006-07-01

340

Finnish pupils' perceptions of health education as a school subject.  

PubMed

Only a few countries have introduced health education (HE) as a stand-alone school subject. In Finland every pupil in basic education grades 7-9 takes three obligatory courses in HE. This study investigated Finnish pupils' perceptions of the teaching and learning of HE. It also explored how school- and family-related background variables are associated with these perceptions. Nationally representative data were obtained from a 2010 school-based study on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). A total of 4262 pupils from 7th and 9th grades (13 and 15 years old) responded anonymously to the questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the associations between perceptions of HE and school- and family-related background variables. The majority of the pupils had positive perceptions of HE. In terms of their own learning, girls' perceptions were more positive than boys': 86% of 13- and 15-year-old girls agreed that HE classes had taught them to think about the advantages and disadvantages of various health behaviours, whereas only 79% of boys shared this opinion. School engagement had the strongest association with perceptions of HE: the more positive the attitudes towards school, the more positive were the perceptions of HE. Older girls perceived their learning and their participation in class discussions more positively than younger ones, and older boys were more critical of the teaching than younger ones. The pupils' educational aspirations were not associated with their perceptions of HE, and perceived family affluence was associated only with girls' perceptions of participation in HE classes. The pupils' feedback on HE was positive and encouraging. There is a demand for the subject in society, and HE seems to have the potential to augment young people's positive attitudes towards health issues, and to enhance their health literacy. PMID:24609436

Aira, Tuula; Vlimaa, Raili; Paakkari, Leena; Villberg, Jari; Kannas, Lasse

2014-09-01

341

Evaluating Escherichia coli O157 control in finnish primary production.  

PubMed

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) has become a threat in the modern cattle sector because of its adverse impact on human health. Systems have been developed to reduce the risk of EHEC infection associated with the beef production chain. In Finland, the risk management of EHEC is mainly targeted at primary production, which is controlled by a national program. The prevalence of E. coli O157 in slaughter animals and herds appears to have remained relatively low over the years (0.2 to 1.2% and 0.3 to 1.5%, respectively). The effectiveness of the Finnish EHEC control program (FECP) was analyzed with a Bayesian statistical model based on the results from 2006 through 2010. According to the model, the estimated true prevalence of EHEC in slaughter animals was at its highest in 2007 (95% credible interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.85% of animals), and the estimated true prevalence in herds was its highest in 2007 (95% CI, 1.28 to 2.55% of herds). However, the estimated probability of the FECP detecting an EHEC-positive slaughter animal or herd was 0.52 to 0.58% and 4.74 to 6.49%, respectively. The inability to detect EHEC-positive animals was partly due to animal-based random sampling, which ignores herd-level testing and therefore emphasizes the testing of slaughter animals from herds that send more animals to slaughter. Some slaughterhouses collected samples incorrectly as a consequence of an incorrectly implemented FECP. Farmers may also have questionable reasons for choosing to send animals to be slaughtered in small abattoirs, in which testing is less likely, to avoid suspicion of EHEC or other zoonotic infections. PMID:24674427

Leimi, Anna; Mikkel, Antti; Tuominen, Pirkko

2014-03-01

342

Landscape dynamics of northeastern forests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project involves collaborative research with Stephen W. Pacala and Simon A. Levin of Princeton University to calibrate, test, and analyze models of heterogeneous forested landscapes containing a diverse array of habitats. The project is an extension of previous, NASA-supported research to develop a spatially-explicit model of forest dynamics at the scale of an individual forest stand (hectares to square kilometer spatial scales). That model (SORTIE) has been thoroughly parameterized from field studies in the modal upland environment of western Connecticut. Under our current funding, we are scaling-up the model and parameterizing it for the broad range of upland environments in the region. Our most basic goal is to understand the linkages between stand-level dynamics (as revealed in our previous research) and landscape-level dynamics of forest composition and structure.

Canham, Charles D.; Silander, John A., Jr.; Civco, Daniel L.

1994-01-01

343

Nebraska Forest Service Coffee with a Forester  

E-print Network

Nebraska Forest Service Host a Coffee with a Forester Workshop NebraskaForestService 402W.allison@unl.edu 308.696.6718 A Coffee with a Forester workshop is the perfect opportunity to talk with your customers are just some of the groups that may want to host a Coffee with a Forester workshop. These workshops

Farritor, Shane

344

Global Forests Syllabus -1 GLOBAL FORESTS  

E-print Network

Global Forests Syllabus - 1 GLOBAL FORESTS FOR 4060, Sect. 02A2 Spring 2014 Instructor: Dr. Karen A. 2008. Vital Forest Graphics: Stopping the downswing? UNEP (The United Nations Environmental Program on Forests Secretariat). Online at: http://www.grida.no/_res/site/file/publications/vital_forest

Watson, Craig A.

345

Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.  

PubMed

In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way. PMID:16458952

Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

2006-07-31

346

Great Lakes Surges in Forest Certification Forests.org --Print An Archived News Story  

E-print Network

Great Lakes Surges in Forest Certification Forests.org -- Print An Archived News Story http The Great Lakes region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan and Ontario) holds 30 percent of North America and released today at a meeting of the Great Lakes Forest Alliance. The study, conducted by a research team

347

How can future long-term changes in finnish agriculture and agricultural policy be faced? defining strategic agendas on the basis of a delphi study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the main strategic focuses facing Finnish agriculture in the future are presented. These strategic focuses were studied using a Delphi technique by experts within the Finnish agri-food sector. Based on this study, the top 10-points and a strategic challenge evaluation of the key topics within the agricultural policy agenda are presented. The future pressures on Finnish agriculture

Pasi Rikkonen; Jyrki Aakkula; Jari Kaivo-oja

2006-01-01

348

A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 200929 35 The Role of the Forest Service  

E-print Network

. Quantitative risk analyses, assessment of critical pathways, plus data on effects of both the invaders are currently allowed without prior risk assessments. While many nonnative plant species provide food and fiberA Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 35 The Role

349

Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p?Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378

Huttunen, Sanna; Riihinen, Kaisu; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

2013-01-01

350

SIHTI 2 - Energy and environmental technology. Yearbook 1993 of the research programme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SIHTI 2 research programme on energy and environmental technology, established by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry, is concentrating on areas of environmental technology that are vital to Finland or in which Finns can engage in pioneering re...

M. Korhonen, K. Saviharju

1994-01-01

351

National Forest Land Scheme  

E-print Network

National Forest Land Scheme Guidance #12;National Forest Land Scheme National Forest Land Scheme | 32 | National Forest Land Scheme Contents National Forest Land Scheme 3 Community Acquisition 7 Land national forest land a community can use its rights under Community Right to Buy to apply to buy it

352

graduate school school of forest resources  

E-print Network

-edge interdisciplinary research programs. Research areas range from climate change and invasive species to forest's was fun and exciting, and I was fortunate to spend a lot of time in the forests of Upper Michigan. I percent of Michigan's Western Upper Peninsula. In 2010, the School attracted an impressive $28.7 million

353

Tropical forests  

SciTech Connect

Major international aid and nongovernmental groups have agreed on a strategy to conserve tropical forests. Their plan calls for a $5.3 billion, five-year program for the 56 most critically affected countries. This report consists of three parts. The Plan details the costs of deforestation in both developing and industrialized countries, uncovers its real causes, and outlines a five-part action plan. Case Studies reviews dozens of detailed accounts of successful forest management projects from around the world, covering wide-ranging ecological conditions and taking into account the economics of forest products in different marketing situations. Country Investment Profiles spell out country-by-country listings of what should be done, who should do it, and how much it will cost.

Not Available

1985-01-01

354

Research, part of a Special Feature on Crossing Scales and Disciplines to Achieve Forest Sustainability Sustaining Biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range: Potential effects of Forest Policies in a Multi-ownership Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the potential effects of forest policies on sustaining biological diversity at broad scales, we used spatial simulation models to evaluate current and potential future habitat availability over 100 yr for three focal species: Pacific Fisher ( Martes pennanti), Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus). The habitats of these species represent a broad range of spatial

Brenda C. McComb; Thomas A. Spies; Keith A. Olsen

355

Project Title: Optimizing landscape treatments for reducing wildfire risk and improving ecological sustainability of ponderosa pine forests with mixed severity fire regimes JFSP Project No.: 01-1-3-22 Project Location: Colorado State University, Western Forest Fire Research Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) forests in the Colorado Front Range comprise a mixed-severity fire regime with true-mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus Raf.) as the dominant undergrowth shrub species. The objective of this project is to relate the sprouting behavior of true mountain mahogany to fire severity gradients at both landscape and individual shrub scales following the 2000 Hi Meadow

Philip N. Omi

2006-01-01

356

Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity vary regionally, and major volcanic eruptions do not always result in regional cooling. A response of tree growth at the Kola Peninsula to climatic changes due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions was revealed. For example, Dalton minimum of solar activity (1801-1816 AD) and Laki (1783 AD) and Tambora (1815 AD) volcanic eruptions appeared to cause the greatest ring-width reduction and cooling. The minima of solar activity Sporer (1416-1534 AD) and Maunder (1645-1715 AD) were as well accompanied by temperature decreases. Intervals with an absence of significant volcanic eruptions correspond to intervals of increased ring-width values. A superposed epoch analysis of 19 large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI>5) volcanic events revealed a significant suppression of tree growth for up to 8 years following volcanic eruptions. The similar effect (supression of tree growth after powerful volcanic eruptions) was obtained under analysis of the 7641-year supra-long pine tree-ring chronology for Finnish Lapland. Our results documenting the regional climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity permit us to understand the dynamics of the climate system and its response to external forcing. This work is financially supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Timonen, M.; Mielikainen, K.; Helama, S.; Kanatjev, A. G.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.

2010-05-01

357

Holocene solifluction, climate variation and fire in a subarctic landscape at Pippokangas, Finnish Lapland, based on radiocarbon-dated buried charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of radiocarbon dates from charcoal layers buried beneath stacked solifluction lobes at Pippokangas, in the northern boreal zone of Finnish Lapland, are used to reconstruct a Holocene history of solifluction. Although the site is surrounded by Scots pine forest, the solifluction lobes occur on the lower slopes of a kettle hole, the microclimate of which prevents the growth of trees. Samples from the upslope end of charcoal layers have enabled the recognition of four synchronous phases of solifluction lobe initiation: 7400-6700, 4200-3400, 2600-2100 and 1500-500 cal. yr BP. Rates of lobe advance are shown to be lobe-dependent and age-dependent: initially, average rates were commonly 0.14-0.19 cm yr-1, later falling to 0.02-0.07 cm yr-1 or less as the lobes approached the bottom of the slope. The absence of charcoal prior to 8000 cal. yr BP, together with single IRSL and TL dates, indicate a relatively stable early Holocene landscape. The onset of solifluction around 7400 cal. yr BP. appears to have followed the immigration of pine around the site, which increased the frequency of forest fires. Phases of solifluction activity seem to have been triggered by millennial-scale variations in effective moisture (the climatic hypothesis), rather than episodic burning of the surface vegetation cover (the geoecological hypothesis), although climate may also have affected fire frequency and severity. Copyright

Matthews, John A.; Seppl, Matti; Dresser, P. Quentin

2005-09-01

358

Second Home Countryside. Representations of the Rural in Finnish Popular Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the representation of post-productive countryside in Finland by exploring how the rural is presented in the context of second home tourism. Being an integral part of rural areas and their history, second homes are an established example of the post-productive consumption of countryside. The international and Finnish

Vepsalainen, Mia; Pitkanen, Kati

2010-01-01

359

Happy Spouses, Happy Parents? Family Relationships among Finnish and Dutch Dual Earners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of

Malinen, Kaisa; Kinnunen, Ulla; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna; Wierda-Boer, Hilde; Gerris, Jan

2010-01-01

360

Striving at Partnership: Parent-Practitioner Relationships in Finnish Early Educators' Talk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Finnish early childhood education and care, partnership has been introduced as a general approach in the parent-practitioner collaboration. Based on qualitative interviews with practitioners, the article studies, from a social constructionist and discourse analytic perspective, whether partnership is actualised in parent-practitioner

Alasuutari, Maarit

2010-01-01

361

Analysing Finnish Steering System from the Perspective of Social Space: The Case of the "Campus University"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study analyses Finnish higher education steering system, management by results, from the perspective of higher education institutions. We ask what happens inside a higher education institution, called here the "Campus University", during the actual negotiations related to the national steering system. We analyse not only the management

Treuthardt, Leena; Valimaa, Jussi

2008-01-01

362

Teachers' Views on Curriculum Development in Health Promotion in Two Finnish Polytechnics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten nursing teachers in two Finnish polytechnics stated that their involvement in curriculum development was impeded by lack of time. They felt that health promotion was adequately addressed, although there was no evidence that new approaches recommended by the World Health Organization and other bodies were being used. (Contains 49 references.)

