Sample records for finnish forest research

  1. www.metla.fi/silvafennica ISSN 0037-5330 The Finnish Society of Forest Science The Finnish Forest Research Institute

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Robert G.

    G. Wagner Saunders, M.R., Fraver, S. & Wagner, R.G. 2011. Nutrient Concentation of Down Woody Debris Street, West Lafayette, IN, USA; Fraver, USFS Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, MN, USA; Wagner

  2. Prospective evaluation of a cluster program for Finnish forestry and forest industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Salo; T. Gustafsson; P. Mild

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we report a prospective evaluation process for a major research program for the Finnish forestry and forest industries. To a significant extent, this process was based on fifteen participatory workshops where tools of operational research F most notably multi-criteria methods embedded in a group support system F were deployed to help representatives from industry, the research community,

  3. BLOWING THE WHISTLE ON FINNISH FOREST CRIME Crime file -September 2006

    E-print Network

    of the resulting pulp, paper and timber products are exported to the rest of the EU and beyond. · Illegal logging forest industry.The Finnish Forest Industry Federation and the big Finnish timber companies relyBLOWING THE WHISTLE ON FINNISH FOREST CRIME Crime file - September 2006 PARTNERS IN CRIME

  4. Finnish nurses' views on their research activities.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, Merja; Tuomi, Jouni

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to describe Finnish nurses' research and publication activities, as well as their views on the availability and utilization of research results in nursing practice. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire in which obstacles to the utilization of research results were measured with a previously developed instrument. A total of 400 nurses from community health centres, a central hospital and a central university hospital took part. Most of the nurses had carried out research on their own. Age, experience, training in research and development and other further training, as well as reading the nursing literature, were associated with doing research. Some of the reasons why the nurses had not carried out research were revealed. Publication of results was very rare. There were problems with the availability of research results. The most common obstacles to research utilization had to do with the presentation of results and the setting. In research utilization, respondents received most support from the ward manager and least support from doctors. If we want to encourage nurses to do research and increase the utilization of research results, greater effort should be invested in teaching research methodology, in introducing more flexible working hours and in developing other support systems. PMID:12790873

  5. Forest biorefineries – A business opportunity for the Finnish forest cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari Hämäläinen; Annukka Näyhä; Hanna-Leena Pesonen

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy and biomass-based products offer the greatest new opportunities for diversifying business in the forest cluster. In particular, biorefineries, which can be integrated into the pulp and paper industry, seem to have immense future potential. This article aims to explore the biorefinery concept and related new products and business operations, as well as new business strategies and company models, which

  6. The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring plots in Finland have recently been included in LTER platforms, thus potentially increasing scientific collaboration between researchers across different governmental institutes and education bodies.

  7. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  8. Effects of biomass utilization on the carbon balance of Finnish forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievänen, Risto; Salminen, Olli; Kallio, Maarit

    2015-04-01

    The boreal forests cover three fourths of the land area of Finland. About 80 per cent of the total forest area is managed for commercial forestry. The forests produce timber for wood processing and pulp and paper industries and provide also bioenergy. The harvests of timber vary depending on demand of products of forest industry; the harvest level has been on average about 70 per cent of growth in recent years. The utilization of forest biomass is therefore the most important factor affecting the carbon balance of Finnish forests. We made projections of carbon balance of Finnish forests during 2012-2050 based on scenarios of timber and bioenergy demands. To assess the changes in carbon stock of forests, we combined three models: a large-scale forestry model, the soil carbon model Yasso07 for mineral soils, and a method based on emission factors for peatland soils. We considered two harvest scenarios based on the recent projections of plausible levels (min, max) of timber demand. For the bioenergy demand, we compared cases in which the wood energy use was low or high. In the past decades, the Finnish forests have been a steadily growing and substantial carbon sink. Its size has been more than 40% of the national GHG emissions during 1990-2012. The planned use of wood from the forests to forest and energy industry does not threaten the increasing trend of the forest sink; with the lowest use of forest biomass the sink may even match the national GHG emissions until 2050. The stock change of trees is the most important component of carbon balance of forests; it accounts for approximately 80 % of the total stock change. Trees and mineral soils act as carbon sinks and the drained peatland soils as a carbon source. By comparing the scenarios of wood energy use we conclude that the amount of carbon emissions avoided by replacing fossil fuels with stemwood is outweighed by the loss in carbon sequestration.

  9. Methane oxidation in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests with different soil texture and atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Saari; P. J. Martikainen; A. Ferm; J. Ruuskanen; W. De Boer; S. R. Troelstra; H. J. Laanbroek

    1997-01-01

    We studied methane oxidation capacity in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests. The Finnish sites (n = 9) had nitrogen depositions from 3 to 36 kg N ha?1 a?1. The deposition of N on the Dutch sites (n = 13) was higher ranging from 50 to 92 kg N ha?1 a?1. The Dutch sites had also limed counterparts.

  10. Forest Research: Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

  11. Finnish nurses' attitudes towards nursing research and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, Merja; Tuomi, Jouni

    2005-02-01

    This study was concerned with Finnish nurses' attitudes to nursing research and with the associations of different background factors with these attitudes. The data were collected with a purpose-designed, structured questionnaire. The study was carried out in one central hospital, one central university hospital and 10 community health centres in Finland. A total of 400 nurses took part. The response rate was 67%. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical software. Attitudes to nursing research were generally quite positive, although over half of the nurses felt their own relationship to nursing science was quite distant. There were also shortfalls with respect to the information value and utilisation of research results. Only one-third took the view that doing research is an important part of the nurse's job. Age, the frequency of reading the professional literature, participation in training courses, training received in research and development, and the type of workplace were associated with attitudes. The results underline the importance of paying closer attention to the choice of research objects in the field of nursing science. Greater effort should also be invested in supporting and developing the application of research results. It is recommended that more courses on research methodology and other relevant training be made available to practical nurses. PMID:15680617

  12. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights…

  13. Forest Service Research Note

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    U.S.D.A. Forest Service Research Note PSW-184 ABSTRACT: Records of 5 and 6 years' cone crops in old-gr9wth rjdwood (Sequoia sempervirens LD. Don Fndl.) stands in northern California were studied for silvical facts. They show that (a) the principal trees in both cut and uncut stands bore fair to good cone

  14. Blodgett Forest Research Station

    E-print Network

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    - nia'sBlodgettForestResearchStation(seemap), he and his team have described more than a dozen plant help to fill in con- founding gaps in atmospheric science, such as how VOCs from plants affect air the morning spike in airborne caffeine fromnearbycafes,aswellastracesofmarijuana. But Goldstein

  15. USDA Forest Service wetlands research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bartuska

    1993-01-01

    Wetland and riparian systems play a major role in flood control, water quality, and food chain support. Timber production, fisheries, and recreation vie economically as primary uses of forested wetlands. This article reviews current Forest Service research in the Intermountain Region, North Central Region, Northeast Region, Pacific Northwest Region, Rocky Mountain Region, and Southern Region. Future research areas are discussed:

  16. Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Kouki, Jari; Strandman, Harri; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2015-02-01

    Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21st century. Landscape suitability for species under climate change is determined by several interacting factors including dispersal and human land use. Designing effective conservation strategies at regional scales to improve landscape suitability requires measuring the vulnerabilities of specific regions to climate change and determining their conservation capacities. Although methods for defining vulnerability categories are available, methods for doing this in a systematic, cost-effective way have not been identified. Here, we use an ecosystem model to define the potential resilience of the Finnish forest landscape by relating its current conservation capacity to its vulnerability to climate change. In applying this framework, we take into account the responses to climate change of a broad range of red-listed species with different niche requirements. This framework allowed us to identify four categories in which representation in the landscape varies among three IPCC emission scenarios (B1, low; A1B, intermediate; A2, high emissions): (i) susceptible (B1 = 24.7%, A1B = 26.4%, A2 = 26.2%), the most intact forest landscapes vulnerable to climate change, requiring management for heterogeneity and resilience; (ii) resilient (B1 = 2.2%, A1B = 0.5%, A2 = 0.6%), intact areas with low vulnerability that represent potential climate refugia and require conservation capacity maintenance; (iii) resistant (B1 = 6.7%, A1B = 0.8%, A2 = 1.1%), landscapes with low current conservation capacity and low vulnerability that are suitable for restoration projects; (iv) sensitive (B1 = 66.4%, A1B = 72.3%, A2 = 72.0%), low conservation capacity landscapes that are vulnerable and for which alternative conservation measures are required depending on the intensity of climate change. Our results indicate that the Finnish landscape is likely to be dominated by a very high proportion of sensitive and susceptible forest patches, thereby increasing uncertainty for landscape managers in the choice of conservation strategies. PMID:25044467

  17. USDA Forest Service wetlands research

    SciTech Connect

    Bartuska, A.M. (USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Wetland and riparian systems play a major role in flood control, water quality, and food chain support. Timber production, fisheries, and recreation vie economically as primary uses of forested wetlands. This article reviews current Forest Service research in the Intermountain Region, North Central Region, Northeast Region, Pacific Northwest Region, Rocky Mountain Region, and Southern Region. Future research areas are discussed: ecosystem processes, restoration and rehabilitation, management of the wetland resource, socioeconomic values, and landscape-scale links. 8 refs.

  18. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2011201210 Woodlands and forests

    E-print Network

    and Accounts 2011­2012 Forest Research 11 is high genetic diversity within the pathogen population. This mayForest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2011­201210 Woodlands and forests are vital protection. Our research seeks to expand our understanding of how trees support these functions, in both

  19. Forest Service Research Note

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    ; Pinus contorta var. murray- ana; Inyo National Forest; Sentinel Meadow; defoliation damage; needle near milleri:147.7 Pinus con tor ta ( 794). Needle Miner Infestations in lodgepole Pine East of the Sierra Crest George R. Struble Stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus oontoPta var. muPPayana) at or above 8

  20. Forest Research Annual Report

    E-print Network

    ;Chairman PROFESSOR H.G. MILLER, OBE Professor of Forestry University of Aberdeen Secretary DR P.H. FREER International PROFESSOR B.R. KERRY Head of Entomology and Nematology Department Rothamsted Experimental Station, Wye College University of London Mr R. KEMPTON Director Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland Forest

  1. A comparison of clinical and research DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia in a Finnish national birth cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Isohanni; T. Mäkikyrö; J. Moring; P. Räsanen; H. Hakko; U. Partanen; M. Koiranen; P. Jones

    1997-01-01

    As a prerequisite to the use of the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register in psychiatric epidemiological research, we studied the diagnostic reliability of the register in terms of the psychiatric morbidity experienced by a national birth cohort. We investigated all entries to the register for a sample based upon the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort at the age of 16

  2. Finnish Comprehensive School Students Contemplate the Forest Fires of Indonesia 1997 from Internet and Newspaper Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin-Oittinen, Toini

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the assignment for eighth-grade students was reporting on the forest fires in Indonesia in chronological order, from 26 August to 27 September 1997. The final stage of the assignment was composing a report in essay format. The goal of this presentation was to examine the historical interpretation of the events and to simultaneously…

  3. Parallel estimates of gross primary production of Finnish forests - comparison of two process models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Markkanen, Tiina; Härkönen, Sanna; Muukkonen, Petteri; Thum, Tea; Aalto, Tuula; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2014-05-01

    Land Surface Models (LSM) describe the material and energy fluxes between the atmosphere, vegetation and soils for climate models and earth system models. Especially, for past and future climate change studies, LSMs need to include ecosystem carbon cycle. Process-based forest growth models and ecosystem impact analysis models, on the other hand, benefit from stand-alone predictions of carbon cycle. In this study, we compared the predictions of GPP made with two modelling systems that are currently applied in Finland. The first one is JSBACH that is LSM of ECHAM6, which is now being applied in Finland with the REMO regional climate model. The second one is the eddy-flux-based GPP and water balance model PRELES that has recently been integrated with large-scale data sets to be run with inventory-based forest data and ground-based meteorological measurements. JSBACH was run with information about plant functional type fractions in 0.167 degree pixels. PRELES applied inventory-scaled information about forest structure on fine resolution (100 m). Both models used same weather data as inputs. When we compared the results of the two model systems, we found little difference between the model predicted annual GPP when aggregated over Finland. Spatial differences in annual GPP and its inter-annual variation over the simulation period (2000-2011) was also parallel, but differences were detected in the seasonal pattern of GPP. Two modelling system showed remarkable converge in predicted annual total GPP, but both models could benefit from a better understanding of timing of the season start and end, especially regarding deciduous species.

  4. Researching the Rain Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chazdon, Robin L.

    1995-01-01

    An autobiography of a female ecologist working in the Costa Rican rainforest is provided as an inspiration for girls. The scientist briefly tells her life story and describes her research activities. (LZ)

  5. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts

    E-print Network

    , Harriet Orr* and Samantha Broadmeadow (free) Exotic pest alert: Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis are listed here as authors are mainly from Forest Research. Conference proceedings, books and reports

  6. Forest Research The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission FR Science Focus

    E-print Network

    and tree related research Our aim is to be a robust, market-relevant and flexible organisationForest Research The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission FR Science Focus 2011-16 Understanding forests and providing solutions for a sustainable future #12;Forest Research - Who we are Forest

  7. Using Qualitative Research Strategies in Cross-National Projects: The English-Finnish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…

  8. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station Sudden Oak Death

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    7 USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station Sudden Oak Death Research Program: 2001 ramorum The Pacific Southwest Research Station (PSW), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service competitive grant program: (1) research needs are identified; (2) a Request for Proposals (RFP) is issued; (3

  9. Research Summary Cultural values of trees, woods and forests

    E-print Network

    , a higher quality of life achieved for local populations, and the diversity of cultural landscapes increasedResearch Summary Cultural values of trees, woods and forests Forest managers have to take account of cultural values as one of the central themes of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM). These are accounted

  10. Towards Communication and Learning Based Leadership: Observations in Finnish Public Research Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saari, Eveliina; Talja, Heli

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Management systems designed for the purposes of the industrial era are not sufficient to rise to the challenge of knowledge-creating organizations. This paper seeks to analyse how the motives and aims of top management and knowledge workers differ from each other. In order to avoid confrontation between managerialism and research work…

  11. [Medical Service of the Finnish Defence Forces].

    PubMed

    Golota, A S; Krassi?, A B; Mikheev, A V; Morovikova, T V; Shalakhin, R A

    2015-01-01

    Thee article is a brief description of the current state of the Finnish Defence Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Finland, the Finnish Defence Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then some particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical , service personnel income. PMID:25916039

  12. Advisory Committee on Forest Research Paper 2001/02

    E-print Network

    visited the Alice Holt Research Station of Forest Research on 29 and 30 October 2001. Secretarial support budgets. The Visiting Group was pleased with the many areas of new research identified by the Head

  13. Finnish Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Aili Rytkonen; Koski, Augustus A.

    This audiolingual text is designed to serve as supplementary material for a beginning course in Finnish, to be introduced "when the student has mastered much of the basic structure of Finnish and about 700 lexical items." The authors suggest that it may also be used as an intermediate course. The text comprises 57 graded reading selections…

  14. Progress in Research on Phytophthora Diseases of Forest Trees

    E-print Network

    Front cover: Crown of a Fagus sylvatica tree, killed by the invasive Phytophthora kernoviaei Progress in Research on Phytophthora Diseases of Forest Trees Proceedings of the Third Brasier, Thomas Jung and Wolfgang Oßwald Forest Research, Farnham, Surrey, UK #12;ii © Crown Copyright

  15. Forest Research "Assessing the contribution of forestry grants to

    E-print Network

    Forest Research "Assessing the contribution of forestry grants to equal access for disabled people and toolkit for assessing the contribution of forestry grants to equal access for disabled people to recreation in Scottish forests. Forestry grants have long been an important mechanism for providing public

  16. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  17. 25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.37...authorized Indian representatives' is authorized to perform forestry research activities to improve the basis for determining...

  18. 25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.37...authorized Indian representatives' is authorized to perform forestry research activities to improve the basis for determining...

  19. 25 CFR 163.37 - Forest management research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.37...authorized Indian representatives' is authorized to perform forestry research activities to improve the basis for determining...

  20. Finnish National Gallery: Art Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At its web site, the Finnish National Gallery presents over 33,000 artworks by more than 6,000 artists. The site is arranged for easy browsing or searching. For example, browse by themes including Abstract, Non-representational Art; Religion and Magic; Nature; or History; as well as time period, or types of art from Painting to Textile art. In addition, searches can be conducted by artist name or work of art, limited by type of work, and, since the search encompasses several museums, location. There are also a couple of "Routes" through the collection - prearranged paths, one of animal images, fourteen works of art and/or paired works to "give you a brief insight into what artists at different times have thought of ... animals", and another called "To the forest", featuring 19 artworks inspired by the woods.

  1. Publications Forest Research publishes a wide range of material, from corporate reports and plans, to

    E-print Network

    Publications Forest Research publishes a wide range of material, from corporate reports and plans and plans Forest Research annual report and accounts 2005­2006 (£20.60) Forest Research corporate plan 2006 in tourism by Suzanne Martin (£10) Knowledge·innovation·sustainability: Forest Research brochure (free) Alice

  2. Forest Inventory Attribute Estimation Using Airborne Laser Scanning, Aerial Stereo Imagery, Radargrammetry and Interferometry-Finnish Experiences of the 3d Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.; Karjalainen, M.; Karila, K.; Kaasalainen, S.; Honkavaara, E.; Hyyppä, J.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote sensing has enabled detailed mapping of terrain and vegetation heights. Consequently, forest inventory attributes are estimated more and more using point clouds and normalized surface models. In practical applications, mainly airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been used in forest resource mapping. The current status is that ALS-based forest inventories are widespread, and the popularity of ALS has also raised interest toward alternative 3D techniques, including airborne and spaceborne techniques. Point clouds can be generated using photogrammetry, radargrammetry and interferometry. Airborne stereo imagery can be used in deriving photogrammetric point clouds, as very-high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are used in radargrammetry and interferometry. ALS is capable of mapping both the terrain and tree heights in mixed forest conditions, which is an advantage over aerial images or SAR data. However, in many jurisdictions, a detailed ALS-based digital terrain model is already available, and that enables linking photogrammetric or SAR-derived heights to heights above the ground. In other words, in forest conditions, the height of single trees, height of the canopy and/or density of the canopy can be measured and used in estimation of forest inventory attributes. In this paper, first we review experiences of the use of digital stereo imagery and spaceborne SAR in estimation of forest inventory attributes in Finland, and we compare techniques to ALS. In addition, we aim to present new implications based on our experiences.

  3. 1998 Proceedings: Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Proceedings of the 1998 Puerto Rico conference on Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research (sponsored in part by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) are available at this Website. The proceedings include the program, abstracts from presentations and posters, and contact information for presenters.

  4. 78 FR 22225 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Integrated Forest Products Research Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...the Integrated Forest Products Research Program AGENCY: National Institute...the Integrated Forest Products Research (FPR) program and specifically...stakeholder input is to gather topic areas for research which will be used in...

  5. 2013 Seed Grant Opportunities for Field Research at the UNBC Aleza Lake Research Forest

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    2013 Seed Grant Opportunities for Field Research at the UNBC Aleza Lake Research Forest Aleza Lake for seed grants to UNBC and allied researchers undertaking new field research (or significant new of Northern BC or other recognized research organization. To apply for a 2013 ALRF Field Research Seed Grant

  6. RESPONSES OF FORESTS TO ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION. NATIONAL RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE FOREST RESPONSE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document presents the national research plan for the Forest Response Program. The introduction provides an overview, a statement of the program objective, and a brief description of the program's organizational structure. A Program Foundations section forms the heart of the r...

  7. Biogeographical and taxonomic biases in tropical forest fragmentation research.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2014-12-01

    Despite several decades of research on the effects of fragmentation and habitat change on biodiversity, there remain strong biases in the geographical regions and taxonomic species studied. The knowledge gaps resulting from these biases are of particular concern if the forests most threatened with modification are also those for which the effects of such change are most poorly understood. To quantify the nature and magnitude of such biases, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on forest fragmentation in the tropics for the period 1980-2012. Studies included focused on any type of response of single species, communities, or assemblages of any taxonomic group to tropical forest fragmentation and on fragmentation-related changes to forests. Of the 853 studies we found in the SCOPUS database, 64% were conducted in the Neotropics, 13% in Asia, 10% in the Afrotropics, and 5% in Australasia. Thus, although the Afrotropics is subject to the highest rates of deforestation globally, it was the most disproportionately poorly studied biome. Significant taxonomic biases were identified. Of the taxonomic groups considered, herpetofauna was the least studied in the tropics, particularly in Africa. Research examining patterns of species distribution was by far the most common type (72%), and work focused on ecological processes (28%) was rare in all biomes, but particularly in the Afrotropics and for fauna. We suggest research efforts be directed toward less-studied biogeographic regions, particularly where the threat of forest fragmentation continues to be high. Increased research investment in the Afrotropics will be important to build knowledge of threats and inform responses in a region where almost no efforts to restore its fragmented landscapes have yet begun and forest protection is arguably most tenuous. PMID:25065550

  8. Condition, Potential Recovery Rate, and Productivity of Lichen (Cladonia spp.) Ranges in the Finnish Reindeer Management Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOUKO KUMPULA; ALFRED COLPAERT; MAURI NIEMINEN

    2000-01-01

    The focus of the work was to investigate dependency between reindeer density and lichen (Cladonia spp.) ranges in the Finnish semidomesticated reindeer management area. Secondly, we formed a model on the recovery rate of ungrazed woodland lichen ranges (29 sites) after forest fires to evaluate the potential productivity and time needed for Finnish lichen ranges to recover at optimal production.

  9. Ray Coupe, Forest and Range Ecologist Mr Ray Coup is a forest and range ecologist who has worked as a research ecologist

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    of ecological research topics such as non-timber forest products, silvicultural systems research to maintainRay Coupe, Forest and Range Ecologist Mr Ray Coupé is a forest and range ecologist who has worked as a research ecologist with the British Columbia Forest Service for over 35 years. Over much of this time Ray

  10. United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station

    E-print Network

    United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station General Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 51 p. Abstract Reliable predictions of how changing climate imputation transfers predictions of fine-scale forest composition and structure across geographic space

  11. TEOS 07 New Technologies in Tropical Forest Research Team Members

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Networked Sensing 2.3 Terrestrial Ecology Observing Systems Figure 1. Tropical rainforest canopy at the LaTEOS 07 New Technologies in Tropical Forest Research Team Members · Michael Allen, Faculty · Eric by revealing previously unobservable phenomena and promoting a new generation of ecological questions. Tropical

  12. Overview of Contemporary Issues of Forest Research and Management in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.

    2011-12-01

    With 207 million ha of forest covering 22% of its land area, China ranks fifth in the world in forest area. Rapid economic growth, climate change, and forest disturbances pose new, complex challenges for forest research and management. Progress in meeting these challenges is relevant beyond China, because China's forests represent 34% of Asia's forests and 5% of the worlds' forests. To provide a broader understanding of these management challenges and of research and policies that address them, we organized this special issue on contemporary forest research and management issues in China. At the national level, papers review major forest types and the evolution of sustainable forestry, the development of China's forest-certification efforts, the establishment of a forest inventory system, and achievements and challenges in insect pest control in China. Papers focused on Northern China address historical, social, and political factors that have shaped the region's forests; the use of forest landscape models to assess how forest management can achieve multiple objectives; and analysis and modeling of fuels and fire behavior. Papers addressing Central and South China describe the "Grain for Green" program, which converts low productivity cropland to grassland and woodland to address erosion and soil carbon sequestration; the potential effects of climate change on CO2 efflux and soil respiration; and relationships between climate and net primary productivity. China shares many forest management and research issues with other countries, but in other cases China's capacity to respond to forest management challenges is unique and bears watching by the rest of the world.

  13. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003200414 Biodiversity assessment in planted

    E-print Network

    Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003­200414 Biodiversity assessment in planted forests Publication of the results of the Biodiversity Assessment programme: Biodiversity in Britain's planted forests programme that investigated 54 plots of one hectare in 16 forests to capture a picture of the biodiversity

  14. 1 Russell T. Graham, Theresa B. Jain are Research Foresters, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 1221 South Main, Moscow, ID, 83843.

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    1 Russell T. Graham, Theresa B. Jain are Research Foresters, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain B. Jain1, Phil Cannon2 FORESTS OF THE INLAND NORTHWEST The Inland Northwest (144.2 million ac of soils (Jain and Graham 2005, Quigley et al. 1996). Moist marine air originating from

  15. Proc. First IUFRO Rusts of Forest Trees WP Conf., 27 Aug 1998. Saanelka, Finland. Finnish Forest Research Institute. Research Papers 712: 275-283. 1998.

    E-print Network

    . Of the six species of Ribes reported in the area Sacramento Mountains, only R. pinetorum and R. cereum were features including elevation, aspect, and Ribes species and abundance were noted for each plot. Trees have was increasing and was influenced by Ribes distribution, elevation, and topography. Rust incidence was greater

  16. The Finnish Public Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndtson, Maija

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the history of Finnish library work and the growing role of libraries; general features of Finnish public libraries (location, number of patrons, financing of libraries, personnel, acquisitions); organization of the libray system; and reformation of the state subsidy system and the public libraries act. (CT)

  17. Research publications of the pringle falls experimental forest, central Oregon cascade range, 1930 to 1993. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, A.

    1995-05-01

    An annotated bibliography of publications resulting from research at the Pringle Falls Experimental Forest, Deschutes National Forest, in central Oregon from 1930 to 1993 is presented. Over 100 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  18. Role of temperate zone forests in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Armentano; J. Hett

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of a workshop on carbon uptake and losses from temperate zone forests are presented. The goals of the workshop were to analyze existing data on growth and utilization of the temperate zone forest carbon pool and to identify further research needs in relation to the role of temperate forests in the global carbon cycle. Total standing stock and

  19. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  20. USDA forest service global change research program highlights: 1991-1995. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsey, R.; Mickler, R.; Sandberg, D.; Tinus, R.; Zerbe, J.

    1997-12-29

    The report summarizes research findings of the USDA Forest Service`s Global Change Research Program. Research highlights are presented at national and regional scales within the following topic areas: atmosphere/biosphere gas and energy exchange; ecosystem dynamics; disturbance ecology; and human activities and natural resource interactions. Selected topics are reviewed in depth with individual papers covering the global carbon cycle, climate scenarios, multiple stress studies, changes in vegetation distribution, the United States carbon budget, and the human dimensions of global change. Also included is a progress report on development of an integrated national model of the effects of global change on forests and people.

  1. Forest statistics for Michigan`s northern lower peninsula unit, 1993. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherberry, E.C.

    1994-10-30

    Michigan`s Northern Lower Peninsula Unit (fig. 1) is comprised of 33 counties. This region of the State is rich with resources that support a network of social, economic, and ecological processes that are forest dependent. The forest resource of the Unit presently supports an industry that operates on a sustaining basis. In 1990 nearly half of Michigan`s saw-log production--297 million board feet--was harvest in the Unit. The forests of the Northern Lower Peninsula are vital to the region. The forest contains a variety of both deciduous and coniferous forest species, which results in regionally unique ecosystems that contribute to biodiversity.

  2. Affective norms for 210 British English and Finnish nouns.

    PubMed

    Eilola, Tiina M; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-02-01

    This article presents affective ratings for 210 British English and Finnish nouns, including taboo words. The norms were collected with 135 native British English and 304 native Finnish speakers, who rated the words according to their emotional valence, emotional charge, offensiveness, concreteness, and familiarity. The ratings between the two languages were found to be strongly correlated. The present ratings were also strongly correlated with the American English emotional valence and arousal ratings available in the Affective Norms for English Words database (Bradley & Lang, 1999) and the Janschewitz (2008) database for taboo words. These ratings will help researchers to select stimulus materials for a wide range of experiments involving both monolingual and bilingual processing of British English and Finnish emotional words. Materials associated with this article may be accessed as an online supplement from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:20160293

  3. The Early Numeracy Test in Finnish: children's norms.

    PubMed

    Aunio, Pirjo; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Heiskari, Pekka; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2006-10-01

    This article concerns psychometric aspects of the Finnish Early Numeracy Test, which has been translated from the original Dutch Early Numeracy Test. The advantage of the test is that young children's numerical skills can be assessed systematically, which was not possible previously in Finland. A norm study was conducted in which the test was administered to a representative sample of 1,029 Finnish children. The reliability and validity results justify the use of the test as an early-childhood screening test and in research on number sense. The indicative effects of gender, parental professional education, domicile and number of siblings are discussed. PMID:16987206

  4. 7 LEARNING BY DOING: PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH WITH FOREST USER GROUPS IN NEPAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Branney; Y. B. Malla; H. R. Neupane

    The principle of learning by doing, or iterative learning, is fundamental to our concept of participatory research. This implies villagers taking some planned action to address a particular problem and subsequently modifying this action through a structured process of monitoring and evaluation. In the same way we as researchers with the Forest User Groups Forest Management Project (FFMP) have adopted

  5. Alice Holt Forest The Forest Research Alice Holt Research Station is located in the centre of the Forest

    E-print Network

    by Gault Clay (Cretaceous) but two detached compartments to the west include the escarpment of the Cretaceous Upper Greensand, and the Research nursery at Headley is on Lower Greensand. Gravel deposits in the Altlantic Period (5500 B.C. ­ 2600 B.C.) with pedunculate oak emerging as the main tree species. Man has

  6. Finnish psychiatry--past and present.

    PubMed

    Pylkkänen, Kari

    2012-03-01

    The history of Finnish psychiatry has been characterized by polarizations: priority in hospitals vs. outpatient care, centralized vs. decentralized organization, independent vs. integrated administration, biological vs. psychological treatments, private vs. public production, special psychiatric policies vs. general health policies. The independent psychiatric organizations on District level lasted from the 1920s until 1990. Since then, the formerly independent psychiatry was subordinated to General Hospital administration and the centralized system of state planning and financing of healthcare was gradually decentralized and run down. During the heavy Finnish economic recession of the early 1990 s, the cuts of the public sector were unfortunately focused most heavily on psychiatric services. The main focus of research and teaching has shifted from earlier emphasis on psychoanalytical approach to biological psychiatry since the late 1980s. The administrative position of psychiatry has been repeatedly changing and unstable during the last 20 years. At the level of the contents of the services, however, there have been many very positive and promising developments. Psychiatry has come closer to other specialties from its formerly isolated position, when the separate administrations have been integrated. Provision of outpatient services has increased remarkably, while the number of hospital beds has decreased radically. Interest and resources in research have increased remarkably, and numerous new and good quality psychiatric research reports are being published. PMID:21770822

  7. Deprivation of Liberty in Psychiatric Treatment: a Finnish perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Valimaki; Johanna Taipale; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

    2001-01-01

    This article is concerned with the deprivation of patients' liberty while undergoing psy- chiatric treatment, with special reference to the situation in Finland. It is based on a review of Finnish law, health care statistics, and empirical and theoretical studies. Relevant research findings from other countries are also discussed. In Finland, it is required that patients are cared for by

  8. Empirical Insights on the Evolution of the Finnish Mobile Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannu T. Verkasalo

    2007-01-01

    This paper carried out an extensive empirical study on mobile service usage in Finland. The newly develop handset-based research platform was utilized in the analysis. A typical Finnish panelist spends 33 minutes \\/ day with smartphonc. Most of this time is allocated on voice calls (33%) and messaging (24%). Younger people and men arc still the most active users of

  9. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  10. Sport As Life Content of Successful Finnish Amateur Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauli Vuolle

    1978-01-01

    The report presents research findings on Finnish male top athletes' education, occupation and family life in the span of life, time expenditure during active sport career, and their relations with sport career. The frame of reference is Festinger's theory of dissonance. The population was the most successful athletes in the Olym pic years from 1956 to 1972. The results are

  11. Ecological Description of Silviculture Systems Research Sites in the Prince George Forest Region

    E-print Network

    Coxson, Darwyn

    Ecological Description of Silviculture Systems Research Sites in the Prince George Forest Region;_____________________________________________________________________________________ _ Madrone Consultants Ltd. 2 Ecological Description of Silviculture Systems Research Sites in the Prince...............................................................................................................5 Ecological Description of the Lunate study area

  12. PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS Forest ecology, with an emphasis on productivity, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Current areas of research

    E-print Network

    Binkley, Dan

    Stewardship, Colorado State University; 1987present. Research and outreach on forest dynamics, includingApril 2012 PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS Forest ecology, with an emphasis on productivity, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Current areas of research focus on longterm changes in ecosystems

  13. THE SCOPE FOR IMPROVING RURAL LIVELIHOODS THROUGH NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS: AN EVOLVING RESEARCH AGENDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIRJAM A. F. ROS-TONEN; K. FREERK WIERSUM

    2005-01-01

    The previously alleged commercialisation-conservation-development links involving non-timber forest products (NTFP) need reconsideration. NTFPs can play an important role in rural livelihood strategies and can contribute to sustained forested landscapes in various tropical areas, but there is no simple answer to how important NTFPs arc in rural livelihoods. The emerging picture we describe is of a diversified research approach towards forest

  14. Computational Overview of Finnish Hydronyms

    E-print Network

    Leino, Antti

    ? · In lake names the primary components (and clusters) follow dialectal regions · River names are different Institute for the Languages of Finland #12;Introduction · Finnish National Land Survey Place Name Register Total In data set Municipalities Lakes 25 178 1 492 10 Parts of lakes 939 10 Rivers 14 650 797 10

  15. An imperative need for global change research in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhui; Fu, Yuling; Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Bo; Luo, Yiqi

    2013-09-01

    Tropical forests play a crucial role in regulating regional and global climate dynamics, and model projections suggest that rapid climate change may result in forest dieback or savannization. However, these predictions are largely based on results from leaf-level studies. How tropical forests respond and feedback to climate change is largely unknown at the ecosystem level. Several complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the effects of climate change on tropical forests, but the results are conflicting, largely due to confounding effects of multiple factors. Although altered precipitation and nitrogen deposition experiments have been conducted in tropical forests, large-scale warming and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) manipulations are completely lacking, leaving many hypotheses and model predictions untested. Ecosystem-scale experiments to manipulate temperature and CO2 concentration individually or in combination are thus urgently needed to examine their main and interactive effects on tropical forests. Such experiments will provide indispensable data and help gain essential knowledge on biogeochemical, hydrological and biophysical responses and feedbacks of tropical forests to climate change. These datasets can also inform regional and global models for predicting future states of tropical forests and climate systems. The success of such large-scale experiments in natural tropical forests will require an international framework to coordinate collaboration so as to meet the challenges in cost, technological infrastructure and scientific endeavor. PMID:24128847

  16. United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    162 homes. Because of the windy conditions, aircraft could not be used until late that first day prepare for the next wildfire that will burn on the Colorado Front Range. Fourmile Canyon Fire Assessment Team: Russ Graham,Assessment team leader: Research Forester, U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain

  17. Snow avalanche disturbances in forest ecosystems—State of research and implications for management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bebi; Dominik Kulakowski; Christian Rixen

    2009-01-01

    Avalanche disturbances are important processes in many subalpine forest ecosystems but have received relatively little research attention in comparison to other major types of disturbances. This paper presents a review of interactions between forests and snow avalanches in mountain ecosystems and discusses how avalanche disturbance regimes and associated management may change in the future. Avalanche disturbance regimes are two-way interactions

  18. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003200478 Developments in the integrated

    E-print Network

    of management to counter the H. abietis threat includes the following key elements: I UnderstandingForest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003­200478 Developments in the integrated management of pine weevil, a pest of restocking in conifer plantations Introduction Integrated Forest Management (IFM

  19. Expansion of gallery forest on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area, Kansas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina L. Knight; John M. Briggs; M. Duane Nellis

    1994-01-01

    To determine the dynamics of the spatial extent of gallery forest on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area (KPRNA), aerial photographs taken over a 46 year time frame were digitized into an ARC-INFO Geographic Information System (GIs). A Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to collect ground control points to co-register the photographs for each year. Gallery forest areas for the

  20. Research gaps related to forest management and stream sediment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher J; Lockaby, B Graeme

    2011-02-01

    Water quality from forested landscapes tends to be very high but can deteriorate during and after silvicultural activities. Practices such as forest harvesting, site preparation, road construction/use, and stream crossings have been shown to contribute sediment, nutrients, and other pollutants to adjacent streams. Although advances in forest management accompanied with Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been very effective at reducing water quality impacts from forest operations, projected increases in demand for forest products may result in unintended environmental degradation. Through a review of the pertinent literature, we identified several research gaps related to water yield, aquatic habitat, sediment source and delivery, and BMP effectiveness that should be addressed for streams in the United States to better understand and address the environmental ramifications of current and future levels of timber production. We explored the current understanding of these topics based on relevant literature and the possible implications of increased demand for forest products in the United States. PMID:21191790

  1. Forest recovery following shifting cultivation: an overview of existing research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teegalapalli Karthik; Gopi Govindhan Veeraswami; Prasanna Kumar Samal

    2009-01-01

    Shifting cultivation is a predominant practice in the majority of tropical hilly tracts. Relatively few studies have examined forest recovery following shifting cultivation and we have reviewed these studies to identify and synthesize general recovery patterns. Most studies report that, although pioneer tree species recover relatively faster, woody biomass of mature forest trees recovers several decades after suspension of cultivation.