Sjogren, Auli; Poskiparta, Marita; Liimatainen, Leena; Kettunen, Tarja

2003-01-01

363

Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the

Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

2012-01-01

364

Recordings of geomagnetically induced currents and a nowcasting service of the Finnish natural gas pipeline system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in the Finnish natural gas pipeline have been measured at one site in southern Finland since November 1998. We give an overview of this long and uniform time series covering one sunspot maximum. We also briefly discuss the conventional magnetic activity indices K and Ak, and, additionally, the range of the magnetic field and of

A. Viljanen; A. Pulkkinen; R. Pirjola; K. Pajunp; P. Posio; A. Koistinen

2006-01-01

365

Competitive advantage, bargaining power, and organizational performance: The case of finnish food manufacturing firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategic behavior of manufacturing firms in the context of the Finnish food industry is examined. Based on business-level strategy theories, the objective is to examine the interrelationships between particular types of competitive advantages, a food manufacturer's bargaining power in input and output markets, and organizational performance. Strategic advantages of the food industry are defined through the development of a

Saara Hyvnen

1995-01-01

366

Sustainable Leadership and Future-Oriented Decision Making in the Educational Governance--A Finnish Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: During the new millennium the Finnish educational system has faced a new challenge: how to explain glorious PISA results produced with only a small variance between schools, average national costs and, as regards the average duration of studies, relatively efficiently. Explanations for this issue can be searched for in many different

Metsamuuronen, Jari; Kuosa, Tuomo; Laukkanen, Reijo

2013-01-01

367

Genes for resistance in barley to Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal agent of scald, were taken from infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and inoculated on to seedlings of a differential series of barley containing a range of major genes for resistance to the fungus, as well as on to six Nordic 6-row spring barleys and three winter ryes (Secale

J. Robinson; H. Lindqvist; M. Jalli

1995-01-01

368

emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2  

E-print Network

CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and Use, utilisation and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the pulp and paper industry. The Geological of ultra- mafic rock formations for mineral carbonation of CO2. Tekes and the GTK funded development work

Zevenhoven, Ron

369

Teachers' Contribution to the Social Life in Finnish Preschool Classrooms during Structured Learning Sessions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to clarify and deepen the knowledge on and understanding of the role that teachers' practices during teacher-led learning sessions play in creating and enhancing social life in Finnish preschool classrooms. Observational data pertaining to 20 preschool teachers were analysed according to the principles of thematic analysis.

Salminen, Jenni; Hnnikinen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

2014-01-01

370

Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children

Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

2012-01-01

371

Forty Years of Finnish Pre-School Education: The Development of Curricula between 1972 and 2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2001 in Finland, all six year olds have had the right to free pre-school education, and almost all pre-school-aged children take advantage of this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to dissect the development of Finnish pre-school education curricula within the societal context and within the changes in trends of curriculum planning

Turunen, Tuija A.; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

2012-01-01

372

Finnish reactions facing the threat of nuclear accidents in Russian nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the reactions of Finnish people to an incident at a Russian nuclear power plant. A random sample of 1280 subjects from four different towns in Southern Finland was sent a questionnaire 6 weeks after the incident. Return rate was 55%. Subjects were asked their interpretation of the situation, their contentedness with information delivery and their perception of

Liisa Ernen

1997-01-01

373

Identity and potential pathogenicity of Phytophthora species found on symptomatic Rhododendron plants in a Finnish nursery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, microbial isolations were made from symptomatic Rhododendron plants from a large Finnish nursery, known to be harbouring Phytophthora based on PCR screenings. The nearby waterways were also sampled. A diversity of common Nordic plants was screened for Phytophthora susceptibility. Isolates recovered from Rhododendron plants included P. ramorum, P. cactorum, P. plurivora, P. pini and Pestalotiopsis sp. Baits

A. Rytknen; A. Lilja; A. Vercauteren; S. Sirki; P. Parikka; M. Soukainen; J. Hantula

2012-01-01

374

Making Bullying Prevention a Priority in Finnish Schools: The KiVa Antibullying Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal

Salmivalli, Christina; Poskiparta, Elisa

2012-01-01

375

Measuring Distributive Justice Preferences of Finnish University Students via the State Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We measure the distributive justice preferences of students within eight departments in the faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Turku, Finland. We use the Finnish government's annual budget and its specific appropriations as a proxy to measure the students' underlying preferences. We test whether the type of studies of the respondents

Venetoklis, Takis

2007-01-01

376

The Construction of Academic Identity in the Changes of Finnish Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sets out to explore how academics make sense of the current transformations of higher education and what kinds of academic identities are thereby constructed. Based on a narrative analysis of 42 interviews with Finnish academics, nine narratives are discerned, each providing a different answer as to what it means to be an academic in

Ylijoki, Oili-Helena; Ursin, Jani

2013-01-01

377

Defining and Measuring Technical Thinking: Students' Technical Abilities in Finnish Comprehensive Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of 116 Finnish fifth- through ninth-graders used a problem-solving technology and crafts curriculum with computers; a control group (n=151) used traditional crafts curriculum and instruction. Results for motor skill development, technical knowledge, and emotional engagement suggest that all students should receive a balanced curriculum of

Autio, Ossi; Hansen, Ron

2002-01-01

378

CBCL in the Assessment of Psychopathology in Finnish Children with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structured checklists have been used to supplement psychiatric assessment of children with normal intelligence, but for children with intellectual disability, only a few checklists exist. We evaluated the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in the assessment of psychopathology in Finnish children with intellectual disability. The CBCL was completed by

Koskentausta, Terhi; Iivanainen, Matti; Almqvist, Fredrik

2004-01-01

379

Investigating the Genre of a Business Fax: A Finnish Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes faxes sent and received during one week by a Finnish company involved in international operations. Suggests that the business fax is a distinct, dynamic genre constituted by and constitutive of the social practices within which it is situated, with five specific subgenres: specific information, specific requests, "for your information,"

Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

1997-01-01

380

Social Mobility of Finnish Elite-Athletes of Different Achievement Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The starting point of the present study, which has been made as a little part of the cross-national Project on Leisure Role Socialization (Kenyon and McPherson 1970), has been the observation made about Finnish top athletes according to which the social background of athletes belonging to the internatio nal elite was lower than that of athletes at the national top

Lauri Laakso

1980-01-01

381

CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION - THE CHALLENGES FACED BY FINNISH ORGANISATIONS IN ESTONIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between Estonia and Finland have been very strong traditionally. Their geographical proximity has facilitated the exchange of goods as well as ideas. Finland has a major stake in the Estonian economy Finland is Estonias number one trade partner. Finnish organizations make up about a quarter of all foreign direct investment in Estonia. The two countries also share very

Robert Mikecz

2006-01-01

382

The Finnish Miracle of PISA: Historical and Sociological Remarks on Teaching and Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the recent tributes to the success of Finnish schooling was the PISA 2000 project report. As befits the field of education, the explanations are primarily pedagogical, referring especially to the excellent teachers and high-quality teacher education. Without underrating the explanatory power of these statements, this paper presents some of

Simola, Hannu

2005-01-01

383

Sexual Body Image and Its Correlates: A Population-Based Study of Finnish Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual body image was examined in a population-based sample of 9,532 Finnish men and women, age 18 to 49 years. More than one half of women and men were satisfied with their genitals, one half of the women were satisfied with their breasts. Higher levels of genital satisfaction were related to higher frequencies of sexual behavior and better sexual function

Monica lgars; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Ada Johansson; Minja Westerlund; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

2011-01-01

384

Behavioral and Emotional Strength-Based Assessment of Finnish Elementary Students: Psychometrics of the BERS-2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When rating scales are used in different countries, thorough investigation of the psychometric properties is needed. We examined the internal structure of the Finnish translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2) using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis approaches with a sample of youth, parents, and teachers. The results

Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Savolainen, Hannu; Lambert, Matthew C.; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Epstein, Michael H.

2014-01-01

385

Cultures in Dialogue: Perceptions and Experiences of Finnish Teachers of Transnational Dances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on a phenomenographic study that focuses on identifying the pedagogical conceptions of Finnish teachers of transnational dances. The purpose is to uncover and understand teachers' conceptions concerning the implications of the cultural contexts of their specific dance forms for their pedagogical practices. Through a

Siljamki, Mariana Elisabet; Anttila, Eeva; Skslahti, Arja

2014-01-01

386

New Degree for a New Career? Career Development of Finnish Polytechnic Master's Degree Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores Finnish polytechnic master's degree graduates' career development about one year after graduation. Twenty interviewed graduates were first classified on the basis of their initial educational motives yielding a typology of goal-oriented, learning-oriented and drifters. After this, their career development was analysed. As a

Ahola, Sakari; Galli, Loretta

2012-01-01

387

"Education Is Important, but..." Young People outside of Schooling and the Finnish Policy of "Education Guarantee"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Early school leaving and dropout are widely recognized as problems, leading to further marginalization and exclusion of young people from society at large. The Finnish government has set a target that, by the year 2008, 96% of those who complete compulsory education will continue without interruption in secondary education or in the

Ahola, Sakari; Kivela, Suvi

2007-01-01

388

Relationship of Gender and Academic Achievement to Finnish Students' Intercultural Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the intercultural sensitivity of Finnish 12-16-year-old secondary school students (N=549) with a 23-item Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ICSSQ). The ICSSQ is based on Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which is a conceptual tool to situate certain reactions towards cultural

Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

2009-01-01

389

Habitat quality of field margins in a Finnish farmland area for bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Bombus and Psithyrus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all non-arable habitats, field margins are the most important ones for bumblebees in agricultural environment, especially as they are wide-spread and offer food resources, but they are also places for reproduction and overwintering. This study was made to investigate bumblebee abundance in the agricultural environment and to obtain information on the use of southern Finnish field margins by bumblebees.

Jan-Peter C Bckman; Juha Tiainen

2002-01-01

390

For business or the good of all? A Finnish approach to corporate social responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study suggests that the prominent driving force behind corporate social responsibility (CSR) is companies long-term profitability, supported by company leadership and efficiency, competitiveness, and the ability to anticipate the future. The long evolution of Finnish companies since the 18th century has created fertile ground for responsibility. Despite the absence of significant moral or ethical guidance, the thinking of the

Elisa Juholin

2004-01-01

391

Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a

Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

2011-01-01

392

Geography in the Finnish School Curriculum: Part of the "Success Story"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article investigates the status of geography education in the Finnish national curricula from the 1970s until today. Conceptions of teaching, learning and change in society are traced through curriculum texts; in addition, the ways in which these are applied in the subject-specified aims and content of the geography curriculum are explored.

Tani, Sirpa

2014-01-01

393

Advice-Giving Styles by Finnish Nurses in Dietary Counseling Concerning Type 2 Diabetes Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary advice-giving is an important part of dietary counseling in diabetes care and prevention. The strategies of advice-giving, however, have not been explicated and the qualitative characteristics of conversations in diabetes counseling have remained mainly unstudied. This article describes the styles in which nurses responsible for diabetes counseling in Finnish primary care practices offer dietary advice for patients with recently

PIVI KIURU; MARITA POSKIPARTA; TARJA KETTUNEN; JUHA SALTEVO; LEENA LIIMATAINEN

2004-01-01

394

Brief Report: Delinquent Behaviour and Depression in Middle Adolescence: A Finnish Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large number (N 50 569) of 14-16 year old Finnish adolescents taking part in the School Health Promotion Study were surveyed for delinquent behaviour in relation to depression. The results indicate a robust association between delinquency and depression. Among girls risk for depression varied between 1.3 and 3.1 according to various antisocial

Ritakallio, Minna; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kivivuori, Janne; Rimpela, Matti

2005-01-01

395

Validation of the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) for Clinical Settings and Total Population Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the validity and determined cut-off scores for the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A population sample of 8-year-old children (n = 4,408) was rated via the ASSQ by parents and/or teachers, and a subgroup of 104 children was examined via structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school

Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Kielinen, Marko; Bloigu, Risto; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Joskitt, Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma

2012-01-01

396

Professionalism--A Breeding Ground for Struggle. The Example of the Finnish Day-Care Centre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the Finnish day-care centre out of a neo-Weberian-Bourdieuan frame of reference. The leading idea is that the day-care centre field is continuously shaping as a result of both inner struggles and struggles with other fields. The state, the education system, and trade unions act as the dealers of professional playing cards.

Kinos, Jarmo

2008-01-01

397

From Discrete to Transformed? Developing Inclusive Primary School Teacher Education in a Finnish Teacher Education Department  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the primary school teacher education curriculum reform currently under way in the Department of Teacher Education at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. A general overview of the Finnish context and relevant inclusive education policy issues are presented. The process of developing inclusive education in the curriculum and

Naukkarinen, Aimo

2010-01-01

398

Finnish Mathematics Teaching from a Reform Perspective: A Video-Based Case-Study Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a qualitative analysis of videotaped mathematics lessons taught by four teachers in a provincial university city in Finland. My study is framed not only by Finnish success on Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) but also by the objectives of current mathematics education reform, which are consistent with PISA's

Andrews, Paul

2013-01-01

399

The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in

Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

2011-01-01

400

A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary

Bjrklund, Tua A.; Nordstrm, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

2013-01-01

401

BRCA2 Mutations in 154 Finnish Male Breast Cancer Patients1  

PubMed Central

Abstract The etiology and pathogenesis of male breast cancer (MBC) are poorly known. This is due to the fact that the disease is rare, and large-scale genetic epidemiologic studies have been difficult to carry out. Here, we studied the frequency of eight recurrent Finnish BRCA2 founder mutations in a large cohort of 154 MBC patients (65% diagnosed in Finland from 1967 to 1996). Founder mutations were detected in 10 patients (6.5%), eight of whom carried the 9346(-2) A>G mutation. Two novel mutations (4075 delGT and 5808 del5) were discovered in a screening of the entire BRCA2 coding region in 34 samples. However, these mutations were not found in the rest of the 120 patients studied. Patients with positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were often BRCA2 mutation carriers (44%), whereas those with no family history showed a low frequency of involvement (3.6%; P < .0001). Finally, we found only one Finnish MBC patient with 999 del5, the most common founder mutation in Finnish female breast cancer (FBC) patients, and one that explains most of the hereditary FBC and MBC cases in Iceland. The variation in BRCA2 mutation spectrum between Finnish MBC patients and FBC patients in Finland and breast cancer patients in Iceland suggests that modifying genetic and environmental factors may significantly influence the penetrance of MBC and FBC in individuals carrying germline BRCA2 mutations in some populations. PMID:15548363

Syrjkoski, Kirsi; Kuukasjrvi, Tuula; Waltering, Kati; Haraldsson, Karin; Auvinen, Anssi; Borg, ke; Kainu, Tommi; Kallioniemi, Olli-P; Koivisto, Pasi A

2004-01-01

402

The challenges and possibilities of a narrative learning approach in the Finnish early childhood education system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finnish curriculum guidelines for early education emphasise play and creative activities as significant factors in healthy child development. Constructivist theory loosely frames the guidelines, but the recommended approach lacks precise developmental goals. Since 1996, we have carried out a narrative learning project with vertically integrated multi-age groupings and carefully designed play-based learning environments for children from 4 to 8 years

Pentti Hakkarainen

2008-01-01

403

Organisational Transition Challenges in the Finnish Vocational Education--Perspective of Distributed Pedagogical Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines organisational challenges in the Finnish vocational education and training (VET) to support students' lifelong learning pathways. Investigation of organizational challenges is done through the students' transitions either within one school level or from one school level to another or to working life. For supporting the

Jappinen, Aini-Kristiina; Maunonen-Eskelinen, Irmeli

2012-01-01

404

Finnish Pre-Service Teachers' and Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of Division and Reasoning Strategies Used  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we focus on Finnish pre-service elementary teachers' (N = 269) and upper secondary students' (N = 1,434) understanding of division. In the questionnaire, we used the following non-standard division problem: "We know that 498:6 = 83. How could you conclude from this relationship (without using long-division algorithm) what 491:6 = ?

Kaasila, Raimo; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hellinen, Anu

2010-01-01

405

Radiocaesium in seals and terns off the Finnish coast after the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seals, eating almost exclusively fish, represent the top consumers in the brackish water eco- systems of the Northern Baltic Sea. Two seal species live off the Finnish coast; the ringed seal (Phoca hispida botnica) and the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). The principal prey of these species is Baltic herring. Furthermore, seals are relatively long-lived, the usual life expectancy being up

Erkki Ilus; Seppo Klemola; Tarja K. Ikheimonen

406

Reminiscing TelevisionMedia Ethnography, Oral History and Finnish Third Generation Media History  

Microsoft Academic Search

? This article presents and discusses the methodological issues arising in a project on the advent, diffusion and integration of Finnish television over its 50-year history. The study uses oral history, in the form of written reminiscences, to explore the changing role of television in the life of Finns. This social historical study combines methods of ethnographic television audience studies

Jukka Kortti; Tuuli Anna Mhnen

2009-01-01

407

The use of Diphone Variants in Optimal Text Selection for Finnish Unit Selection Speech Synthesis  

E-print Network

on the database. This paper describes an approach for sentence selection for Finnish speech database recordings labeled speech database for choosing and concatenating segments in an optimal way. Optimal means units. This approach requires a speech database. In this paper, we describe an approach for optimizing

Gabbouj, Moncef

408

Organizing for a National Infrastructure Project: The Case of the Finnish Electronic Prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic prescriptions should be a central part of a working health care and national e-government infrastructure. In Finland the pursuit to establish such a system has been up few times, and the most recent, nation-wide initiative to set up a central electronic prescription system was set up in 2001. Our article here describes the starting points of the Finnish initiative

Hannele Hyppnen; Lauri Salmivalli; Reima Suomi

2005-01-01

409

Dancing in Fetters? Chinese Principals' Perceptions of the Effects of Finnish Training Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is an increased interest in overseas training for educational leaders in China, little is known about the value of such programs. This qualitative case study explores Chinese school principals' perceptions of leadership practices and professional development after undertaking a Finnish training program. The article also

Xing, Xin; Dervin, Fred

2014-01-01

410

Attitudes of Finnish veterinarians about programs to control canine genetic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mailed questionnaire survey was performed amongst the members of the Finnish Veterinary Association in order to study veterinarians' knowledge of canine inherited diseases and the present screening and control programs in Finland. The purpose was also to study the veterinarians' attitudes about and compliance with such programs. Veterinarians estimated that their knowledge is quite poor but they believed

Minna Leppnen; Annukka Paloheimo; Hannu Saloniemi

1999-01-01

411

From HRM to psychological contracting - the case of Finnish mobile content producing companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores how human resource management (HRM) is currently intended, used and experienced in 10 Finnish companies operating in the field of telecommunications. Our specific focus is on direct and indirect forms of managerial control and the psychological contract. We examine how psychological contracts are created and maintained, and study their relationship with HRM as a means of either

Hannele Seeck; Marjo-Riitta Parzefall

2010-01-01

412

Assessment of forest ecosystem health in the southwest. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an ecological assessment of forest ecosystem health in the Southwest. The assessment focuses at the regional level and mostly pertains to lands administered by the National Forest System. Information is presented for use by forest and district resource managers as well as collaborative partners in the stewardship of Southwestern forests. The report establishes a scientific basis for conducting forest health projects, provides a context for planning ecosystem restoration, and contributes to the understanding of the physical, biological, and human dimensions of these ecosystems. Chapters describe Southwestern forest ecosystems of the past, changes since the Colonial Period, and the implications of those changes for the health to current and future forests. Opportunities, tools, and research needs for improving long-term sustainability of these forest ecosystems are also identified.

Dahms, C.W.; Geils, B.W.

1997-07-01

413

Tropical forest conservation and development: A bibliography. Manual No. 1  

SciTech Connect

Contents: forest resources; deforestation; conservation and sustainable development; indigenous peoples; management, policy, and planning; trade and industrial development; nontimber forest products; research, education, and training; history; bibliographies and general works; author index.

Albrecht, J.

1993-01-01

414

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Understanding Carbon Storage in Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: Forest Inventory and Analysis data, TOOLS: isee Player, Spreadsheet application. SUMMARY: Compare field collected data with results produced by a forest biomass model to understand the process and challenges scientists face when doing terrestrial carbon cycle research.

415

Forests & Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter discusses the disappearance of the world's forests and the resulting environmental problems of erosion and flooding; loss of genetic diversity; climatic changes such as less rainfall, and intensifying of the greenhouse effect; and displacement and destruction of indigenous cultures. The articles, lessons, and activities are

Gage, Susan

1989-01-01

416

Forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire

Fuller

1991-01-01

417

Kelp Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High school level and higher description with pictures of kelp forests and their associated fauna. In addition to pictures of large and small kelps, site includes photos of urchins, otters, and starfish. Topics covered include succession, zonation, predation, and predator-defense. The kelp life cycle is briefly discussed.

418

Forest biotechnology and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Forest biotechnology is a relatively young area of applied plant molecular biology that presently concentrates on (i) manipulation\\u000a of lignin content and composition, (ii) pathogen-, pesticide-, and stress resistance, and (iii) improvement of growth. Transgenic\\u000a trees have a great potential also in other areas of applied and environmental research, e.g. in the production of phytochemicals\\u000a and in phytoremediation of

S. Kopriva; H. Rennenberg

2000-01-01

419

Regulating forest practices in Texas: a problem analysis  

E-print Network

application in future research efforts dealing with impacts of various forest practices. Dr. R. G. Merrifield, Head, Department of Forest Science served as a light house throughout the problem selection and research processes. His experience and judgement... organizations. 2) Implementation through public ownership and control. Public forest managers may be likened to the trustees of a trust (the forest) and the public to its beneficiaries. Viewed in this light these mana- gers have an obligation to be cognizant...

Dreesen, Alan D

2012-06-07

420

[Forest health ecological risk assessment in China].  