  2. Research Summary Community experiences of the National Forest Land Scheme

    E-print Network

    , local economy and democracy. This study focuses on one scheme managed by Forestry Commission ScotlandBackground The National Forest Land Scheme (NFLS) gives Scottish communities the opportunity to buy forest land currently, by low average local incomes, scattered distribution of households, and by a focus on local jobs

  3. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macrocera nigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornu setigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophila haruspica Plassmann is redescribed. PMID:26175613

  4. Research in Support of Forest Management. Final report, 1986--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H. [comp.

    1991-12-01

    This final research report on Research in Support of Forest Management for the Savannah River Forest Station covers the period 1986 thru 1991. This report provides a list of publications resulting from research accomplished by SEFES scientists and their cooperators, and a list of continuing research study titles. Output is 22 research publications, 23 publications involving technology transfer of results to various user groups, and 11 manuscripts in pre-publication format. DOE funding contributed approximately 15 percent of the total cost of the research.

  5. Monitoring Finnish Owls 19821996: Methods and Results

    E-print Network

    ), and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (Saurola 1985). The quality of the Finnish amateur ornitholo- gists (ca. 7-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaetus albicilla), Peregrine (Falco peregrinus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos

  6. Rain Forest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Ryan

    2013-02-12

    Become an expert on the Rain Forest habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. All about Rainforests has lots of great facts about the Rain Forest! Rainforests of the world tells about different Rain Forests in the world. To find out about each one click on the words about different Rain Forests. To research about animals in the Rain Forest, visit Animals of the Rain Forest and Rain Forest Animals. Rain Forest Animals and Rain Forest also has more information about Rain ...

  7. FOREST RESEARCH NOTES J I U.S.DEPARTMENT OFAGRICULTURE

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    ~ERBRUSH IN CALIFORNIAl/ By August L. Hormay Associate Forest Ec~logist INTRODUCTION Bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata D. C , 500 to 11., 000 feet. It coinmonly grows on sites occupied by big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata

  8. Research SummaryForest Research Engaging with rivers: using imaginative and creative approaches as a learning tool

    E-print Network

    Research SummaryForest Research Engaging with rivers: using imaginative and creative approaches communities. In the RIVERS project we tested the use of creative writing as a tool to engage with river but systematic review of research evidence on innovative approaches to participatory river basin planning m

  9. A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 200929 23 Invasive Forest Pathogens

    E-print Network

    . This paper identifies critical, long-term research needs in four key areas: (1) prediction and prevention, (2 Plant Pathologist and Research Geneticist, respectively, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station Station, 1561 Lindig Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108. 3 Assistant Professor, Kookmin University, Department

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Isolation from forest reduces pollination, seed predation

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    studies distinguish between the effects of habitat loss and isolation, or how multiple ecosystem services semi-natural habitats and isolation from forest on the relative functioning of pollination, seed-natural habitat cover. However, the proportion of flowers setting seed was significantly reduced by isolation from

  11. English for "Old" Canadians: The Finnish Project in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    The Finnish-Canadian Citizenship Project was organized to teach English to older Canadians of Finnish descent in British Columbia. The 24 enrollees had between one and ten years of formal schooling. The Finnish Canadians use a dialect of English words with Finnish pronunciations that must be unlearned in order to learn English. The students…

  12. Forest Watch: An educational research program of the New Hampshire Space Grant Consortium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Forest Watch is a student-scientist partnership and education outreach program to study white pine health in New England. Primary and secondary students collect and process data on air pollution damage to forests near their schools, which is used by University of New Hampshire researchers, and compared with spectral data. These are then compared to tropospheric ozone data, beginning from 1991. Data spreadsheets for the student to enter forest biometric data and spectral curves are provided, as well as EOS-Webster satellite imagery, and GPS, ALTA, and Topo-Map activities forms. The student activities include forest stand assessment, laboratory assessment of damage symptoms, and image processing and data analysis of Thematic Mapper data around their school. There is information on teacher workshops and a message board.

  13. Educational Innovations in Finnish and European Contexts: An Analysis of the Aims and Outcomes of "The European Observatory" of the European Commission (1994-1998). Research Report 200.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Seppo; Tirri, Kirsi

    The purpose of this document is to analyze some of the major developments and research findings of the European Observatory of Innovations in Education and Training (1994-1998). The Observatory was a consortium of 13 member countries of the European Union serving as a European network of researchers and educators in the field of comparative…

  14. The Association of Finnish Cities and Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, L. O.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the Association of Finnish Cities and Towns as an organization that enhances the cooperation and administration of municipal matters, including adult education, in the cities and boroughs of Finland. (GB)

  15. Puhumme Suomeksi (Let\\'s Speak Finnish)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Cannon

    2005-10-25

    Learn to speak the Finnish Language Try out these websites for some fun \\"learning language\\" adventures Verbix Verbix Foreign Languages for Travelers Foreign Languages for Travelers Goethe Tests: Multilingual Vocabulary Exercises Goethe Tests: Multilingual Vocabulary Exercises ...

  16. Growth of Thinned and Pruned Stands Oscar Garcia, Forest Research Institute, Rotorua, New Zealand

    E-print Network

    García, Oscar

    Growth of Thinned and Pruned Stands Oscar Garc´ia, Forest Research Institute, Rotorua, New Zealand Abstract General patterns in the growth of thinned and pruned stands are explored with the help of empirical growth models and graphical analysis of raw data. A vari- able representing relative stand closure

  17. Research on Particle Swarm Optimization strategy for forest fire detection system based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Zhu-liang; Ma Shi-ping; Tao Zuo-ying

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the network performance, to increase network coverage rate, to achieve the maximization of network coverage and extend the network of life in the forest fire detection system, the present research has proposed a wireless sensor networks (WSNs) coverage particle swarm optimization (PSO) strategy on the basis of probability measuring model. Through the PSO, the strategy achieves

  18. Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution on US forests

    E-print Network

    Review Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution School of Forestry & Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, 206 M. White-Smith Hall, Auburn, AL 36849 phytotoxic air pollutant over large areas of US forests. Abstract Tropospheric ozone (O3) was first

  19. Tree Breeding and Selection for the Future Elspeth Macdonald & Steve Lee, Forest Research

    E-print Network

    Tree Breeding and Selection for the Future Elspeth Macdonald & Steve Lee, Forest Research Thanks Group 26th October 2011 #12;Outline · Gains from Sitka spruce breeding programme · Wood and timber properties from improved Sitka spruce · Improving mechanical properties through breeding · Screening in young

  20. Wake Forest NCORP Research Base | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  1. Technical Report TR-014 May 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-print Network

    Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife TR-014 Tools ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife #12;Technical Report TR-014 May 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

  2. PACIFIC SOUTHWEST FOREST SERVICE

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    94701 Forest and Range Ex~erimentStation FOREST PRODUCTS HARVESTED IN HAWAII-1969 Robert E. Burgan Wesley H. C. Wong, Jr. USDA Forest Service Research Note PSW-239 1971 Abstmct: Rimary forest products: forest products output; Hawaii; annualharvest. The value of primary forest products harvested in Hawaii

  3. Multidisciplinary Research on Canopy Photosynthetic Productivity in a Cool-Temperate Deciduous Broadleaf Forest in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, H.; Noda, H. M.; Saitoh, T. M.; Nagai, S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy has crucial roles in regulating energy and material exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems and in ecological processes with respect to carbon cycle and growth in the ecosystems. Challenges to the canopy of tall forests for such research involve the access to the leaves for ecophysiological observations, responses of leaves to the changing environments from seconds to years, and up-scaling the leaf-level phenomena to canopy and landscape-levels. A long-term, multidisciplinary approach has been conducted in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Takayama site (ca. 1400m a.s.l.) in central Japan. This forest canopy is dominated by Quercus crispula and Betula ermanii. We have been focusing on the phenology of photosynthetic productivity from a single leaf to canopy, and to landscape level, by combining leaf ecophysiological research, optical observations by spectroradiometers and time-laps cameras with the aid of "Phenological Eyes Network (PEN)", and process-based modellings. The canopy-level photosynthesis is then compared with the micrometeorolgical observation of CO2 flux at the site. So far we have been clarifying that (1) inter-annual variations in seasonal growth rate and senescence rate of leaf photosynthetic capacity and canopy leaf area are largely responsible for the inter-annual change in forest photosynthesis, and (2) spectral vegetation indices such as enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and chlorophyll index (CCI) can be the indicator to observe the phenology of forest canopy photosynthesis. In addition to these efforts since 2003, we established an open-field warming experiment on the branches of the canopy trees, to investigate the possible influence of temperature increase on leaf photosynthetic and optical properties and then to examine whether the optical satellite remote sensing can detect the changes in photosynthetic capacity and phenology by ongoing global warming.

  4. Into the Forest: The Teacher Heart of a Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article was a teacher, who had taught high school English for seven years. Then she was a researcher, observing and interviewing, recording and reflecting. One incident, stretching over four class periods, took her back across that divide between teacher and researcher, and touched her personally. She was trying to understand…

  5. Recycling and long-range timber outlook. Background research report 1993 RPA assessment update USDA forest service. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ince, P.J.

    1994-10-01

    This research report presents an economic analysis of the U.S. amd Canadian pulp and paper sector, and addresses the issue of paper recycling and its projected impact on the long-range timber outlock. The report describes the structure, data, and assumptions of a comprehensive economic model developed to simulate competitive future evolution of technology and markets for all products and fiber inputs of the U.S. and Canadian pulp and paper sector. The model was linked by iterative solution to the USDA Forest Service TAMMA/ATLAS model, which encompasses the lumber and plywood sectors, timber stumpage markets, and timber growth and inventory.

  6. 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 143 SIMULATING THE INTERACTIONS OF FOREST STRUCTURE,

    E-print Network

    2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 143 SIMULATING THE INTERACTIONS OF FOREST, exotic invasive plants. Past studies suggest these multiple disturbances interact to shape species species including three major invasive tree species, and using a variety of forest fragmentation and fire

  7. Finnish Higher Education in Transition: Perspectives on Massification and Globalisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valimaa, Jussi, Ed.

    This book discusses recent changes in Finnish higher education, pinpointing the changes and analyzing what they mean. The chapters are: (1) "GeoPolitical and Cultural Coordinates for Finnish History" (Jussi Valimaa); (2) "A Historical Introduction to Finnish Higher Education" (Jussi Valimaa); (3) "Analysing Massification and Globalisation" (Jussi…

  8. In: Bevers, Michael; Barrett, Tara M., comps. 2005. Systems Analysis in Forest Resources: Proceedings of the 2003 Symposium. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-656. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Sta

    E-print Network

    to the northern edge of the Siskiyou National Forest, and from the Pacific Ocean east to the Willamette RiverIn: Bevers, Michael; Barrett, Tara M., comps. 2005. Systems Analysis in Forest Resources of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 1 P. Bettinger is an Associate Professor

  9. Research on Non-Timber Forest Products in Selected Countries in Southern and East Africa: Themes, Research Issues, Priorities and Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ruiz P rez; A. J. Broekhoven; J. R. W. Aluma; S. Iddi; J. D. Lowore; S. M. Mutemwa; J. A. Odera

    Summary In this paper, the outcomes of a consultative meeting on non-timber forest products are reported and discussed. The meeting was organised by CIFOR and IUCNÕs Eastern Africa Regional Office on 15 and 16 September 1995 in Nairobi, Kenya, with the aim of discussing research priorities and information gaps related to non-timber forest products. The workshop brought together 11 people,

  10. BIOTROPICA *(*): ****** **** 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2007.00337.x Impact of Research Trails on Seedling Dynamics in a Tropical Forest

    E-print Network

    Goldsmith, Greg

    on Seedling Dynamics in a Tropical Forest Liza S. Comita1 Department of Biology, University of Georgia, Athens: Barro Colorado Island; forest dynamics plot; long-term ecological research; Panama; research impact estimates of vegetation dynamics and forest structure. In this study, we sought to quantify the significance

  11. Finnish Upper Secondary Students' Collaborative Processes in Learning Statistics in a CSCL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oikarinen, Juho Kaleva; Järvelä, Sanna; Kaasila, Raimo

    2014-01-01

    This design-based research project focuses on documenting statistical learning among 16-17-year-old Finnish upper secondary school students (N = 78) in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. One novel value of this study is in reporting the shift from teacher-led mathematical teaching to autonomous small-group learning in…

  12. Having, Loving, and Being: Children's Narrated Well-Being in Finnish Day Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila; Syrjala, Leena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to answer the following question: what do children tell about their well-being in Finnish day care centres? The theoretical and methodological framework of this study is based on a narrative approach. The research material was collected by participating in the everyday life of three groups of children and listening to…

  13. Not Babies Anymore: Young Children's Narrative Identities in Finnish Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of deepening understanding of young children's identity construction, the study explores small stories produced in a Finnish day care center context. Small stories are understood as identity-constituting social practices that occur and recur in day care settings. Taking ideas on narrative ethnography as starting point, research

  14. Vocational Career Decision-Making of Finnish Upper Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to clarify the characteristics of Finnish upper secondary school students as vocational decision-makers. The focus was especially on what skills and competences were related to decision-making at different phases of the decision-making process. Altogether, 216 upper secondary school students filled in the…

  15. Transforming Causal Logics in Finnish Adult Education: Historical and Moral Transitions Rewritten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Leena; Filander, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the historical representations of adulthood, citizenship and the ideal social bonds of an individual and the society in the transforming moral orders of Finnish adult education. The research is based on a thematic reading of data, which consist of texts written during the past 150 years by theorists of adult…

  16. Confronting the Technological Pedagogical Knowledge of Finnish Net Generation Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Pontinen, Susanna; Kukkonen, Jari; Dillon, Patrick; Vaisanen, Pertti; Hacklin, Stina

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is concerned with a critical examination of some of the assumptions concerning the "Net Generation" capabilities of 74 first-year student teachers in a Finnish university. There are assumptions that: (i) Net Generation students are adept at learning through discovery and thinking in a hypertext-like manner (Oblinger &…

  17. A Validation of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Finnish Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakarinen, Eija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Kiuru, Noona; Siekkinen, Martti; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the validity and reliability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; R. C. Pianta, K. M. La Paro, & B. K. Hamre, 2008) in Finnish kindergartens. A pair of trained observers used the CLASS to observe 49 kindergarten teachers (47 female, 2 male) on two different days. Questionnaires measuring…

  18. 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS

    E-print Network

    2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, Athens, GA 30602 ABSTRACT The effects of emerald ash

  19. Young physicians and the Finnish welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arttu Saarinen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This article aims to focus on how young physicians in general and different subpopulations, in particular, see the role of the welfare state. The author seeks to compare young physicians' opinions with those of older physicians, a similar age group in the general population and all physicians. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A random sample was picked from the Finnish Medical

  20. TAPIR — Finnish national geochemical baseline database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaana Jarva; Timo Tarvainen; Jussi Reinikainen; Mikael Eklund

    2010-01-01

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil

  1. Gender and injury in Finnish comprehensive schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simo Salminen; Anne Lounamaa; Marja Kurenniemi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the gender differences in injuries at Finnish comprehensive schools. Nine schools reported a total of 1135 injuries to the injury register over two school years. Boys (56%) were injured more often than girls, their injuries happened more often during breaks at school yard, whereas girls hurt themselves during sport lectures in the

  2. Polytechnic Graduate Placement in Finnish Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite…

  3. Ground water contamination at Finnish landfills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Assmuth; T. Strandberg

    1993-01-01

    In a field study of 43 Finnish landfills, hydrogeological site conditions were characterized, and toxic substances in ground water were analyzed at 16 sites. The concentrations of several main leachate components, harmful substances and AOX in nearfield ground water were elevated above background values. However, the concentrations of most micropollutants were dominated by small values, causing skewed and truncated frequency

  4. Finnish Students’ Attitudes towards Commercialised Sex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pekka Räsänen; Terhi-Anna Wilska

    2007-01-01

    The article examines attitudes towards sexuality and its commercial representations among Finnish students aged 18–30. In order to evaluate commercialised sex as broadly as possible, we approached it from three angles: sex as a special effect in media and marketing; display of a ‘sexy’ body and clothing as a part of young person's identity; and sex or pornography as a

  5. Intention in School Choice among Finnish Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective…

  6. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher education policy,…

  7. Biomass relations for components of five minnesota shrubs. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Buech, R.R.; Rugg, D.J.

    1995-08-31

    The tall shrub stratum is an important component of upland forests in the Lake States, especially of deciduous forest communities. The prevalance of tall shrubs has produced a recurring research interest in this stratum both in ecological studies and wildlife habitat surveys within the region. For such purposes, estimates of the biomass of tall shrubs or their component parts are often needed. The authors examine goodness of fit of two predictor variables (shrub height and stem diameter class) in three relations. The authors provide equations that use stem diameter class or stem diameter class and height to estimate biomass of six components of five shrub species, as well as generalized equations derived from a composite of all five species. Finally, the authors provide the information needed to construct standard errors for biomass estimates.

  8. Trends in research related to “Shinrin-yoku” (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing) in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuko Tsunetsugu; Bum-Jin Park; Yoshifumi Miyazaki

    2010-01-01

    “Shinrin-yoku”, which can be defined as “taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing”, has been receiving increasing\\u000a attention in Japan in recent years for its capacity to provide relaxation and reduce stress. Since 2004, the authors of this\\u000a paper have been involved in an investigation designed to ascertain the physiological effects of “Shinrin-yoku” within the\\u000a framework of the “Therapeutic

  9. Stories of Change: TieVie - The Support Service for Finnish Universities Toward the Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairamo, Anna-Kaarina; Sinko, Matti

    In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.

  10. Finnish Dialect Atlas for Quantitative Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila M. Embleton; Eric S. Wheeler

    1997-01-01

    Before we can do quantitative studies of large volumes of dialect material (such as Embleton & Wheeler, 1996, on English), it is necessary to have machine?readable sources of data. For Finnish dialects, the principal source of data is an out?of?print dialect atlas (Kettunen, 1940), which we are now putting into machine?readable form. To ease the chore of data entry, we

  11. Finnish guidelines for workplace drug testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirjo Lillsunde; Katariina Haavanlammi; Ritva Partinen; Kristiina Mukala; Matti Lamberg

    2008-01-01

    The Finnish guidelines for workplace drug testing outlined here represent what is considered the best practice for workplace drug testing to be followed in Finland. The guidelines are based on the act on the protection of privacy in working life (759\\/2004), the occupational health care act (1383\\/2001) and the decree on workplace drug testing (218\\/2005). They start by defining situations

  12. A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 200929 55 The Role of the Forest Service

    E-print Network

    A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 55 The Role of the Forest Service in Aquatic Invasive Species Research Susan B. Adams1 , Kelly M. Burnett2 , Peter Bisson3 include the most imperiled taxa in the United States, and invasive species are the second leading

  13. Development of an Urban Boreal Forest Observatory for Ecosystem and Carbon Exchange Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertschi, I.; Welker, J.; Sveinbjornsson, B.; Peterson, K.; Olsson, P.; Boggs, K.; Carlson, M.

    2005-12-01

    We have begun to establish an Urban Boreal Forest Observatory (UBFO) on the University of Alaska Anchorage campus as a research and teaching platform for long-term measurements of atmosphere-biosphere interactions and ecosystem and organismic process studies. During the summer of 2005, two 10-m towers equipped with meteorological sensors were deployed at the UBFO to monitor meteorological parameters throughout the forest canopy, including canopy temperature profiles, soil temperature regimes, soil moisture, and canopy interception of precipitation and solar irradiance. The towers are located in contrasting habitats; an upland site dominated by white spruce and birch and a lowland site dominated by black spruce and sphagnum mosses. Measurements collected this summer indicate the upland and lowland sites have seasonal mean soil temperatures of 12.7 ± 0.9 and 10.6 ± 0.4 °C, respectively. Additionally, soil water content at the lowland site is a factor of 2.6 greater than that of the upland site (0.214 ± 0.002 and 0.082 ± 0.005 dS m-1, respectively) while the seasonal mean air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation values are similar for the two sites. This research will contribute to establishing long-term monitoring of the Boreal Forest in an urban setting as part of the National Ecological Observatory Network, NEON, and our measurement array will expand this fall to include CO2 and H2O vapor vertical profiling for analysis of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and real-time data delivery to a web site and display screen in the Ecosystem Biomedical Laboratory at UAA. In the coming year, an infrared spectrometer (e.g., Fourier transform infrared or tunable diode laser system) capable of making in situ measurements of atmospheric 13CO2 and 12CO2 will be added to the platforms to observe isotopic CO2 flux ratios and for partitioning NEE of CO2 into its components of assimilation and respiration.

  14. Exploratory Water Budget Analysis of A Transitional Premontane Cloud Forest in Costa Rica Through Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Buckwalter, E. H.; Moore, G. W.; Burns, J. N.; Dennis, A. R.; Dodge, O.; Guffin, E. C.; Morris, E. R.; Oien, R. P.; Orozco, G.; Peterson, A.; Teale, N. G.; Shibley, N. C.; Tourtellotte, N.; Houser, C.; Brooks, S. D.; Brumbelow, J. K.; Cahill, A. T.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Gonzalez, E.; Hallmark, C. T.; McInnes, K. J.; Miller, G. R.; Morgan, C.; Quiring, S. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Roark, E.; Delgado, A.; Ackerson, J. P.; Arnott, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of transitional premontane cloud forests is not well understood. This problem is being addressed by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) study at the Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research & Education in Costa Rica. Exploratory analysis of the water budget within a 20-ha watershed was used to connect three faculty-mentored research areas in ecohydrology, climate, and soil sciences and highlight the roles of 12 undergraduate researchers from 12 different universities. The water budget model is Q = Pn - E - T + ?G + ?S where Q = runoff, Pn = net precipitation, E = evaporation, T = transpiration, and ?G and ?S are change in groundwater soil water storage, respectively. Additionally, Pn = Pg - I = Tf + Sf + D, where Pg = gross precipitation, I/?I = canopy interception or storage, Tf = throughfall, Sf = stemflow, and D = canopy drip. The following terms were well understood Pg (satellite = 34-mm and tower = 38.1-mm) and Q from a recently constructed v-notch weir. We moderately understand Tf + D (30.9-mm from an array of forest rain gages), ?I (7.2-mm) related to Sf, and T (10.4-mm measured with sapflow sensors). We found that soils were clay loam to silty loam textured Andisols on saprolitic tuft with a mean potential ?S of 398 mm H2O under laboratory conditions, but in the field the following terms are almost completely unknown and require further field studies including E, ?G, and ?S. Recent installation of piezometers will address ?G. Temporal scaling of measurements to a 1-week period was a challenge as well as the construction, deployment and calibration of instruments. However, this exploration allowed us to determine measurement uncertainties in the water budget, e.g., E, and to set future areas of research to address these uncertainties.

  15. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

  16. 242 USDA Forest Service RMRS-P-55. 2008. In: Olberding, Susan D., and Moore, Margaret M., tech coords. 2008. Fort Valley Experimental Forest--A Century of Research 1908-2008.

    E-print Network

    forest characteristics including the abundance and composition of understory vegetation. At these study of varying fire intervals on forest characteristics includ- ing the abundance and composition of understory information for these two sites when examining future floristic changes due to continued research on fuels

  17. Heavy metals in muscle, liver, and kidney from Finnish reindeer in 1990-91 and 1991-92

    SciTech Connect

    Rintala, R.; Venaelaeinen, E.R.; Hirvi, T. [Finnish National Veterinary and Food Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metals were analyzed from reindeer by the Finnish National Veterinary and Food Research Institute. The analyses were part of a larger project during the period 1990-1993, in which residues in vegetables, milk, berries, fish and reindeer were monitored. The main aim of the reindeer study was to investigate possible differences between the heavy metal contents of reindeer samples from northern, eastern, western and southern Lapland. Another objective of the study was also to clarify the environmental effects of industrial activities in the Kola Peninsula and in Tornio on the food products of Finnish Lapland. Analyses of organochlorine compounds from reindeer samples were also performed, but these results will be published later after a larger number of samples has been studied. Results of the reindeer analyses were also compared with previous reindeer and elk studies of the Finnish National Veterinary Institute (1980) and Neimi (1993) and with two Norwegian studies (roslie 1984 and 1986). 13 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  19. Narrative Semantic Web --Case National Finnish Epic Kalevala

    E-print Network

    Hyvönen, Eero

    Narrative Semantic Web --Case National Finnish Epic Kalevala Eero Hyv¨onen, Tuomas Palonen the narrative story and content of the Finnish national epic Kalevala has been modeled in RDF/OWL and published; they are recounts of stories describing a sequence of fictional events (e.g. in novels, epics, etc.) or real life

  20. Regional variation in Finnish lake and hill names Antti Leino

    E-print Network

    Leino, Antti

    Regional variation in Finnish lake and hill names Antti Leino Abstract The Finnish basic map #12;Places Lakes Hills per name Names Places Names Places 1 25 178 58 267 46 222 86 303 2 5 154 38 8 5 Table 1: The number of lake and hill names on the basic map Lakes Hills Name Places Name Places

  1. Diel patterns of soil respiration in a moist subtropical forest: key drivers and future research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez del Arroyo, O.; Wood, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Moist tropical forests have the highest soil respiration rates (Rs) of any terrestrial ecosystem and account for approximately one third of the world's soil carbon (C) pool. Small increases in the magnitude of Rs in these ecosystems can result in high rates of soil C loss, with significant consequences for global climate change. Identifying the climatic controls of Rs in moist subtropical forests will improve our ability to predict how this large C flux will respond to climate change. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether Rs varies on diel timescales, (2) whether diel Rs patterns vary seasonally, and (3) identify biophysical drivers of this temporal variation. We measured hourly Rs in a secondary, moist subtropical forest in Puerto Rico for a 3-year period using an automated soil respiration system (LI-COR 8100/8150 with six chambers). Concomitant with Rs we measured hourly variation in several climatic drivers (air/soil temperature, soil moisture, relative humidity, and photosynthetically active radiation). Soil respiration showed significant diel variation, with the magnitude, amplitude, and shape of these curves varying throughout the year. Overall, diel Rs peaked in the late afternoon and reached a minimum in the early morning. Diel amplitudes ranged from 1 to 7 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1, with larger amplitudes occurring in warmer months that also have higher rates of Rs. In warmer months Rs exhibited a strong bimodal pattern, and a narrower diel range with a single peak in cooler and drier months. Diel Rs was positively correlated with soil temperature, but this relationship was non-linear during the day and linear at night (i.e., hysteresis). The bimodal pattern of Rs may be due to a mid-day depression of photosynthesis when humidity is low and air temperature is high, thereby reducing transport of photosynthate to the roots and decreasing rhizospheric respiration. The hysteresis between Rs and temperature suggests multiple controls on Rs on diel time-scales. Research that partitions Rs into its components could provide insight into their respective sensitivities to different climatic drivers, improving our capacity to understand the effects of climate change on the tropical forest C cycle.

  2. Forest Research ISSUE 8 The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission1 | SERG Newsletter

    E-print Network

    linkages between research, policy and practice, increasing the impact of research findings. Social science, and by providing explanations of human behaviour and the wider social, economic and political contexts in which science can help. In each of the projects featured here, we contributed both to the processes themselves

  3. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Davidson; D. B. Dail; D. Hollinger; N. Scott; A. Richardson

    2012-01-01

    Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric COâ. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed

  4. The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program: Current Research and Future Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Inventory Timber Information Forest and Forest Health Information Aerial photography w/field sampling Field and some geospatial products #12;9/18/2008 3 Overview: Additional Components of FIA · Timber Product Output of estimates of non-wood forest products in the United States (contact: Tony Johnson) · §Physical constraints

  5. Safety climate in Finnish- and Swedish-speaking companies.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Simo; Seppälä, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare assessments made by Finnish- and Swedish-speaking workers in Finland about the safety climate in their companies, because an earlier study showed that the accident frequency of Swedish-speaking workers was one third lower than that of Finnish-speaking workers. 148 Finnish-speaking and 138 Swedish-speaking workers from 14 small and medium-sized companies participated in this study. They filled out a Finnish safety climate questionnaire, the reliability of which was above the acceptable level. There were no differences between the language groups in the total variables of safety climate and safety action. Based on the differences in single items, we interpreted that Swedish-speaking workers stressed collective safety more, whereas Finnish-speaking workers put more emphasis on their personal responsibility for safety. PMID:16329782

  6. Look at Me! Does the Adult Truly See and Respond to the Child in Finnish Day-Care Centres?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalliala, Marjatta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Kangaroo research project was to enhance the well-being of children under three years of age in Finnish day-care centres. In this experimental intervention study adults were encouraged to take a more sensitive and active role especially during "free play." In six Kangaroo groups and five control groups adults (N = 28) and children…

  7. Even the Best Have Difficulties: A Study of Finnish Straight-A Graduates' Resource-Oriented Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela, Mari; Määttä, Kaarina

    2015-01-01

    To achieve top scores, students need not only talents and study skills but also they have to conquer various adversities successfully. This research focused on the study paths, the concept adopted from Hickman, Bartholomew, Mathwig, and Heinrich (2008), of Finnish straight-A graduates in general upper secondary education. In this article, we refer…

  8. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRSP13. 2000420 Abstract.--Researchers, managers, and educators have access to revo-

    E-print Network

    a home account, or use of public access systems at libraries. How- ever you manage to "play" on the WebUSDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS­P­13. 2000420 Abstract.--Researchers, managers, and educators. Introduction Immediate access to scientific literature has been a dreamofresearchers

  9. Weighted vowel prototypes in Finnish and German.

    PubMed

    Savela, Janne; Eerola, Osmo; Aaltonen, Olli

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the perceptual vowel space of the Finnish and German languages, which have a similar vowel system with eight vowels, /?/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /y/ /æ??/ /ø/. Three different prototypicality measures are used for describing the internal structuring of the vowel categories in terms of the F1 and F2 formant frequencies: The arithmetic mean (centroid) of the F1-F2 space of the category (Pc), the absolute prototype of the category (Pa), and the weighted prototype of the category (P?), in which the stimulus formant values are weighted by their goodness rating values. The study gave the following main results: (1) in both languages, the inter-subject differences were the smallest in P?, and on the order of Difference Limen (DL) of F1-F2 frequencies for all of the three measures, (2) the Pa and P? differed significantly from the centroid, with the absolute prototypes being the most peripheric, (3) the vowel systems of the two languages were similar (Euclidean distances in P? of Finnish and German 7-34 mels) although minor differences were found in /e/, / ø/, and /u/, and (4) the mean difference of the prototypes from some earlier published production data was 100-150 mels. PMID:24606288

  10. BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jouni I. Peltoniemi; Sanna Kaasalainen; Jyri Näränen; Miina Rautiainen; Pauline Stenberg; Heikki Smolander; Sampo Smolander; Pekka Voipio

    2005-01-01

    The spectral and directional reflection properties of pine forest understory in Suonenjoki, Finland were measured using a newly developed transportable field goniospectrometer under direct sunlight or plant lamp. The samples represent the most typical types in Finnish forests. Large differences between species were found. Wax-leaved shrubs such as lingonberry and blueberry proved to be strong forward scatterers, whereas lichen and

  11. NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates: 3-D Characterization and Comparison of Vegetation Structure in a Tropical Premontane Wet Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Davis, K.; Falkowski, T.; Tarbox, B.; Delgado, A.; March, R.; Moore, G. W.; Tjoelker, M.; Gonzalez, E.; Houser, C.

    2011-12-01

    This National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) site hosted by Texas A&M University to allow selected undergraduate students to conduct original research on various aspects of the ecohydrology of understudied tropical pre-montane forest at the Texas A&M Soltis Center for Research and Education in Central Costa Rica. This particular study was conducted by 3 students under the guidance of 5 mentors who assisted in experimental design, equipment use, maintenance, and training, plant species identification and other logistical requirements. The goal of this study was to determine the change in 3-D structure of tropical premontane wet forest under 3 different land uses: a carbon tree farm, secondary logged forest, and primary unlogged forest. Traditional forest mensuration techniques including glass prisms (stand basal area), laser clinometers (height), vertical and horizontal PAR, spherical densiometers, and hemispherical photography (GAP fraction and LAI) and, root cores, and diameter-at-breast height (DBH) tapes were acquired in one 30-m diameter plot per land and use compared to similar metrics collected by a terrestrial scanning laser (TSL) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) at 400 MHz and 1.5 GHz across 3 land uses along an elevation gradient from ~380-masl to 525-masl. Besides discovery, another goal of this study was to see if the TSL and GPR can help meet the Tier 2 and 3 monitoring and verification goals of the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries for estimating above- and below-ground biomass using remote sensing. This is of particular importance because the GPR may be able to capture below-ground biomass in a more efficient manner than traditional coring and the TSL and GPR can capture data on highly sloped terrain where both airborne and satellite RADAR and LIDAR are limited. The 50, 000 pts/sec 532 nm TSL collected 3 to 5 scans per 30-m diameter plots at 4-cm spacing, 270° vertical, and 360° horizontal, generating a >100 million point cloud per site at ±2-mm range accuracy. Registration within 2-mm RMSE yielded a 3-D virtual environment per site where tree measurements were made manually. Comparisons showed that GPR may be masked by high soil moisture. DBH error measures ranged from ± 0.6 to 5.18 % and height was 0.26 to 20.19 % for carbon farm to primary forest. The height comparison indicated that the laser clinometer consistently underestimated tree heights, particularly on the primary forest site where trees were over 35-m.

  12. [Tropical monsoon forests of Vietnam (results of 20 years of phytoecological research)].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A N; Kuznetsova, S P

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out during the period 1989-2011. The following areas were included: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Climax tropical forest and anthropogenically transformed ecosystems, including those damaged by the chemical warfare program of the United States in Vietnam, were investigated. Some regularities in the structure dynamics and functioning of forests ecosystems under a tropical monsoon climate have been revealed. The principles of classification of tropical forests have been elaborated. The major results of investigation of the tropical monsoon forests in Vietnam are given. PMID:23789426

  13. An Undergraduate Research Experience: Wireless Propagation and Position Location in a Forest Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson, Christopher

    Over the past several years, the undergraduate curriculum at many universities has been evolving to incorporate laboratory exercises and research projects to reinforce and support traditional classroom lectures. In particular, involving undergraduates in meaningful research projects is a key to providing them with the hands-on activities students are demanding. Unfortunately, two areas in the electrical engineering curriculum are suffering from a lack of meaningful hands-on learning activities: electromagnetics and communications. At many universities, electromagnetics is taught as a highly theoretical, highly mathematical class with the goal of providing students a deep understanding of Maxwells equations. Students that complete such a course generally struggle when faced with applying Maxwells equations to real-world electromagnetics problems such as transmission lines, antenna design, or wireless propagation. Introductory communications courses may have laboratory components, however, involving students in an undergraduate research project is an excellent mechanism to supplement and reinforce the laboratory exercises. This paper presents a summer undergraduate research experience that involved characterizing ultra wideband wireless propagation and position location in a forest environment. Four undergraduate students were selected to participate in the research experience. All four students had taken the basic electromagnetics and communications courses, although only one had prior hands-on experience. Additionally, the use of impulse ultra-wideband signals represented a new wireless communication scheme that students had to master at the beginning of the research experience. After an initial training period, students were tasked with site selection, experimental design, recording measurements, analyzing data, and troubleshooting equipment failures. Although it is too early to assess the impact of the research experience on these students careers, the experience appears to have been a success. All four students reported a greater depth of understanding of the concepts taught in electromagnetics and communications courses. Additionally, students gained valuable experience in developing and carrying out field experiments sometimes in less than ideal conditions and as a result of this experience, some students expressed a desire to pursue a graduate degree. Designing this research project also provided several valuable lessons to the instructors which will aid in the further development of hands-on learning activities for electromagnetics and communications courses.

  14. JanuaryMarch 2012 Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station New Publications July to September 2014

    E-print Network

    , please see the last page.2 RMRS New Publications July to September 2014 Federal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programsFIAplotintensificationprocedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Anthropocene: Forest conservation and management . . . . . . . .5 New Mexico's forest

  15. IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS - EMERGING RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure - Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, USA are summarized. Tropospheric ozone is st...

  16. The Research on Solar Power System of Wireless Sensor Network Node for Forest Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen-jia Sun; Wen-bin Li; Hua-fei Xiao; Liang Xu

    2010-01-01

    The nodes of Wireless Sensor Network used in forest monitoring can not replace battery frequently, so they can not use disposable chemical battery with limited energy as traditional sensor network nodes. This article studied on the WSN node power system for forest monitoring, designed a node solar power system on the basis of analysis of the sensor node hardware and

  17. Fisher Research and the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project: Current Results and Future Efforts 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian B. Boroski; Richard T. Golightly

    2002-01-01

    The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project was initiated on the Kings River Ranger District of the Sierra National Forest, California, in 1993, with fieldwork beginning in 1994. Knowledge of the ecology of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the Project area, and in the Sierra Nevada of California in general, is insufficient to develop empirically based management strategies or to

  18. Riparian forest buffer system research at the coastal plain experiment station, Tifton, GA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Hubbard; R. R. Lowrance

    1994-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on riparian forest buffer systems for filtering sediment, nutrients, and pesticides entering from upslope agricultural fields. Studies in a variety of physiographic areas have shown that concentrations of sediment and agrichemicals are reduced after passage through a riparian forest. The mechanisms involved are both physical and biological, including deposition, uptake by vegetation, and loss by microbiological

  19. Simulation research on control system and ballistic of a remote forest fire fighting cannon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonggang Pang; Shaogang Liu

    2010-01-01

    A fire fighting cannon is fire-fighting equipment developed for fighting against forest fires; it is considered the tree crown fire and the inaccessible areas which are dangerous for man to get close as extinguishing object. The forest fire fighting cannon is launched by pneumatic method; the timing device within the extinguishing shell will be triggered after launching. After the free-flying

  20. Modeling the forest transition: forest scarcity and ecosystem service hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Satake, Akiko; Rudel, Thomas K

    2007-10-01

    An historical generalization about forest cover change in which rapid deforestation gives way over time to forest restoration is called "the forest transition." Prior research on the forest transition leaves three important questions unanswered: (1) How does forest loss influence an individual landowner's incentives to reforest? (2) How does the forest recovery rate affect the likelihood of forest transition? (3) What happens after the forest transition occurs? The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimum model of the forest transition to answer these questions. We assume that deforestation caused by landowners' decisions and forest regeneration initiated by agricultural abandonment have aggregated effects that characterize entire landscapes. These effects include feedback mechanisms called the "forest scarcity" and "ecosystem service" hypotheses. In the forest scarcity hypothesis, forest losses make forest products scarcer, which increases the economic value of forests. In the ecosystem service hypothesis, the environmental degradation that accompanies the loss of forests causes the value of ecosystem services provided by forests to decline. We examined the impact of each mechanism on the likelihood of forest transition through an investigation of the equilibrium and stability of landscape dynamics. We found that the forest transition occurs only when landowners employ a low rate of future discounting. After the forest transition, regenerated forests are protected in a sustainable way if forests regenerate slowly. When forests regenerate rapidly, the forest scarcity hypothesis expects instability in which cycles of large-scale deforestation followed by forest regeneration repeatedly characterize the landscape. In contrast, the ecosystem service hypothesis predicts a catastrophic shift from a forested to an abandoned landscape when the amount of deforestation exceeds the critical level, which can lead to a resource degrading poverty trap. These findings imply that incentives for forest conservation seem stronger in settings where forests regenerate slowly as well as when decision makers value the future. PMID:17974339

  1. Current status and trends in Timber Severance Tax Legislation in the south. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, T.K.

    1995-01-01

    Severance tax programs currently exist in eight States in the South. These laws have been enacted primarily to encourage better forest management and to provide revenues for a variety of forest management and to provide revenues for a variety of forestry initiatives. In most States, either the severer or the primary processor of forest products is designated as the taxpayer. Severance tax rates are established as either: (1) a fixed amount per unit of measurement or (2) a percentage of the value of timber harvested. Severance tax receipts have increased across the South since 1987, a trend that will continue if anticipated demand for southern wood products is realized.

  2. Polarised Multiangular Reflectance Measurements Using the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Suomalainen, Juha; Hakala, Teemu; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Puttonen, Eetu

    2009-01-01

    The design, operation, and properties of the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO) are presented. FIGIFIGO is a portable instrument for the measurement of surface Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) for samples with diameters of 10 – 50 cm. A set of polarising optics enable the measurement of linearly polarised BRF over the full solar spectrum (350 – 2,500 nm). FIGIFIGO is designed mainly for field operation using sunlight, but operation in a laboratory environment is also possible. The acquired BRF have an accuracy of 1 – 5% depending on wavelength, sample properties, and measurement conditions. The angles are registered at accuracies better than 2°. During 2004 – 2008, FIGIFIGO has been used in the measurement of over 150 samples, all around northern Europe. The samples concentrate mostly on boreal forest understorey, snow, urban surfaces, and reflectance calibration surfaces. PMID:22412342

  3. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-18. 2001. 5 1Rocky Mountain Research Station,

    E-print Network

    --Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is widely dispersed across the landscape of North America. Seventy occurrence. Ihave studied quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) for the past 28 years for Forest Service

  4. Soil carbon balance on drained and afforested transitional bog in forest research station Vesetnieki in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi?is, Ain?rs; Lazdi?š, Andis

    2015-04-01

    Around 0.8 mill. ha forests in Latvia are located on organic soils and 0.5 mill. ha of these forests are drained. Drainage of organic soils alters carbon stock and may has impact on the climate change. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of drainage on a soil carbon stock in transitional bog (average growing stock before drainage 50 m3*ha-1) located in central part of Latvia in research station "Vesetnieki". Drainage was done in 1960. Average peat thickness is around 4.5 m; dominant tree species are pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies Karst.) with average growing stock 226 m3*ha-1 and 213 m3*ha-1. Volumetric peat samples were taken from soil surface down to 80 cm depth in 30 sample plots in drained sites and non-drained areas (transitional bog), which have been left as a control. Bulk density, carbon content in peat was determined to evaluate carbon stock changes in soil. Ground surface levelling in drained sites was done before drainage and repeatedly in 1966, 1970, 1975, 1977, 1982 and 2014 to calculate peat subsidence. The rate of peat subsidence after drainage increased rapidly, and 14 years after drainage 15.8 cm decrease of the surface level was found. The rate of the peat subsidence decreased later, and the ground level reduced by 9.9 cm in the following 40 years, reaching 25.7±3.5 cm from initial ground surface level in the 2014. The rapid decrease of the surface level after drainage can be explained by physical alters and by decomposition of the peat surface layers, however, it is not possible to assess now, which of these processes dominated. However, the significant (?=0.05) increase of the peat bulk density and carbon content in upper layers (0-80 cm) in drained sites compared to non-drained leads to conclusion that the compaction was the dominating process. Average carbon stock (0-80 cm deep soil layer) in non-drained areas is 339±29 tons*ha-1 and 513±27 tons*ha-1 in drained sites. We compared carbon stock in upper 80 cm soil layer in transitional bog (339±29 tons*ha-1) with peat layer in drained sites 54.3 cm corresponding to 80 cm in non-drained (359±19 tons*ha-1). The study reveals that soils in drained sites have accumulated 0.36 tons*ha-1*a-1 more carbon than soils in non-drained sites, however the difference on carbon stock between sites is not statistically significant (?=0.05). If non-drained organic soils are considered to be a carbon sink or at least not a carbon source, then we can conclude that drained organic soil in research station "Vesetnieki" in 50 years period did not become a carbon source.

  5. PACIFIC SOUTHWEST FOREST SERVICE

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    on the Redwood Experimental Forest, North Coast California. The release distances tested were radii of 2, 3, BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA94701 Experiment Station GROWTH OF RELEASED REDWOOD CROP SEEDLINGS ON THE REDWOOD EXPERIMENTAL FOREST Kenneth N. Boe USDA Forest Service Research Note PSW-229 1971 ABSTRACT: Potential redwood

  6. The Finnish Twin Cohort Study: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    In 2002 and 2006 review papers have described the Finnish Twin Cohort and studies conducted on these population-based, longitudinal data-sets with extensive follow-up data. Three cohorts have been established, the older twin cohort in the 1970s, and the Finntwin12 and Finntwin16 studies initiated in the 1990s. The present review provides on update on the latest data collections conducted since the previous review. These cover the fourth waves of data collection in the older cohort (twins born before 1958) and Finntwin12 (twins born 1983–1987). The fifth wave of data collection in Finntwin16 (twins born 1975–1979) included also assessments of their spouses/partners. An analysis of mortality in the older cohort from 1975 to 2009 indicates that the mortality of adult twins (as individuals) does not differ from the population at large. Based on the cohorts, many sub-studies with more detailed phenotyping and collection of omics data have been conducted or are in progress. We also contribute to numerous national and international collaborations. PMID:23298696

  7. Essential oil polymorphism in finnish thymus species.

    PubMed

    Stahl-Biskup, E; Laakso, I

    1990-10-01

    Chemical polymorphism concerning the essential oils of the genus THYMUS is a widespread phenomenon, especially in the northern species. The two Finnish species, T. SERPYLLUM ssp. SERPYLLUM and T. SERPYLLUM ssp. TANAENIS, turned out to form four different chemotypes each, with hedycaryol, germacra-1(10),5-dien-4-ol, germacra-1(10),4-dien-6-ol, linalool, and linalyl acetate as type-characterizing compounds. Otherwise the oils of the two subspecies were similar containing myrcene, TRANS-beta-ocimene, beta-caryophyllene, and germacrene D as the main terpene hydrocarbons. 1,8-Cineol and camphor represented another great portion in both oils. If Finland is regarded as an area of T. SERPYLLUM (s.l.), a total of six types of plants can be defined with regard to the essential oil chemistry only. Including the frequency of these six types at the four areas investigated, a certain gradient from the south to the north can be seen. A most interesting aspect is the fact that the most frequent, linalyl acetate containing chemotype of the northern Lapland has nearly the same oil composition as T. PRAECOX ssp. ARCTICUS in Island, Norway, and Greenland. PMID:17221449

  8. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-boreal zone: case Finland.

    PubMed

    Mielikäinen, Kari; Hynynen, Jari

    2003-01-01

    The majority of untouched natural boreal forests have been regenerated through large catastrophes, occurring by intervals between 50 and 100 years. Storm and fire will open the landscape, result in a huge amount of dead or dying trees and let the pioneer tree species germinate. These processes are the guideline for Finnish forest management today. The main focus by maintaining the biodiversity in Finnish boreal forest zone is directed to managed forests. Nature-orientated silviculture on stand level is practised. The site type classification, a reflection of the modern concept of biodiversity and developed by Cajander early in 1900s, on the basis of natural vegetation composition of the site, has the central role by choosing tree species, regeneration methods and thinning procedure, and reflects also on the site productivity. The small size of stands, the abundance of natural seedlings in planted stands and the popularity of mixed stands have a positive impact on biodiversity of forests. The protection of small-sized valuable habitats in commercially managed stands, the leaving of retention trees standing and lying in the forest in all phases of the rotation, are activities made for biodiversity. Many insects and fungi are adapted to catastrophes and so they can survive in single stems left on regeneration areas. Maintaining the biodiversity in multifunctional forests is also supported by the new forest legislation and by the criteria of Finnish Forest Certification System. PMID:12659803

  9. Riding the Web 2.0 Wave: Candidates on YouTube in the 2007 Finnish National Elections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Carlson; Kim Strandberg

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to expand the research on the adoption of social networking Web sites in electoral politics beyond the U.S. by exploring the use and impact of the YouTube video-sharing Web site in the 2007 Finnish national elections. Focusing on uploaded videos featuring candidates, the study shows that YouTube played a marginal role in the elections. Only 6% of

  10. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various environmental applications. PMID:20673967

  11. Impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds on ozone production at the Taehwa Research Forest near Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So-Young; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Lee, Meehye; Turnipseed, Andrew; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Jong-Choon; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Saewung

    2013-05-01

    The importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in understanding of air-quality and climate on regional to global scales has been highlighted in a number of modeling and observational studies. At the same time, another important emerging research topic in atmospheric chemistry is the regional and global impacts of fast growing East Asian megacities. These two research topics must be integrated in order to adequately understand and address air quality challenges emerging from Eastern Asian megacities surrounded by planted or natural forest areas. We present initial measurement results for May, June and September 2011 from the Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) which has been developed to serve as a long term observatory for investigating biosphere-atmosphere interactions at the edge of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (population of ˜23.5 million). The comprehensive measurement datasets of ozone and its precursors such as CO, NOx, SO2 and VOCs shows that high ozone episodes in the suburban site could not be explained by just anthropogenic pollutants alone. In addition, isoprene (C5H8) and monoterpenes (C10H16) were observed as two of the most important OH chemical sinks inside of the forest canopy. In order to understand the impacts of these BVOCs on ozone and related photochemistry, we conducted model sensitivity simulations using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem) for conditions including with and without BVOC emissions. The modeling results suggest that BVOC emissions could enhance regional daytime ozone production from 5 to 20 ppbv. The observed temporal variations in ozone correspond well with the variations in BVOCs, which likely reflects the influence of BVOCs on ozone formation. These findings strongly suggest that interactions between anthropogenic pollutants and BVOCs must be understood and quantified in order to assess photochemical ozone formation in the regions surrounding East Asian megacities.

  12. Long-term Research on Wolves in the Superior National Forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. David Mech

    The seeds for the blossoming of the wolf ( Canis lupus ) population throughout the upper Midwest were embodied in a long line of wolves that had persisted in the central part of the Superior National Forest (SNF) of northeastern Minnesota, probably since the retreat of the last glaciers. This line of wolves had withstood not only the various natural

  13. Role of temperate zone forests in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Armentano; J. Hett

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of a workshop on carbon uptake and losses from temperate zone forests are reported. Total standing stock and growth recovery transients were examined for most of the temperate region over a period from pre-settlement times to the present, with emphasis on the last three decades. Because of data availability, certain regions and topics were covered more in detail

  14. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2009201010 Significantly, we found that infected larch needles can

    E-print Network

    between climate change and forests, particularly the growing effects of climate change on pest flooding in the future due to climate change. This two-year demonstration project is funded.forestry.gov.uk/fr/slowingtheflow Centre for Forestry and Climate Change We investigate and provide guidance on the complex interaction

  15. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-18. 2001. 81 1North Central Research Station,

    E-print Network

    forests, have declined due to human activities. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and bigtooth aspen: A Lake States Perspective Figure 1--Range map for quaking as- pen (Populus tremuloides) (source: Burns (Populus grandidentata) are among the premier early successional species in the United States. Quaking

  16. Preliminary results of Finnish-Hungarian Doppler Observation Campaign /FHDOC/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czobor, A.; Adam, J.; Mihaly, Sz.; Vass, T.; Parm, T.

    The Finnish-Hungarian Doppler Observation Campaign, carried out in Finland during 13 days in August 1983, is discussed. It is shown that three Hungarian JMR-1A receivers and one Finnish JMR-4 receiver occupied 9 stations together with the first order triangulation network points of Finland. The processing of the data, performed in SGO, Penc, using two different program systems, GEODOP III and SADOSA, is described. The observation strategy and the results obtained by the two programs, as well as the S-transformations, are given. The data are presented in tables and graphs.

  17. The effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system - What works, what doesn't, and what could be improved?

    SciTech Connect

    Poeloenen, Ismo, E-mail: Ismo.Polonen@uef.f [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Law, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Hokkanen, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.hokkanen@ely-keskus.f [Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for Central Finland, P.O. Box 250, FIN-40101 (Finland); Jalava, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.j.jalava@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-03-15

    The article summarises the results of a multidisciplinary research project on the effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system. It examines the main strengths and weaknesses of EIA as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool. The study concludes that EIA has achieved a meaningful role in the environmental policy toolbox in Finland and has clearly enhanced the possibilities for high-quality environmental decision making. The research cites the liaison authority system as a clear strength of the Finnish EIA system in its enabling a single regional authority to specialise in and gain wide experience on EIA issues. In examining potential weaknesses of the regime, the article concludes that the key constraint on EIA effectiveness is inadequacy of the action-forcing mechanisms at the decision-making phase. The primary means to improve the effectiveness of EIA would be to strengthen the legal provisions on development consents. On the whole, the research indicates that the EU and Finnish legislation and guidance on environmental impact assessment provide a good framework for effective utilisation of the instrument.

  18. Academic Journalese for the Internet: A Study of Native English-Speaking Editors' Changes to Texts Written by Danish and Finnish Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Jokipii, Hilkka; Jorgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate, within the textual framework of "academic journalese", what happens to Danish and Finnish writers' English texts when edited by native English-speaking editors for publication on the World Wide Web. We use the term academic journalese to describe texts written by researchers or professionals with…

  19. 60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 21GTR-NRS-P-123 Penobscot exPerimental Forest

    E-print Network

    60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 21GTR-NRS-P-123 Penobscot ex in supporting forest research in Maine. In 1950, nine pulp and paper and land-holding companies pooled resources and purchased almost 4,000 acres of land in east-central Maine. The property was named the Penobscot

  20. Distribution and Medical Impact of Loss-of-Function Variants in the Finnish Founder Population

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Elaine T.; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S.; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M.; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I.; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B.; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli

    2014-01-01

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5–5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10?8) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P?=?1.5×10?117). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR?=?0.84, P?=?3×10?4), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers. PMID:25078778

  1. Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Elaine T; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K; Reilly, Muredach P; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P; Stitziel, Nathan O; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Daly, Mark J; Palotie, Aarno

    2014-07-01

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5-5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10??) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P?=?1.5×10?¹¹?). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR?=?0.84, P?=?3×10??), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers. PMID:25078778

  2. Grazing on regeneration sites encourages pine seedling growth. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Ratliff; R. G. Denton

    1995-01-01

    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the seedlings were significantly taller, with longer leaders with season-long grazing than without

  3. Research for the development of best management practices for minimizing horse trail impacts on the Hoosier National Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aust, M.W.; Marion, J.L.; Kyle, K.

    2005-01-01

    This research investigates horse trail impacts to gain an improved understanding of the relationship between various levels of horse use, horse trail management alternatives, and subsequent horse trail degradation. A survey of existing horse trails on the Hoosier National Forest was used to collect data on use-related, environmental and management factors to model horse trail impacts. Results are analyzed to identify which factors are most easily manipulated by managers to effectively avoid and minimize horse trail impacts. A specific focus includes evaluating the relative effect of trail use level, surfacing, grade, and water control on indices of erosion and trafficability such as trail cross sectional area, estimated erosion, muddiness, and incision. Overall, the Hoosier National Forest horse trails could be significantly improved by relocating or closing inherited trails that directly ascend slope or are excessively steep, reducing the distance between water control structures, and by applying gravel to harden trail surfaces and reduce soil erosion. A set of Best Management Practices for trails are included as a product of this work, with recommendations based on this research.

  4. A national collaboration process: Finnish engineering education for the benefit of people and environment.

    PubMed

    Takala, A; Korhonen-Yrjänheikki, K

    2013-12-01

    The key stakeholders of the Finnish engineering education collaborated during 2006-09 to reform the system of education, to face the challenges of the changing business environment and to create a national strategy for the Finnish engineering education. The work process was carried out using participatory work methods. Impacts of sustainable development (SD) on engineering education were analysed in one of the subprojects. In addition to participatory workshops, the core part of the work on SD consisted of a research with more than 60 interviews and an extensive literature survey. This paper discusses the results of the research and the work process of the Collaboration Group in the subproject of SD. It is suggested that enhancing systematic dialogue among key stakeholders using participatory work methods is crucial in increasing motivation and commitment in incorporating SD in engineering education. Development of the context of learning is essential for improving skills of engineering graduates in some of the key abilities related to SD: systemic- and life-cycle thinking, ethical understanding, collaborative learning and critical reflection skills. This requires changing of the educational paradigm from teacher-centred to learner-centred applying problem- and project-oriented active learning methods. PMID:22095059

  5. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarja Nurmi; Jaakko Mursu; José L. Peñalvo; Henrik E. Poulsen; Sari Voutilainen

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant

  6. Mortality by indicators of socioeconomic status among the finnish elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuija Martelin

    1994-01-01

    Socioeconomic mortality differentials among the entire Finnish elderly population (those aged 60 years and over) during 1981-85 are examined on the basis of linked data, compiled by means of linking death records of 1981-85 to the 1980 census. Several indicators of socioeconomic position are used: own educational level and occupational class, spouse's education and class, household disposable income, and housing

  7. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious…

  8. Uncertainties in the Finnish greenhouse gas emission inventory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suvi Monni; Sanna Syri; Ilkka Savolainen

    2004-01-01

    Reliable uncertainty estimates are a tool for increasing the quality of national emission inventories which are essential for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The first detailed uncertainty assessment was performed for the Finnish greenhouse gas emission inventory considering the years 1990 and 2001 using Monte Carlo simulation to combine uncertainties. In this work, uncertainty estimates were based on available

  9. Repatriation and Identification of Finnish World War II Soldiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jukka U. Palo; Minttu Hedman; Niklas Söderholm; Antti Sajantila

    Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatria - tion, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War.

  10. How Do Finnish Pre-Adolescents Perceive Religion and Spirituality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubani, Martin; Tirri, Kirsi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Finnish pre-adolescents perceive religion and spirituality. The participants of the study are 12- to 13-year-old Grade 6 pupils (N=102). The pupils were asked to give their meanings of religion and spirituality. The data includes over 700 written expressions on the two concepts. The qualitative…

  11. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  12. School Nurses as Health Counsellors in Finnish ENHPS Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Jakonen, Sirkka; Tupala, Minna; Vertio, Harri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how school nurses estimated their goal attainment in view of the contents and methods of health counselling and their roles and possibilities as health promoters in the school community. Data were collected from the school nurses (n=31) of the Finnish European Network of Health-Promoting schools, using a semi-structured…

  13. New Directions in LSP Testing at Finnish Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauranen, Anna

    Finnish university language centers are responsible for testing the foreign language proficiency of nearly all university students. It is important that students are assigned equitably to courses, including Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) courses. It is also important in LSP teaching for students' needs and opinions to be taken into account,…

  14. The Prevalence of Stalking among Finnish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Katja; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and nature of stalking among university students in Finland. The prevalence of stalking was analyzed in relation to stalking episodes, violent stalking victimization, the stalker-victim relationship, and stalking duration. A group of Finnish university students were contacted by e-mail and asked to…

  15. Management of congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Holmberg; Marjatta Antikainen; Kai Riinnholm; Marja Ala-Houhala; Hannu Jalanko

    1995-01-01

    Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited disease characterised by intrauterine onset of massive urinary loss of proteins, 90% of which is albumin. The CNF gene has been localised to the long arm of chromosome 19, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. Historically, all CNF patients died, usually within the first 6 months of

  16. Integrated pollution prevention and control—the Finnish approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimmo Silvo; Matti Melanen; Antero Honkasalo; Seppo Ruonala; Marianne Lindström

    2002-01-01

    The Finnish environmental policy concerning industrial activities rests to a large extent on the following three principles, (1) participation of industry and other stakeholders in the preparation of new legislation and in the setting up of environmental targets; (2) strict but practical and cost-effective implementation of regulations, standards and permit provisions, in which operators themselves can choose appropriate technical measures

  17. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  18. Finnish architectural competitions: structure, criteria and judgement process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Kazemian; Magnus Rönn

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the Finnish architectural competition system is examined to understand how a peer-review process works for the judgement and selection of the best architectural design. The evaluation of criteria in the competition process is clarified to determine how architectural issues are conceived and examined by the professional jury members. The thought processes of the architect-dominated jurors are elucidated;

  19. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  20. Core Geographical Concepts: Case Finnish Geo-Ontology Riikka Henriksson

    E-print Network

    Hyvönen, Eero

    , the process of building geo- ontologies for the uses of spatially-aware search engines is studied in [4Core Geographical Concepts: Case Finnish Geo-Ontology Riikka Henriksson Helsinki University +358 9 451 3362 eero.hyvonen@tkk.fi ABSTRACT In this paper we examine 1) the scope of geo

  1. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  2. Young Children's Well-Being in Finnish Stepfamilies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Changing family relationships as a result of divorce are considered a potential threat to children's well-being. This study investigates the well-being of children under the age of eight years in Finnish stepfamilies from the viewpoint of the mother. The goal of this study is to explore how the structural characteristics of the stepfamily and the…

  3. NEBRASKA'S FOREST RESOURCES IN 2005

    E-print Network

    NEBRASKA'S FOREST RESOURCES IN 2005 Dacia M. Meneguzzo Gary J. Brand William R. Lovett United J. BRAND is a Research Forester with the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station, in St) in the state are measured each year during a 5-year cycle. A complete inventory consists of measuring

  4. Forest Features

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson plan students learn about different types of forests - temperate deciduous forests, temperate evergreen forests, and tropical rain forests. Students will concentrate on the tropical rain forest and learn about the Congo Trek made by the explorer Michael Fay through the African rain forest.

  5. Leguminous ground covers could reduce herbicide use in forestry. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ponder, F.