PubMed

Forest health ecological risk assessment is an important factor in forest resources management. In this paper, we selected forest fire, forest disease-pest disasters and acid rain as main risk sources, described the risk resources by probability, intensity and distributing, and mapped each risk source. The endpoints were the damages that the risk acceptor might and these damages might cause ecosystems' organization and function changing under the uncertainty risk sources. Endpoints of forest might compose of productivity descent, reducing biodiversity, forest degrading, forest ecological function declining, furthermore, forest disappearing. We described exposure in terms of intensity, space, and time. In the exposure and hazard analysis, we used fragile index to show frangibility or resistibility (resistibility is reverse to frangibility), and analyzed the damages by different risk sources. Risk assessment and management was the integrated phase of the research. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of risk sources, all risk index were overlaid in the China map by GIS, which divided the region into 30 ecological risk sub-zones (provinces), according to risk index of each risk sub-zone, and the forest in China was divided into six levels of risk zones. In every level of risk zones, we also put forward the countermeasures for forest health ecological risk management. The result of assessment could provide scientific basis for forest management. PMID:15146655

Xiao, Fengjin; Ouyang, Hua; Cheng, Shulan; Zhang, Qiang

2004-02-01

421

PACIFIC SOUTHWEST Forest and Range  

E-print Network

Fire and Atmospheric Sciences Research, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D in wildland fuel are essential for research investigations of fire behavior, and in firefighting, fire use CLIVE M. COUNTRYMAN was, until his retirement in 1977, in charge of the Station's fire behavior studies

Standiford, Richard B.

422

Protected forests in Europe approaches-harmonising the definitions for international comparison and forest policy making.  

PubMed

Comparison of forest protection between regions in Europe is extremely difficult, because there is such wide variation of strategies, procedures and constraints; the way forests have been used historically and their present closeness to nature also varies, and furthermore so does the definition of what constitutes a forest. For the European Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) in 2003, forest protection has been harmonised into three categories for the sake of comparison: protection to safeguard biodiversity, protection of landscape and specific natural features, and protective forest functions. There is no single, uniform and universal model and no internationally agreed target with respect to the percentage of forests which should be protected. What is more important than a fixed percentage level of forested area (e.g. 5 or 10%) is that the protection network should be biogeographically and ecologically representative and accordingly distributed on a regional basis. Long-term practical experience and research have proved that conservation of different species of organisms can be assured by appropriate silvicultural management of multifunctional production forests. Consequently, the focus of debate in Europe appears to shift more and more from total protection in segregated areas to 'precision protection' and to combining protection and timber production in the holistic, integrated concept of modern management of forest areas.Advances in regional ecological planning and the growing adoption of naturalistic forest management practices have slowed the decline of the biological diversity in the multifunctional production forests. However, this fact is not yet widely and sufficiently acknowledged and appreciated. There is consequently a political and scientific need for continued study of the effects of naturalistic silvicultural management on the biodiversity of forests. Information from such research is crucially needed before new and additional protection networks and schemes are set up on a large-scale. Protection by voluntary contracts between parties is a workable model concept for European forestry based on private forest ownership. In small private forests, patches of forest worth protecting are often small and located within production forests. Forest certification can contribute to the efforts of maintaining biodiversity in multifunctional production forests and offers an instrument of independently monitoring and verifying that forests are managed according to the agreed criteria. Forest certification is not an alternative or a means of increasing forest protection, because as a voluntary process it cannot guarantee the permanence of protected areas or deal with issues of finance and compensation. PMID:12659801

Parviainen, Jari; Frank, Georg

2003-01-01

423

Ecology and Management of Forest Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an emphasis on ecology as the key word in landscape ecology and landscape as the context, we discuss the importance of\\u000a ecological theory as the basis for the study of forest landscapes. We identify and discuss the core components and challenges\\u000a in current forest landscape ecological research with an emphasis on how they relate to forest management. Among these

Jiquan Chen; Kimberley D. Brosofske; Raffaele Lafortezza

424

Habitat structure and proximity to forest edge affect the abundance and distribution of forest-dependent birds in tropical coastal forests of southeastern Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that Madagascar is classified a biological `hotspot' due to having both high levels of species endemism and high forest loss, there has been no published research on how Madagascan bird species respond to the creation of a forest edge or to degradation of their habitat. In this study, we examined how forest bird communities and different foraging

James E. M. Watson; Robert J. Whittaker; Terence P. Dawson

2004-01-01

425

Nest predator distribution among clearcut forest, forest edge and forest interior in an extensively forested landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of avian and mammalian nest predator species in clearcut forest, forest edge and forest interior habitats was assessed on four study plots in 1992 and 1993 using line transect counts. Red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were detected more often than expected by chance in mature forest than clearcut forest (P<0.05). Linear regressions of sciurid

David I King; Curtice R Griffin; Richard M DeGraaf

1998-01-01

426

Planted Forests and Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest ecosystems shelter a major part of terrestrial biological diversity, and over the past decades, conservation of biodiversity has become a key element in national forest policies and planning. Plantation forests are cultivated forest ecosystems established primarily for wood biomass production but also for soil and water conservation or wind protection. During the past decade, the global forest plantation area

J-M Carnus; J Parrotta; EG Brockerhoff; M Arbez; H Jactel; A Kremer; D Lamb; K O'Hara; B Walters

2003-01-01

427

Sau?-ne? [Finn] : a Finnish steam bath in which the steam is provided by water thrown on hot stones  

E-print Network

A Finnish proverb says that the sauna is the most democratic space in the world . Here, we dismantle our vestments of social status and relax in a distinct social space where everyone shares the same basic needs of comfort ...

Lindman, Pia Maria, 1965-

1999-01-01

428

The Many Faces of Research Profiling: Academic Leaders' Conceptions of Research Steering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines academic leaders' conceptions of research profiling. Global science policies, including the Finnish governmental policy, promote the identification of areas of research excellence and recommend resource concentration on them. However, as active agents, leaders may have competing, even conflicting views on the pros and

Pietil, Maria

2014-01-01

429

CTFS/ForestGEO: A global network to monitor forest interactions with a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are an influential component of the global carbon cycle and strongly influence Earth's climate. Climate change is altering the dynamics of forests globally, which may result in significant climate feedbacks. Forest responses to climate change entail both short-term ecophysiological responses and longer-term directional shifts in community composition. These short- and long-term responses of forest communities to climate change may be better understood through long-term monitoring of large forest plots globally using standardized methodology. Here, we describe a global network of forest research plots (CTFS/ForestGEO) of utility for understanding forest responses to climate change and consequent feedbacks to the climate system. CTFS/ForestGEO is an international network consisting of 51 sites ranging in size from 2-150 ha (median size: 25 ha) and spanning from 25S to 52N latitude. At each site, every individual > 1cm DBH is mapped and identified, and recruitment, growth, and mortality are monitored every 5 years. Additional measurements include aboveground productivity, carbon stocks, soil nutrients, plant functional traits, arthropod and vertebrates monitoring, DNA barcoding, airborne and ground-based LiDAR, micrometeorology, and weather monitoring. Data from this network are useful for understanding how forest ecosystem structure and function respond to spatial and temporal variation in abiotic drivers, parameterizing and evaluating ecosystem and earth system models, aligning airborne and ground-based measurements, and identifying directional changes in forest productivity and composition. For instance, CTFS/ForestGEO data have revealed that solar radiation and night-time temperature are important drivers of aboveground productivity in moist tropical forests; that tropical forests are mixed in terms of productivity and biomass trends over the past couple decades; and that the composition of Panamanian forests has shifted towards more drought-tolerant species. Ongoing monitoring will be vital to understanding global forest dynamics in an era of climate change.

Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Muller-Landau, H.; McMahon, S.; Davies, S. J.

2013-12-01

430

Uncertainty in future water supplies from forests: hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests account for 33 percent of the U.S. land area, process nearly two-thirds of the fresh water supply, and provide water to 40 percent of all municipalities or about 180 million people. Water supply management is becoming more difficult given the increasing demand for water, climate change, increasing development, changing forest ownership, and increasingly fragmented laws governing forest and watershed management. In 2006, the US National Research Council convened a study on the present understanding of forest hydrology, the hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape, and research and management needs for sustaining water resources from forested landscapes. The committee concluded that while it is possible to generate short-term water yield increases by timber harvesting, there are a variety of reasons why active forest management has only limited potential to sustainably increase water supplies. These include the short-term nature of the increases in most environments, the timing of the increases, the need for downstream storage, and that continuing ground- based timber harvest can reduce water quality. At the same time, past and continuing changes in forest structure and management may be altering water supplies at the larger time and space scales that are of most interest to forest and water managers. These changes include the legacy of past forest management practices, particularly fire suppression and clearcutting; exurban sprawl, which permanently converts forest land to nonforest uses; effects of climate change on wildfires, insect outbreaks, forest structure, forest species composition, snowpack depth and snowmelt; road networks; and changes in forest land ownership. All of these changes have the potential to alter water quantity and quality from forests. Hence, the baseline conditions that have been used to estimate sustained water yields from forested watersheds may no longer be applicable. Stationarity also can no longer be assumed for the long-term control watersheds that have served as the cornerstone for most watershed-scale forest hydrology studies. The net result is that forest and water managers are facing greater uncertainty about future water supplies, water quality, and aquatic ecosystems, and their planning must consider a broader range of future scenarios than in the past. In this presentation, we outline a way forward for the research community to address the challenging questions of the future related to forests and water, and we chart a path for the involvement of various stakeholder groups to engage in water resources research, monitoring and policy formation.

Jones, J. A.; Achterman, G. L.; Alexander, L. E.; Brooks, K. N.; Creed, I. F.; Ffolliott, P. F.; MacDonald, L.; Wemple, B. C.

2008-12-01

431

Effects of Forest Harvesting and Regeneration on Peak Streamflow  

E-print Network

Region 2100 Labieux Road, Nanaimo, BC, Canada, V9T 6E9, 250-751-7001 Research Disciplines: Ecology.Geo., Ph.D. Research Hydrologist Vancouver Forest Region BC Ministry of Forests 2100 Labieux Road Nanaimo.for.gov.bc.ca/vancouvr/research/research_index.htm Cover photo: Salt dilution gauging reaches at Russell Creek, Russell Creek above Stephanie confluence

432

UNCERTAINTIES IN COUNTRYWIDE FOREST BIOMASS ESTIMATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Country-wide estimates of forest biomass are the major driver for estimating and understanding carbon pools and flux, a critical component of global change research. mportant determinants in making these estimates include the areal extend of forested lands and their associated bi...

433

The ecology of forest insect invasions and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions by nonindigenous forest insects can have spectacular effects on the biodiversity, ecology, and economy of affected areas. This introduction explores several critical issues that are generally relevant to invasions by forest in- sects to provide an extended background for this special issue of the Cundiun Jourrtal ($* fi)re,st Research and highligllts the key findings of the papers included in

Eckehard G. BrockerhofV; Andrew M. Liebhold; Hewe Jactel

2006-01-01

434

Forest ecosystems in the Alaskan taiga  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume in the series ''Ecological Studies'' provides an overview and synthesis of research on the structure and function of taiga forest ecosystems of interior Alaska. The first section discusses the nature of the taiga environment and covers climate, forest ecosystem distribution, natural regeneration of vegetation, and the role of fire. The second edition focuses on environmental controls over organism

K. Van Cleve; Chapin Fs III; P. W. Flanagan; L. A. Viereck

1986-01-01

435

Natural Variability of Mexican Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper was 1) to present a new algorithm for analyzing the forest fires, 2) to discuss the present understanding of the natural variability at different scales with special emphasis on Mexico conditions since 1972, 3) to analyze the internal and external factors affecting forest fires for example ENSO and Total Solar Irradiance, and 4) to discuss the implications of this knowledge, on research and on restoration and management methods, which purpose is to enhance forest biodiversity conservation. 5) We present an estimate of the Mexican forest fires for the next decade. These results may be useful to minimize human and economic losses.

Velasco-Herrera, Graciela; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Kemper-Valverdea, N.

436

The 1990 forest ecosystem dynamics multisensor aircraft campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) research activity is to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of forest ecosystem evolution over a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Primary emphasis is being placed on assessing the ecosystem dynamics associated with the transition zone between northern hardwood forests in eastern North America and the predominantly coniferous forests of the more northerly boreal biome. The approach is to combine ground-based, airborne, and satellite observations with an integrated forest pattern and process model which is being developed to link together existing models of forest growth and development, soil processes, and radiative transfer.