    1994-01-01

    Establishing tree seedlings in mixed stands after harvesting is difficult without adequate vegetation control. Artificial regeneration can be used to ensure desirable future stands, but competing vegetation decreases survival and growth. Vegetation control can be costly and laborious. Large amounts of herbicides are used annually in forest management to reduce vegetation that competes with trees for growing space, nutrients, water, light, and other essential components. Using herbicides to control weeds is economical, but may not always be environmentally acceptable. One alternative is to establish nitrogen-fixing (legume) ground covers, which may suppress the more competitive weeds and enrich the soil.

  6. Salvage logging effect on soil properties in a fire-affected Mediterranean forest: a two years monitoring research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Moltó, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Chrenkovà, Katerina; Torres, Pilar; Jara-Navarro, Ana B.; Díaz, Gisela; Izquierdo, Ezequiel

    2015-04-01

    In the Mediterranean countries, forest fires are common and must be considered as an ecological factor, but changes in land use, especially in the last five decades have provoked a modification in their natural regime. Moreover, post-fire management can have an additional impact on the ecosystem; in some cases, even more severe than the fire. Salvage logging is a traditional management in most fire-affected areas. In some cases, the way of doing it, using heavy machinery, and the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation make this management potentially very agresive to soil, and therefore to the ecosystem. Very little research has been done to study how this treatment could affect soil health. In this research we show 2 years of monitoring of some soil properties in an area affected by a forest fire, where some months later this treatment was applied. The study area is located in 'Sierra de Mariola Natural Park' in Alcoi, Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012. The forest is composed mainly of Pinus halepensis trees with an understory of typical Mediterranean shrubs species such as Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brachypodium retusum, etc. Soil is classified as a Typic Xerorthent (Soil Survey Staff, 2014) developed over marls. In February 2013, salvage logging (SL) treatment consisting in a complete extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery was applied in a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring this effect were installed in this area and in a similar nearby area where no treatment was done, and then used as control (C) for comparison. Soil samplings were done immediately after treatment and every 6 months. Some soil properties were analysed, including soil organic matter (SOM) content, basal soil respiration (BSR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), bulk density (BD), soil water repellency (SWR), aggregate stability (AS), field capacity, nitrogen, etc. After two years of research, results showed significant soil degradation as a consequence of the salvage logging treatment. Most of the soil parameters studied showed differences between control and salvage logging treatments, SOM content in first 2.5 cm of topsoil being less than half in SL plots in comparison with C plots. BSR, MBC and AS were also statistically significant lower in SL plots. BD increased as a consequence of SL treatment. In conclusion, we can affirm that with this type of soil, which is very vulnerable to soil degradation, this treatment has a very negative effect on the ecosystem; this was also reflected in the abundance and diversity of plant species. Acknowledgements: to the 'Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad' of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R), Spanish Soil Science Society, FUEGORED, Alcoi council, ACIF Alcoi, and Sierra de Mariola Natural Park for their support.

  7. Investigating the spatial expression of millennial-scale Holocene climate changes: a multi-proxy lake sediment approach, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fower, D.; Wilson, G. P.; Pepin, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has identified global Holocene climate instability. Oscillations at c. 2500 year intervals, identified in ocean and ice core records, are thought to be driven by solar variation. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC), a regulator of climate, oscillates with quasi-periodicities of c. 1500 years, the cause and spatial expression of which is uncertain. This project investigates how these subtle oscillations influenced the climate of northern Scandinavia through high-resolution, multi-proxy analysis (diatoms, isotope geochemistry, organic content, particle size, biogenic silica) of a lacustrine sediment sequence in Northern Finland. The resulting high-resolution, multi-proxy climate record clarifies the role of the THC in driving terrestrial climate change in this region. A 1.99m sediment core was extracted from Sirrajärvi, Northern Finnish Lapland in March 2012. Lake Sirrajävri (69.761619oN, 26.892815oE) is located 208 m.a.s.l. and lies at the boreal forest-alpine tundra ecotone. It is surrounded by low alpine heaths and isolated stands of birch (Betula pubescens spp. tortuosa). The lake is situated within a nature reserve, and <4km to Kevo subarctic research station, which houses a meteorological station with >50 yrs. of observations. The lake, which is 0.182 km2 in area and 11.2m deep at the centre, is ice covered between Sept. and May. The duration of lake ice cover is the main influencing factor on lake physio- chemistry and thus diatom ecology. The lake is hydrologically open and ?18O analysis of its waters (-11.2‰) predominantly reflects the mean annual weighted isotopic composition of precipitation. The core has been dated at 11160 yrs BP at 195cm and 2810 yrs BP at 69cm. In addition, sediment was collected from 30 lakes along a north-south transect in Finland in July 2012 to form the basis of a diatom-based transfer function, used to identify the major influencing variable(s) on diatom species assemblages which, in turn, is used in a quantitative reconstruction. In addition, monthly monitoring of Lake Sirrajävri ice cover and diatom population dynamics (ongoing since March 2011) further informs palaeoenvironmental interpretation. The resulting high-resolution, multiproxy (diatom, ?18Odiatom, ?13Corganic, C/N, particle size, organic content) palaeoclimate reconstruction provides a much-needed additional record in an area dominated by a complex relationship between the North Atlantic THC and regional terrestrial climate.

  8. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R; Pukkala, E; Perheentupa, A; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebæk, N E; Toppari, J

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998–2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57–80) million/mL, 60 (51–71) and 48 (39–60) for birth cohorts 1979–81, 1982–83 and 1987; total sperm counts 227 (189–272) million, 202 (170–240) and 165 (132–207); total number of morphologically normal spermatozoa 18 (14–23) million, 15 (12–19) and 11 (8–15). Men aged 10–59 years at the time of diagnosis with testicular cancer during 1954–2008 were included in the registry study, which confirmed the increasing incidence of testicular cancer in recent cohorts. These simultaneous and rapidly occurring adverse trends suggest that the underlying causes are environmental and, as such, preventable. Our findings necessitate not only further surveillance of male reproductive health but also research to detect and remove the underlying factors. PMID:21366607

  9. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service 1996 annual report wetlands research related to the Pen Branch restoration effort on the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Kolka, R.K. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Trettin, C.C. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service and their collaborators (SRTC, SREL, and several universities) in wetlands monitoring and research on the Savannah River Site. This report describes the rationales, methods, and results (when available) of these studies and summarizes and integrates the available information through 1996.

  10. A Forest Science Effective Research Supervision in the Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Silikon, Lebuh

    2008-01-01

    At least historically, undergraduate research supervision has predominantly been seen as part of the basic research function of academic staff. In many fields of study, success in research requires not only sophisticated experimental and analytical skills, but good mentoring and managerial skills as well. This paper presents an observational case…

  11. Cartilage-hair hypoplasia — clinical manifestations in 108 Finnish patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Miikitie; I. Kaitila

    1993-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is an autosomal recessive metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with short-limbed short stature, hypoplastic hair, and defective immunity and erythrogenesis. We have analysed the clinical outcome of 108 Finnish patients. Birth length was below ?2.0 SD in 70% of the patients; the adult heights ranged from ?11.4 SD to ?5.2 SD. The sitting height percentage was increased in all but 4

  12. Prevalence of primary fibromyalgia in the Finnish population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Mäkelä; M Heliövaara

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To obtain descriptive epidemiological data on fibromyalgia and its components in a representative sample of the Finnish population. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of 8000 Finns aged 30 or more invited for screening and a main examination for musculoskeletal disorders and other major disorders. SETTING--A mobile clinic. POPULATION--7217 subjects who attended the screening phase; 3434 subjects positive on screening who attended the

  13. Detection of the founder effect in Finnish CADASIL families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kati Mykkänen; Marja-Liisa Savontaus; Vesa Juvonen; Pertti Sistonen; Seppo Tuisku; Susanna Tuominen; Maila Penttinen; Johan Lundkvist; Matti Viitanen; Hannu Kalimo; Minna Pöyhönen

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited cerebrovascular disease characterized by brain infarcts, cognitive decline and dementia. The disease is caused by at least 91 missense mutations, four deletions and one splice site mutation in the NOTCH3 gene, which maps to 19p13.1. In 18 out of the 21 Finnish CADASIL families so far identified,

  14. School nurses as health counsellors in Finnish ENHPS schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerttu Tossavainen; Hannele Turunen; Sirkka Jakonen; Minna Tupala; Harri Vertio

    2004-01-01

    Describes how school nurses estimated their goal attainment in view of the contents and methods of health counselling and their roles and possibilities as health promoters in the school community. Data were collected from the school nurses (n=31) of the Finnish European Network of Health-Promoting schools, using a semi-structured questionnaire specifically developed for the study. The response rate was 77

  15. GIS Data Services Specialist Forest disturbance and carbon cycling Location: Newton Square, Pennsylvania (U.S. Forest Service Northern Research Station)

    E-print Network

    Lichstein, Jeremy W.

    GIS Data Services Specialist ­ Forest disturbance and carbon cycling Location: Newton Square Geographic Information System (GIS) and data management support for developing spatial databases sets and in applying analysis techniques and models within a GIS framework. A Master's or PhD degree

  16. Indiana's Forests Resource Bulletin

    E-print Network

    Hawkins, Matt Goeke, Kasey Krouse, Lance Dye, Dominic Lewer, Will Smith, and Pete Koehler. Data management with permission of Indiana Dept. of Natural Resources. Published by: For additional copies: U.S. FOREST SERVICE U's Department of Natural Resources, Forestry Division. Susan J. Crocker is a research forester with FIA

  17. Mapping Forest Change Walk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation depicts a virtual walk through a Virginia forest to examine the impact of a non-native, invasive insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid, on a population of eastern hemlocks. Field research is conducted using the same scientific methodologies and tools that Smithsonian scientists use to monitor forest biodiversity, including scatter graph comparisons and field observations.

  18. Pathfinding in the Research Forest: The Pearl Harvesting Method for Effective Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandieson, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of empirical research has become important for everyone involved in education and special education. Policy, practice, and informed reporting rely on locating and understanding unfiltered, original source material. Although access to vast amounts of research has been greatly facilitated by online databases, such as ERIC and PsychInfo,…

  19. Maintaining wildlife habitat in southeastern Alaska: implications of new knowledge for forest management and research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Hanley; Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende

    2005-01-01

    We review results and implications from recent wildlife studies that followed from the 1997 Tongass Land Management Plan (TLMP) and identify information needs and directions for research, development, and application. Sustained population viability of wildlife species was identified as a major issue in the TLMP planning process. Several species were identified as management indicator species, and research was conducted to

  20. DETERMINING THE CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF FORESTED WETLANDS: EPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM, AND CHOICES FOR RESEARCH AND MONITORING DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cumulative impacts component of EPA's wetlands research arises from a concern - that many individual permit applications for wetland alteration involve seemingly minimal change, yet collectively their impact may be significant. umerous studies have documented the potential be...

  1. New Hampshire's Forests Resource Bulletin

    E-print Network

    percent of total forest land area. Fifty-seven percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees, 32. Manuscript received for publication March 2011 #12;Randall S. Morin, Chuck J. Barnett, Gary J. Brand, Brett J are foresters with the FIA program, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, PA. Gary J. Brand, Grant M. Domke

  2. Trees and forests in British society

    E-print Network

    skills in sociology, anthropology, economics, forestry, political science and geography. Since 2000, ourTrees and forests in British society Ten years of social science Forest Research is the research

  3. Research on Mathematics and Science Education: From Beliefs to Cognition, from Problem Solving to Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahtee, Maija, Ed.; Bjorkqvist, Ole, Ed.; Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.; Vatanen, Virpi, Ed.

    This book contains selected research papers presented at seminars held throughout the year 2000 in Finland by members of the Finnish Association for Research in Mathematics and Science Education (FARMSE) and students at the Finnish Graduate School of Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry Education. This volume also contains papers professor Laurence…

  4. Performance Dialogs Implemented in a Finnish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Keskinen, Soili

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses performance dialogs (PDs) in the university context in Finland. These are held annually between employers and employees. The study was carried out to assess the efficacy of this technique. Research methods included an electronic questionnaire over two different years delivered to the whole staff of the Department of Teacher…

  5. Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industry’s Extensive Transition

    PubMed Central

    PAHKIN, Krista; NIELSEN, Karina; VÄÄNÄNEN, Ari; MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; LEPPÄNEN, Anneli; KOSKINEN, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (2008–2009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

  6. Emotion Work and Affective Stance in the Mathematics Classroom: The Case of IRE Sequences in Finnish Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…

  7. International Graduates from Finland: Do They Satisfy the Needs of Finnish Employers Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that to increase the competitiveness of Finnish higher education institutions in the global education market international graduates' employability must be enhanced. International graduates from Finnish higher education institutions are rarely employed in Finland for a number of reasons, such as the language barrier and a…

  8. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-01-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The…

  9. The Incidence and Determinants of Employee Involvement - Evidence from Finnish Manufacturing Sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Jones; Panu Kalmi; Takao Kato; Mikko Mäkinen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary empirical findings on the incidence of employee involvement practices in the Finnish manufacturing sector. The novel survey on EI practices is based on a representative random sample from the population of the Finnish manufacturing firms who had 50 or more employees in 2005. Our main findings are that employee involvement practices are widespread in

  10. Logistics and financial performance : An analysis of 424 Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juuso Töyli; Lotta Häkkinen; Lauri Ojala; Tapio Naula

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – To explore the present logistics performance of Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to analyse the relationship between logistics performance and financial performance in these firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The dataset comprises 424 SMEs that participated in a nationwide Finnish logistics survey in 2006. Logistics performance measures were derived from the survey data, and based on these values

  11. In Search of Naming Patterns: A Survey of Finnish Lake Names

    E-print Network

    Leino, Antti

    1 In Search of Naming Patterns: A Survey of Finnish Lake Names Antti Leino University of Helsinki suggested that such patterns can play an important role even when the names in question can be adequately is an attempt to address the issue: the goals were, first, to find regularities in the naming of Finnish lakes

  12. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  13. Associations between Beliefs about Medicines and Medicines Education: A Survey among Finnish Comprehensive School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siitonen, Piia; Vainio, Kirsti; Keinonen, Tuula; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between teachers' beliefs about medicines and teaching about illnesses and medicines-related topics by Finnish comprehensive school teachers. Design: A nationwide postal survey. Setting: Finnish primary and lower secondary school teachers. Method: Data were collected using a nationwide postal survey from a…

  14. The Role of Reading by Analogy in First Grade Finnish Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holopainen, Leena; Ahonen, Timo; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    Developed a computer-based assessment of the use of beginning and end analogies based on clue syllables of five different syllable structures to examine the role of analogy in an orthographically regular language, Finnish. Results for 47 children suggest that, unlike the effect seen in English, reading in Finnish is based on single phoneme/letter…

  15. Risk-Taking Abilities for Everyone? Finnish Entrepreneurship Education and the Enterprising Selves Imagined by Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komulainen, Katri; Korhonen, Maija; Raty, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the spread of the neo-liberal educational policy in Finnish schools by considering entrepreneurship education. We examined the kinds of gendered and classed enterprising selves that were narrated in the Finnish writing competition "Good Enterprise!" written by pupils in the 9th grade of comprehensive school. In their…

  16. The Interplay of Syntax and Discourse in the Explanation of Finnish-English Code-Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmari, Helena

    A study of intrasentential code-switching in 21 Finnish-English bilinguals focuses on the characteristics of two types of switches: those that are fluent and those that reflect repair phenomena. Data are drawn from naturally occurring conversations. Analysis highlights patterns in the use of Finnish case morphology in 550 instances of switched…

  17. Ontology Libraries for Production Use: The Finnish Ontology Library Service ONKI

    E-print Network

    Hyvönen, Eero

    Ontology Libraries for Production Use: The Finnish Ontology Library Service ONKI Kim Viljanen approach to a solution is presented with an online implementation--the Finnish Ontology Library Service on ontology libraries in many ways: First, mashup and web service support with various tools is provided

  18. Psoriasis, its Treatment, and Cancer in a Cohort of Finnish Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Hannuksela-Svahn; Eero Pukkala; Esa Läärä; Kari Poikolainen; Jaakko Karvonen

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate the relative cancer risk of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, with reference to different treatments. A cohort of 5687 hospitalized patients with psoriasis obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1973–84 was linked with the records of the Finnish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer were calculated by dividing the observed

  19. Health Knowledge Construction and Pedagogical Style in Finnish Health Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Anna-Liisa; Haapala, Irja; Kuurala, Sade; Mielonen, Salla; Hanninen, Osmo; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the construction of health knowledge in the Finnish national curriculum and recent Finnish health education textbooks, at primary and secondary levels of education. The authors examine the visual and textual content of the textbooks in an attempt to identify their pedagogical style and approach to…

  20. Finnish Physical Education Teachers' Self-Reported Use and Perceptions of Mosston and Ashworth's Teaching Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Watt, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded…

  1. A Review of Forest Carbon Sequestration Cost Studies: A Dozen Years of Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Richards; Carrie Stokes

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have been analyzing the costs of carbon sequestration for approximately twelve years. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the carbon sequestration cost studies of the past dozen years that have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the forestry option. Several conclusions emerge. While carbon sequestration cost studies all contain essentially the same components they are not comparable on

  2. Forest Research Executive Board Meeting 25 January 2008 Present: Peter Freer-Smith (Chair) Bill Mason

    E-print Network

    Strategy. HoDs to let XC know of any further changes by end of January. Strategy will then be finalised and issued. Action: HoDs, XC · Decision Support Systems, a meeting has been arranged in late February between, the possible expansion/integration of existing research programmes and how they fit into FR's science strategy

  3. Southern pulpwood harvesting productivity and cost changes between 1979 and 1987. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, D.R.; Cubbage, F.W.; Stokes, B.J.; Jakes, P.J.

    1994-05-16

    The Southern U.S. pulpwood harvesting industry experienced substantial changes in productivity and logging costs from 1979 to 1987. The research measures physical and economic changes in southern timber harvesting and the degree of industry shifting between different levels of harvesting mechanization.

  4. FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR AIR POLLUTION AND FOREST ECOSYSTEM RESEARCH IN THE WEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air quality and biological diversity of the western United States pose special problems for future research. or those who desire generality this diversity provides a challenge to find general patterns that cover the West. or those, such as regulators, who need information on ...

  5. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaisa Vaaramaa; Dina Solatie; Lasse Aro

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210Pb and 210Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order:

  6. Water Fluxes from Leaf to Ecosystem Scales in a Seasonal Mexican Cloud Forest: Implications for Climate Change Impacts and Future Research Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Gotsch, S. G.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; Holwerda, F.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Dawson, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    The ecohydrological functioning of cloud forests is intricately linked to unique plant ecophysiological traits and processes that influence water fluxes at the plot to ecosystem scales. However, despite substantial gains in our understanding of cloud forest plant ecophysiology over the past decade, integration of water flux information from the leaf to the watershed scale is still lacking. We present a synthesis of research aimed at revealing the linkages between plant ecophysiology and forest ecohydrological functioning, conducted in a seasonal cloud forest in Veracruz, Mexico. A variety of species-specific leaf-level water flux behaviors were found to influence various aspects of plant water relations, which in turn, scaled up to impact stand water balance. For example, foliar fog absorption compensated for approximately 9.3 ± 1.2% of transpiration, and nocturnal transpiration for dominant tree species during the dry-season accounted for 22% to 30% of daytime transpiration. Further, the presence of dense fog, light fog, and cloud cover was shown to reduce transpiration such that annual transpiration may increase up to 17% in the case that all fog occurrence is replaced by clear sky conditions. We discuss how these processes affect whole-plant and stand water balances, as well as the potential feedbacks of vegetation controls on hydrologic fluxes under future climate change. After placing our findings within a global context we present a conceptual model of the links between plant ecophysiological and ecosystem hydrological functioning in cloud forest settings. Finally, critical areas for future research are highlighted to further improve our understanding of the linkages between leaf- and ecosystem-level processes and fluxes.

  7. Research on Aluminium Speciation in Poor Forest Soils Using the Sequential Extraction Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Walna; J. Siepak; S. Drzyma?a; T. Sobczy?ski

    Research on aluminium speciation was performed using a slightly modified version of Tessier's pro- cedure. The soils under study displayed strongly acidic character (pHKCl of 3.3 - 4.4). The content of alu- minium in the exchangeable (11 mg\\/kg), acid extractable (67 mg\\/kg), oxidizable (2650 mg\\/kg), reducible (658 mg\\/kg) and residual fraction (24,680 mg\\/kg) varied widely. The percentage of labile phase

  8. Maternal Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Rantakokko, Panu V.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; McKeague, Ian W.; Kiviranta, Hannu A.; Sourander, Andre; Brown, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research emphasizes the contribution of environmental as well as genetic factors to the etiology of autism but studies testing associations between chemical exposures and autism have been limited. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has previously been associated with decrements in cognitive and developmental performance. We conducted a pilot study in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism (FiPS-A). Seventy-five cases with autism and 75 controls matched on sex, birth year, urbanization and maternal age were sampled from first-born children in the Finnish Maternity Cohort, which includes over 1 million births. The study sample included births occurring from 1991 to 2000. Subjects were followed up for autism through 2007. DDT, DDE, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-156, PCB-170, PCB-180, hexachlorobenzene, and BDE-47 were measured in archived maternal serum samples taken during pregnancy using gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Correlations between pollutant measures were assessed and mechanistically-related weighting schemes for summarizing PCB levels were compared. Case and control differences were assessed using graphical and statistical methods. All analytes, with the exception of DDT and BDE-47, were detected above the limit of quantification in all samples. The correlation between levels of individual PCB congeners and weighted summary measures was high (0.71-1.00). Paired t-tests revealed no significant differences between cases and controls for log-transformed mean values of any analyte; however, in an adjusted model the odds ratio for autism was 1.91 (p=0.29) and 1.79 (p= 0.36) respectively, for subjects with total PCBs and DDE above the 90th percentile of control values. Levels of prenatal PCB exposure in FIPS-A were similar to levels previously correlated with poorer neurodevelopmental measures in other populations. Further study in a larger sample will be required to fully determine whether exposure to high POP levels are associated with autism diagnosis in the population. PMID:23591055

  9. ResearchOur research spans a wide range of issues, from tackling potentially devastating tree diseases to putting forests in the front

    E-print Network

    and future climates. Options for deep peat soils Forests on peat soils, if well-managed, are important ecosystem services. Many forest areas on deep peat soils (over half a metre of peat) were planted in the 1970s or 1980s and are now reaching felling age (see image above which shows recently felled deep peat

  10. The necessity for the research on the relationship between transition of forest floor vegetation accompanying thinning and function of soil and water conservation in artificial sugi(Cryptomeria japonica) forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OOHARA Hideki

    2007-01-01

    Presently, on the one hand the interest in public benefit such as soil and water conservation brought by forest is swelling, on the other the unsoundness of forest poses a social problem with rapid increase of the belated thinning forest. However, generally it is fact that the importance of a sound forest is not fully understood, also the consensus for

  11. Letter to the Editor The Value of Opinion in Science and the Forest Service

    E-print Network

    . FOREST SERVICE RESEARCH The Forest Service is comprised of 3 major branches: the National Forest SystemLetter to the Editor The Value of Opinion in Science and the Forest Service Research Organization the jurisdiction of the National Forest System, the management branch of the United States Forest Service. Lands

  12. Forest biomass as a source of renewable energy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Tuerker; H. Ayaz; K. Kaygusuz

    1999-01-01

    In Turkey illegal cutting takes place, which cannot be controlled. Legal cuttings have also been done by several state forest enterprises. As a result, the amount of wood raw material produced by forest enterprises legally and by forest villagers illegally has exceeded the potential capacity of the forest. According to the research related to Macka and other Turkish state forests,

  13. Forest fire detection system based on wireless sensor network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junguo Zhang; Wenbin Li; Zhongxing Yin; Shengbo Liu; Xiaolin Guo

    2009-01-01

    As we all know, the forest is considered as one of the most important and indispensable resources, the prevention and detection of the forest fire, have been researched hotly in worldwide forest fire prevention departments. Based on the deficiencies of conventional forest fire detection on real time and monitoring accuracy, the wireless sensor network technique for forest fire detection was

  14. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  15. Managing the world's forests.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Rowe, R

    1992-06-01

    Forests play a vital role in balancing natural systems: the stabilization of global climate and the management of water and land. 30% of the earth's total land area is forested. 66% of the tropical moist forests are in Latin America and the remainder in Africa and Asia. 75% of tropical dry forests are in Africa. Temperate forests are primarily in developed countries. Deforestation and misuse of forests occurs primarily in developing countries at significant social, economic, and environmental costs. Losses have occurred in fuelwood, fodder, timber, forest products, biological diversity, habitats, genetic materials for food and medicine. The World Bank's evolving role in forestry is briefly described. Agreement has not been reached among people or nations about the most appropriate means to balance conservation and development goals. The challenge is to stabilize existing forests and increase forest planting. The causes of forest degradation must be understood. Direct causes include agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, fuelwood gathering, commercial logging, and infrastructure development. These direct causes are driven by economic, social, and political forces: market and policy failures, population growth, and poverty. The market failures include: 1) the lack of clearly defined property rights on forest resources for now and the future, 2) the conflict between individual and societal needs, 3) the difficulty in placing a value on nonmarket environmental services and joint products, and 4) the separation between private and social costs. The solution is action at the local, national, and global levels. Countries must establish forest policy. The existing government incentives which promote deforestation must be changed. For example, concession policy and royalty systems must be corrected; explicit and implicit export subsidies on timber and forest products must be stopped. Private incentives must be established to promote planting of trees, practicing preservation, and setting up sustainable management systems. Property rights must be clearly defined and land use policies must spell out forest use patterns. A global strategy for forest management is needed for conservation, protection, reforestation, agricultural and rural development, sustainable use, and research with funding. PMID:12285662

  16. Promoting Sustainable Forest Industry Development in the State of Indiana -Forest Products WEB Community Creation

    E-print Network

    Promoting Sustainable Forest Industry Development in the State of Indiana - Forest Products WEB, M.B.A. Goals: 1. Data research and entry for online Indiana forest products industry directory. 2, products, equipment services and educational products. 4. Help to promote the Indiana forest products web

  17. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  18. Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 12GTR-NRS-P-105 ASSESSING FOREST OWNERSHIP DYNAMICS

    E-print Network

    ASSESSING FOREST OWNERSHIP DYNAMICS IN THE UNITED STATES: METHODS AND CHALLENGES Brett J. Butler, Brenton J time. These results will provide the most comprehensive examination of forest ownership dynamics to understand forest ownerships and forest ownership dynamics. 1 Research Forester (BJB), U.S. Forest Service

  19. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. The role of tropical forests on the world carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A. E.; Liegel, B. [eds.

    1980-08-01

    Tropical forests constitute about half of the world's forest and are characterized by rapid rates of organic matter turnover and high storages of organic matter. Tropical forests are considered to be one of the most significant terrestrial elements in the equation that balances the carbon cycle of the world. As discussed in the paper by Tosi, tropical and subtropical latitudes are more complex in terms of climate and vegetation composition than temperate and boreal latitudes. The implications of the complexity of the tropics and the disregard of this complexity by many scientists is made evident in the paper by Brown and Lugo which shows that biomass estimates for tropical ecosystems have been overestimated by at least 100%. The paper by Brown shows that that rates of succession in the tropics are extremely rapid in terms of the ability of moist and wet forests to accumulate organic matter. Yet, in arid tropical Life Zones succession is slow. This leads to the idea that the question of whether tropical forests are sinks or sources of carbon must be analyzed in relation to Life Zones and to intensities of human activity in these Zones. The paper by Lugo presents conceptual models to illustrate this point and the paper by Tosi shows how land uses in the tropics also correspond to Life Zone characteristics. The ultimate significance of land use to the question of the carbon balance in a large region is addressed in the paper by Detwiler and Hall.

  20. Temperate Evergreen Forest, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Boreal Forest

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    Temperate Evergreen Forest, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Boreal Forest Lectures 11 & 12 #12;Distribution of Temperate Evergreen Forest (5), Temperate Deciduous Forest (6), and Boreal Forest (8) #12;A. Lines on maps! #12;In the Temperate Evergreen Forest and in the warmer parts of the Temperate Deciduous

  1. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  2. The architecture of high status among Finnish youth.

    PubMed

    Caravita, Simona C S; Pöyhönen, Virpi; Rajala, Irene; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-09-01

    We tested the construct validity of a two-dimensional model of high status, consisting of social acceptance and perceived popularity (hereafter, acceptance and popularity) among Finnish children and adolescents. In addition, we investigated the correlates of the two forms of high status, as well as their relations to resource control. Participants were 563 boys and girls in grades four and eight, that is, aged 10-11 and 14-15. CFA and SEM models supported the hypothesis of acceptance and popularity representing distinct, yet associated constructs that have partly different correlates. Acceptance and popularity were most closely connected among grade four students, particularly among boys. Prosocial behaviour was associated with acceptance, whereas peer-valued characteristics (physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and aggression were related especially to popularity. Popularity, but not acceptance, was positively related to resource control. PMID:21848752

  3. Four cases of mesothelioma among Finnish anthophyllite miners.

    PubMed Central

    Karjalainen, A; Meurman, L O; Pukkala, E

    1994-01-01

    Four cases of mesothelioma in a cohort of 999 Finnish anthophyllite miners and millers are described. Three deaths were due to pleural mesothelioma and one to peritoneal mesothelioma among the total of 503 male deaths up to 1991. All four patients with mesothelioma had had long term (13 to 31 years) exposure in anthophyllite mining and milling. The latency time from the onset of employment until diagnosis was 39 to 58 years. All four patients were smokers or ex-smokers and had asbestosis. In three of the cases the pulmonary fibre concentration and fibre type were analysed by transmission electron microscopy. High concentrations (270 to 1100 million fibres/g dry tissue) of anthophyllite fibres were detected. The anthophyllite fibres were thicker and had lower aspect ratios than the values reported for crocidolite fibres retained in the lungs of patients with mesothelioma. PMID:8130852

  4. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals.

    PubMed

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-05-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 ?Sv per year, respectively. PMID:21035236

  5. We seek a Ph.D. student to join an NSF-funded research team examining the relationships between native forest fauna and introduced rodents in native forests fragmented by lava

    E-print Network

    Fukami, Tadashi

    native forest fauna and introduced rodents in native forests fragmented by lava flows (kipuka) on the Big Island of Hawaii. The student will be trained in the graduate program at the Department of Biology

  6. Improved prognosis for congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type in Irish families

    PubMed Central

    Savage, J; Jefferson, J; Maxwell, A; Hughes, A; Shanks, J; Gill, D

    1999-01-01

    Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type is a rare autosomal recessive disease with a high infant mortality without aggressive treatment. The biochemical basis of the disease is not understood fully but the disease locus has been mapped recently to chromosome 19q12-q13.1 in Finnish families. This paper describes the clinical features and outcome of 20 patients in Ireland with congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type who have presented since 1980. Before 1987, all infants died by the age of 3 years. After the introduction of daily intravenous albumin infusion, nutritional support, elective bilateral nephrectomy, and renal transplantation, mortality in the past decade has fallen to 30%, with no deaths in the past five years. Genetic linkage analysis was performed in six families in whom DNA was available and the locus responsible was mapped to the same region on chromosome 19 as in Finnish families, suggesting that Irish families share the same disease locus.?? PMID:10208956

  7. Vegetation of uncultivated arable land under different management in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juha Jantunen; Kimmo Saarinen

    2002-01-01

    The vegetation of uncultivated arable land under modern, cereal\\/forage cropping in Finnish Karelia (n=10) and old fashioned hay cultivation in Russian Karelia (n=10) was compared in terms of their species composition. The plots (n=160) were located in field margins, fallow fields and non-intensively used or abandoned hay fields unploughed over the last five years. In the TWINSPAN classification, the Finnish

  8. Forest Encyclopedia Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jointly developed by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station and Southern Regional Extension Forestry, this website has multiple online encyclopedias regarding the forests of the Southern United States, as well as one that covers the environmental threats facing all North American forests. This website is very user-friendly, both for visitors who are not natural resource professionals and those who are. For those visitors who are involved in the forest sciences, this website helpfully provides "scientific results, conclusions, and impacts with management needs and issues." On the left side of the page is a menu which allows the visitor to peruse the site through a thematic lens, or a global one. To view by theme, click on "Thematic" at the top of the menu. The themes visitors can click on include "So. Appalachian", "So. Pine Beetle", and "So. Fire Science". Under each theme are a multitude of clickable subthemes. For those visitors looking for a global view of the site, click on "Global" at the top of the menu. Topics include "Landscape", "Ecology", "Socio-Economics", and "Forest Health Protection". Forest scientists interested in contributing new scientific content to the Forest Encyclopedia Network can click on "Help" at the top of the website, which will take them to a link on the left side of the page entitled "Author Help".

  9. Ministry of Forests Research Program W O R K I N G P A P E R

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    ://www.res.for.gov.bc.ca/groups/kamloops/sicamous #12;Sicamous Creek Silvicultural Systems Project: Workshop Proceedings #12;IV LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS, Kamloops, BC V2B 8A9. E-mail: rsadams@galaxy.gov.bc.ca André Arsenault British Columbia Ministry of Forests

  10. International Scientific Conference "75 YEARS OF THE FOREST RESEARCH ISTITUTE OF BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES", Proceedings, vol 1, Sofia 2003

    E-print Network

    Marinova, Elena

    . Today the lake is surrounded by a dense forest composed of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies with admixture of Abies alba and some Fagus sylvatica (Bozilova et al., 2002) MATERIAL AND METHODS The plant. The calibrated age in years AD of three sediment samples is also indicated on the left side of the graphics thus

  11. Variability within the 10-year pollen rain of a seasonal neotropical forest and its implications for paleoenvironmental and phenological research.

    PubMed

    Haselhorst, Derek S; Moreno, J Enrique; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-01-01

    Tropical paleoecologists use a combination of mud-water interface and modern pollen rain samples (local samples of airborne pollen) to interpret compositional changes within fossil pollen records. Taxonomic similarities between the composition of modern assemblages and fossil samples are the basis of reconstructing paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. Surface sediment samples reflect a time-averaged accumulation of pollen spanning several years or more. Due to experimental constraints, modern pollen rain samples are generally collected over shorter timeframes (1-3 years) and are therefore less likely to capture the full range of natural variability in pollen rain composition and abundance. This potentially biases paleoenvironmental interpretations based on modern pollen rain transfer functions. To determine the degree to which short-term environmental change affects the composition of the aerial pollen flux of Neotropical forests, we sampled ten years of the seasonal pollen rain from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and compared it to climatic and environmental data over the same ten-year span. We establish that the pollen rain effectively captured the strong seasonality and stratification of pollen flow within the forest canopy and that individual taxa had variable sensitivity to seasonal and annual changes in environmental conditions, manifested as changes in pollen productivity. We conclude that modern pollen rain samples capture the reproductive response of moist tropical plants to short-term environmental change, but that consequently, pollen rain-based calibrations need to include longer sampling periods (?7 years) to reflect the full range of natural variability in the pollen output of a forest and simulate the time-averaging present in sediment samples. Our results also demonstrate that over the long-term, pollen traps placed in the forest understory are representative samples of the pollen output of both canopy and understory vegetation. Aerial pollen traps, therefore, also represent an underutilized means of monitoring the pollen productivity and reproductive behavior of moist tropical forests. PMID:23320089

  12. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerdà and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnica

  13. Phenological indicators of forest composition in northern deciduous forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J.

    2007-12-01

    The phenology of deciduous forests in temperate climates is triggered by winter and spring temperatures. While the exact forcing mechanism is still unclear and spatial-temporal models are still in development, the early 20th century Hopkins Law, which estimates leaf emergence from latitude and elevation, still yields roughly accurate predictions. A newly parameterized version of this simple correlation using MODIS satellite phenology suggests that average leaf phenology in New England can be predicted effectively if deciduous-dominated forests are parsed into two communities. Where the Hopkins prediction and satellite phenology indicate discrepancies corresponds closely to the boundary between northern and central hardwood forests. It is suggested that despite the absence of an accurate phenology-climate model, simple average temperature relationships can still be used to explore spatial phenological patterns and detect fundamental forest compositional boundaries. If, in fact, compositional forest boundaries in temperate forests are primarily determined by climatological parameters, this research may further imply that the ability for different forest types to respond phenologically to spring climates plays a key role determining forest composition. The climate-defined boundary zones between forest types may function as a key indicator of climate change on forest function.

  14. Forest Fire Detection Systems Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boyd M. Harnden; P. Michael Maher; Gregory A. Martin

    1973-01-01

    Empirical data would suggest that forestry managers have been hesitant in their adoption of a management sciences approach to their problems of prevention, detection and suppression of forest fires. A joint program of research has been undertaken between the Alberta Forest Service and the Faculty of Business Administration and Commerce at the University of Alberta in an attempt to develop,

  15. Assessing Urban Forest Effects and Values

    E-print Network

    Assessing Urban Forest Effects and Values Northern Research Station Resource Bulletin NRS-43 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Scranton's Urban Forest #12;Published by: For additional our homepage at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us Abstract An analysis of trees in the urbanized portion

  16. Tropical forests and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yadvinder Malhi; John Grace

    2000-01-01

    Tropical forests play a major role in determining the current atmospheric concentration of CO2, as both sources of CO2 following deforestation and sinks of CO2 probably resulting from CO2 stimulation of forest photosynthesis. Recently, researchers have tried to quantify this role. The results suggest that both the carbon sources and sinks in tropical forests are significantly greater than previously thought.

  17. Learning Nonlinear Functions Using Regularized Greedy Forest

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Rie

    of the datasets we have tested on. Index Terms boosting, decision tree, decision forest, ensemble, greedy1 Learning Nonlinear Functions Using Regularized Greedy Forest Rie Johnson RJ Research Consulting Tong Zhang Rutgers University Abstract We consider the problem of learning a forest of nonlinear

  18. Integrating Wood Production Within Sustainable Forest Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Ferguson

    2007-01-01

    Australia is a federation in which the Constitution vested forest management to the states. A joint Commonwealth-state process was developed to implement a National Forest Policy, involving joint oversight of resource assessment and planning for each of eleven regions. Codes of forest practice and planning systems were greatly improved by incorporating available research on nonwood as well as wood uses.

  19. Water, Energy and Carbon Balance Research: Recovery Trajectories For Oil Sands Reclamation and Disturbed Watersheds in the Western Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, R. M.; Carey, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Oil Sand Region (OSR) of North-Central Alberta exists within the sub-humid Boreal Plains (BP) ecozone, with a slight long-term moisture deficit regime. Despite this deficit, the BP is comprised of productive wetland and mixed wood (aspen and conifer dominated) forests. Reclamation activities are now underway at a large number of surface mining operations in the OSR, where target ecosystems are identified, soil prescriptions placed and commercial forest species planted. Some watersheds have been created that now contain wetlands. However, recent work in the BP suggests that over time wetlands supply moisture for the productivity of upland forests. Thus, water use of reclaimed forests is going to be critical in determining the sustainability of these systems and adjacent wetlands, and whether in time, either will achieve some form of equivalent capability that will allow for certification by regulators. A critical component in the success of any reclamation is that sufficient water is available to support target ecosystems through the course of natural climate cycles in the region. Water Use Efficiency (WUE), which links photosynthesis (GEP) with water use (Evapotranspiration (ET)), provides a useful metric to compare ecosystems and evaluate their utilization of resources. In this study, 41 site years of total growing season water and carbon flux data over 8 sites (4 reclamation, 4 regeneration) were evaluated using eddy covariance micrometeorological towers. WUE shows clear discrimination among ecosystem types as aspen stands assimilate more carbon per unit weight of water than conifers. WUEs also change with time as ecosystems become more effective at transpiring water through plant pathways compared with bare-soil evaporation, which allows an assessment of ability to limit water loss without carbon uptake. In addition, clonal rooting systems allow aspen forests to recover quicker after disturbance than reclamation sites in terms of their WUE. For reclamation sites, there is considerable variability in GEP and ET associated with vegetation establishment, with enhanced ET losses over-riding any significant changes in C uptake, suggesting that long-term mine water management must consider ecosystem pathways if down-gradient wetlands and end-pit lakes are to be sustained.

  20. Forest biomass as a source of renewable energy in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Tuerker, M.F.; Ayaz, H.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey)

    1999-10-01

    In Turkey illegal cutting takes place, which cannot be controlled. Legal cuttings have also been done by several state forest enterprises. As a result, the amount of wood raw material produced by forest enterprises legally and by forest villagers illegally has exceeded the potential capacity of the forest. According to the research related to Macka and other Turkish state forests, the state forests have been decreasing day by day. This is because the amount of wood raw material taken from the forests has exceeded the production potential of the forest. That study concluded that the Macka and other Turkish forests will be exhausted after 64 and 67 years, respectively. This study also examined both establishing and exploiting energy forests near the forest villages and producing fuel briquettes manufactured using the residues of agriculture, forestry, and stock breeding to diminish the demand for illegal fuel wood cutting from the state forests.

  1. Distribution and content of ellagitannins in Finnish plant species.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Johanna; Koskinen, Piia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2015-08-01

    The results of a screening study, in which a total of 82 Finnish plant species were studied for their ellagitannin composition and content, are presented. The total ellagitannin content was determined by HPLC-DAD, the detected ellagitannins were further characterized by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and divided into four structurally different sub-groups. Thirty plant species were found to contain ellagitannins and the ellagitannin content in the crude extracts varied from few mgg(-1) to over a hundred mgg(-1). Plant families that were rich in ellagitannins (>90mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were Onagraceae, Lyhtraceae, Geraniaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Fagaceae and some species from Rosaceae. Plant species that contained moderate amounts of ellagitannins (31-89mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were representatives of the family Rosaceae. Plant species that contained low amounts of ellagitannins (1-30mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were representatives of the families Betulaceae and Myricaceae. The specific ellagitannin composition of the species allowed their chemotaxonomic classification and the comparison between the older Cronquist's classification and the nowadays preferred Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification. PMID:25819000

  2. Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

  3. Hearing protection in acute acoustic trauma in Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, S; Lehtomäki, K M

    1996-01-01

    A prospective study was performed in all Finnish conscripts who were referred to the Central Military Hospital for acute acoustic trauma (AAT) in 1989-93. The study was designed to provide information on hearing protection at the time of AAT and also on the general habits of using hearing protection at shooting drills and combat training in the field. Altogether 449 conscripts with verified AAT were included. According to their statements, all conscripts always used hearing protectors at shooting drills on the range and 97% always or nearly always during combat training in the field. At the moment when AAT occurred, hearing protectors were not used in 83% of cases. Accidental shots or explosions (25.6%), unforeseen exposure to impulse noise, e.g. during combat training (17.5%), and loss of applied protectors (14.9%) were the most common reasons for absence of hearing protection. AATs can be avoided by improving instruction in handling firearms, planning combat training more carefully and making sure that application of earplugs is properly taught and mastered. PMID:8658027

  4. Forest Fires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will assume the role of a Department of Forestry Ranger one of whose major concerns is forest fires. Using NASA Surface Scene Type data (biomes) and Monthly Equivalent Water Thickness Land Mass Change Data from 2006, the students will determine areas at high risk for forest fire development.

  5. Allometric biomass estimators for aspen-dominated ecosystems in the upper Great Lakes. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Perala, D.A.; Alban, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    The authors recently described the climate, geology, soils, and the biotic structure and dynamics of four contrasting ecosystems dominated by quaking and bigtooth aspen (Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata). Other papers describe how those ecosystems responded to perturbation. Common to most of those papers were biomass estimates for the tree and shrub layers. The authors derived the estimators from weight and dimensional analysis of a subsample of stems measured on sample plots. They found much variability among sites that could not be adequately explained by stand or soils data. These equations should be useful in estimating woody plant components of similar forests on upland soils in the Upper Great Lakes region.

  6. Impacts of peatland forestation on regional climate conditions in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Backman, Leif; Henttonen, Helena M.; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; Laaksonen, Ari

    2014-05-01

    Climate response to anthropogenic land cover change happens more locally and occurs on a shorter time scale than the global warming due to increased GHGs. Over the second half of last Century, peatlands were vastly drained in Finland to stimulate forest growth for timber production. In this study, we investigate the biophysical effects of peatland forestation on near-surface climate conditions in Finland. For this, the regional climate model REMO, developed in Max Plank Institute (currently in Climate Service Center, Germany), provides an effective way. Two sets of 15-year climate simulations were done by REMO, using the historic (1920s; The 1st Finnish National Forest Inventory) and present-day (2000s; the 10th Finnish National Forest Inventory) land cover maps, respectively. The simulated surface air temperature and precipitation were then analyzed. In the most intensive peatland forestation area in Finland, the differences in monthly averaged daily mean surface air temperature show a warming effect around 0.2 to 0.3 K in February and March and reach to 0.5 K in April, whereas a slight cooling effect, less than 0.2 K, is found from May till October. Consequently, the selected snow clearance dates in model gridboxes over that area are advanced 0.5 to 4 days in the mean of 15 years. The monthly averaged precipitation only shows small differences, less than 10 mm/month, in a varied pattern in Finland from April to September. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis was conducted on the peatland forestation area with a 23% decrease in peatland and a 15% increase in forest types. 11 day running means of simulated temperature and energy balance terms, as well as snow depth were averaged over 15 years. Results show a positive feedback induced by peatland forestation between the surface air temperature and snow depth in snow melting period. This is because the warmer temperature caused by lower surface albedo due to more forest in snow cover period leads to a quicker and earlier snow melting. Meanwhile, surface albedo is reduced and consequently surface air temperature is increased. Additionally, the maximum difference from individual gridboxes in this area over 15 years of 11 day running means of daily mean surface air temperature reaches 2 K, which is four times as much as the maximum difference of 15-year regional average of that. This illustrates that the spring warming effect from peatland forestation in Finland is highly heterogeneous spatially and temporally.

  7. Brief report: self-reported psychopathic-like features among Finnish community youth: investigation of the factor structure of the antisocial personality screening device.

    PubMed

    Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Lipsanen, Jari; Aronen, Eeva T

    2014-10-01

    The Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self-Report (APSD-SR) is a self-report measure for assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the APSD-SR in a sample of 4855 Finnish community adolescents. A three-factor structure with factors representing impulsivity (IMP), narcissism (NAR) and callous-unemotional (CU) features was found. Internal consistency indices ranged from moderate to good. The findings provide promising data on applicability of the APSD-SR instrument to Scandinavian youth. Results have implications for researchers and clinicians interested in measuring adolescent psychopathy. PMID:25190497

  8. Quantification of Holocene lake-level changes in Finnish Lapland using a cladocera – lake depth transfer model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atte Korhola; Matti Tikkanen; Jan Weckström

    2005-01-01

    During recent years, numerous studies dealing with Holocene lake level fluctuations have been conducted in Finnish Lapland. However, no quantification of lake level variations exists to date. Here, we applied a recently developed modern cladocera – lake depth transfer model to subfossil cladocerans analysed from three small and shallow (< 6 m) kettle-hole lakes in northwestern Finnish Lapland to provide estimates

  9. MiRNA Profiles in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines of Finnish Prostate Cancer Families

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Daniel; Wahlfors, Tiina; Mattila, Henna; Oja, Hannu; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Schleutker, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Heritable factors are evidently involved in prostate cancer (PrCa) carcinogenesis, but currently, genetic markers are not routinely used in screening or diagnostics of the disease. More precise information is needed for making treatment decisions to distinguish aggressive cases from indolent disease, for which heritable factors could be a useful tool. The genetic makeup of PrCa has only recently begun to be unravelled through large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The thus far identified Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain, however, only a fraction of familial clustering. Moreover, the known risk SNPs are not associated with the clinical outcome of the disease, such as aggressive or metastasised disease, and therefore cannot be used to predict the prognosis. Annotating the SNPs with deep clinical data together with miRNA expression profiles can improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of different phenotypes of prostate cancer. Results In this study microRNA (miRNA) profiles were studied as potential biomarkers to predict the disease outcome. The study subjects were from Finnish high risk prostate cancer families. To identify potential biomarkers we combined a novel non-parametrical test with an importance measure provided from a Random Forest classifier. This combination delivered a set of nine miRNAs that was able to separate cases from controls. The detected miRNA expression profiles could predict the development of the disease years before the actual PrCa diagnosis or detect the existence of other cancers in the studied individuals. Furthermore, using an expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) analysis, regulatory SNPs for miRNA miR-483-3p that were also directly associated with PrCa were found. Conclusion Based on our findings, we suggest that blood-based miRNA expression profiling can be used in the diagnosis and maybe even prognosis of the disease. In the future, miRNA profiling could possibly be used in targeted screening, together with Prostate Specific Antigene (PSA) testing, to identify men with an elevated PrCa risk. PMID:26020509

  10. Biosciences Undergraduate Research at Nottingham School of Biosciences, UoN, 2009. 1 Assessing the link between forest composition and soil nutrient

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    Assessing the link between forest composition and soil nutrient availability in contrasting forest plots. Litter from more productive and or diverse forest assemblages ensures a more diverse microbial community continental plates. It lies between the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk, giving it a milder and wetter

  11. Paternal and maternal DNA lineages reveal a bottleneck in the founding of the Finnish population.

    PubMed Central

    Sajantila, A; Salem, A H; Savolainen, P; Bauer, K; Gierig, C; Pääbo, S

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in several European populations reveals an almost monomorphic pattern in the Finns, whereas Y-chromosomal diversity is significantly higher in other populations. Furthermore, analyses of nucleotide positions in the mitochondrial control region that evolve slowly show a decrease in genetic diversity in Finns. Thus, relatively few men and women have contributed the genetic lineages that today survive in the Finnish population. This is likely to have caused the so-called "Finnish disease heritage"-i.e., the occurrence of several genetic diseases in the Finnish population that are rare elsewhere. A preliminary analysis of the mitochondrial mutations that have accumulated subsequent to the bottleneck suggests that it occurred about 4000 years ago, presumably when populations using agriculture and animal husbandry arrived in Finland. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8876258

  12. Making bullying prevention a priority in Finnish schools: the KiVa antibullying program.

    PubMed

    Salmivalli, Christina; Poskiparta, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal and bullying specific actions to prevent the emergence of new cases of bullying, stop ongoing bullying, and reduce the negative consequences of victimization. The program has been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial involving 234 Finnish schools and during broad dissemination across Finnish schools (the evaluation involving almost one thousand schools) with positive findings. The program content and the implementation model are presented in this article, and the findings from the evaluation studies are summarized. PMID:22504790

  13. Wind Dynamics and Forests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students will set up a model forest using plastic bottles to observe changes caused by differences in wind speed and forest density. An extension to the activity will allow students to explore the concept of evapotranspiration. From this activity students will understand that living organisms in an ecosystem can have profound effects upon the local atmosphere, changes in vegetation can have profound effects upon wind speed, and models are useful to researchers in understanding the shaping of ecosystems. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

  14. Socialization of Junior Researchers in New Academic Research Environments: Two Case Studies from Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakala, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the modes of research training in two Finnish academic research centres, where research is project based, application oriented and externally funded. In particular, the article asks what duties, skills and qualities are considered appropriate for people in different positions (PhD student, post-doctoral researcher,…

  15. Defining and Measuring Technical Thinking: Students' Technical Abilities in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Autio, Ossi

    The terms "technical" and "technology" are widely used by educators, workplace practitioners, and the general public. Seldom, however, is there a written explanation of a technologist's or technician's attributes (Hansen, 1994; Ropohl, 1997). What do technicians know and do? Also absent from public consciousness is a sense of what constitutes the design or problem-solving process which precedes any technological act. By comparison, media depictions of technology as computers, electronics, and tools are widespread and the public appetite for these depictions is extensive. In teacher education and in schooling itself the subject through which technical skills and knowledge are imparted suffers from confusion about definition as well. What is technical thinking? What is technical aptitude? Why is it that technology teachers can recognize this ability when it is observed in students but they, and educators generally, have difficulty documenting the essence of it in writing? To expose what it means to be a technologist, the investigators in this research project examine what students in Finland's schools learn in their study and practice of technology. Why, you might ask, would the authors attempt to better understand what it means to have a technical orientation or technical ability by studying school children, in this case Finnish children? The answer has two parts. First, from a research perspective, children's responses to adult inquiries are often more informative and authentic than those of adults. Secondly, teachers of technology have had to think about their field, especially how to teach it. In doing so, they have to know about the substance of their subject. By comparison, practicing technicians and technologists may not have been required to think through what they know and do, much less express it. Target Audience: General Public

  16. Black carbon concentrations and mixing state in the Finnish Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T.; Brus, D.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Svensson, J.; Asmi, E.; Lihavainen, H.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol composition was measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) in the Finnish Arctic during winter 2011-2012. The Sammaltunturi measurement site at the Pallas GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station receives air masses from different source regions including the Arctic Ocean and continental Europe. SP2 is a unique instrument that can give detailed information about mass distributions and mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC). As expected, the measurements showed widely varying rBC mass concentrations (0-120 ng m-3), which were related to varying contributions of different source regions and aerosol removal processes. The log-normally distributed rBC core size was relatively constant with an average geometric mass mean diameter of 194 nm. On the average, the number fraction of particles containing rBC was 0.24 and the average rBC core size in these particles was half of the total size (coated to core diameter ratio was 2.0). These numbers mean that the core was larger and had a significantly thicker coating than in typical particles closer to their source regions. Comparison of the measured rBC mass concentration with that of the optically detected equivalent black carbon (eBC) showed a factor of five difference, which could not be fully explained without assuming that a part of the absorbing material is non-refractory. Finally, climate implications of five different rBC mixing state representations were quantified using the Mie approximation and simple direct radiative forcing efficiency calculations. These calculations showed that the observed mixing state (separate non-absorbing and coated rBC particles) means significantly lower warming effect or even a net cooling effect when compared with that of an homogenous aerosol containing the same amounts of rBC and non-absorbing material.

  17. Great Lakes Surges in Forest Certification Forests.org --Print An Archived News Story

    E-print Network

    Great Lakes Surges in Forest Certification Forests.org -- Print An Archived News Story http The Great Lakes region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan and Ontario) holds 30 percent of North America and released today at a meeting of the Great Lakes Forest Alliance. The study, conducted by a research team

  18. Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Sanna; Riihinen, Kaisu; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p?Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378

  19. The Ants of the Arabuko Sokoke Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandau, E.

    2014-12-01

    The core location of my research project was the Arabuko Sokoke Forest. The forest is located along the east coast of Kenya and belongs to the coastal forest zone of eastern Africa. The forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot, having many species being endemic to this habitat. The Arabuko Sokoke Forest is not a rainforest, like the Kakamega Forest in western Kenya, but a tropical dry forest. The objective of my research was to create a general checklist of the ant species collected in teh Arabuko Sokoke Forest in 2009. The general checklist of ant species will be used to document the differences between the three different forest habitat types (Cynometra, Brachystegia and mixed forest) and ant communities found within the forest, as well as the fauna found in those locations. The ants were collected using the leaf litter extraction method and were then mounted and idenified. The results from my research were that out of 73 specimens, there were 13 genera and 24 different species. Four of the 24 species have not been recorded for this forest before and one of the Tetramorium is likely to be a new species. The results also showed that the species diversity on the two transects are almost the same. There was very low overlap between the two transects as well: there were two shared species between the two different forest habitat types. For future work, there are still many undiscovered ant species in the Arabuko Sokoke Forest. In order to get a more complete faunal overview, more samples have to be collected from different parts of the forest. To do this, the canopy ant fauna might offer additional species that were not collected in the leaf litter samples.

  20. Development of a mixed shrub-tanoak-douglas-fir community in a treated and untreated condition. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.

    1996-08-01

    On a medium site in northern California, a tanoak-mixed shrub community was given several treatments (manual release two and three times, a combination chainsaw and cut surface herbicide treatment, two foliar herbicides, and a tank mix of the two herbicides) to study its development in both a natural (control) and treated condition. The herbicides were 2,4-D, Garlon 3A, and Garlon 4, each applied two times. Survival of planted Douglas-fir seedlings was recorded for 11 years and growth was quantified for 9 years after the last treatment application. In addition to Douglas-fir, data are presented individually for the two most abundant species (tanoak and snowbrush), for greenleaf manzanita, and for the hardwood tree and shrubs combined. The treatment response data, cost information, and plant community relationships provides the forest land manager with knowledge on how to attain some specific plant communities in the future, and their developmental potentials.

  1. Distribution of biomass and nutrients in lodgepole pine/bitterbrush ecosystems in central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.N.; Shainsky, L.J.

    1992-09-01

    The authors investigated the distribution of biomass and nutrients in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murryana Dougl.) ecosystems on pumice soils in south-central Oregon. Sixty-three trees were sampled to develop equations for estimating dry weights of tree crowns, boles, bark, and coarse roots from diameter at breast height and height. The concentrations of total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur were determined for each of these components. Biomass, nutrient concentrations, and nutrient contents of the associated vegetation, forest floor, woody debris, fine roots, and soil horizons also were determined. An example stand illustrates the use of these data for determining the effects of bole versus whole-tree harvesting on nutrient capital in a lodgepole pine ecosystem.

  2. Landscape dynamics of northeastern forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canham, Charles D.; Silander, John A., Jr.; Civco, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    This project involves collaborative research with Stephen W. Pacala and Simon A. Levin of Princeton University to calibrate, test, and analyze models of heterogeneous forested landscapes containing a diverse array of habitats. The project is an extension of previous, NASA-supported research to develop a spatially-explicit model of forest dynamics at the scale of an individual forest stand (hectares to square kilometer spatial scales). That model (SORTIE) has been thoroughly parameterized from field studies in the modal upland environment of western Connecticut. Under our current funding, we are scaling-up the model and parameterizing it for the broad range of upland environments in the region. Our most basic goal is to understand the linkages between stand-level dynamics (as revealed in our previous research) and landscape-level dynamics of forest composition and structure.

  3. Mathematics Education Research in Finland Yearbook 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupari, Pekka, Ed.

    For the purpose of promoting international cooperation in mathematics, physics, and chemistry teaching research, this first yearbook of the Finnish Association of Mathematics and Science Education Research contains articles of recent research on mathematics teaching. The contents consist of five articles in English, two in German, and one thesis…

  4. Research on: A. Reclamation of borrow pits and denuded lands; B. Biochemical aspects of mycorrhizae of forest trees

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H. (comp.)

    1990-12-01

    This report furnishes a list of compiled and ongoing studies and a list of publications which resulted from the research accomplished by Institute scientists and other collaborators. The research accomplished can be placed in four categories: I. Research on borrow pit rehabilitation with 12 publications; II. Research on artificial regeneration of southern pines with 34 publications; III. Research on artificial regeneration of eastern hardwoods with 16 publications; and IV. Cooperative research with the University of Georgia on biochemical aspects of mycorrhizae with 5 publications. Major accomplishments of this research are: 1. Procedures to successfully reclaim borrow pits with sludge, subsoiling and seedlings with specific mycorrhizae. 2. Protocols to successfully artificially regenerate southern pines (particularly ling leaf pine) and certain eastern hardwoods. 3. Basic understanding of the biochemistry of mycorrhizae and the discovery of a new pathway for sucrose utilization in plants. 67 refs.

  5. Sustainable Forest Management in Tropical Rain Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jussi Kuusipalo; Jyrki Kangas; Lauri Vesa

    1997-01-01

    In planning of sustainable forest management, economic, environmental and social demands often conflict. Forest management in Southeast Asian tropical dipterocarp forests has been particularly biased towards maximizing immediate economic return from extensive logging. Overexploitation and other forms of uncontrolled land use within these forests have led to the situation where the remaining natural forests, most of them in Indonesia, will

  6. Louisiana's Forests and Forest Products Industries

    E-print Network

    Wu, Qinglin

    sectors?" Louisiana's Forests Louisiana ranks 10th nationally in total production of sawn timber comparedLouisiana's Forests and Forest Products Industries Working Paper # 11 Louisiana Forest Products elliottii) forests of the South. During the 1920's U.S. timber was being harvested at about twice the rate

  7. [Quantitative driving analysis of forest biomass changes in Changbai Mountain forest region].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ming; Fan, Wen-Yi; Li, Ming-Ze; Tian, Li-Jun; Mao, Xue-Gang; Yu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Based on the forest inventory data and single tree biomass model, the forest biomass in the sampling plots in Changbai Mountain forest region was calculated, and, by using the estimated forest biomass from four periods' remote sensing data and based on high accuracy remote sensing models, the changes of regional forest biomass were analyzed. In the meanwhile, the driving factors such as meteorological factors, management factors, and socio-economic factors that caused forest biomass change were selected by bootstrap method, and the driving model of forest biomass change in different time period was set up by using partial least-squares method. The Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) values representing the importance of each of the factors affecting the forest biomass change in study region were calculated. The results showed that the influence of human activity factors (VIP values) on Changhai Mountain forest biomass changes was less than that of natural factors, suggesting that the national forest protection policy for forest regions had played an obvious role. Our research broadened the content of forest biomass change driving analysis, and the introduction of calculating VIP value, which can quantitatively represent the influence of driving factors to forest biomass change, provided a new way for the quantitative analysis on forest biomass change. PMID:21548287

  8. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jussi-Pekka Rauha; Susanna Remes; Marina Heinonen; Anu Hopia; Marja Kähkönen; Tytti Kujala; Kalevi Pihlaja; Heikki Vuorela; Pia Vuorela

    2000-01-01

    Plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. Antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from Finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. The tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis,

  9. Sustainable Leadership and Future-Oriented Decision Making in the Educational Governance--A Finnish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsamuuronen, Jari; Kuosa, Tuomo; Laukkanen, Reijo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: During the new millennium the Finnish educational system has faced a new challenge: how to explain glorious PISA results produced with only a small variance between schools, average national costs and, as regards the average duration of studies, relatively efficiently. Explanations for this issue can be searched for in many different…

  10. Forty Years of Finnish Pre-School Education: The Development of Curricula between 1972 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 in Finland, all six year olds have had the right to free pre-school education, and almost all pre-school-aged children take advantage of this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to dissect the development of Finnish pre-school education curricula within the societal context and within the changes in trends of curriculum planning…

  11. Professionalism--A Breeding Ground for Struggle. The Example of the Finnish Day-Care Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinos, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the Finnish day-care centre out of a neo-Weberian-Bourdieuan frame of reference. The leading idea is that the day-care centre field is continuously shaping as a result of both inner struggles and struggles with other fields. The state, the education system, and trade unions act as the dealers of professional playing cards.…

  12. Teachers' Contribution to the Social Life in Finnish Preschool Classrooms during Structured Learning Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, Jenni; Hännikäinen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify and deepen the knowledge on and understanding of the role that teachers' practices during teacher-led learning sessions play in creating and enhancing social life in Finnish preschool classrooms. Observational data pertaining to 20 preschool teachers were analysed according to the principles of thematic analysis.…

  13. The Productivity Effects of Stock Option Schemes: Evidence from Finnish Panel Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Jones; Panu Kalmi; Mikko Mäkinen

    2006-01-01

    While theorists differ sharply on the expected economic impact of stock options, typically empirical work has found a positive association between option schemes and firm productivity. However, existing data are limited and may not enable reliable investigation of the productivity effects of different types of option scheme. New panel data for all Finnish publicly listed firms during 1992-2002 enable us

  14. Personnel knowledge of the pay system, pay satisfaction and pay effectiveness: evidence from Finnish personnel funds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Sweins; Panu Kalmi; Kiisa Hulkko-Nyman

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected from over 1,000 individuals in 30 Finnish personnel funds, we study the links between pay knowledge, pay satisfaction and pay effectiveness. We find consistent evidence that higher levels of pay knowledge are associated with improved pay satisfaction and perceived pay effectiveness at the organizational level. We find that pay knowledge has an independent impact on organizational outcomes,

  15. Functionality of Financial Participation Schemes: Evidence from Finnish Personnel Funds 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Sweins; Panu Kalmi

    In this paper, we study the determinants of two aspects of financial participation functionality: satisfaction with personnel fund and perceived economic effects of funds. Our data set consists of over 1,000 individuals in companies with personnel funds. Personnel funds are an original Finnish form of financial participation schemes. They are deferred profit-sharing schemes, which may include elements of employee share

  16. The Productivity Effects of Stock Option Schemes: Evidence from Finnish Panel Data1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Jones; Panu Kalmi

    2006-01-01

    While theorists differ sharply on the expected economic impact of stock options, typically empirical work has found a positive association between option schemes and firm productivity. However, existing data are limited and may not enable reliable investigation of the productivity effects. New panel data for all Finnish publicly listed firms during 1992-2002 enable us to distinguish plans that are broad

  17. Organisational Transition Challenges in the Finnish Vocational Education--Perspective of Distributed Pedagogical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jappinen, Aini-Kristiina; Maunonen-Eskelinen, Irmeli

    2012-01-01

    The article examines organisational challenges in the Finnish vocational education and training (VET) to support students' lifelong learning pathways. Investigation of organizational challenges is done through the students' transitions either within one school level or from one school level to another or to working life. For supporting the…

  18. Sexual Body Image and Its Correlates: A Population-Based Study of Finnish Women and Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Ålgars; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Ada Johansson; Minja Westerlund; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

    2011-01-01

    Sexual body image was examined in a population-based sample of 9,532 Finnish men and women, age 18 to 49 years. More than one half of women and men were satisfied with their genitals, one half of the women were satisfied with their breasts. Higher levels of genital satisfaction were related to higher frequencies of sexual behavior and better sexual function

  19. Genes for resistance in barley to Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Robinson; H. Lindqvist; M. Jalli