Williams, Darrel L.; Ranson, K. Jon

1991-01-01

437

Tropical forests and the changing earth system.  

PubMed

Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. Finally, I look to the future, suggesting that the current carbon sink in intact forests is unlikely to continue, and that the tropical forest biome may even become a large net source of carbon, via one or more of four plausible routes: changing photosynthesis and respiration rates, biodiversity changes in intact forest, widespread forest collapse via drought, and widespread forest collapse via fire. Each of these scenarios risks potentially dangerous positive feedbacks with the climate system that could dramatically accelerate and intensify climate change. Given that continued land-use change alone is already thought to be causing the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history, should such feedbacks occur, the resulting biodiversity and societal consequences would be even more severe. PMID:16553317

Lewis, Simon L

2006-01-29

438

Tropical forests and the changing earth system  

PubMed Central

Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. Finally, I look to the future, suggesting that the current carbon sink in intact forests is unlikely to continue, and that the tropical forest biome may even become a large net source of carbon, via one or more of four plausible routes: changing photosynthesis and respiration rates, biodiversity changes in intact forest, widespread forest collapse via drought, and widespread forest collapse via fire. Each of these scenarios risks potentially dangerous positive feedbacks with the climate system that could dramatically accelerate and intensify climate change. Given that continued land-use change alone is already thought to be causing the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history, should such feedbacks occur, the resulting biodiversity and societal consequences would be even more severe. PMID:16553317

Lewis, Simon L

2005-01-01

439

the Forest for e Trees: Response to Johnson et  

E-print Network

, are not primary forests.They suggest that the presence of yellow-poplar, a light-intolerant species,in partthe Forest for e Trees: Response to Johnson et DAVID CAMERON DUFFY Marine Sciences Research Center. sure the recovery of Appalachian forests understory herbs following deforestation. We expected herbal

Duffy, David Cameron

440

Evapotranspiration models compared on a Sierra Nevada forest ecosystem  

E-print Network

and Management, Forest Science Division, University of California, 151 Hilgard Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA are research forests across the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Costa Rica with instruments on towersEvapotranspiration models compared on a Sierra Nevada forest ecosystem Joshua B. Fisher*, Terry A

Cohen, Ronald C.

441

Resilience of Southwestern Amazon Forests to Anthropogenic Edge Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic edge effects can compromise the conservation value of mature tropical forests. To date most edge-effect research in Amazonia has concentrated on forests in relatively seasonal locations or with poor soils in the east of the basin. We present the first evaluation from the relatively richer soils of far western Amazonia on the extent to which mature forest biomass, diversity,

OLIVER L. PHILLIPS; SAM ROSE; ABEL MONTEAGUDO MENDOZA; PERCY NEZ VARGAS

2006-01-01

442

Estimating forest canopy fuel parameters using LIDAR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire researchers and resource managers are dependent upon accurate, spatially-explicit forest structure information to support the application of forest fire behavior models. In particular, reliable estimates of several critical forest canopy structure metrics, including canopy bulk density, canopy height, canopy fuel weight, and canopy base height, are required to accurately map the spatial distribution of canopy fuels and model fire

Hans-Erik Andersen; Robert J. McGaughey; Stephen E. Reutebuch

2005-01-01

443

On the distance to recreational forests in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a strong tradition in Sweden of using forested areas for recreation. Earlier research has shown that on average, Swedes visit a forest at least every other week. This study surveyed 1000 randomly chosen individuals about their present distance, and what they considered to be the preferred (ideal) distance, between their residence and the closest recreational forest. Attitudes towards

Lisa Hrnsten; Peter Fredman

2000-01-01

444

On simplifying allometric analyses of forest biomass Dimitris Zianis*  

E-print Network

On simplifying allometric analyses of forest biomass Dimitris Zianis* , Maurizio Mencuccini biomass plays a key role in sustainable management and in estimating forest carbon stocks. The most common After an absence of about 30 years from scientific research, forest biomass appears to be regaining its

Mencuccini, Maurizio

445

The Forest Ecosystem Research and Demonstration Area (FERDA) was established in 1998 adjacent to the Visitor Interpretive Center (VIC) for the Adirondack Park in Paul  

E-print Network

adjacent to the Visitor Interpretive Center (VIC) for the Adirondack Park in Paul Smiths, NY, to provide diversity. Six silvicultural systems are demonstrated on 5-acre (2 ha) blocks near the Adirondack Park of the five harvested and two unharvested (control) forest blocks. Interpretive signs along Jenkins Mountain

446

Fire in boreal ecosystems of Eurasia: First results of the Bor Forest island fire experiment, Fire Research Campaign Asia-North (FIRESCAN)  

SciTech Connect

Fire is an important natural and anthropogenic factor in the dynamics of the boreal forest system. The ecological and environmental impacts of boreal fires depend on fire weather, fuel availability, fire behavior and history of sand development (frequency and size of fires and other biotic and abiotic disturbances, influence of surrounding landscape on successional developments). About 70% of the global boreal forest is in Eurasia, almost all of it in the Russian Federation. It is estimated that in years with high fire danger up to ca. 10 million ha of forest and other land in the Russian Federation are affected by fire. The demand for reliable information on the role of natural and anthropogenic fire and the necessity to develop adequate fire management systems is basically due to globally increasing concerns about (1) impacts of boreal wildfires on atmosphere and climate, (2) changing utilization and ecologically destructive practices in boreal forestry, and (3) possible consequences of global climate change on the boreal forest system.

Angelstam, P. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan (Sweden)); Bufetov, N.S. (Novosibirsk Inst. of Chemical Kinetics and combustion (Russian Federation)); Clark, J. (Duke Univ., Durham, SC (United States). Botany Dept.) (and others)

1994-12-01

447

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Resources & 1 credit Conservation Spring FNR4343C Forest Water ResourcesMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Forest Resource Management Forest. Summer FOR3200C Foundations in Forest Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C

Watson, Craig A.

448

Genotypic and phenotypic diversity in Finnish cultivated sour cherry ( Prunus cerasus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Finnish national sour cherry germplasm collection was established in the end of 1980s following collection missions in\\u000a Southern Finland. The original plantation consisted of 122 trees representing 77 accessions of locally adapted cherry material.\\u000a Cultivar names of the collected samples were not known, and they were registered according to the collection site. Phenotypical\\u000a observations according to the Nordic Genebank

K. Antonius; M. Aaltonen; M. Uosukainen; T. Hurme

449

Dietary intakes of nitrate, nitrite and NDMA in the Finnish mobile clinic health examination survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about potential health hazards of nitrate, nitrite and N?nitroso compounds necessitates calculations of exposures to these compounds and their distribution in normal populations. This study describes dietary intake of nitrate (NO 3), nitrite (NO 2) and N?nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) among 5304 adult men and 4750 women, who participated in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey in 196772. Food consumption

Jan Dich; Ritva Jrvinen; Paul Knekt

1996-01-01

450

Toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in Finnish fresh and coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the occurrence of toxic blooms of cyanobacteria in Finnish fresh and coastal waters was made during 1985 and 1986. Toxicity of the freeze-dried water bloom samples was tested by mouse-bioassay (i.p.). Forty-four per cent (83\\/188) of the bloom samples were found to be lethally toxic. Hepatotoxic blooms (54) were almost twice as common as neurotoxic ones (29).

K. Sivonen; S. I. Niemel; R. M. Niemi; L. Lepist; T. H. Luoma; L. A. Rasanenl

1990-01-01

451

Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n=1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n=1,785) or other pervasive

Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

2013-01-01

452

How Estonian and Finnish primary care doctors rate their need for common drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare ratings of the necessity of drugs in the daily practice of experienced primary care doctors in Estonia and Finland\\u000a to find out the differences and similarities in the therapeutic traditions of the two different societies. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all Estonian district doctors born in the 1940s and to all Finnish specialized general practitioners\\u000a born

M. Lember; A. Pikk; K. Mattila; I. Virjo; R. Kermes; M. Isokoski

1997-01-01

453

Vitamin D fortification of milk products does not resolve hypovitaminosis D in young Finnish men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To study if vitamin D fortification of milk products started in February 2003 has improved vitamin D status of young Finnish men, which has been poor before.Design:A longitudinal study of one cohort.Setting:Helsinki University Central Hospital.Subjects:Sixty-five healthy men, studied for the first time in January 2001, were re-examined in January 2004. They were aged 1821 years in 2001.Methods:Blood was sampled for

V-V Vlimki; E Lyttyniemi; M J Vlimki

2007-01-01

454

Impacts of the Finnish service screening programme on breast cancer rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to examine impacts of the Finnish breast cancer (BC) screening programme on the population-based incidence and mortality rates. The programme has been historically targeted to a rather narrow age band, mainly women of ages 5059 years. METHODS: The study was based on the information on breast cancer during 19712003 from the files

Ahti Anttila; Tytti Sarkeala; Timo Hakulinen; Sirpa Heinvaara

2008-01-01

455

Participation in Prenatal Screening Tests and Intentions Concerning Selective Termination in Finnish Maternity Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with womens participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. Methods: Questionnaires were given to pregnant women visiting maternity centres in two Finnish towns in which serum screening was offered (n = 1,035) and

Pivi Santalahti; Elina Hemminki; Arja R. Aro; Hans Helenius; Markku Ryynnen

1999-01-01

456

Secular trends in overweight and obesity among Finnish adolescents in 19771999  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study the trends in overweight and obesity among Finnish adolescents in 19771999.DESIGN: Mailed surveys every other year.SUBJECTS: Nationally representative samples of 12, 14, 16 and 18-y-olds (n=64 147, response rate 78.9%).METHODS: Overweight and obesity were measured by body mass index (BMI) and relative weight (RW) based on self-reported height and weight. BMI ?the 85th percentile cut-off point for

S Kautiainen; A Rimpel; A Vikat; SM Virtanen

2002-01-01

457

Comparing forests across climates and biomes: qualitative assessments, reference forests and regional intercomparisons.  

PubMed

Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests' potential carbon stock, biodiversity and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species' traits and land use history. Methods like tracking over-time changes within forests, or comparison with "pristine" reference forests have been proposed as means to compare the structure and biodiversity of forests in the face of underlying differences. However, data from previous visits or reference forests may be unavailable or costly to obtain. Here, we introduce a new metric of locally weighted forest intercomparison to mitigate the above shortcomings. This method is applied to an international database of nearly 300 community forests and compared with previously published techniques. It is particularly suited to large databases where forests may be compared among one another. Further, it avoids problematic comparisons with old-growth forests which may not resemble the goal of forest management. In most cases, the different methods produce broadly congruent results, suggesting that researchers have the flexibility to compare forest conditions using whatever type of data is available. Forest structure and biodiversity are shown to be independently measurable axes of forest condition, although users' and foresters' estimations of seemingly unrelated attributes are highly correlated, perhaps reflecting an underlying sentiment about forest condition. These findings contribute new tools for large-scale analysis of ecosystem condition and natural resource policy assessment. Although applied here to forestry, these techniques have broader applications to classification and evaluation problems using crowdsourced or repurposed data for which baselines or external validations are not available. PMID:24743325

Salk, Carl F; Frey, Ulrich; Rusch, Hannes

2014-01-01

458

Immunohistochemical localization of amyloid in Finnish hereditary amyloidosis with antibodies to gelsolin peptides.  