    1995-01-01

    Twenty Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal agent of scald, were taken from infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and inoculated on to seedlings of a differential series of barley containing a range of major genes for resistance to the fungus, as well as on to six Nordic 6-row spring barleys and three winter ryes (Secale

  20. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  1. Investigating the Genre of a Business Fax: A Finnish Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes faxes sent and received during one week by a Finnish company involved in international operations. Suggests that the business fax is a distinct, dynamic genre constituted by and constitutive of the social practices within which it is situated, with five specific subgenres: specific information, specific requests, "for your information,"…

  2. Towards ICT in Everyday Life in Finnish Schools: Seeking Conditions for Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Vahtivuori-Hanninen, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses how to strengthen educational use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Finnish schools. The conceptions and experiences of the successful integration of ICT in everyday school settings are reported. Participant observations in 20 schools in different parts of Finland were carried out, including discussions…

  3. Experiences of School Bullying among Internationally Adopted Children: Results from the Finnish Adoption (FINANDO) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs…

  4. Relationship of Gender and Academic Achievement to Finnish Students' Intercultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intercultural sensitivity of Finnish 12-16-year-old secondary school students (N=549) with a 23-item Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ICSSQ). The ICSSQ is based on Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which is a conceptual tool to situate certain reactions towards cultural…

  5. Recordings of geomagnetically induced currents and a nowcasting service of the Finnish natural gas pipeline system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Viljanen; A. Pulkkinen; R. Pirjola; K. Pajunpää; P. Posio; A. Koistinen

    2006-01-01

    The geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in the Finnish natural gas pipeline have been measured at one site in southern Finland since November 1998. We give an overview of this long and uniform time series covering one sunspot maximum. We also briefly discuss the conventional magnetic activity indices K and Ak, and, additionally, the range of the magnetic field and of

  6. The use of Diphone Variants in Optimal Text Selection for Finnish Unit Selection Speech Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Gabbouj, Moncef

    on the database. This paper describes an approach for sentence selection for Finnish speech database recordings their acoustic dissimilarity. With the same number of sentences (292) that fulfill the traditionally determined labeled speech database for choosing and concatenating segments in an optimal way. Optimal means

  7. Self-Repair of Speech by Four-Year-Old Finnish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salonen, Tuuli; Laakso, Minna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine what four-year-old children repair in their speech. For this purpose, conversational self-repairs (N = 316) made by two typically developing Finnish-speaking children (aged 4 ; 8 and 4 ; 11) were examined. The data comprised eight hours of natural interactions videotaped at the children's homes. The tapes were…

  8. Perspectives and Success Factors for Small Firms of the Finnish Builders’ Carpentry Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pekka Ollonqvist; Thomas Rimmler

    2005-01-01

    The article presents the state of the art and perspectives of the Finnish builders’ carpentry Industry and the role of the small firms. It is identified that firms producing prefabricated components to BtoC markets do not supply their products to BtoB markets and vice versa. Domestic markets of single dwelling house construction have been growing during the recent years. There

  9. Behavioral and Emotional Strength-Based Assessment of Finnish Elementary Students: Psychometrics of the BERS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Savolainen, Hannu; Lambert, Matthew C.; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    When rating scales are used in different countries, thorough investigation of the psychometric properties is needed. We examined the internal structure of the Finnish translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2) using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis approaches with a sample of youth, parents, and teachers. The results…

  10. E-Democracy and Network Externalities The Case of Websites of Finnish Members

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    E-Democracy and Network Externalities ­ The Case of Websites of Finnish Members of Parliament Reima- liament is a key success factor democracy. Fortunately, modern informa- tion technology is giving a lot preliminary concepts and ideas on what these network externalities might be. Key words: e-democracy, Member

  11. The acquisition and maintenance costs associated with library automation systems in Finnish public libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarmo Saarti

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a survey of the costs and types of the library automation systems in use in public libraries in Finland. The study was carried out during 2000. The results show that almost all of the Finnish public libraries have some kind of library automation system and that 80 per cent of them are already offering

  12. Repeated Reading of Syllables among Finnish-Speaking Children with Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Sini; Aro, Mikko; Landerl, Karin; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of repeated reading on reading speed among 36 Finnish-speaking poor readers in Grades 4 to 6. A switching replications design was applied: Group A (n = 20) received training first, and during this period Group B (n = 16) acted as a control group. After a midpoint test, the design was switched. The training material…

  13. Dancing in Fetters? Chinese Principals' Perceptions of the Effects of Finnish Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xing, Xin; Dervin, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Although there is an increased interest in overseas training for educational leaders in China, little is known about the value of such programs. This qualitative case study explores Chinese school principals' perceptions of leadership practices and professional development after undertaking a Finnish training program. The article also…

  14. Borders in tourism: the transformation of the Swedish–Finnish border landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eeva-Kaisa Prokkola

    2010-01-01

    Permeability in the European internal borders has increased, challenging state-centric tourism development in the border regions. The aim of this article is to examine the development of the Finnish–Swedish border, which has been one of the European Union's internal borders since 1995, as a tourist attraction. An examination of the path of tourism development in this border region shows that

  15. The Choice of Initial Web Search Strategies: A Comparison between Finnish and American Searchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, Mirja; White, Marilyn Domas

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that used qualitative and quantitative methodologies to analyze differences between Finnish and American Web searchers in their choice of initial search strategies (direct address, subject directory, and search engines) and their reasoning underlying their choices. Considers implications for considering cultural differences in…

  16. Maternal Smoking Behavior, Background and Neonatal Health in Finnish Children Subsequently Placed in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalland, Mirjam; Sinkkonen, Jari; Gissler, Mika; Merilainen, Jouni; Siimes, Martti A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively neonatal health and maternal background among a sample of children taken into custody and placed in foster care and to investigate the relation between medical and social risk in the neonatal period. Method: The data-linkage study combined two registries: the Finnish Medical…

  17. Multi method approach to the assessment of data quality in the Finnish Medical Birth Registry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Teperi

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess comprehensively the validity of the data in the Finnish Medical Birth Registry (MBR) by the combined use of several controls and internal analysis of the data. DESIGN--The MBR data were individually linked to a medical record sample (n = 775) and to all perinatal death certificates in 1987. The data were also compared with annual hospital statistics. The

  18. School-External Factors in Finnish Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Sophie; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the English language competence of Finnish bilingual pupils and school-external factors such as parental expectations, home involvement, and exposure to English outside the classroom. Data on the pupils' language competence was collected from n?=?122 6th graders in bilingual education, and…

  19. Efficiency differences of finnish senior secondary schools: An application of DEA and Tobit analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanja Kirjavainen; Heikki A. Loikkanent

    1998-01-01

    We studied efficiency differences among Finnish senior secondary schools by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Four model variants were used. Average efficiencies in the most extensive models were 82–84 per cent. When parents' educational level was treated as an additional input, average efficiency increased to 91 per cent. The efficiency rankings of schools changed to some extent when simplest quantitative inputs

  20. Somatic cell count and milk yield in relation to haemoglobin concentration in Finnish dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Atroshi; S. Sankari; U. B. Lindström

    1986-01-01

    Using 400 Finnish goats, the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and somatic cell counts and milk yield was studied. On the basis of haemoglobin concentration the goats were divided into two groups (> or ?1). Goats with high haemoglobin concentrations had a markedly higher milk yield and the milk had a lower somatic cell count. In contrast, goats with low haemoglobin

  1. Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence for Linkage on Chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish Affected Sib Pairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumitra Ghosh; Richard M. Watanabe; Elizabeth R. Hauser; Timo Valle; Victoria L. Magnuson; Michael R. Erdos; Carl D. Langefeld; James Balow Jr.; Delphine S. Ally; Kimmo Kohtamaki; Peter Chines; Gunther Birznieks; Hong-Shi Kaleta; Anjene Musick; Catherine Te; Joyce Tannenbaum; William Eldridge; Shane Shapiro; Colin Martin; Alyson Witt; Alistair So; Jennie Chang; Ben Shurtleff; Rachel Porter; Kristina Kudelko; Arun Unni; Leonid Segal; Ravi Sharaf; Jillian Blaschak-Harvan; Johan Eriksson; Tuula Tenkula; Gabriele Vidgren; Christian Ehnholm; Eva Tuomilehto-Wolf; William Hagopian; Thomas A. Buchanan; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Richard N. Bergman; Francis S. Collins; Michael Boehnke

    1999-01-01

    We are conducting a genome scan at an average resolution of 10 centimorgans (cM) for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in 716 affected sib pairs from 477 Finnish families. To date, our best evidence for linkage is on chromosome 20 with potentially separable peaks located on both the long and short arms. The unweighted multipoint maximum logarithm of odds score

  2. Pragmatics of Content-Based Instruction: Teacher and Student Directives in Finnish and Austrian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Nikula, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Using a pragmatic framework, this paper examines how directives are performed by teachers and students in Finnish and Austrian CLIL classrooms, that is settings where a foreign language (in this case English) is used as the medium of instruction in non-language subjects such as history or chemistry. We explore how interpersonal aspects of…

  3. A Purposeful MOOC to Alleviate Insufficient CS Education in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurhila, Jaakko; Vihavainen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school students are not able to study CS-related topics, the Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is open to pupils and students in…

  4. Multilocus sequence types of Finnish bovine Campylobacter jejuni isolates and their attribution to human infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline PA de Haan; Rauni I Kivistö; Marjaana Hakkinen; Jukka Corander; Marja-Liisa Hänninen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the sporadic nature of infection, sources often remain unknown. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has been successfully applied to population genetics of Campylobacter jejuni and mathematical modelling can be applied to the sequence data. Here, we analysed the population structure of a total of 250 Finnish

  5. Efficiency Differences of Finnish Senior Secondary Schools: An Application of DEA and Tobit Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirjavainen, Tanja; Loikkanen, Heikki A.

    1998-01-01

    Studied efficiency differences in Finnish senior secondary schools by Data Envelopment Analysis, using four variant models. Average efficiencies in the most extensive models were 82% to 84%. Considering parents' educational level increased average efficiency to 91%. Tobit analysis showed school size did not affect efficiency. Input and output…

  6. Geography in the Finnish School Curriculum: Part of the "Success Story"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the status of geography education in the Finnish national curricula from the 1970s until today. Conceptions of teaching, learning and change in society are traced through curriculum texts; in addition, the ways in which these are applied in the subject-specified aims and content of the geography curriculum are explored.…

  7. Persistent Work for Equity and Lifelong Learning in the Finnish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces how the Finnish educational system has been moved systematically towards equal opportunities for all learners. It also describes how principles of equity and lifelong learning are tied together and what consequences this has had on teachers' professional role. Finally, the article reflects on what kind of studies and…

  8. Interpreting Pronouns and Demonstratives in Finnish: Evidence for a Form-Specific Approach to Reference Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Elsi; Trueswell, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Two Finnish language comprehension experiments are presented which suggest that the referential properties of pronouns and demonstratives cannot be reduced straightforwardly to the salience level of the antecedent. The findings, from a sentence completion study and visual world eye-tracking study, reveal an asymmetry in which features of the…

  9. Making Bullying Prevention a Priority in Finnish Schools: The KiVa Antibullying Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmivalli, Christina; Poskiparta, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The KiVa antibullying program has been widely implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools since 2009. The program is predicated on the idea that a positive change in the behaviors of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the perpetrators of bullying and consequently their motivation to bully in the first place. KiVa involves both universal…

  10. The Challenge of Cross-Cultural Leadership Interaction: Finnish Expatriates in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suutari, Vesa; Raharjo, Kusdi; Riikkila, Timo

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 16 Finnish expatriate managers and their Indonesian subordinates (n=20) revealed major differences in opinions of leadership styles and work habits. All managers had adjusted their style to their cultural surroundings, but to varying degrees: active, moderate, selective, or limited. (Contains 56 references.) (SK)

  11. Changing Voices in Early Years Curricula. An Example from Finnish Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the changing constructions of childhood in two Finnish pre-school education curricula during the time of pre-school reform in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These constructions are part of the underlying curriculum containing postulates and values that influence the written curriculum documents. They determine the…

  12. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  13. Geographies of media and powerThe United States in Finnish media discourse, 1984-2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inka Salovaara-Moring; Kirsi Maunula

    2011-01-01

    •This article explores the representation of the United States in Finnish daily newspapers, 1984—2009. Empirically, it builds on an analysis of editorials and commentaries that focus on US foreign policy. The examples deal with the deployment of US nuclear missiles to Europe in 1984, the Balkans war in 1994, the continuation of the war in Iraq in 2004, and the

  14. Finnish Vowel Harmony as a Prescriptive and Descriptive Rule: An Autosegmental Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valimaa-Blum, Riitta

    It is proposed in this paper that there are two rules involved in Finnish vowel harmony--prescriptive and descriptive. The prescriptive rule requires a back vowel in the suffix whenever there is a back vowel in the root; the descriptive rule lets the value of the last non-neutral vowel spread to the suffix and additionally involves an analysis of…

  15. Identity and potential pathogenicity of Phytophthora species found on symptomatic Rhododendron plants in a Finnish nursery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rytkönen; A. Lilja; A. Vercauteren; S. Sirkiä; P. Parikka; M. Soukainen; J. Hantula

    2012-01-01

    In this study, microbial isolations were made from symptomatic Rhododendron plants from a large Finnish nursery, known to be harbouring Phytophthora based on PCR screenings. The nearby waterways were also sampled. A diversity of common Nordic plants was screened for Phytophthora susceptibility. Isolates recovered from Rhododendron plants included P. ramorum, P. cactorum, P. plurivora, P. pini and Pestalotiopsis sp. Baits

  16. Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) in the Assessment of Psychopathology in Finnish Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskentausta, Terhi; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) in the assessment of psychopathology in a Finnish population of children with intellectual disability. Disruptive behaviour was more common in children with mild intellectual disability, and problems with social interaction and communication in those with moderate, severe or profound…

  17. CBCL in the Assessment of Psychopathology in Finnish Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskentausta, Terhi; Iivanainen, Matti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    Structured checklists have been used to supplement psychiatric assessment of children with normal intelligence, but for children with intellectual disability, only a few checklists exist. We evaluated the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in the assessment of psychopathology in Finnish children with intellectual disability. The CBCL was completed by…

  18. Efficiency of Finnish General Upper Secondary Schools: An Application of Stochastic Frontier Analysis with Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirjavainen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Different stochastic frontier models for panel data are used to estimate education production functions and the efficiency of Finnish general upper secondary schools. Grades in the matriculation examination are used as an output and explained with the comprehensive school grade point average, parental socio-economic background, school resources,…

  19. Happy Spouses, Happy Parents? Family Relationships among Finnish and Dutch Dual Earners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinen, Kaisa; Kinnunen, Ulla; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna; Wierda-Boer, Hilde; Gerris, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of…

  20. Finnish Lake Survey: The Role of Catchment Attributes in Determining Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Organic Carbon Concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miitta Rantakari; Pirkko Kortelainen; Jussi Vuorenmaa; Jaakko Mannio; Martin Forsius

    2004-01-01

    This study is based on a Finnish lake survey conducted in 1995, a dataset of 874 statistically selected lakes from the national lake register. The dataset was divided into subgroups to evaluate lake water-catchment relationships in different geographical regions and in lakes of different size. In the three southernmost regions, the coefficients of determination in multiple regression equations varied between

  1. The Representation of Leisure in Corporate Publicity Material: The Case of a Finnish Pine Construction Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Jokipii, Hilkka M.

    1998-01-01

    States that a video introducing a company to various audiences is a common genre of promotional material in Finland. Applies theories of both advertising and semiotics to analyze the first minute of a video produced for a Finnish company that manufactures log buildings and wraps its image around a concept of leisure. (PA)

  2. Moral Reasoning among Estonian and Finnish Adolescents: A Comparison of Collectivist and Individual Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Terav, Tuuli; Pakaslahti, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Compared the moral reasoning of 1,230 Finnish adolescents with that of 428 adolescents of the same age who grew up in Estonia during Soviet socialism with collectivist educational practices. Two levels of moral reasoning, a set of universal standards and a set for personal applications, were more likely to be found among Estonians. (SLD)

  3. Attitudes towards own-checking and HACCP plans among Finnish food industry employees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Hielm; Pirkko Tuominen; Kaarina Aarnisalo; Laura Raaska; Riitta Maijala

    2006-01-01

    Ten copies each of a mail survey was designed and distributed to 87 Finnish food manufacturing companies in order to be distributed to 870 employees representing both workers and managers. Respondents were asked about their attitudes towards food hygiene management strategies in their companies. The final response rates for companies and individual employees were 34.9% and 21.2%, respectively. Answers were

  4. Language of Inclusion and Diversity: Policy Discourses and Social Practices in Finnish and Norwegian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnesen, Anne-Lise; Mietola, Reetta; Lahelma, Elina

    2007-01-01

    The terrain of inclusion studies in discussed in this paper from the perspective of policy discourses and teachers' constructions on student diversity. We start by discussing the concept of inclusion from normative and analystic perspectives. We then look at the kinds of discourses that can be found in the Finnish and Norwegian curricula, as well…

  5. The Construction of Academic Identity in the Changes of Finnish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylijoki, Oili-Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2013-01-01

    This article sets out to explore how academics make sense of the current transformations of higher education and what kinds of academic identities are thereby constructed. Based on a narrative analysis of 42 interviews with Finnish academics, nine narratives are discerned, each providing a different answer as to what it means to be an academic in…

  6. Radiocaesium in seals and terns off the Finnish coast after the Chernobyl accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkki Ilus; Seppo Klemola; Tarja K. Ikäheimonen

    Seals, eating almost exclusively fish, represent the top consumers in the brackish water eco- systems of the Northern Baltic Sea. Two seal species live off the Finnish coast; the ringed seal (Phoca hispida botnica) and the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). The principal prey of these species is Baltic herring. Furthermore, seals are relatively long-lived, the usual life expectancy being up

  7. Modelling Contracting Procedure and the Concept of the Service Portfolio for Finnish Municipalities using SADT Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mika Siltala

    The use of contracted services will increase in the Finnish municipalities in the next fi ve years. The public sector fi nance is stricter than before. The public units have been forced to act like private fi rms in terms of effi ciency and use of capital. The needs of this situation are cost- effectiveness and fl exibility of service

  8. An investigation into the source of magnetic minerals in some Finnish lake sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Stober; R. Thompson

    1979-01-01

    The source of magnetic minerals in the sediments of five Finnish lakes, which carry a palaeomagnetic record of the geomagnetic field, was found to be primary magnetite in the glacial drift of the catchments. The magnetite is concentrated in the central lake sediments. The ratio of haematite to magnetite was found to decrease in the progression drift-stream bedload-lake sediment. A

  9. Palaeomagnetic secular variation studies of Finnish lake sediment and the carriers of remanence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Stober; R. Thompson

    1977-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic and mineral magnetism measurements have been carried out on two cores from Lake Vuokonjarvi in Finnish Karelia. The sediment probably covers 5000 years of continuous deposition at a mean sedimentation rate of about 0.8 mm\\/yr. The magnetic declination exhibits fluctuations of similar amplitude (~20°) and character to those recorded in northern England and northern Ireland. Magnetic inclination variations are

  10. Analysis of the Development of Academic Writing in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhanen-Nuutinen, Liisa; Janhonen, Sirpa; Tuomi, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the genre of the reviewed scientific articles published in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science") during its history. The aim was to bring a critical approach to writing in nursing science and to discuss the dominant conventions of scientific writing in nursing. A total of 27 journals, which…

  11. Finnish Pre-Service Teachers' and Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of Division and Reasoning Strategies Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaasila, Raimo; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hellinen, Anu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on Finnish pre-service elementary teachers' (N = 269) and upper secondary students' (N = 1,434) understanding of division. In the questionnaire, we used the following non-standard division problem: "We know that 498:6 = 83. How could you conclude from this relationship (without using long-division algorithm) what 491:6 = ?…

  12. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the…

  13. Finnish reactions facing the threat of nuclear accidents in Russian nuclear power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liisa Eränen

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the reactions of Finnish people to an incident at a Russian nuclear power plant. A random sample of 1280 subjects from four different towns in Southern Finland was sent a questionnaire 6 weeks after the incident. Return rate was 55%. Subjects were asked their interpretation of the situation, their contentedness with information delivery and their perception of

  14. Teachers' Views on Curriculum Development in Health Promotion in Two Finnish Polytechnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Auli; Poskiparta, Marita; Liimatainen, Leena; Kettunen, Tarja

    2003-01-01

    Ten nursing teachers in two Finnish polytechnics stated that their involvement in curriculum development was impeded by lack of time. They felt that health promotion was adequately addressed, although there was no evidence that new approaches recommended by the World Health Organization and other bodies were being used. (Contains 49 references.)…

  15. The Development of Databases and Database Tools for Forest Canopy Researchers: A Model for Database Enhancement in the Ecological Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Bayard Cushing; Nalini Nadkarni; Lois Delcambre; Keri Healy; Dave Maier; Erik Ordway

    2002-01-01

    Solving biosphere-level problems such as global warming, decreasing biodiversity, and depletion of natural resources requires changes in the ways ecological research is carried out. Historically, ecologists have collected and stored their data in individualist ways, making data sharing among collaborators and subsequent data mining difficult. Integrating the use of database technology into the research process makes data sharing across studies

  16. Colville study: Wood utilization for ecosystem management. Preliminary results of study of product potential from small-diameter stands. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Willits, S.; Barbour, R.J.; Tesch, S.; Ryland, D.; McNeel, J.

    1996-12-01

    The Colville Study was developed in 1994 to identify and evaluate a series of management options for achieving ecosystem objectives in dense stands of small diameter trees while also producing wood products. The Colville National Forest selected the Rocky II Timber Sale as an example of this type of stand that needed management to achieve the following goals: (1) create late successional forest structure, (2) decrease forest health risk from fire, insects, and disease, (3) improve wildlife habitat by providing large green trees and snags, and (4) improve stand aesthetics by decreasing stand density. The Colville Study was divided into four technical focus areas: Silviculture and Ecology, Forest Operations, Timber Conversion, and Economics.

  17. Forested wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, A.E.; Brinson, M.; Brown, S. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Forested wetlands have important roles in global biogeochemical cycles, supporting freshwater and saltwater commercial fisheries, and in providing a place for wildlife of all kinds to flourish. Scientific attention towards these ecosystems has lagged with only a few comprehensive works on forested wetlands of the world. A major emphasis of this book is to develop unifying principles and data bases on the structure and function of forested wetlands, in order to stimulate scientific study of them. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface-water or ground-water, at such a frequency and duration that under natural conditions they support organisms adapted to poorly aerated and/or saturated soil. The strategy of classifying the conditions that control the structure and behavior of forested wetlands by assuming that the physiognomy and floristic composition of the system will reflect the total energy expenditure of the ecosystem; and the structural and functional characteristics of forested wetlands from different parts of the world are the major topics covered.

  18. Tropical forest conservation and development: A bibliography. Manual No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, J.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: forest resources; deforestation; conservation and sustainable development; indigenous peoples; management, policy, and planning; trade and industrial development; nontimber forest products; research, education, and training; history; bibliographies and general works; author index.

  19. A Comparison of the Louisiana Forest Stewardship Program

    E-print Network

    A Comparison of the Louisiana Forest Stewardship Program and Four Nationally Recognized Forest Stewardship Plans .. 52 Independent Review of the Management Plans .. .. .. 53 III. Research Methodology Appendix A Program Descriptions .. .. .. .. 63 Louisiana Stewardship Program .. .. .. .. 63 Smartwood

  20. Regulating forest practices in Texas: a problem analysis

    E-print Network

    Dreesen, Alan D

    1977-01-01

    Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS) (Federal) U. S. Forest Service (USFS) (Federal) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Federal) Soil Conservation Service (SCS) (Federal) Texas Forest Service (TFS) (State) Texas Agricultural Extension Service... application in future research efforts dealing with impacts of various forest practices. Dr. R. G. Merrifield, Head, Department of Forest Science served as a light house throughout the problem selection and research processes. His experience and judgement...

  1. Biotechnology touches the forest

    SciTech Connect

    Powledge, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Both the United States and New Zealand are doing research in forest biotechnology and much of the interest is in speedy propagation from seed to mature tree. A number of propagation techniques are discussed, such as tissue culture, the culture of tissue from mature trees and somatic embryo genesis. Much of the tissue culture work has been done on radiata pine. Field testing results are considered. The aims and the advantages of forest biotechnology are discussed under the following headings. 1) Disease resistance: research is being carried out on a loblolly pine which would be resistant to fusiform rust. 2) Animal feed: some trees have been discovered to have lower lignin content and similar cellulose and hemicellulose to alfalfa. 3) Specialty chemicals: terpenes, in the tree resin, could be turned into hormones, drugs and other chemicals: the genetic system for the overall biosynthesis of terpenes has been studied. 4) Herbicide resistance. The resistance to glyphosate in poplars is being studied. In conclusion, further research into forest species, using molecular biology is considered essential.

  2. Sau?-ne? [Finn] : a Finnish steam bath in which the steam is provided by water thrown on hot stones

    E-print Network

    Lindman, Pia Maria, 1965-

    1999-01-01

    A Finnish proverb says that the sauna is the most democratic space in the world . Here, we dismantle our vestments of social status and relax in a distinct social space where everyone shares the same basic needs of comfort ...

  3. A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 200929 35 The Role of the Forest Service

    E-print Network

    A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 35 The Role and potential future invasive species and determine which ecosystems are most vulnerable to invasion effects associated with invasive species and account for the stage of invasion. These tools will also need

  4. A Student Guide to Tropical Forest Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This student guide provides an introduction to the types and value of tropical forests, deforestation, the practice of forestry, forestry research, and tropical forestry. The guide shows how modern practices can help stem the tide of forest destruction while continuing to provide valuable products for people. Examples of sustainable forestry are cited, which could be used as models for protecting and managing tropical forests worldwide.

  5. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. PMID:20036449

  6. Project Title: Optimizing landscape treatments for reducing wildfire risk and improving ecological sustainability of ponderosa pine forests with mixed severity fire regimes JFSP Project No.: 01-1-3-22 Project Location: Colorado State University, Western Forest Fire Research Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip N. Omi

    2006-01-01

    Summary: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) forests in the Colorado Front Range comprise a mixed-severity fire regime with true-mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus Raf.) as the dominant undergrowth shrub species. The objective of this project is to relate the sprouting behavior of true mountain mahogany to fire severity gradients at both landscape and individual shrub scales following the 2000 Hi Meadow

  7. Research, part of a Special Feature on Crossing Scales and Disciplines to Achieve Forest Sustainability Sustaining Biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range: Potential effects of Forest Policies in a Multi-ownership Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda C. McComb; Thomas A. Spies; Keith A. Olsen

    To understand the potential effects of forest policies on sustaining biological diversity at broad scales, we used spatial simulation models to evaluate current and potential future habitat availability over 100 yr for three focal species: Pacific Fisher ( Martes pennanti), Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus). The habitats of these species represent a broad range of spatial

  8. Nest predator distribution among clearcut forest, forest edge and forest interior in an extensively forested landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David I King; Curtice R Griffin; Richard M DeGraaf

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of avian and mammalian nest predator species in clearcut forest, forest edge and forest interior habitats was assessed on four study plots in 1992 and 1993 using line transect counts. Red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were detected more often than expected by chance in mature forest than clearcut forest (P<0.05). Linear regressions of sciurid

  9. The Many Faces of Research Profiling: Academic Leaders' Conceptions of Research Steering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietilä, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The article examines academic leaders' conceptions of research profiling. Global science policies, including the Finnish governmental policy, promote the identification of areas of research excellence and recommend resource concentration on them. However, as active agents, leaders may have competing, even conflicting views on the pros and…

  10. The use of negative inflections by Finnish-speaking children with and without specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Leonard, Laurence B; Mäkinen, Leena; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty expressing subject-verb agreement. However, in many languages, tense is fused with agreement, making it difficult to attribute the problem to agreement in particular. In Finnish, negative markers are function words that agree with the subject in person and number but do not express tense, providing an opportunity to assess the status of agreement in a more straightforward way. Fifteen Finnish-speaking preschoolers with SLI, 15 age controls and 15 younger controls responded to items requiring negative markers in first person singular and plural, and third person singular and plural. The children with SLI were less accurate than both typically developing groups. However, their problems were limited to particular person-number combinations. Furthermore, the children with SLI appeared to have difficulty selecting the form of the lexical verb that should accompany the negative marker, suggesting that agreement was not the sole difficulty. PMID:24588468

  11. The 1990 forest ecosystem dynamics multisensor aircraft campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Darrel L.; Ranson, K. Jon

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) research activity is to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of forest ecosystem evolution over a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Primary emphasis is being placed on assessing the ecosystem dynamics associated with the transition zone between northern hardwood forests in eastern North America and the predominantly coniferous forests of the more northerly boreal biome. The approach is to combine ground-based, airborne, and satellite observations with an integrated forest pattern and process model which is being developed to link together existing models of forest growth and development, soil processes, and radiative transfer.

  12. UNCERTAINTIES IN COUNTRYWIDE FOREST BIOMASS ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Country-wide estimates of forest biomass are the major driver for estimating and understanding carbon pools and flux, a critical component of global change research. mportant determinants in making these estimates include the areal extend of forested lands and their associated bi...

  13. Conceptions of Research: The Doctoral Student Experience in Three Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubb, Jenni; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lonka, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how doctoral students perceive research work in the context of their own PhD projects. Thirty-two students from a Finnish university were interviewed, representing three disciplines: medicine, natural sciences and behavioural sciences. Their conceptions of research varied in terms of describing research as "a job to…

  14. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive…

  15. The productivity effects of stock option schemes: evidence from Finnish panel data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Jones; Panu Kalmi; Mikko Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the productivity effects of employee stock option schemes. We estimate Cobb-Douglas production\\u000a functions by using new panel data for all Finnish publicly listed firms during 1992–2002. The data enable us to distinguish\\u000a broad-based option plans, for which all employees are eligible, from those selectively allocated to particular employees.\\u000a For both type of schemes, our baseline

  16. Trying Something New: Meaning-Based Reading Instruction in a Finnish First-Grade Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riitta-Liisa Korkeamäki; Mariam Jean Dreher

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated children's reading strategies and progress when a meaning-based approach to reading instruction was implemented in a Finnish 1st-grade classroom. A reading program was designed in which the teacher introduced predictable books, literacy-related centers, and minilessons in context on selected letter-sound correspondences. Field notes and videotapes of individual reading sessions were analyzed to describe the strategies the students

  17. Finnish children’s views on the ideal school and learning environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjaana Kangas

    2010-01-01

    This grounded-theory study involved how Finnish children describe their ideal school and learning environment and considers\\u000a how their notions should be valued in the development of schools to better respond to the challenges of the future. The school\\u000a children, aged 10–12 years, participated in the study by writing a story about a school in which they would be happy to study.

  18. Ex-dividend day trading: Who, how, and why?: Evidence from the Finnish market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elias Rantapuska

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the ex-dividend day trading behavior of all investors in the Finnish stock market. Consistent with dynamic dividend clientele theories, investors with a preference for dividend income buy shares cum-dividend and sell ex-dividend; the reverse is true for investors with the opposite preference. Investors also engage in overnight arbitrage, earning on average a 2% overnight return on their

  19. Angiosarcoma after radiotherapy: a cohort study of 332 163 Finnish cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Virtanen; E Pukkala; A Auvinen

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of angiosarcoma after radiotherapy among all patients with cancers of breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, lung, ovary, prostate, or rectum, and lymphoma diagnosed in Finland during 1953–2003, identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Only angiosarcomas of the trunk were considered, this being the target of radiotherapy for the first cancer. In the follow-up of 1.8 million

  20. Comparison of allergic diseases, symptoms and respiratory infections between Finnish and Russian school children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Hugg; Risto Ruotsalainen; Maritta S. Jaakkola; Vadim Pushkarev; Jouni J. K. Jaakkola

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about differences in allergic and respiratory diseases between the Finnish and Russian populations. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study to compare the occurrence of allergic diseases and respiratory infections\\u000a among school children in the towns of Imatra in Finland and Svetogorsk in Russia on either side of the common border. The\\u000a study population consisted of

  1. American Forests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-04-30

    American Forests is a world leader in planting trees for environmental restoration, a pioneer in the science and practice of urban forestry, and a primary communicator of the benefits of trees and forests. In addition to information about reforestation projects, this website contains several features that are useful to educators and professionals. A kid's section contains learning materials and classroom activites, downloadable in PDF format. A personal carbon dioxide calculator allows one to determine one's own impact on global warming. For professionals or planners, there is a free trial download of CityGreen 4.0. This GIS application allows modeling of benefits from tree planting, such as reduction in stormwater runoff, energy savings, air quality improvements, and carbon storage.

  2. Forest Health Monitoring Program in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Stoltel; H. G. Lund

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are conducting a multiagency Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) pro- Sam. This program has 4 main components: Detection Monitonng, Evaluation Monitorin g, Intensive Site Ecosystem Monitorin g, and Research on Monitoring Techniques. The focus of the program is to evaluate forest ecosystems for condition, changes, and

  3. EN-003 Silviculture March 2001 Roberts Creek Study Forest

    E-print Network

    / research_index.htm INTRODUCTION In October 1997, a group of staff from the Vancouver Forest RegionEN-003 Silviculture March 2001 Roberts Creek Study Forest: Worker Safety in Partial Harvesting Silvicultural Experiments and Operations By Fred Nuszdorfer and Brian DAnjou KEYWORDS: forestry, forest

  4. Smoking during pregnancy and risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Phuong Lien; Lehti, Venla; Lampi, Katja M.; Helenius, Hans; Suominen, Auli; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Background Results of previous population-based studies examining associations between smoking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are contradictory. Furthermore, there is a lack of population-based studies examining the relationship between smoking during pregnancy and the main diagnostic subtypes of ASD. Methods We conducted a population-based nested case-control study based on the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism (FIPS-A) among live-born infants delivered in Finland between 1987-05. Data on maternal smoking during pregnancy was available from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (FMBR) since October 1990. Data on ASD in the offspring was obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR). Results Among the three subtypes of ASD, maternal smoking during the whole pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) (odds ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.0, 1.5). The increase in odds persisted after controlling for maternal age, mother’s socioeconomic and psychiatric status, and infant’s weight for gestational age. However, smoking exposure limited to the first trimester was not associated with PDD or any of the other ASD subtypes. Conclusions Maternal smoking is related to a modest increase in risk of PDD, while no associations were observed for childhood autism and Asperger’s syndrome. PMID:23574415

  5. Morphology of plantar interdigital neuroma: a comparative cadaveric study of elderly Finnish and Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinichi; Nakao, Tadashi; Yamane, Shigeki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Santti, Risto; Murakami, Gen

    2013-01-01

    To examine morphological differences in Morton's interdigital neuroma between two elderly human populations, we conducted comparative study using 40 Japanese (27 males, 13 females; mean age, 81.2 years) and 21 Finnish (6 males, 15 females; mean age, 80.5 years) cadavers. We defined the neuroma as a thickening of the nerve of at least two-fold relative to the non-pathological proximal part. The incidence of this neuroma was 25% (10/40) in the Japanese and 33.3% (7/21) in the Finnish cadavers. Moderate or severe hallux valgus (with an angle of more than 20 degrees) was seen in half of the 40 Japanese cadavers (7 males, 13 females), but was absent in the Finnish cadavers. Such hallux valgus was present in 7 (5 males, 2 females) of the 10 Japanese cadavers with neuroma. Moreover, in 2 Japanese cadavers, a paper-like, specialized type of neuroma was associated with the deformity. Pathogenesis of Morton's neuroma might be different between human populations with or without hallux valgus. PMID:23883772

  6. Prevalence of acute mountain sickness among Finnish trekkers on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Heikki; Peltonen, Juha; Tikkanen, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among trekkers on Mount Kilimanjaro during the winter season of 2006-2007. A A total of 130 Finnish trekkers at Marungu route were asked to complete daily a Lake Louise self-report and clinical assessment score questionnaire with the help of a trainee Finnish guide during their trek to Kilimanjaro. A Lake Louise questionnaire score>or=3 indicated AMS. Altogether 112 mountaineers or travelers [54 men, 58 women, mean age 51+/-10 (SD) years] were studied. Fifty-nine travelers (53%) reached Gillman's Point or Uhuru Peak. The incidence of AMS among Finnish Kilimanjaro trekkers was 75%. The most common high altitude symptoms were headache, followed by sleeping problems and fatigue or weakness. The incidence of AMS is high among trekkers climbing Mount Kilimanjaro.The main reason for this seems to be rapid ascent. Kilimanjaro treks normally have a fixed timetable, and for commercial reasons there is little opportunity to spend extra days for acclimatization in the camps. Some contributing factors are preventable, so we recommend an educational program for all the trekking agencies that guide on this peak and, in particular, the Tanzania-based guiding agencies, which, typically, are driving these very fast ascent rates. PMID:19115914

  7. Outlook to 2060 for World Forests and Forest Industries

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Global Forest Products Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Scenarios and Global Forest Products Model DriversOutlook to 2060 for World Forests and Forest Industries A Technical Document Supporting the Forest

  8. Tropical forests and the changing earth system

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Simon L

    2005-01-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. Finally, I look to the future, suggesting that the current carbon sink in intact forests is unlikely to continue, and that the tropical forest biome may even become a large net source of carbon, via one or more of four plausible routes: changing photosynthesis and respiration rates, biodiversity changes in intact forest, widespread forest collapse via drought, and widespread forest collapse via fire. Each of these scenarios risks potentially dangerous positive feedbacks with the climate system that could dramatically accelerate and intensify climate change. Given that continued land-use change alone is already thought to be causing the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history, should such feedbacks occur, the resulting biodiversity and societal consequences would be even more severe. PMID:16553317

  9. What determines the success of joint forest management? Science-based lessons on sustainable governance of forests in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijai Shanker Singh; Deep Narayan Pandey; Neha Pandey Prakash

    2011-01-01

    A serious attention to the factors that lead to effective forest governance is essential to address forest restoration and management challenges in India. A large number of variables are suggested in literature that may potentially determine success or failure of sustainable governance of forests, yet the success in finding essential factors has remained elusive. Here we review the cutting-edge research

  10. Session G--Madrean Pine-Oak Forest Dynamics--Barton Madrean Pine-Oak Forest in Arizona

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Session G--Madrean Pine-Oak Forest Dynamics--Barton Madrean Pine-Oak Forest in Arizona: Past Dynamics, Present Problems1 Andrew M. Barton2 Abstract This paper synthesizes research on presettlement, ME 04938. e-mail: Barton@maine.edu. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-189. 2008. 185 #12

  11. Forests and Soil Erosion across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathurst, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Land use and climate change threaten the ability of Europe's forests to provide a vital service in limiting soil erosion, e.g. from forest fires and landslides. However, our ability to define the threat and to propose mitigation measures suffers from two deficiencies concerning the forest/erosion interface: 1) While there have been a considerable number of field studies of the relationship between forest cover and erosion in different parts of Europe, the data sets are scattered among research groups and a range of literature outlets. There is no comprehensive overview of the forest/erosion interface at the European scale, essential for considering regional variations and investigating the effects of future changes in land use and climate. 2) Compared with forest/water studies, we have a poorer quantitative appreciation of forest/erosion interactions. In the forest/water area it is possible to make quantitative statements such as that a 20% change in forest cover across a river catchment is needed for the effect on annual water yield to be measurable or that a forested catchment in upland UK has an annual water yield around 15% lower than an otherwise comparable grassland catchment. Comparable statements are not yet possible for forest/erosion interactions and there are uncertainties in the mathematical representation of forest/erosion interactions which limit our ability to make predictions, for example of the impact of forest loss in a given area. This presentation therefore considers the next step in improving our predictive capability. It proposes the integration of existing research and data to construct the "big picture" across Europe, i.e. erosion rates and sediment yields associated with forest cover and its loss in a range of erosion regimes (e.g. post-forest fire erosion or post-logging landslides). This would provide a basis for generalizations at the European scale. However, such an overview would not form a predictive capability. Therefore it is also necessary to identify a range of predictive methods, from empirical guidelines to computer models, which can be recommended for applications such as extrapolating from the local to the regional scale and for planning mitigation strategies. Such developments could help improve efficiency in the integrated management of forest, soil and water resources, benefit local engineering projects ranging from hazard mitigation plans to road culvert design, contribute to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Development, form a more objective basis for cost/benefit analysis of proposed management actions and help in putting a value on forest services.

  12. Characteristics of Finnish and Swedish intensive care nursing narratives: a comparative analysis to support the development of clinical language technologies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Free text is helpful for entering information into electronic health records, but reusing it is a challenge. The need for language technology for processing Finnish and Swedish healthcare text is therefore evident; however, Finnish and Swedish are linguistically very dissimilar. In this paper we present a comparison of characteristics in Finnish and Swedish free-text nursing narratives from intensive care. This creates a framework for characterising and comparing clinical text and lays the groundwork for developing clinical language technologies. Methods Our material included daily nursing narratives from one intensive care unit in Finland and one in Sweden. Inclusion criteria for patients were an inpatient period of least five days and an age of at least 16 years. We performed a comparative analysis as part of a collaborative effort between Finnish- and Swedish-speaking healthcare and language technology professionals that included both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The qualitative analysis addressed the content and structure of three average-sized health records from each country. In the quantitative analysis 514 Finnish and 379 Swedish health records were studied using various language technology tools. Results Although the two languages are not closely related, nursing narratives in Finland and Sweden had many properties in common. Both made use of specialised jargon and their content was very similar. However, many of these characteristics were challenging regarding development of language technology to support producing and using clinical documentation. Conclusions The way Finnish and Swedish intensive care nursing was documented, was not country or language dependent, but shared a common context, principles and structural features and even similar vocabulary elements. Technology solutions are therefore likely to be applicable to a wider range of natural languages, but they need linguistic tailoring. Availability The Finnish and Swedish data can be found at: http://www.dsv.su.se/hexanord/data/. PMID:21992572

  13. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact associated with biomass usage, an understanding of forest management trends including harvesting and fuel processing methods, and the carbon profile of utilizing forest based woody biomass for the emerging biomass markets. Each of the tasks and subtasks have provided an increased level of understanding to support new directives, policies and adaptation of existing regulations within Massachusetts. The project has provided the essential information to allow state policymakers and regulators to address emerging markets, while ensuring forest sustainability and understanding the complex science on CO2 accounting and impacts as a result of biomass harvesting for power generation. The public at large and electricity ratepayers in Massachusetts will all benefit from the information garnered through this project. This is a result of the state’s interest to provide financial incentives to only biomass projects that demonstrate an acceptable carbon profile, an efficient use of the constrained supply of fuel, and the harvest of biomass to ensure forest sustainability. The goals of the Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative as proposed in 2006 were identified as: increase the diversity of the Massachusetts energy mix through biomass; promote economic development in the rural economy through forest industry job creation; help fulfill the state’s energy and climate commitments under the Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard and Climate Protection Plan; assist the development of a biomass fuel supply infrastructure to support energy project demands; provide education and outreach to the public on the benefits and impacts of bioenergy; improve the theory and practice of sustainable forestry in the Commonwealth. Completed project activities summarized below will demonstrate the effectiveness of the project in meeting the above goals. In addition, as discussed above, Massachusetts DOER needed to make some modifications to its work plan and objectives during the term of this project due to changing public policy demands brought forth in the course of the public discours

  14. Forest Fuels ReductionForest Fuels Reduction Department of

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    reduction, biomass utilization and forest health. · Virtually no comprehensive research studies have been logging. Studies to date have involved limited equipment trials and demonstrations of modified or new equipment designs for fuels reduction (e.g. mastication and/or mulching) · A significant multi

  15. 75 FR 33573 - Information Collection; Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute Wilderness Visitor Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest Service is seeking comments...Wilderness Research Institute, USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research...Wilderness Research Institute, USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Station...directs the National Wilderness Preservation System be managed to...

  16. The Influence of Hurricane Winds on Caribbean Dry Forest Structure and Nutrient Pools1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Skip J. Van Bloem; Peter G. Murphy; Ariel E. Lugo; Rebecca Ostertag; Maria Rivera Costa; Ivelisse Ruiz Bernard; Sandra Molina Colon; Miguel Canals Mora

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, we measured the effects of Hurricane Georges after it passed over long-term research sites in Puerto Rican dry forest. Our primary objectives were to quantify hurricane effects on forest structure, to compare effects in a large tract of forest versus a series of nearby forest fragments, to evaluate short-term response to hurricane disturbance in terms of mortality and

  17. Net Change in Forest Density, 1873-2001: Using Historical Maps to Monitor

    E-print Network

    of the United States" depicting broad categories of evergreen and deciduous forests, and arable and dry prairiesa Net Change in Forest Density, 1873-2001: Using Historical Maps to Monitor Long-term Forest Trends Research Map NRS-4United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service #12;b Abstract European settlement

  18. Floristic structure and biomass distribution of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Shanmughavel; Zheng Zheng; Sha Liqing; Cao Min

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the forest community structure, tree species diversity and biomass production of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. The community structure showed a diversified species composition and supported many species of economic significance. This tropical rain forest is closely related to Malaysian forests. The biomass and its distribution were studied

  19. Forest fires, woodland caribou and land use policies in northwestern Ontario (Rangifer tarandus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Frederick Kutas

    2004-01-01

    Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are a threatened species in Ontario's boreal forest. Caribou require habitat that supports appropriate forage, including large areas of lichen rich forests. This research examines two dynamics that influence woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario. These dynamics are forest fires and land use policies. The effects of forest fires are assessed quantitatively at both the

  20. Non-timber forest products in rural Mali: a study of villager use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gakou; J. E. Force; W. J. McLaughlin

    1994-01-01

    Malian Forest Service activities and policies have evolved since the beginning of colonialism under the assumption that forests and their products are the property of the government. Today the importance of involving local people in forest management is recognized. The purpose of this research was to determine the range of non-timber forest products local people use either for direct consumption

  1. Forest Management in Northeast China: History, Problems, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wangming; Ding, Hong; Wang, Qingwei; Wang, Yue; Wu, Xiaoqing; Dai, Limin

    2011-12-01

    Studies of the history and current status of forest resources in Northeast China have become important in discussions of sustainable forest management in the region. Prior to 1998, excessive logging and neglected cultivation led to a series of problems that left exploitable forest reserves in the region almost exhausted. A substantial decrease in the area of natural forests was accompanied by severe disruption of stand structure and serious degradation of overall forest quality and function. In 1998, China shifted the primary focus of forest management in the country from wood production to ecological sustainability, adopting ecological restoration and protection as key foci of management. In the process, China launched the Natural Forest Conversion Program and implemented a new system of Classification-based Forest Management. Since then, timber harvesting levels in Northeast China have decreased, and forest area and stocking levels have slowly increased. At present, the large area of low quality secondary forest lands, along with high levels of timber production, present researchers and government agencies in China with major challenges in deciding on management models and strategies that will best protect, restore and manage so large an area of secondary forest lands. This paper synthesizes information from a number of sources on forest area, stand characteristics and stocking levels, and forest policy changes in Northeastern China. Following a brief historical overview of forest harvesting and ecological research in Northeast China, the paper discusses the current state of forest resources and related problems in forest management in the region, concluding with key challenges in need of attention in order to meet the demands for multi-purpose forest sustainability and management in the future.

  2. Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity

    PubMed Central

    Kauppi, Pekka E.; Ausubel, Jesse H.; Fang, Jingyun; Mather, Alexander S.; Sedjo, Roger A.; Waggoner, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and carbon concentration in the biomass. It quantifies the sources of change of a nation's forests. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. Among 50 nations with extensive forests reported in the Food and Agriculture Organization's comprehensive Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, no nation where annual per capita gross domestic product exceeded $4,600 had a negative rate of growing stock change. Using the Forest Identity and national data from the Assessment report, a single synoptic chart arrays the 50 nations with coordinates of the rates of change of basic variables, reveals both clusters of nations and outliers, and suggests trends in returning forests and their attributes. The Forest Identity also could serve as a tool for setting forest goals and illuminating how national policies accelerate or retard the forest transitions that are diffusing among nations. PMID:17101996

  3. Forest fires: from economic assessment

    E-print Network

    Pettenella, Davide

    research (An ACF approach to stakeholders analysis) Final remarks Background Background - 1 Forest fires, hunting, recreation Watershed management: soil conservation, floods/landslides/avalan che prevention, soil-sectoral and long-term policies many stakeholders involved, with open or latent conflicting interests, different

  4. 75 FR 46903 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forestry Research Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Forestry Research Advisory Council will meet in...meeting is to discuss emerging issues in forestry research. DATES: The meeting will...

  5. 76 FR 43651 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forestry Research Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Forestry Research Advisory Council will meet in...meeting is to discuss emerging issues in forestry research. DATES: The meeting will...

  6. 77 FR 26734 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forestry Research Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest...SUMMARY: The Forestry Research Advisory Council will meet in...meeting is to discuss emerging issues in forestry research. DATES: The meeting will...

  7. Forest Fires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joyce Bailey

    The objectives of this lesson plan are twofold: to have students understand the benefits and problems associated with fire and to understand the role that fire plays in maintaining healthy ecosystems. Emphasis throughout the lesson plan is placed on manager-ignited prescribed burns and natural fires, and their relevance and importance to various types of fire-adapted ecosystems such as chaparral, prairie grasslands, and lodgepole pine forests. The lesson entails initiating a discussion about the positive and negative powers of fire, introducing terms such as surface fire, crown fire, and fire triangle, and having the students produce a public service announcement, brochure, or television spot on both accidental forest fires and the benefits of prescribed burns. The web site includes a list of suggested materials, procedures, adaptations, discussion questions, extension projects, an evaluation of student learning, suggested readings, relevant web links, a vocabulary list, and relevance to the academic standards set forth by Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education: Second Edition.

  8. Future Forest Production and Net Carbon Sinks under Optimal C:N Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, A.; Kalliokoski, T.; Peltoniemi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental change affects forests directly by changing physiological process rates, but the consequent changes in resource acquisition may lead to structural and functional acclimations that obscure the long-term relationship between environmental drivers and forest function. Based on an adaptive balance between structure and function, evolutionary optimisation may provide a feasible tool for analysing such indirect effects of environmental change on forests. This study applies OptiPipe, a model of optimal co-allocation of forest carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), to prediction of potential productivity and C balance of Finnish forests under climate change. OptiPipe is embedded in a transparent modular system including: PreLes, a canopy C exchange model; Yasso, a soil C model; and expert assumptions about the impacts of weather on N availability at different growth sites. National Forest Inventory data and gridded weather data (10 x 10 km2) are utilised. The uncertainties of the projections are analysed relative to inputs and parameters. The results quantify the changes in growth and carbon stocks, which are either smaller or larger than those in photosynthetic capacity, depending on the C:N balance of the site. The results emphasize the need to obtain more reliable information and data about nitrogen processes, but also demonstrate the potential for the optimality approach for regional applications.

  9. Country background Forest history

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    season prone to forest fires. Atlantic climate is wet with temperatures moderated by the ocean33 Country background Forest history During the Gallo-Roman period (1st­4th century AD), forests this proportion decreased dramatically to only 15­17 % of the land area. This residual forest was then severely

  10. Forest Utilization in Oaxaca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Wright; Adrian D. Leighton

    2002-01-01

    Two communities, Ixtlan and Chalchijapa, located in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, are compared based on their utilization of local forests. The long-settled community of Ixtlan, with its pine-oak forests, is compared to the recently established village of Chalchijapa which is located in rain forest on the edge of the Chimalapas nature reserve. Constraints such as forest type and management,

  11. CERTIFIED FOREST PRODUCTS MARKETS

    E-print Network

    5% Other primary forest industries 6% Sawmilling 39% Timber trade 43% #12;Forest industry sectors/productCERTIFIED FOREST PRODUCTS MARKETS 2002 - 2003 Dr. Ewald Rametsteiner 61. Session of the UNECE: ca. 300 mil m³ annually world-wide #12;BB--22--B MARKETSB MARKETS CERTIFIED FOREST PRODUCTS

  12. Kansas' Forests Resource Bulletin

    E-print Network

    Kansas' Forests 2010 Resource Bulletin NRS-85 Forest Service United States Department of Agriculture #12;Abstract The second completed annual inventory of Kansas' forests reports 2.4 million acres forest land area. Elm/ash/cottonwood accounts for more than 32 percent of the timberland area. Kansas

  13. Genetic Liability of Type 1 Diabetes and the Onset Age Among 22,650 Young Finnish Twin Pairs: A Nationwide Follow-Up Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valma Hyttinen; Jaakko Kaprio; Leena Kinnunen; Markku Koskenvuo; Jaakko Tuomilehto

    2003-01-01

    Finland has the world's highest incidence of type 1 diabetes, and it is steadily increasing. We determined concordance rates and estimated heritability for type 1 diabetes in the Finnish Twin Cohort, a population-based twin cohort of 22,650 twin pairs. In addition, we studied age of onset in the first affected twin and discordance time between concordant twin pairs. Finnish twins

  14. University Students' Orientation to Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    This study aimed to determine whether different orientations toward qualitative and quantitative methods can be found among students. Data were collected during 3 years from different research methodology course students. There were 195 Finnish students and 122 U.S. students who answered a questionnaire about the appreciation of research methods…

  15. Process-based forest productivity models and their application in forest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Battaglia; P. J. Sands

    1998-01-01

    Few process-based forest productivity models have become incorporated into forest management systems. The prevalent perception is that process-based models are suited only for research applications and that management questions will be solved only by using descriptive empirical models. This is despite the fact that the latter can neither deal satisfactorily with changing environmental and management conditions nor answer all questions

  16. Emergent Learning Practices in Globalizing Work: The Case of a Finnish-Chinese Project in a Finnish Technology Consulting Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Lallimo, Jiri; Hong, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze emergent learning practices for globalizing work through two research questions: "What are the conceptualizations of work represented by the Virtual Factory and how do they mediate globalizing work?" and "What is the potential of expansive learning efforts to expand conceptualizations towards the emergent…

  17. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  18. Fine-Mapping an Association of FSHR with Preterm Birth in a Finnish Population

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sung; Plunkett, Jevon; Teramo, Kari; Muglia, Louis J.; Fay, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a complex disorder defined by gestations of less than 37 weeks. While preterm birth is estimated to have a significant genetic component, relative few genes have been associated with preterm birth. Polymorphism in one such gene, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), has been associated with preterm birth in Finnish and African American mothers but not other populations. To refine the genetic association of FSHR with preterm birth we conducted a fine-mapping study at the FSHR locus in a Finnish cohort. We sequenced a total of 44 kb, including protein-coding and conserved non-coding regions, in 127 preterm and 135 term mothers. Overall, we identified 288 single nucleotide variants and 65 insertion/deletions of 1–2 bp across all subjects. While no common SNPs in protein-coding regions were associated with preterm birth, including one previously associated with timing of fertilization, multiple SNPs spanning the first and second intron showed the strongest associations. Analysis of the associated SNPs revealed that they form both a protective (OR?=?0.50, 95% CI?=?0.25–0.93) as well as a risk (OR?=?1.89, 95% CI?=?1.08–3.39) haplotype with independent effects. In these haplotypes, two SNPs, rs12052281 and rs72822025, were predicted to disrupt ZEB1 and ELF3 transcription factor binding sites, respectively. Our results show that multiple haplotypes at FSHR are associated with preterm birth and we discuss the frequency and structure of these haplotypes outside of the Finnish population as a potential explanation for the absence of FSHR associations in some populations. PMID:24205076

  19. Relating P-band AIRSAR backscatter to forest stand parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yong; Melack, John M.; Davis, Frank W.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    As part of research on forest ecosystems, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and collaborating research teams have conducted multi-season airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) experiments in three forest ecosystems including temperate pine forest (Duke, Forest, North Carolina), boreal forest (Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska), and northern mixed hardwood-conifer forest (Michigan Biological Station, Michigan). The major research goals were to improve understanding of the relationships between radar backscatter and phenological variables (e.g. stand density, tree size, etc.), to improve radar backscatter models of tree canopy properties, and to develop a radar-based scheme for monitoring forest phenological changes. In September 1989, AIRSAR backscatter data were acquired over the Duke Forest. As the aboveground biomass of the loblolly pine forest stands at Duke Forest increased, the SAR backscatter at C-, L-, and P-bands increased and saturated at different biomass levels for the C-band, L-band, and P-band data. We only use the P-band backscatter data and ground measurements here to study the relationships between the backscatter and stand density, the backscatter and mean trunk dbh (diameter at breast height) of trees in the stands, and the backscatter and stand basal area.

  20. Fire in boreal ecosystems of Eurasia: First results of the Bor Forest island fire experiment, Fire Research Campaign Asia-North (FIRESCAN)

    SciTech Connect

    Angelstam, P. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan (Sweden)); Bufetov, N.S. (Novosibirsk Inst. of Chemical Kinetics and combustion (Russian Federation)); Clark, J. (Duke Univ., Durham, SC (United States). Botany Dept.) (and others)

    1994-12-01

    Fire is an important natural and anthropogenic factor in the dynamics of the boreal forest system. The ecological and environmental impacts of boreal fires depend on fire weather, fuel availability, fire behavior and history of sand development (frequency and size of fires and other biotic and abiotic disturbances, influence of surrounding landscape on successional developments). About 70% of the global boreal forest is in Eurasia, almost all of it in the Russian Federation. It is estimated that in years with high fire danger up to ca. 10 million ha of forest and other land in the Russian Federation are affected by fire. The demand for reliable information on the role of natural and anthropogenic fire and the necessity to develop adequate fire management systems is basically due to globally increasing concerns about (1) impacts of boreal wildfires on atmosphere and climate, (2) changing utilization and ecologically destructive practices in boreal forestry, and (3) possible consequences of global climate change on the boreal forest system.

  1. RESEARCH ON FACTORS LEADING TO THE ABSENCE OF NATURAL REGENERATION OF PINUS PINEA L. IN THE STROFYLIA FOREST, WESTERN PELOPONISOS, GREECE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Ganatsas

    The Pinus pinea forest in Strofylia, western Peloponisos, belongs to a wider system of coastal dunes and wetlands that are included in the RAMSAR convention and the Natura 2000 European Network. Great regeneration problems of the species in the area, have been reported since 1954. Since then, several hypotheses have been made to explain the reasons for the species regeneration

  2. Forest variability index: a vector quantifying forest stand diversity and forest compactness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jitendra Kumar Das; Jagdish Nautiyal

    2004-01-01

    A vector of forest variability consisting of a forest stand diversity index and a compactness index has been defined. Forest stand diversity depends on the unevenness of the forest that is characterized as a continuum from an even-aged forest with only one patch to an uneven-aged forest with infinite number of patches. A forest stand diversity index is proposed to

  3. Altered dynamics of forest recovery under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Miller, Adam D; Mohan, Jacqueline E; Hudiburg, Tara W; Duval, Benjamin D; Delucia, Evan H

    2013-07-01

    Forest regeneration following disturbance is a key ecological process, influencing forest structure and function, species assemblages, and ecosystem-climate interactions. Climate change may alter forest recovery dynamics or even prevent recovery, triggering feedbacks to the climate system, altering regional biodiversity, and affecting the ecosystem services provided by forests. Multiple lines of evidence - including global-scale patterns in forest recovery dynamics; forest responses to experimental manipulation of CO2 , temperature, and precipitation; forest responses to the climate change that has already occurred; ecological theory; and ecosystem and earth system models - all indicate that the dynamics of forest recovery are sensitive to climate. However, synthetic understanding of how atmospheric CO2 and climate shape trajectories of forest recovery is lacking. Here, we review these separate lines of evidence, which together demonstrate that the dynamics of forest recovery are being impacted by increasing atmospheric CO2 and changing climate. Rates of forest recovery generally increase with CO2 , temperature, and water availability. Drought reduces growth and live biomass in forests of all ages, having a particularly strong effect on seedling recruitment and survival. Responses of individual trees and whole-forest ecosystems to CO2 and climate manipulations often vary by age, implying that forests of different ages will respond differently to climate change. Furthermore, species within a community typically exhibit differential responses to CO2 and climate, and altered community dynamics can have important consequences for ecosystem function. Age- and species-dependent responses provide a mechanism by which climate change may push some forests past critical thresholds such that they fail to recover to their previous state following disturbance. Altered dynamics of forest recovery will result in positive and negative feedbacks to climate change. Future research on this topic and corresponding improvements to earth system models will be a key to understanding the future of forests and their feedbacks to the climate system. PMID:23529980

  4. Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939–1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio—a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males—and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank. PMID:23658003

  5. Forest health in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Pautasso, Marco; Schlegel, Markus; Holdenrieder, Ottmar

    2015-05-01

    Forest pathology, the science of forest health and tree diseases, is operating in a rapidly developing environment. Most importantly, global trade and climate change are increasing the threat to forest ecosystems posed by new diseases. Various studies relevant to forest pathology in a changing world are accumulating, thus making it necessary to provide an update of recent literature. In this contribution, we summarize research at the interface between forest pathology and landscape ecology, biogeography, global change science and research on tree endophytes. Regional outbreaks of tree diseases are requiring interdisciplinary collaboration, e.g. between forest pathologists and landscape ecologists. When tree pathogens are widely distributed, the factors determining their broad-scale distribution can be studied using a biogeographic approach. Global change, the combination of climate and land use change, increased pollution, trade and urbanization, as well as invasive species, will influence the effects of forest disturbances such as wildfires, droughts, storms, diseases and insect outbreaks, thus affecting the health and resilience of forest ecosystems worldwide. Tree endophytes can contribute to biological control of infectious diseases, enhance tolerance to environmental stress or behave as opportunistic weak pathogens potentially competing with more harmful ones. New molecular techniques are available for studying the complete tree endobiome under the influence of global change stressors from the landscape to the intercontinental level. Given that exotic tree diseases have both ecologic and economic consequences, we call for increased interdisciplinary collaboration in the coming decades between forest pathologists and researchers studying endophytes with tree geneticists, evolutionary and landscape ecologists, biogeographers, conservation biologists and global change scientists and outline interdisciplinary research gaps. PMID:25502075

  6. Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions; EU-FP-7 e-infra ENVRI "Common Operations of Environmental Research Infrastructures" project. New Siberian research infrastructure and data products should be developed in line with the ACTRIS, ICOS and ENVRI approaches. Furthermore, The Pan-Eurasian Experiment will be supported iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem - Atmosphere Processes Study) bringing the PEEX under umbrella of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The permafrost regions and boreal forests of the Pan Eurasian area can be identified as a hot spot of climate change research in a global scale. PEEX experiment can be considered as a crucial part of the strategic aims of several international and national roadmaps for climate change research and the development of next-generation research infrastructures. In this work we present the overall Science Plan for the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and report on the progress made in two PEEX science workshops organized in Helsinki in October 2012 and in Moscow in February 2013.

  7. Revaluing unmanaged forests for climate change mitigation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unmanaged or old-growth forests are of paramount importance for carbon sequestration and thus for the mitigation of climate change among further implications, e.g. biodiversity aspects. Still, the importance of those forests for climate change mitigation compared to managed forests is under controversial debate. We evaluate the adequacy of referring to CO2 flux measurements alone and include external impacts on growth (nitrogen immissions, increasing temperatures, CO2 enrichment, changed precipitation patterns) for an evaluation of central European forests in this context. Results We deduce that the use of CO2 flux measurements alone does not allow conclusions on a superiority of unmanaged to managed forests for mitigation goals. This is based on the critical consideration of uncertainties and the application of system boundaries. Furthermore, the consideration of wood products for material and energetic substitution obviously overrules the mitigation potential of unmanaged forests. Moreover, impacts of nitrogen immissions, CO2 enrichment of the atmosphere, increasing temperatures and changed precipitation patterns obviously lead to a meaningful increase in growth, even in forests of higher age. Conclusions An impact of unmanaged forests on climate change mitigation cannot be valued by CO2 flux measurements alone. Further research is needed on cause and effect relationships between management practices and carbon stocks in different compartments of forest ecosystems in order to account for human-induced changes. Unexpected growth rates in old-growth forests – managed or not – can obviously be related to external impacts and additionally to management impacts. This should lead to the reconsideration of forest management strategies. PMID:23151318

  8. Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

    2012-04-01

    As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

  9. Wisconsin timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Whipple, J.W.

    1997-09-21

    In this bulletin we discuss recent Wisconsin forest industry trends and report the results of a detailed study of forest indsutry, industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Wisconsin in 1994. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and idustrial roundwood information for planning project.

  10. Minnesota timber industry. An assessment of timber product output and use, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Dahlman, R.A.

    1997-09-19

    In this bulletin, the authors discuss recent Minnesota forest industry trends and report the results of a detailed study of forest industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Minnesota in 1992. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and industrial roundwood information for planning projects.

  11. Minnesota timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Dahlman, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The bulletin includes recent Minnesota forest industry trends and report the results of a detailed study of forest industry, industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Minnesota in 1990. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and industrial roundwood information for planning projects.