PubMed

The amyloid fibril protein in the Finnish type of familial amyloid polyneuropathy was recently identified as a fragment of gelsolin, a cytoskeletal and plasma protein with actin-modulating properties. Antibodies to three synthetic peptides of various parts of gelsolin were raised in rabbits and used in immunocytochemistry. The P-3 dodecapeptide, corresponding to the C-terminal region of the amyloid protein, elicited the best immunologic response and the P-3 antibodies were found suitable for use in immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay. The P-3 antibodies specifically stained the amyloid deposits in various tissues including the skin, kidney, heart, thyroid gland, salivary gland, and rectum in patients with Finnish familial amyloid polyneuropathy. The staining was completely abolished by absorption of the antiserum with the synthetic dodecapeptide used for immunization, but not by a peptide of another region of the gelsolin molecule. The antibodies did not stain the amyloid of secondary amyloid A or of the myeloma-associated amyloid light chain. The results provide evidence for the relation between the amyloid deposited in the systemic tissues of patients with Finnish familial amyloid polyneuropathy and gelsolin, and demonstrate the utility of these anti-gelsolin antibodies in diagnostic immunohistochemistry. PMID:1848334

Maury, C P

1991-03-01

459

Alcohol consumption and suicide mortality by age among Finnish men, 1950-1991.  

PubMed

An earlier comparative time series analysis of the connection between per capita alcohol consumption and suicide mortality reported, unexpectedly, a non-significant effect of alcohol on the suicide rate of Finnish men. However, the suicide rate of Finnish men is heterogeneous in regard to age groups. There is also indication that the connection between alcohol and suicides is stronger in younger than in older age groups. Time series data on per capita alcohol consumption and age-specific suicide mortality in 1950-91 were used to scrutinize the relationship. The results indicate that the suicide rate of Finnish men in age groups 15-34 years and 35-49 years is associated with per capita alcohol consumption, while no connection could be established between the suicide rates of men aged 50-69 years and 70+ years and either per capita alcohol consumption or a lagged consumption measure. Real income, divorce rate and unemployment rate were regarded as possible confounding variables. PMID:8822018

Mkel, P

1996-01-01

460

Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objectives of this lesson plan are twofold: to have students understand the benefits and problems associated with fire and to understand the role that fire plays in maintaining healthy ecosystems. Emphasis throughout the lesson plan is placed on manager-ignited prescribed burns and natural fires, and their relevance and importance to various types of fire-adapted ecosystems such as chaparral, prairie grasslands, and lodgepole pine forests. The lesson entails initiating a discussion about the positive and negative powers of fire, introducing terms such as surface fire, crown fire, and fire triangle, and having the students produce a public service announcement, brochure, or television spot on both accidental forest fires and the benefits of prescribed burns. The web site includes a list of suggested materials, procedures, adaptations, discussion questions, extension projects, an evaluation of student learning, suggested readings, relevant web links, a vocabulary list, and relevance to the academic standards set forth by Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education: Second Edition.

Bailey, Joyce

461

Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity  

PubMed Central

Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and carbon concentration in the biomass. It quantifies the sources of change of a nation's forests. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. Among 50 nations with extensive forests reported in the Food and Agriculture Organization's comprehensive Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, no nation where annual per capita gross domestic product exceeded $4,600 had a negative rate of growing stock change. Using the Forest Identity and national data from the Assessment report, a single synoptic chart arrays the 50 nations with coordinates of the rates of change of basic variables, reveals both clusters of nations and outliers, and suggests trends in returning forests and their attributes. The Forest Identity also could serve as a tool for setting forest goals and illuminating how national policies accelerate or retard the forest transitions that are diffusing among nations. PMID:17101996

Kauppi, Pekka E.; Ausubel, Jesse H.; Fang, Jingyun; Mather, Alexander S.; Sedjo, Roger A.; Waggoner, Paul E.

2006-01-01

462

The biodiversity quality of forest macrofungi and forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this article is to: review the current methods and results of measuring the macrofungal biodiversity of both saprophytes and mycorrhiza; to show root tip analysis to be less accurate for mycorrhiza than expected when the latest research reports are considered; and to provide a simple methodology for measuring macrofungal biodiversity of forests. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Current

Alan Feest

2009-01-01

463

Forests / Climate change persp ctive  

E-print Network

T Forests / Climate change persp ctive e 15The recent food price increases in international markets threaten food security and have led many researchers, policy makers and NGOs to ana- lyse them in order countries. Placing these spikes within the context of an upward trend opens new avenues for national

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

PacificSouthwestResearchStationPrograms Pacific Southwest Research Station  

E-print Network

PacificSouthwestResearchStationPrograms Pacific Southwest Research Station Publications List Air Pollution and Global Change Impacts on Western Forest Ecosystems Center for Urban Forest Research Chemical and Fire Effects Research Natural Areas Sierra Nevada Research Center Sudden Oak Death Research Timber

Standiford, Richard B.

465

Future Fuels from Forests  

E-print Network

: Cellulosic Biomass to Fuel 11:30-Noon LUNCH at Wadsworth Hall 12:15-1:15 pm Getting Trees from Forest to Processing Plant 1:30-3:00 Forest Resource Management: Impacts on Avian Biodiversity & Forest Productivity 3 Jenkins, Ph.D. Candidate ­ tree biomass from forest to processing facility Department of Chemical

466

Forest fires, woodland caribou and land use policies in northwestern Ontario (Rangifer tarandus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are a threatened species in Ontario's boreal forest. Caribou require habitat that supports appropriate forage, including large areas of lichen rich forests. This research examines two dynamics that influence woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario. These dynamics are forest fires and land use policies. The effects of forest fires are assessed quantitatively at both the

Brian Frederick Kutas

2004-01-01

467

Effect of human activities on forest ecosystems: N cycle and soil fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests are important terrestrial ecosystems, with particular nutrient cycling mechanisms to maintain structure and functions. Nitrogen is essential for forest growth and development, and commonly limited for the forest productivity. N cycles in forest ecosystems are frequently disturbed by intensive human activities. Based on a variety of research results, some potentially important human disturbances are discussed and their effects on

G. X. Chen; K. W. Yu; L. P. Liao; G. S. Xu

2000-01-01

468

Local financial benefits of rain forests: comparative evidence from Amerindian societies in Bolivia and Honduras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers generally express the local value of tropical rain forests in dollars\\/ha\\/year. The approach is problematic because it produces low values to local users, underestimating the importance of the forest expressed as a share of household consumption or earnings. Here we contribute to valuation studies of rain forests by estimating the financial importance of the forest measured in three ways:

R. Godoy; H. Overman; J. Demmer; L. Apaza; E. Byron; T. Huanca; W. Leonard; E. Perez; V Reyes-Garc??a; V. Vadez; D. Wilkie; A. Cubas; K. McSweeney; N. Brokaw

2002-01-01

469

Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest planning: a framework for recording Aboriginal resource and social values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aboriginal Forest Planning Process (AFPP) was developed to integrate indigenous and western forest management approaches. The AFPP is a participatory decision-making tool designed to enhance co-management of the John Prince Research Forest (JPRF) in central interior British Columbia, Canada and to elicit goals, objectives, criteria, and indicators of sustainable forest management from the JPRFs Aboriginal partners. Analysis of community

Melanie K. Karjala; Erin E. Sherry; Stephen M. Dewhurst

2004-01-01

470

The forgotten D: challenges of addressing forest degradation in complex mosaic landscapes under REDD+  

Microsoft Academic Search

International climate negotiations have stressed the importance of considering emissions from forest degradation under the planned REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation + enhancing forest carbon stocks) mechanism. However, most research, pilot-REDD+ projects and carbon certification agencies have focused on deforestation and there appears to be a gap in knowledge on complex mosaic landscapes containing degraded forests, smallholder

Ole Mertz; Daniel Mller; Thomas Sikor; Cornelia Hett; Andreas Heinimann; Jean-Christophe Castella; Guillaume Lestrelin; Casey M. Ryan; David S. Reay; Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt; Finn Danielsen; Ida Theilade; Meine van Noordwijk; Louis V. Verchot; Neil D. Burgess; Nicholas J. Berry; Thu Thuy Pham; Peter Messerli; Jianchu Xu; Rasmus Fensholt; Patrick Hostert; Dirk Pflugmacher; Thilde Bech Bruun; Andreas de Neergaard; Klaus Dons; Sonya Dewi; Ervan Rutishauser; Zhanli Sun

2012-01-01

471

The temporal and spatial variability in submeter scale surface roughness of seasonal snow in Sodankyl Finnish Lapland in 2009-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

snow surface roughness is an important parameter for remote sensing data analysis since it affects the scattering properties of the snow surface. To understand the phenomenon, snow surface roughness was measured near the town of Sodankyl, in Finnish Lapland, during winters 2009 and 2010 using a photogrammetry-based plate method. The images were automatically processed so that an approximately 1 m long horizontal profile was extracted from each image. The data set consists of 669 plate profiles from different times and canopy types. This large data set was used to study the temporal and spatial variability of seasonal snow surface roughness. The profiles were analyzed using parameters derived from the root mean square height (?) and correlation length (L) as functions of measured length. Also, the autocorrelation functions were calculated and analyzed. The (?) and (L) were found to be so strongly correlated (R2 ~ 0.97) that a more detailed analysis was made using only the scaling parameters derived from ?. These parameters are related to the distance dependence of the rms height. The results show that they react to different characteristics of the profiles and are therefore well able to distinguish between different types of snow. They also show a clear difference between midwinter snow and melting snow, and the effects of snowfall events and slower melting in forested areas are evident in the data.

Anttila, Kati; Manninen, Terhikki; Karjalainen, Tuure; Lahtinen, Panu; Riihel, Aku; Siljamo, Niilo

2014-08-01

472

Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in<\\/span>Benin<\\/span><\\/st1:place><\\/st1:country-region>. The specific objectives are to (a) compile a preliminary riparian forests plant species list, (b) assess plant species and ecosystem diversities, (c)

A. K. Natta

2003-01-01

473

Partnership in Education: Lebanese Evolution of a Finnish Educational Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, several anti-bullying programs have been developed, for instance in the UK, USA and New Zealand, but how successful these programs might be outside their own cultural context has not been investigated. This paper describes an action research project, the aim of which was to determine whether a pro-active model against intolerance

Ghosn, Irma-Kaarina

2004-01-01

474

A Finnish Viewpoint on Professionalism in Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses professionalism in early childhood education through the analytical tool of a research-based multi-level perspective that sees this as a cultural, communal, organisational, and individual phenomenon. Starting from an understanding of professionalism derived from a model of professional expertise, the article discusses the

Karila, Kirsti

2008-01-01

475

Patterns of Forest Disturbance and Recovery Dynamics on Structure and Carbon Fluxes in New England Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest disturbance and recovery strongly influence forest structure, function and services. Forest disturbance and recovery are critical mechanisms for transferring carbon between the land surface and the atmosphere, yet the role of forest disturbance within the terrestrial carbon cycle still remains uncertain and only recently have these events been accounted for within regional-scale and global carbon models. Adding ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is noted as critical to estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. This study used satellite-based observations of forest change, lidar derived structure data and a height structured ecosystem model to improve knowledge of disturbances role in carbon cycle by quantifying how forest disturbance and recovery vary at different spatial and temporal scales. Annual forest change maps from 1984-2010 were produced using the highly automated Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) algorithm (Huang et al 2009). Mapped forest change was further broken down into land conversion (forest to non forest), severe disturbance (stand replacing), and non severe (partial clearing/ thinning). Areas of forest change were aggregated at different spatial scales and temporal scales and integrated into the Ecosystem Demography model (ED), a mechanistic model of forest ecosystem dynamics, to calculate changes in biomass and carbon fluxes. Forest structural data derived from NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to assess regrowth of forests and compare to ED's height and structure properties. Results in the New England Region show both spatial and temporal variation in area disturbed. The northern region encompassing Northern New Hampshire showed higher and more variable rates with an average annual rate of disturbance of approximately 0.5% (range 0.2- 08%) conversion/ non regeneration forest clearing range 0.02 -0.08%. While the southern averaged annual disturbance of 0.3% (ranged 0.2 - 0.5%) it had a much higher rate of conversion and showed had a positive trend in though time from 0.03- 0.18%.Within the state annual forest disturbance rates were on average 3 times higher outside of federally managed lands, which comprise 20 percent of NH forest lands. Incorporation of canopy height data has constrained model estimates of carbon stocks and annual net ecosystem production considerably with a strong relationship to in field measurements however the current coverage of lidar does not allow the same continuous monitoring provided by imagery thus a combination of the two tools may provide more useful then either alone. Results show that management is a major driver of forest change patterns and more research is needed to separate manmade from natural disturbance events. Results show that future research concerning the proportion of disturbance below VCT detection may be an important aspect of ecosystem modeling.

Dolan, K.; Hurtt, G. C.; Huang, C.; Dubayah, R.; Fisk, J. P.; Duncanson, L.; Masek, J. G.

2012-12-01

476

December 21, 2011 SUPPORTING ORGANIZATIONS OF THE FOOD RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

December 21, 2011 SUPPORTING ORGANIZATIONS OF THE FOOD RESEARCH INSTITUTE American Meat Institute Foundation Bel Brands USA Berner Foods Biery Cheese BK Giulini Covance Laboratories Dairy Management Inc. Deibel Laboratories Finnish Food Research Foundation Fonterra Fromm Family Foods Gamay Flavors Great

Sheridan, Jennifer

477

Cooperation with school nurses described by Finnish sixth graders.  

PubMed

This paper deals with research on cooperation with the school nurse described by sixth graders. The data were collected via six focus group interviews in 2003-2004. Twenty-two sixth graders (aged 11-12 years) participated in the research. The data were analysed by the constant comparison method based on grounded theory. The analysis yielded a number of concepts that describe the basis of the cooperation: the trusted expertise of the school nurse, informative interaction with the family and knowing the family situation. The cooperation consisted of supporting the pupil's growth and development, need for individual counselling and supporting coping at school. The cooperation was characterized by an open atmosphere and friendliness, a low level of reciprocity, the school nurse's stereotyped activities and respect for the pupil's privacy. Pupils' experiences and perspectives can be used to develop more holistic strategies for the school health service. PMID:17883717

Menp, Tiina; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Pivi

2007-10-01

478

Local people's perceptions of forest biodiversity in the walnut fruit forests of Kyrgyzstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodiversity of the walnut fruit forests in Kyrgyzstan is under huge pressure due to various socio-economic challenges and anthropogenic factors. In this context, the participation of local people plays a significant role in the conservation of biodiversity. This study assessed local people's understanding of forest biodiversity and evaluated their knowledge of the wildlife at three different locations. The research

Gulnaz Jalilova; Harald Vacik

2012-01-01

479

Ice storms and forest impacts.  

PubMed

Ice storms, or icing events, are important meteorological disturbances affecting forests over a surprisingly large portion of the USA. A broad belt extending from east Texas to New England experiences major ice storms at least once a decade; and truly major events occur in the heart of this belt once or twice a century. In the areas most affected, icing events are a factor that shapes stand composition, structure, and condition over wide areas. Impacts of individual storms are highly patchy and variable, and depend on the nature of the storm. Impacts also depend on how (or if) forest managers conduct subsequent salvage cuttings. Important research needs remain to be considered by the forest ecology and meteorology communities. At present, how ice storm frequency and severity may change with future climate change is unknown. PMID:11087029

Irland, L C

2000-11-15

480

Emergent Learning Practices in Globalizing Work: The Case of a Finnish-Chinese Project in a Finnish Technology Consulting Firm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article aims to analyze emergent learning practices for globalizing work through two research questions: "What are the conceptualizations of work represented by the Virtual Factory and how do they mediate globalizing work?" and "What is the potential of expansive learning efforts to expand conceptualizations towards the emergent

Toiviainen, Hanna; Lallimo, Jiri; Hong, Jianzhong

2012-01-01

481

WESTERN CONIFERS RESEARCH COOPERATIVE 1987 RESEARCH PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Western Conifers Research Cooperative is part of the national Forest Response Program (FRP). The FRP is a federal program designed to determine the current and potential effects of atmospheric deposition on forests in the United States. Research is conducted regionally within...

482

Altered dynamics of forest recovery under a changing climate.  

PubMed

Forest regeneration following disturbance is a key ecological process, influencing forest structure and function, species assemblages, and ecosystem-climate interactions. Climate change may alter forest recovery dynamics or even prevent recovery, triggering feedbacks to the climate system, altering regional biodiversity, and affecting the ecosystem services provided by forests. Multiple lines of evidence - including global-scale patterns in forest recovery dynamics; forest responses to experimental manipulation of CO2 , temperature, and precipitation; forest responses to the climate change that has already occurred; ecological theory; and ecosystem and earth system models - all indicate that the dynamics of forest recovery are sensitive to climate. However, synthetic understanding of how atmospheric CO2 and climate shape trajectories of forest recovery is lacking. Here, we review these separate lines of evidence, which together demonstrate that the dynamics of forest recovery are being impacted by increasing atmospheric CO2 and changing climate. Rates of forest recovery generally increase with CO2 , temperature, and water availability. Drought reduces growth and live biomass in forests of all ages, having a particularly strong effect on seedling recruitment and survival. Responses of individual trees and whole-forest ecosystems to CO2 and climate manipulations often vary by age, implying that forests of different ages will respond differently to climate change. Furthermore, species within a community typically exhibit differential responses to CO2 and climate, and altered community dynamics can have important consequences for ecosystem function. Age- and species-dependent responses provide a mechanism by which climate change may push some forests past critical thresholds such that they fail to recover to their previous state following disturbance. Altered dynamics of forest recovery will result in positive and negative feedbacks to climate change. Future research on this topic and corresponding improvements to earth system models will be a key to understanding the future of forests and their feedbacks to the climate system. PMID:23529980

Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Miller, Adam D; Mohan, Jacqueline E; Hudiburg, Tara W; Duval, Benjamin D; Delucia, Evan H

2013-07-01

483

Generic and professional culture care meanings and practices of Finnish women in birth within Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domain of inquiry was generic and professional cultural care meanings and practices of Finnish women in birth. The purpose was to discover culture care diversities and universalities of generic and professional care of Finnish women in birth. Discovery of the epistemic and ontological dimensions of women's health and well being related to providing culture care was held to contribute

Judith Kilmer Lamp

1998-01-01

484

The Changing Role of Gesture in Linguistic Development: A Developmental Trajectory and a Cross-Cultural Comparison between British and Finnish Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied how gesture use changes with culture, age and increased spoken language competence. A picture-naming task was presented to British (N = 80) and Finnish (N = 41) typically developing children aged 2-5 years. British children were found to gesture more than Finnish children and, in both cultures, gesture production decreased after the age

Huttunen, K. H.; Pine, K. J.; Thurnham, A. J.; Khan, C.

2013-01-01

485

Old growth ponderosa pine and western larch stand structures: Influences of pre-1900 fires and fire exclusion. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

We present data from two old growth stands on Lolo National Forest representing habitats that contrast with larch stand. One of the stands is a mixture of pine and larch on a steep upland slope and the other is larch dominated in a frost-prone valley bottom evidently at the cold limits of ponderosa pine. We also synthesize and compare age-class data, basal areas (BA), and Stand Density Indexes (SDI) for the entire range of old growth stands that we have sampled to represent the historical frequent fire types in western Montana.

Arno, S.F.; Smith, H.Y.; Krebs, M.A.

1997-02-01

486

Fine-Mapping an Association of FSHR with Preterm Birth in a Finnish Population  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is a complex disorder defined by gestations of less than 37 weeks. While preterm birth is estimated to have a significant genetic component, relative few genes have been associated with preterm birth. Polymorphism in one such gene, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), has been associated with preterm birth in Finnish and African American mothers but not other populations. To refine the genetic association of FSHR with preterm birth we conducted a fine-mapping study at the FSHR locus in a Finnish cohort. We sequenced a total of 44 kb, including protein-coding and conserved non-coding regions, in 127 preterm and 135 term mothers. Overall, we identified 288 single nucleotide variants and 65 insertion/deletions of 12 bp across all subjects. While no common SNPs in protein-coding regions were associated with preterm birth, including one previously associated with timing of fertilization, multiple SNPs spanning the first and second intron showed the strongest associations. Analysis of the associated SNPs revealed that they form both a protective (OR?=?0.50, 95% CI?=?0.250.93) as well as a risk (OR?=?1.89, 95% CI?=?1.083.39) haplotype with independent effects. In these haplotypes, two SNPs, rs12052281 and rs72822025, were predicted to disrupt ZEB1 and ELF3 transcription factor binding sites, respectively. Our results show that multiple haplotypes at FSHR are associated with preterm birth and we discuss the frequency and structure of these haplotypes outside of the Finnish population as a potential explanation for the absence of FSHR associations in some populations. PMID:24205076

Chun, Sung; Plunkett, Jevon; Teramo, Kari; Muglia, Louis J.; Fay, Justin C.

2013-01-01

487

Fine-mapping an association of FSHR with preterm birth in a Finnish population.  

PubMed

Preterm birth is a complex disorder defined by gestations of less than 37 weeks. While preterm birth is estimated to have a significant genetic component, relative few genes have been associated with preterm birth. Polymorphism in one such gene, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), has been associated with preterm birth in Finnish and African American mothers but not other populations. To refine the genetic association of FSHR with preterm birth we conducted a fine-mapping study at the FSHR locus in a Finnish cohort. We sequenced a total of 44 kb, including protein-coding and conserved non-coding regions, in 127 preterm and 135 term mothers. Overall, we identified 288 single nucleotide variants and 65 insertion/deletions of 1-2 bp across all subjects. While no common SNPs in protein-coding regions were associated with preterm birth, including one previously associated with timing of fertilization, multiple SNPs spanning the first and second intron showed the strongest associations. Analysis of the associated SNPs revealed that they form both a protective (OR?=?0.50, 95% CI?=?0.25-0.93) as well as a risk (OR?=?1.89, 95% CI?=?1.08-3.39) haplotype with independent effects. In these haplotypes, two SNPs, rs12052281 and rs72822025, were predicted to disrupt ZEB1 and ELF3 transcription factor binding sites, respectively. Our results show that multiple haplotypes at FSHR are associated with preterm birth and we discuss the frequency and structure of these haplotypes outside of the Finnish population as a potential explanation for the absence of FSHR associations in some populations. PMID:24205076

Chun, Sung; Plunkett, Jevon; Teramo, Kari; Muglia, Louis J; Fay, Justin C

2013-01-01

488

Revaluing unmanaged forests for climate change mitigation  

PubMed Central

Background Unmanaged or old-growth forests are of paramount importance for carbon sequestration and thus for the mitigation of climate change among further implications, e.g. biodiversity aspects. Still, the importance of those forests for climate change mitigation compared to managed forests is under controversial debate. We evaluate the adequacy of referring to CO2 flux measurements alone and include external impacts on growth (nitrogen immissions, increasing temperatures, CO2 enrichment, changed precipitation patterns) for an evaluation of central European forests in this context. Results We deduce that the use of CO2 flux measurements alone does not allow conclusions on a superiority of unmanaged to managed forests for mitigation goals. This is based on the critical consideration of uncertainties and the application of system boundaries. Furthermore, the consideration of wood products for material and energetic substitution obviously overrules the mitigation potential of unmanaged forests. Moreover, impacts of nitrogen immissions, CO2 enrichment of the atmosphere, increasing temperatures and changed precipitation patterns obviously lead to a meaningful increase in growth, even in forests of higher age. Conclusions An impact of unmanaged forests on climate change mitigation cannot be valued by CO2 flux measurements alone. Further research is needed on cause and effect relationships between management practices and carbon stocks in different compartments of forest ecosystems in order to account for human-induced changes. Unexpected growth rates in old-growth forests managed or not can obviously be related to external impacts and additionally to management impacts. This should lead to the reconsideration of forest management strategies. PMID:23151318

2012-01-01

489

Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

2012-04-01

490

Forest Lifeautumn | winter 2004 the forest!  