  12. Modeling Forest Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Piedmont Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2014-12-01

    When the interacting stressors of climate change and land cover/land use change (LCLUC) overwhelm ecosystem resilience to environmental and climatic variability, forest ecosystems are at increased risk of regime shifts and hyperdynamism in process rates. To meet the growing range of novel biotic and environmental stressors on human-impacted ecosystems, the maintenance of taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy in metacommunities has been proposed as a risk spreading measure ensuring that species critical to landscape ecosystem functioning are available for recruitment as local systems respond to novel conditions. This research is the first in a multi-part study to establish a dynamic, predictive model of the spatio-temporal dynamics of vascular plant diversity in North Carolina Piedmont mixed forests using remotely sensed data inputs. While remote sensing technologies are optimally suited to monitor LCLUC over large areas, direct approaches to the remote measurement of plant diversity remain a challenge. This study tests the efficacy of predicting indices of vascular plant diversity using remotely derived measures of forest structural heterogeneity from aerial LiDAR and high spatial resolution broadband optical imagery in addition to derived topo-environmental variables. Diversity distribution modelling of this sort is predicated upon the idea that environmental filtering of dispersing species help define fine-scale (permeable) environmental envelopes within which biotic structural and compositional factors drive competitive interactions that, in addition to background stochasticity, determine fine-scale alpha diversity. Results reveal that over a range of Piedmont forest communities, increasing structural complexity is positively correlated with measures of plant diversity, though the nature of this relationship varies by environmental conditions and community type. The diversity distribution model is parameterized and cross-validated using three high quality vegetation survey datasets, including Duke Forest Korstian permanent plots, Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA), and the scale transgressive, nested module Carolina Vegetation Survey (CVS).

  13. Identification of a common mutation in Finnish patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Kure, S; Takayanagi, M; Narisawa, K; Tada, K; Leisti, J

    1992-01-01

    Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by the defects in the glycine cleavage system (GCS; EC 2.1.2.10), a multienzyme system that consists of four individual components. NKH is a rare disorder in many countries, but with a very high incidence in northern Finland. To understand the genetic background of this high incidence, we examined the GCS in a typical case of NKH at the molecular level. The activity of P protein, a component of the GCS, was not detected in the lymphoblasts of the patient, while P protein mRNA of a normal size and level was present in the cells. Structural analysis of P protein mRNA from the patient revealed a single nucleotide substitution from G to T in the protein coding region, which resulted in an amino acid alteration from Ser564 to Ile564. No P protein activity was detected when the mutant P protein with this amino acid substitution was expressed in COS 7 cells. The patient was homozygous for this mutation. Furthermore, this mutation was present in 70% (14 of 20) of P protein gene alleles in Finnish patients with NKH, whereas it was not found in 20 alleles of non-Finnish patients. The results suggest that this mutation is responsible for the high incidence of NKH in Finland. Images PMID:1634607

  14. Examining gambling-related crime reports in the National Finnish Police Register.

    PubMed

    Kuoppamäki, Sanna-Mari; Kääriäinen, Juha; Lind, Kalle

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the connection between gambling and criminal activity in the National Finnish Police Register. First, a method was created that enabled the search for gambling-related police reports in the National Finnish Police Register. The method is based on finding gambling-related police reports by using gambling-related headwords. Second, all police reports from 2011 that included any mention of gambling were read through (n = 2,233). Suspected gambling-related of crimes (n = 737) were selected from these reports. Those suspected gambling-related crimes were then described and categorized into six different categories: suspected online-related crimes; suspected crimes that were related to lifestyle-gaming; suspected crimes that involved a gambler as a victim of a crime; criminal activity related to problem gambling; casino-connected crimes, and intimate partnership violence resulting from gambling problems. This study, being the first in Finland, generated information on the connection between gambling and criminal activity from the perspective of police reports. Moreover, the study highlights methodological issues that are involved in studying police reports. PMID:23740350

  15. Violence victimization among Finnish university students: prevalence, symptoms and healthcare usage.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Katja; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Huttunen, Teppo; Kunttu, Kristina

    2010-05-01

    The present study examined the prevalence of various forms of violence victimization among university students in Finland. Violence victimization was analyzed in relation to physical and mental health symptoms, and the use of student healthcare services. A cross-sectional Student Health Survey was performed as a national postal survey for Finnish university students in 2004. In the next phase of the study, an additional postal survey regarding violence victimization was sent to those who had answered the original survey, which resulted in a sample of 905 students. It was found that violence victimization and violence-related health issues were markedly prevalent among Finnish university students. The students reported multiple forms of violence and injury demonstrating the diversity of violence victimization. Male and female victims differed both in the amount and type of symptoms, and in their relationship to the abuser/offender. Violence victimization and gender had a significant main effect on specific symptoms, while no interaction effect was found. The data also showed that violence victimization is overrepresented among frequent healthcare users. These findings have implications for clinical practice and public policy. The present findings provide useful information for policy makers and healthcare professionals concerning the health effects of violence in accordance with the use of healthcare services. More specifically, this information should be taken into consideration when planning student healthcare and could serve as a guideline for student healthcare management. PMID:20171000

  16. Use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (FINJEM) in epidemiologic, surveillance, and other applications.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Timo; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Saalo, Anja; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews the use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (Finnish job-exposure matrix, FINJEM) in different applications in Finland and other countries. We describe and discuss studies on FINJEM and studies utilizing FINJEM in regard to the validity of exposure estimates, occupational epidemiology, hazard surveillance and prevention, the assessment of health risks and the burden of disease, the assessment of exposure trends and future hazards, and the construction of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in countries other than Finland. FINJEM can be used as an exposure assessment tool in occupational epidemiology, particularly in large register-based studies. It also provides information for hazard surveillance at the national level. It is able to identify occupations with high average exposures to chemical agents and can therefore serve the priority setting of prevention. However, it has only limited use at the workplace level due to the variability of exposure between workplaces. The national estimates of exposure and their temporal trends may contribute to the assessment of both the recent and future burden of work-related health outcomes. FINJEM has also proved to be useful in the construction of other national JEMs, for example in the Nordic Occupational Cancer study in the Nordic countries. FINJEM is a quantitative JEM, which can serve many purposes and its comprehensive documentation also makes it potentially useful in countries other than Finland. PMID:24401793

  17. The Potential of Developmental Work Research as a Professional Learning Methodology in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Joce

    2013-01-01

    Developmental Work Research (DWR) is a methodology for simultaneous research and innovation in workplace settings, developed by Finnish researcher Yryo Engestrom. This interventionist approach builds on the principles of cultural-historical activity theory, articulated by developmental psychologists L.S. Vygotsky and A.N. Le'ontev. The…

  18. PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON A MIXED CONIFER FOREST FOREST ECOSYSTEM - A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1972, twelve scientists representing several research disciplines have collaborated in integrated studies to determine the chronic effects of photochemical oxidant air pollutants on a western mixed conifer forest ecosystem. An enormous amount of data has been collected, des...

  19. Inventory Processor and Forest Growth and Management Model: An Introductory Guide

    E-print Network

    1 Inventory Processor and Forest Growth and Management Model: An Introductory Guide Dr. Thomas B Management Research Cooperative in the Department of Forest Management at the University of Maine, Orono. Brann, is the Associate Director of the Forest Management Research Cooperative in the Department

  20. Glycerol and Fatty Acids in Serum Predict the Development of Hyperglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Cederberg, Henna; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We investigated the association of fasting serum glycerol and fatty acids (FAs) as predictors for worsening of hyperglycemia and incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the population-based METabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) Study included 9,398 Finnish men (mean age 57 ± 7 years). At baseline, levels of serum glycerol, free FAs (FFAs), and serum FA profile, relative to total FAs, were measured with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS At baseline, levels of glycerol, FFAs, monounsaturated FAs, saturated FAs, and monounsaturated n-7 and -9 FAs, relative to total FAs, were increased in categories of fasting and 2-h hyperglycemia, whereas the levels of n-3 and n-6 FAs, relative to total FAs, decreased (N = 9,398). Among 4,335 men with 4.5-year follow-up data available, 276 developed type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of glycerol, FFAs, monounsaturated FAs, and saturated and monounsaturated n-7 and -9 FAs, relative to total FAs, predicted worsening of hyperglycemia and development of incident type 2 diabetes after adjustment for confounding factors. n-6 FAs, mainly linoleic acid (LA), relative to total FAs, were associated with reduced risk for the worsening of hyperglycemia and conversion to type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Our large population-based study shows that fasting serum levels of glycerol, FFAs, monounsaturated FAs, saturated FAs, and n-7 and -9 FAs are biomarkers for an increased risk of development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes, whereas high levels of serum n-6 FAs, reflecting dietary intake of LA, were associated with reduced risk for hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24026559

  1. Harvesting of non-timber forest products and implications for conservation in two montane forests of East Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J. Ndangalasi; Robert Bitariho; Delali B. K. Dovie

    2007-01-01

    Plant species-level research that comprises inventories, impact studies and monitoring is necessary if plant resources are to be harvested sustainably by human populations living adjacent to protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This research assessed the extraction of plant products from two montane forest ecosystems, Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve (USFR) and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), East Africa. In USFR, data

  2. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the eight-hour working day. These grounds relate to quality of life, occupational safety and health and productivity of work. It is worth asking if the nature of work has changed in a way that the truths of an industrialized society do not hold true or has the development of working time in health care sector become uncontrolled in some new way? PMID:15718567

  3. LITERATURE CITED AGEE, J. K. 1993. Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

    E-print Network

    Montana, University of

    : Current Research. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-212. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research of landscapes to fire suppression. Oikos 66:66-71. BAKER, W. L. 1994. Restoration of landscape structure altered

  4. The physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing): evidence from field experiments in 24 forests across Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bum Jin Park; Yuko Tsunetsugu; Tamami Kasetani; Takahide Kagawa; Yoshifumi Miyazaki

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews previous research on the physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing), and presents new results from field experiments conducted in 24 forests\\u000a across Japan. The term Shinrin-yoku was coined by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries in 1982, and can be defined as making contact\\u000a with and taking in the

  5. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  6. Where on Earth Is New York? Pedagogical Lessons from Finnish Geography Students' Knowledge of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina; Hottola, Petri

    2005-01-01

    Behind this study are our (1) classroom observations suggesting a decline in the cartographic and general knowledge of Finnish geography students; (2) interest in developing the content and method of geographical education; and (3) belief that intellectual challenge is not incompatible with entertainment. A total of 257 university and high school…

  7. Investigating the Contribution of Procedural and Declarative Memory to the Acquisition of Past Tense Morphology: Evidence from Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Kirjavainen, Minna

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on a study that investigated the role of procedural and declarative memory in the acquisition of Finnish past tense morphology. Two competing models were tested. Ullman's (2004) declarative/procedural model predicts that procedural memory supports the acquisition of regular morphology, whereas declarative memory supports…

  8. Finland Has it All? Examining the Media Accentuation of "Finnish Education" in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita; Waldow, Florian; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the conceptual work of externalisation in comparative education and multi-accentual signs in cultural studies, this article examines how the print news media accentuate "Finnish education" in the process of inserting this external reference into the domestic political discourses around education reform in Australia, Germany…

  9. The Double Deficit Hypothesis in the Transparent Finnish Orthography: A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torppa, Minna; Parrila, Rauno; Niemi, Pekka; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    We examined the double deficit hypothesis (Wolf & Bowers, 1999) and literacy development in a longitudinal dataset of 1,006 Finnish children who were nonreaders at school entry. A single phonological awareness (PA) deficit was a predictor of pseudoword spelling accuracy and reading fluency, and a single rapid automatized naming (RAN) deficit…

  10. Retrospective Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Childhood: Discriminatory Validity of Finnish Translation of the Wender Utah Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivisaari, Sasa; Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the discriminatory validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and its five suggested subscales (Conduct Problems, Impulsivity Problems, Mood Difficulties, Inattention/Anxiety, Academic Concerns) in a Finnish sample. Method: WURS was administered to 114 adults, aged 18 to 55 years. Participants with ADHD (n = 37) and…

  11. Who Is at Greatest Risk of Adverse Long-Term Outcomes? The Finnish from a Boy to a Man Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Jensen, Peter; Davies, Mark; Niemela, Solja; Elonheimo, Henrik; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study associations between comorbid psychopathology and long-term outcomes in a large birth cohort sample from age 8 to early adulthood. Method: The sample included long-term outcome data on 2,556 Finnish boys born in 1981. The aim was to study the impact of early childhood psychopathology types (externalizing versus internalizing…

  12. The Emergence of Grammar in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children ("N" = 156) and full-term controls…

  13. The Finnish Delphi Study: Forecasting the Extent of Information Technology Use in Libraries in 1996 and 2010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskiala, Sinnikka; Huhtanen, Anni

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Delphi study in which Finnish experts predicted the extent of information technology use in libraries and information centers. Predictions are summarized in the areas of workstations; fax and electronic mail; videotex; print, electronic, and optical publishing; indexing and storage of sounds and images; speech recognition and scanning…

  14. Adolescents' Physical Activity at Recess and Actions to Promote a Physically Active School Day in Four Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, H. L.; Hirvensalo, M. H.; Laine, K.; Laakso, L.; Hakonen, H.; Lintunen, T.; Tammelin, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    The national Finnish Schools on the Move programme support schools with their individual plans to promote school-based physical activity (PA). We examined the changes in adolescents' recess and overall PA in four lower secondary schools and described the school actions to promote students' PA and the local contact persons'…

  15. XIII IUFRO Conference on "Root and Butt Rot of Forest Trees"

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    XIII IUFRO Conference on "Root and Butt Rot of Forest Trees" September 4th ­ 10th 2011 Firenze ­ S of Forestry Research Organization, Working Party 7.02.01 "Root and Butt Rot of Forest Trees" scientific

  16. Kyasanur forest disease.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    In the spring of 1957, an outbreak of severe disease was documented in people living near the Kyasanur forest in Karnataka state, India, which also affected wild nonhuman primates. Collection of samples from dead animals and the use of classical virological techniques led to the isolation of a previously unrecognized virus, named Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), which was found to be related to the Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) complex of tick-borne viruses. Further evaluation found that KFD, which frequently took the form of a hemorrhagic syndrome, differed from most other RSSE virus infections, which were characterized by neurologic disease. Its association with illness in wild primates was also unique. Hemaphysalis spinigera was identified as the probable tick vector. Despite an estimated annual incidence in India of 400-500 cases, KFD is historically understudied. Most of what is known about the disease comes from studies in the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Virus Research Center in Pune, India and their collaborators at the Rockefeller Foundation. A report in ProMED in early 2012 indicated that the number of cases of KFD this year is possibly the largest since 2005, reminding us that there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the disease, including many aspects of its pathogenesis, the host response to infection and potential therapeutic options. A vaccine is currently in use in India, but efforts could be made to improve its long-term efficacy. PMID:23110991

  17. Kyasanur Forest Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    In the spring of 1957, an outbreak of severe disease was documented in people living near the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka state, India, which also affected wild nonhuman primates. Collection of samples from dead animals and the use of classical virological techniques led to the isolation of a previously unrecognized virus, named Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), which was found to be related to the Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) complex of tick-borne viruses. Further evaluation found that KFD, which frequently took the form of a hemorrhagic syndrome, differed from most other RSSE virus infections, which were characterized by neurologic disease. Its association with illness in wild primates was also unique. Hemaphysalis spinigera was identified as the probable tick vector. Despite an estimated annual incidence in India of 400–500 cases, KFD is historically understudied. Most of what is known about the disease comes from studies in the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Virus Research Center in Pune, India and their collaborators at the Rockefeller Foundation. A report in ProMED in early 2012 indicated that the number of cases of KFD this year is possibly the largest since 2005, reminding us that there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the disease, including many aspects of its pathogenesis, the host response to infection and potential therapeutic options. A vaccine is currently in use in India, but efforts could be made to improve its long-term efficacy. PMID:23110991

  18. Selecting a Consulting Forester 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2005-10-19

    ER-038 5-06 Selecting a Consulting Forester Eric L. Taylor, Extension Specialist, and C. Darwin Foster, Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader for Forestry, The Texas A&M University System A consulting forester is an independent... forest management experience does the for- ester have and in what capacity? ? In what professional or forestry-related organizations is the forester an active member? Recognized professional organizations include the Association of Consulting...

  19. Forest carbon storage in the northeastern United States: Net effects of harvesting frequency, post-harvest retention, and wood products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jared S. Nunery; William S. Keeton

    2010-01-01

    Temperate forests are an important carbon sink, yet there is debate regarding the net effect of forest management practices on carbon storage. Few studies have investigated the effects of different silvicultural systems on forest carbon stocks, and the relative strength of in situ forest carbon versus wood products pools remains in question. Our research describes (1) the impact of harvesting

  20. Ohio's Forests Resource Bulletin

    E-print Network

    Ohio's Forests 2011 Resource Bulletin NRS-90 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service #12;Abstract This report summarizes the second full cycle of annual inventories, 2007-2011, of Ohio with the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry. Since 2006, forest land increased by 2

  1. Forest Mensuration Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Products 9 HW 2 6 Statistical Concepts 3 - 7 Sampling Units 11 HW 3 8 Forest Inventory: Part I 12 Exam 2 9 HW 6 15 Non-timber Forest Vegetation Parameters 10 - 16 Review - HW 7 #12;LABORATORY SCHEDULEFOR 6934 Forest Mensuration Spring 2013 PREREQUISITE FNR 3410C or equivalent INSTRUCTOR Dr

  2. Trucking Unmanufactured Forest Products

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Safe and Efficient Practices for Trucking Unmanufactured Forest Products 420-310 #12;M. Chad technical release 07-R-29 This project was funded by the Forest Resources Association's National Timber. Safe and Efficient Practices for Trucking Unmanufac- tured Forest Products. Virginia Cooperative

  3. The National Forests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion

    1976-01-01

    National forests are a valuable national asset in terms of wood, recreation, wilderness, wildlife, and water. Management is inefficient and uneconomic creating wasteful capital investment and below-potential economic output. Better national leadership, analysis of forests as a business enterprise, and recruitment of outside persons into Forest

  4. Forest dieback in Czechoslovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kubikovfi

    1991-01-01

    The article reviews the literature dealing with levels of air pollution in Central Europe and Czechoslovakia particulary in connection with the rate of forest damage and dieback since the fifties. To date 57 percent of forests on an area of 15.000 square km are damaged in Czech republic and more than 40.000 ha of dead Norway spruce forest had to

  5. Prevalence of anxiety disorders among Finnish primary care high utilizers and validation of Finnish translation of GAD-7 and GAD-2 screening tools

    PubMed Central

    Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Jokelainen, Jari; Hirsikangas, Sari; Kanste, Outi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Timonen, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To analyse the prevalence of GAD and other anxiety disorders, as well as sensitivity and specificity of GAD-7 among high utilizers of health care. Setting. Four municipal health centres in Northern Finland. Subjects. A psychiatric interview was conducted for 150 high utilizers of health care. Main outcome measures. Prevalence of GAD as well as sensitivity and specificity of GAD-7. Results. The prevalence of GAD was 4% in this study group of Finnish high utilizers of health care. The sensitivity of GAD-7 was 100.0% (95% CI 54.1–100.0) and the specificity of GAD-7 was 82.6% (95% CI 75.4–88.4) with a cut-off point of 7 or more. Conclusion. GAD is rather common among high utilizers of primary care, although the prevalence of 4% is lower than that previously reported. GAD-7 is a valid and useful tool for detecting GAD among primary health care patients. PMID:24920316

  6. Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference GTR-NRS-P-102 FIRE HISTORY IN A SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN DECIDUOUS FOREST

    E-print Network

    IN A SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN DECIDUOUS FOREST Norman L. Christensen, Jr. and Kurt Fesenmeyer Research Professor an important part of eastern deciduous forest ecosystems through much of the Holocene. Nevertheless, fire deciduous forests. Nowhere is fire mentioned in E. Lucy Braun's monographic treatment of this biome (Braun

  7. Outlook on a Worldwide Forest Transition

    PubMed Central

    Pagnutti, Chris; Bauch, Chris T.; Anand, Madhur

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear whether a worldwide “forest transition” to net reforestation will ever occur, and the need to address the main driver–agriculture–is compelling. We present a mathematical model of land use dynamics based on the world food equation that explains historical trends in global land use on the millennial scale. The model predicts that a global forest transition only occurs under a small and very specific range of parameter values (and hence seems unlikely) but if it does occur, it would have to occur within the next 70 years. In our baseline scenario, global forest cover continues to decline until it stabilizes within the next two centuries at 22% of global land cover, and wild pasture at 1.4%. Under other scenarios the model predicts unanticipated dynamics wherein a forest transition may relapse, heralding a second era of deforestation; this brings into question national-level forest transitions observed in recent decades, and suggests we need to expand our lexicon of possibilities beyond the simple “forest transition/no forest transition” dichotomy. This research also underscores that the challenge of feeding a growing population while conserving natural habitat will likely continue for decades to come. PMID:24130750

  8. The ecology of tropical rain forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Lowman, M D; Moffett, M

    1993-03-01

    With the advent of increasingly sophisticated techniques for access, tropical forest canopy research has burgeoned in the last few years. Although an enormous amount of basic descriptive work remains to be done, canopy research is now entering a more advanced and ecological phase. PMID:21236120

  9. Kelp Forests of the Santa Barbara Channel

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    by the National Science Foundation to investigate long-term ecological phenomena. More information on SBC LTER Channel Revised Fourth Edition A Field Guide ToA Field Guide To Santa Barbara Coastal Long Term Ecological Research Program Santa Barbara Coastal Long Term Ecological Research Program #12;Kelp Forests of the Santa

  10. The effects of UVB radiation on temperate southern hemisphere forests.

    PubMed

    Ryan, K G; Hunt, J E

    2005-10-01

    The temperate forests of the southern hemisphere are the most likely forests to be affected by increased levels of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation resulting from reduced ozone. The review describes these forests and then discusses the morphological changes, physiological effects, and protection mechanisms, particularly UV absorbing compounds that result from present day and increasing UVB radiation. Possible avenues for future research are explored. PMID:16005755

  11. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rauha, J P; Remes, S; Heinonen, M; Hopia, A; Kähkönen, M; Kujala, T; Pihlaja, K; Vuorela, H; Vuorela, P

    2000-05-25

    Plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. Antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from Finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. The tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Flavone, quercetin and naringenin were effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms. The most active plant extracts were purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) against Candida albicans, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.), willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium L.), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) against bacteria, and white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum. L.) against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:10857921

  12. Representations of energy policy and technology in British and Finnish newspaper media: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Teräväinen, Tuula

    2014-04-01

    This article analyses media representations of the strengthening technological energy policy orientation in the UK and Finland. Drawing from over 1200 newspaper articles from 1991 to 2006, it scrutinises how energy policy in general and energy technologies in particular have been discussed by the media in these two countries, and how the media representations have changed over time. The results point to the importance of national political, economic and cultural features in shaping media discussions. At the same time, international political events and ideas of technology-driven economic growth have transformed media perceptions of energy technologies. While the British media have been rather critical towards national policies throughout the period of analysis, the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat has supported successive national governments. In both countries, energy technologies have increasingly become linked to global societal and political questions. PMID:24681804

  13. Diagnosis and Pharmacotherapy of Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The Finnish Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Harju, Terttu; Kilpeläinen, Maritta; Mazur, Witold; Lehto, Juho T; Katajisto, Milla; Peisa, Timo; Meinander, Tuula; Lehtimäki, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish Medical Society Duodecim initiated and managed the update of the Finnish national guideline for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Finnish COPD guideline was revised to acknowledge the progress in diagnosis and management of COPD. This Finnish COPD guideline in English language is a part of the original guideline and focuses on the diagnosis, assessment and pharmacotherapy of stable COPD. It is intended to be used mainly in primary health care but not forgetting respiratory specialists and other healthcare workers. The new recommendations and statements are based on the best evidence available from the medical literature, other published national guidelines and the GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) report. This guideline introduces the diagnostic approach, differential diagnostics towards asthma, assessment and treatment strategy to control symptoms and to prevent exacerbations. The pharmacotherapy is based on the symptoms and a clinical phenotype of the individual patient. The guideline defines three clinically relevant phenotypes including the low and high exacerbation risk phenotypes and the neglected asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). These clinical phenotypes can help clinicians to identify patients that respond to specific pharmacological interventions. For the low exacerbation risk phenotype, pharmacotherapy with short-acting ?2-agonists (salbutamol, terbutaline) or anticholinergics (ipratropium) or their combination (fenoterol–ipratropium) is recommended in patients with less symptoms. If short-acting bronchodilators are not enough to control symptoms, a long-acting ?2-agonist (formoterol, indacaterol, olodaterol or salmeterol) or a long-acting anticholinergic (muscarinic receptor antagonists; aclidinium, glycopyrronium, tiotropium, umeclidinium) or their combination is recommended. For the high exacerbation risk phenotype, pharmacotherapy with a long-acting anticholinergic or a fixed combination of an inhaled glucocorticoid and a long-acting ?2-agonist (budesonide–formoterol, beclomethasone dipropionate–formoterol, fluticasone propionate–salmeterol or fluticasone furoate–vilanterol) is recommended as a first choice. Other treatment options for this phenotype include combination of long-acting bronchodilators given from separate inhalers or as a fixed combination (glycopyrronium–indacaterol or umeclidinium–vilanterol) or a triple combination of an inhaled glucocorticoid, a long-acting ?2-agonist and a long-acting anticholinergic. If the patient has severe-to-very severe COPD (FEV1 < 50% predicted), chronic bronchitis and frequent exacerbations despite long-acting bronchodilators, the pharmacotherapy may include also roflumilast. ACOS is a phenotype of COPD in which there are features that comply with both asthma and COPD. Patients belonging to this phenotype have usually been excluded from studies evaluating the effects of drugs both in asthma and in COPD. Thus, evidence-based recommendation of treatment cannot be given. The treatment should cover both diseases. Generally, the therapy should include at least inhaled glucocorticoids (beclomethasone dipropionate, budesonide, ciclesonide, fluticasone furoate, fluticasone propionate or mometasone) combined with a long-acting bronchodilator (?2-agonist or anticholinergic or both). PMID:25515181

  14. Influence of strict regulations on the use of hearing protectors in the Finnish Defence Forces.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, S; Kuokkanen, J T; Lehtomäki, K M

    1999-11-01

    The regulations concerning hearing protection during military training in the Finnish Defence Forces were renewed in 1989. The material of this prospective study concerns 912 consecutive conscripts (463 before and 449 after the new regulations) who were referred to the Central Military Hospital for acute acoustic trauma (AAT). We focused on three issues: (1) general habits regarding the use of hearing protection during shooting drills and combat training; (2) hearing protection at the moment of AAT; and (3) the cause of AAT. In combat training, the use of any hearing protectors was only 50% before the new regulations, but after they came into force the proportion was greater than 90%, and more effective protectors were used. However, at the time of AAT the hearing protection was absent in more than 80% of cases in both groups. The most common cause of AAT was small arms in both groups (83%). PMID:10578597

  15. Forests and The Texas Economy. 

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Jay O'; Williams, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    expansion, the forest products industry of the future may provide fewer jobs, according to recent projections by the U.S. Forest Service. Without additional timber supplies, the industry cannot expand, and the state will become even Ie s self... of Texas' Forest Resources and Forest Industry 2. Texas' Changing Forest Resource Forest Survey Regions .. East Texas Piney Woods . Forest Land Productivity Timber Inventory Summary ........ . 3. Ownership of Timber Resources Non-Industrial Private...

  16. Health risk assessment of indoor air pollution in Finnish ice arenas.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Raimo O; Pennanen, Arto S; Vahteristo, Mikko; Korkeila, Petri; Alm, Sari; Randell, Jukka T

    2008-01-01

    Poor indoor air quality and epidemic carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) poisonings due to exhaust emissions from ice resurfacers have been continuously reported from enclosed ice arenas for over 30 years. The health risks in users of Finnish ice arenas were analysed in three ways: (1) evaluation of four cases of epidemic CO poisonings, (2) modelling the association between NO(2) exposure and respiratory symptoms among junior ice hockey players, and (3) estimation of the number of arena users at risk of breathing poor quality air due to non-compliance of ice arenas with recommended abatement measures. The common causes for the CO poisonings involving over 300 subjects were large emissions from propane-fuelled ice resurfacer, small arena volume, negligible ventilation, and very recent opening of the arena. Rhinitis (prevalence 18.3%) and cough (13.7%) during or after training or game were significantly associated with the estimated personal NO(2) exposure of young hockey players (n=793) to average concentrations ranging from 21 to 1176 microg/m(3) in their home arena. During a 6-year follow-up of an intensive information campaign the portion of electric resurfacers increased from 9% to 27%, and that of emission control technology on propane-fuelled resurfacers increased from 13% to 84%. The portion of inadequately ventilated arenas decreased from 34% to 25%. However, 48% of the investigated Finnish ice arenas (n=125) did not fully comply with the non-regulatory recommendations. Consequently, 20000 daily users of ice arenas were estimated to remain in 2001 at risk of breathing poor quality air. Modern small and inadequately ventilated ice arenas pose their users (mostly children and young adults) at risk of breathing poor quality air and suffering from acute adverse health effects. Governmental regulations are needed worldwide to ensure safe sports in enclosed ice arenas. PMID:17716732

  17. Incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis in middle aged finnish men, 1981-91: two necropsy series.

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, J.; Laippala, P.; Penttila, A.; Karhunen, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and testicular tissue morphology have changed in middle aged Finnish men over 10 years. DESIGN: Two necropsy series completed in 1981 and in 1991. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. SUBJECTS: 528 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scoring of spermatogenesis and morphometric analysis of testicular tissue components. Individual risk factors for testicular disorders obtained by postmortem blind interviews with acquaintances. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 41.7% of the men (mean age 53.1 years). Between 1981 and 1991, the ratio of normal spermatogenesis decreased significantly (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 5.1) from 56.4% to 26.9%, with a parallel increase in the incidence of partial and complete spermatogenic arrest (2.1; 1.4 to 2.9 and 2.9; 1.7 to 5.0, respectively). During this period, the size of seminiferous tubules decreased, the amount of fibrotic tissue increased, and the weight of testicles decreased significantly. Alterations in testicular characteristics over time could not be explained by changes in body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, or exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of normal spermatogenesis decreased among middle aged Finnish men from 1981 to 1991, and the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and pathological alterations in testicles increased. Deteriorating spermatogenesis may thus be one important factor in the explanation of declining sperm counts observed worldwide. PMID:9001473

  18. Free-time activities among seafarers on board Finnish cargo ships.

    PubMed

    Saarni, H; Pentti, J

    1996-01-01

    Seafarers' free time activities on board ship and on shore were investigated by means of a questionnaire sent to 507 seafarers working on 35 ships. All the seafarers were Finnish citizens and all the ships in Finnish ownership. The questionnaire was returned by 245 seafarers (22 of them were women) from a total of 34 ships. Reading was the most popular way of spending free time while on board ship. Next came watching television or listening to the radio; then chatting with friends and sleeping/keeping to oneself. About one in four put physical exercise and sauna baths among the three most common ways of spending free time. The most common ways of spending free time on shore were meeting friends and acquaintances and watching TV or listening to the radio. In third place were "other ways of spending leisure time", most of which included being out of door, hunting, going to the summer cottage and gardening. Physical exercise activity was greater on shore than on board ship. The respondents were grouped into four categories: A) reader/student/hobbyist: B) sociable: C) exercise enthusiast D) TV watcher/radio listener Group A considered the ship's atmosphere and the spirit of solidarity on board better than the others. Group B had more often a good friend on board ship and less often suffered from anxiety or depression. Group C more often considered their health and working capacity good. Group D had no positive differences over the other groups. More attention should be paid to developing the ways in which free time is spent not only on board but also during the compensatory free time on shore. PMID:9101050

  19. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Finnish energy system, 1900-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Saikku, L.; Antikainen, R.; Kauppi, P.E. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Biology & Environmental Science

    2007-01-01

    In producing power, humans move the nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from their long-term geological and biological stocks and release or emit them in soil, water, and the atmosphere. In Finland, peat combustion is an important driver of N and P fluxes from the environment to human economy. The flows of N and P in the Finnish energy system were quantified with partial substance flow analysis, and the driving forces of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were analyzed using the ImPACT model. In the year 2000 in Finland, 140,000 tonnes of nitrogen entered the energy system, mainly in peat and hard coal. Combustion released an estimated 66,000 tonnes of N as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O) and another 74,000 tonnes as elemental N{sub 2}. Most of the emissions were borne in traffic. At the same time, 6,000 tonnes of P was estimated to enter the Finnish energy system, mostly in peat and wood. Ash was mainly used in earth construction and disposed in landfills; thus negligible levels of P were recycled back to nature. During the twentieth century, fuel-borne input of N increased 20-fold, and of P 8-fold. In 1900-1950, the increasing use of hard coal slowly boosted N input, whereas wood fuels were the main carrier of P. Since 1970, the fluxes have been on the rise. NOx emissions leveled off in the 1980s, though, and then declined in conjunction with improvements in combustion technologies such as NOx removal (de-NOx) technologies in energy production and catalytic converters in cars.

  20. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances: Prospective Cohort Study of Finnish Public Sector Employees

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. Methods: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Results: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Citation: Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1217-1225. PMID:25061250