E-print Network

Forest Lifeautumn | winter 2004 F R E E Get fit in the forest! www.forestry.gov.uk #12;Inverness're getting active. And we're not only exercising our bodies, but also our minds and spirit. Our forests can and get healthy in the great outdoors. So if you've got a spring in your step already, check out page 8

491

Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers  

PubMed Central

We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (19391940). We measured facial width-to-height ratioa trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in malesand assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank. PMID:23658003

Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B.

2013-01-01

492

An analysis of problem gambling among the Finnish working-age population: a population survey  

PubMed Central

Background Gambling problems currently affect approximately 100 000 Finns. In order to prevent and reduce gambling-related harms it is crucial for the Finnish public health authorities to gain a stronger understanding of the association between gambling problems and related socio-demographic factors, other commonly co-occurring dependencies (e.g. alcohol and nicotine) and the type of games gambled. In this article the prevalence of problem gambling in Finland and the socio-demographic profiles of problem gamblers are studied. Method An annual postal survey entitled Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population AVTK was sent to a random sample of Finnish adults (N=5000) aged between 15 and 64. The sample was derived from the Finnish Population Register. The survey was mailed to the participants in April 2010. Gender differences in socio-demographic variables and Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI were assessed. A multinomial regression model was created in order to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and the severity of gambling. Results A total of 2826 individuals (1243 males and 1583 females) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 1.1% (2.1% of males, 0.3% of females) were identified as problem gamblers. Those who were of younger age, gender, had less than twelve years of education, consumed alcohol at risk level and smoked had higher odds of having low or moderate levels of gambling problems. Whereas, unemployment and smoking predicted significantly for problem gambling. Females gambled Lotto and slot machines less frequently than males and had more low level gambling problems. Males gambled more with a higher frequency and had a more severe level of gambling problems. Females were more attracted to scratch card gambling and daily Keno lotteries compared to males. In comparison, males gambled more on internet poker sites than females. Overall, a high frequency of gambling in Lotto, daily lotteries, slot machines, horse race betting and internet gambling was significantly associated with a more severe level of problem gambling. Conclusion Gambling problems affect tens of thousands of individuals annually, therefore certain vulnerabilities should be noted. Comorbid dependencies, smoking in particular, ought to be screened for and recognised in the public health sector. Regulating the availability of slot machine gambling and enforcement of the age limit should be acknowledged. In establishing new gambling venues, prevalence rates in those particular areas should be actively monitored. PMID:23714573

2013-01-01

493

Finnish nurse instructors' view of the core of nursing.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe how nurse instructors understand nursing and the necessary conditions for high quality nursing care. The approach of the study was inductive and based on phenomenology and a sociological field research method, i.e. grounded theory. It emerged that the core of nursing is a process, termed here caring, with three stages. Three types of caring emerged. Understanding the client, the art of nursing, co-operation between the nurse and other health care professionals were found to be necessary conditions for a high quality nursing care and it was also found that it is not possible to separate caring from the society and its history. PMID:8496027

Janhonen, S

1993-04-01

494

Simulation of Finnish population history, guided by empirical genetic data, to assess power of rare-variant tests in Finland.  

PubMed

Finnish samples have been extensively utilized in studying single-gene disorders, where the founder effect has clearly aided in discovery, and more recently in genome-wide association studies of complex traits, where the founder effect has had less obvious impacts. As the field starts to explore rare variants' contribution to polygenic traits, it is of great importance to characterize and confirm the Finnish founder effect in sequencing data and to assess its implications for rare-variant association studies. Here, we employ forward simulation, guided by empirical deep resequencing data, to model the genetic architecture of quantitative polygenic traits in both the general European and the Finnish populations simultaneously. We demonstrate that power of rare-variant association tests is higher in the Finnish population, especially when variants' phenotypic effects are tightly coupled with fitness effects and therefore reflect a greater contribution of rarer variants. SKAT-O, variable-threshold tests, and single-variant tests are more powerful than other rare-variant methods in the Finnish population across a range of genetic models. We also compare the relative power and efficiency of exome array genotyping to those of high-coverage exome sequencing. At a fixed cost, less expensive genotyping strategies have far greater power than sequencing; in a fixed number of samples, however, genotyping arrays miss a substantial portion of genetic signals detected in sequencing, even in the Finnish founder population. As genetic studies probe sequence variation at greater depth in more diverse populations, our simulation approach provides a framework for evaluating various study designs for gene discovery. PMID:24768551

Wang, Sophie R; Agarwala, Vineeta; Flannick, Jason; Chiang, Charleston W K; Altshuler, David; Hirschhorn, Joel N

2014-05-01

495

Simulation of Finnish Population History, Guided by Empirical Genetic Data, to Assess Power of Rare-Variant Tests in Finland  

PubMed Central

Finnish samples have been extensively utilized in studying single-gene disorders, where the founder effect has clearly aided in discovery, and more recently in genome-wide association studies of complex traits, where the founder effect has had less obvious impacts. As the field starts to explore rare variants contribution to polygenic traits, it is of great importance to characterize and confirm the Finnish founder effect in sequencing data and to assess its implications for rare-variant association studies. Here, we employ forward simulation, guided by empirical deep resequencing data, to model the genetic architecture of quantitative polygenic traits in both the general European and the Finnish populations simultaneously. We demonstrate that power of rare-variant association tests is higher in the Finnish population, especially when variants phenotypic effects are tightly coupled with fitness effects and therefore reflect a greater contribution of rarer variants. SKAT-O, variable-threshold tests, and single-variant tests are more powerful than other rare-variant methods in the Finnish population across a range of genetic models. We also compare the relative power and efficiency of exome array genotyping to those of high-coverage exome sequencing. At a fixed cost, less expensive genotyping strategies have far greater power than sequencing; in a fixed number of samples, however, genotyping arrays miss a substantial portion of genetic signals detected in sequencing, even in the Finnish founder population. As genetic studies probe sequence variation at greater depth in more diverse populations, our simulation approach provides a framework for evaluating various study designs for gene discovery. PMID:24768551

Wang, Sophie R.; Agarwala, Vineeta; Flannick, Jason; Chiang, Charleston W.K.; Altshuler, David; Flannick, Jason; Manning, Alisa; Hartl, Christopher; Agarwala, Vineeta; Fontanillas, Pierre; Green, Todd; Banks, Eric; DePristo, Mark; Poplin, Ryan; Shakir, Khalid; Fennell, Timothy; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Burtt, Nol; Gabriel, Stacey; Altshuler, David; Fuchsberger, Christian; Kang, HyunMin; Sim, Xueling; Ma, Clement; Locke, Adam; Blackwell, Thomas; Jackson, Anne; Teslovich, Tanya; Stringham, Heather; Chines, Peter; Kwan, Phoenix; Huyghe, Jeroen; Tan, Adrian; Jun, Goo; Stitzel, Michael; Bergman, RichardN.; Bonnycastle, Lori; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, FrancisS.; Scott, Laura; Mohlke, Karen; Abecasis, Gonalo; Boehnke, Michael; Strom, Tim; Gieger, Christian; Mller-Nurasyid, Martina; Grallert, Harald; Kriebel, Jennifer; Ried, Janina; HrabdeAngelis, Martin; Huth, Cornelia; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Strauch, Konstantin; Meitinger, Thomas; Kravic, Jasmina; Ladenvall, Claes; Toumi, Tiinamaija; Isomaa, Bo; Groop, Leif; Gaulton, Kyle; Moutsianas, Loukas; Rivas, Manny; Pearson, Richard; Mahajan, Anubha; Prokopenko, Inga; Kumar, Ashish; Perry, John; Chen, Jeff; Howie, Bryan; vandeBunt, Martijn; Small, Kerrin; Lindgren, Cecilia; Lunter, Gerton; Robertson, Neil; Rayner, Will; Morris, Andrew; Buck, David; Hattersley, Andrew; Spector, Tim; McVean, Gil; Frayling, Tim; Donnelly, Peter; McCarthy, Mark; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

2014-01-01

496

Family Forest Owners' Opinions about Forest Management in Northern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest management guidelines changed at the end of the 1990's in Finland. Biodiversity, visual landscape, water systems, and different forms of forest use are now better taken into account. The objectives, outdoor recreation motives, and attitudes towards the present forest management activities of the non-industrial private forest owners called family forest owners in this article, whose forest holdings are located

Ville Hallikainen; Mikko Hyppnen; Leena Pernu; Jouni Puoskari

2010-01-01

497

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

1983-01-01

498

Climate Extremes and Forest Carbon Sequestration Capacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several lines of evidence suggest that the warming climate plays a vital role in driving certain types of extreme weather. How these extreme climates affect forest carbon sequestration capacity is unknown. This knowledge gap is critical in understanding positive feedbacks to global warming by changing the amount of carbon that forests can hold. Here, we used a perfect-deficit approach to identify forest canopy photosynthetic capacity (CPC) deficits and analyze how they correlate to climate extremes, based on data measured by the eddy covariance method at 26 forest sites with total of 146 site-years. We found that droughts severely alter the carbon sequestration capacities of evergreen broadleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. In addition, the carbon sequestration capacities of Mediterranean forests are mostly sensitive to climate extremes while that of forests under marine climate are insensitive to climate extremes. Acknowledgements This research was financially supported by PSC-CUNY Award (PSC-CUNY-ENHC-44-83) and National Science Foundation (NSF-DEB-0949637).

Wei, S.; Yi, C.; Hendrey, G. R.; Eaton, T. T.; Liu, H.; Rustic, G. T.; Krakauer, N.; Wang, S.

2013-12-01

499

Research, part of a Special Feature on The influence of human demography and agriculture on natural systems in the Neotropics Thirty Years of Human Demography and Land-Use Change in the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina: an Evaluation of the Forest Transition Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, tropical and subtropical forests have been deforested for agriculture, grazing, and timber extraction. Nevertheless in the last decade, several publications have suggested that some regions of Latin America are showing a process of forest transition. Forest transition theory predicts that industrialization and urbanization will lead to the abandonment of marginal agriculture lands and the recovery of natural

Andrea E. Izquierdo; Carlos D. De Angelo; T. Mitchell Aide

500

Comparison of forest litter interception model of sessile oak and beech forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest hydrological models help us to understand the natural processes in forest. The forest has huge active surface available for evaporation processes. The amount of precipitation decreases after reaching the canopy. The throughfall arrives at the forest litter. The rainfall retention of the litter is the litter interception. In this paper a hydrologic model was employed for estimation of forest litter interception of a middle-aged sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) stand. The discussed forest litter interception is an important element of the water balance of the forest and can be an important parameter of the rainfall runoff models in forested area. The research catchment in Hidegvz Valley near Sopron provides valuable data for testing such kind of hydrologic models. Antecedent water content and the storage capacity of the forest litter are the main parameters of the model. The antecedent water content of the litter was estimated by the daily precipitation and temperature data, collected in Hidegvz Valley research catchment in a three years long measurement period (2006-2008). The measurements were done by own developed instrument, where the undisturbed forest litter samples are enclosed in frames and it was measured on stationary place in every time step. Our model estimation for litter interception was 5-7% of gross precipitation. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004. The research of Zoltn Gribovszki was supported by the European Union and the State of Hungary, co-financed by the European Social Fund in the framework of TMOP 4.2.4. A/2-11-1-2012-0001 'National Excellence Program'.

Zagyvai-Kiss, Katalin Anita; Kalicz, Pter; Gribovszki, Zoltn

2014-05-01