Sample records for finnish forest research

  1. www.metla.fi/silvafennica ISSN 0037-5330 The Finnish Society of Forest Science The Finnish Forest Research Institute

    E-print Network

    Tomppo, Erkki

    Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol. The analysis is based, Kyoto Protocol, UNFCCC Correspondence Emil Cienciala, Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research (IFER emissions by sources and sinks, while the Kyoto Protocol (1997) aims at the actual reduction of emissions

  2. Selecting estimation parameters for the Finnish multisource National Forest Inventory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Katila; Erkki Tomppo

    2001-01-01

    The paper examines the selection of parameters for the nonparametric k-NN estimation method that is used in the Finnish multisource National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI). The MS-NFI utilises NFI field plot data, optical area satellite images and digital maps and produces forest variable estimates from the single pixel level up to the national level. The most important parameters to be selected

  3. Research in Art and Design in Finnish

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    Research in Art and Design in Finnish Universities Publications of the Academy of Finland 4 of Finland 4/09 Members of the Evaluation Panel Professor Richard Buchanan (Chair) Professor Emerita Riitta, 2009 Academy of Finland in Brief The Academy's mission is to finance high-quality scientific research

  4. The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring plots in Finland have recently been included in LTER platforms, thus potentially increasing scientific collaboration between researchers across different governmental institutes and education bodies.

  5. Intensive and extensive growth in the Finnish and US forest industries

    SciTech Connect

    Katila, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the sources of growth in the Finnish and US mechanical forest and pulp and paper industries during the period 1958-82. The main objective is to separate growth into extensive and intensive components, the former meaning increasing use of resources at the same technological level, the latter meaning more efficient use of existing resources. These components are analyzed to learn about the role of technological change, labor, capital, material inputs and energy in the growth process as a guide for future Finnish and US forest policies. Two approaches containing four basic models for the pulp and paper industry and three for the mechanical forest industry were applied. Growth processes in the Finnish and US industries were shown to differ in nature, the differences being more apparent after the mid-70's. Growth in Finland was more intensive over time, emphasizing the role of technological change or total-factor productivity. In the US, growth was more of the extensive type, emphasizing the role of capital deepening. Total-factor productivity analysis in a gross-output framework showed that capital and increased use of wood, chemicals, and other material inputs have become more central to the growth process in the US P P industry, while in Finland their relative importance decreased towards the end of the study period.

  6. Forest Research Coporate Plan

    E-print Network

    Forest Research Coporate Plan 2006­2009 The research agency of the Forestry Commission #12;Forest Research Corporate Plan 2006­2009 1Corporate Plan 2006­2009 #12;Chief Executive Professor Jim Lynch Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham Surrey GU10 4LH Tel: 01420 22255 E-mail: research

  7. Forest Research: Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

  8. European Forest Institute: Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This European Forest Institute (EFI) is "An independent non-governmental organization conducting European forest research." This website provides information about EFI's mission, research goals, strategies and programs. Site users can view information about on-going and completed projects in any of the four EFI research programs which include: Forest Ecology and Management, Forest Products Markets and Socio-Economics, Policy Analysis, and Forest Resources and Information. EFI also provides a search engine for locating specific research projects as well as information about how to propose an EFI project.

  9. Forest Research Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2005­2006 The research agency of the Forestry Commission #12;Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts I 2005­2006 Together with the Comptroller and Auditor to be printed 24 July 2006 HC 1407 The research agency of the Forestry Commission Edinburgh: The Stationery

  10. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights

  11. Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Trivio, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Kouki, Jari; Strandman, Harri; Mnkknen, Mikko

    2015-02-01

    Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21st century. Landscape suitability for species under climate change is determined by several interacting factors including dispersal and human land use. Designing effective conservation strategies at regional scales to improve landscape suitability requires measuring the vulnerabilities of specific regions to climate change and determining their conservation capacities. Although methods for defining vulnerability categories are available, methods for doing this in a systematic, cost-effective way have not been identified. Here, we use an ecosystem model to define the potential resilience of the Finnish forest landscape by relating its current conservation capacity to its vulnerability to climate change. In applying this framework, we take into account the responses to climate change of a broad range of red-listed species with different niche requirements. This framework allowed us to identify four categories in which representation in the landscape varies among three IPCC emission scenarios (B1, low; A1B, intermediate; A2, high emissions): (i) susceptible (B1=24.7%, A1B=26.4%, A2=26.2%), the most intact forest landscapes vulnerable to climate change, requiring management for heterogeneity and resilience; (ii) resilient (B1=2.2%, A1B=0.5%, A2=0.6%), intact areas with low vulnerability that represent potential climate refugia and require conservation capacity maintenance; (iii) resistant (B1=6.7%, A1B=0.8%, A2=1.1%), landscapes with low current conservation capacity and low vulnerability that are suitable for restoration projects; (iv) sensitive (B1=66.4%, A1B=72.3%, A2=72.0%), low conservation capacity landscapes that are vulnerable and for which alternative conservation measures are required depending on the intensity of climate change. Our results indicate that the Finnish landscape is likely to be dominated by a very high proportion of sensitive and susceptible forest patches, thereby increasing uncertainty for landscape managers in the choice of conservation strategies. PMID:25044467

  12. Forest Research Opportunity Mapping for

    E-print Network

    for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH Samantha .................................................................................................2 2. Policy context .................................................................5 4.3 Water Status and River Basin Management Plans..........................................6 5

  13. Blodgett Forest Research Station

    E-print Network

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    infamously alluded to by US president Ronald Reagan, when he said that forests pollute more than cars exhaust and also because journalists always ask about it. But in a way, Reagan's muddled formulation

  14. Forest Service Research Note

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    ; Pinus contorta var. murray- ana; Inyo National Forest; Sentinel Meadow; defoliation damage; needle near milleri:147.7 Pinus con tor ta ( 794). Needle Miner Infestations in lodgepole Pine East of the Sierra Crest George R. Struble Stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus oontoPta var. muPPayana) at or above 8

  15. Extension Note Forest Research

    E-print Network

    geomorphic processes because gravity directs the movement of water, sediment, and woody debris toward Columbia. Modern forest- management practices include specific measures for minimizing the effects of gravity may cause the soil to slide. A steep slope is subject to greater gravitational stress than

  16. Democratic Deliberations in the Finnish Elementary Classroom: The Dilemmas of Deliberations and the Teacher's Role in an Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammi, Tuure

    2013-01-01

    Finnish youth are found to be, despite their broad knowledge, uninterested in politics and in societal participation. As a remedy, international studies suggest enabling democratic experiences in schools. This article discusses an action research project aimed at developing deliberation-based democratic practice in an elementary classroom. Results

  17. Research Update Seminar Resilient Forests

    E-print Network

    of climate change. However, forestry is facing a number of challenges such as competition for land-1020 esearch Delivering evidence in a rapidly changing 1020-1050 ment (2012) an overview 1050-1120 k Research Climate Change Risk Assess Bruce Nicoll, Forest Research Pests an overview of FR wor Daegan

  18. Finnish Comprehensive School Students Contemplate the Forest Fires of Indonesia 1997 from Internet and Newspaper Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin-Oittinen, Toini

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the assignment for eighth-grade students was reporting on the forest fires in Indonesia in chronological order, from 26 August to 27 September 1997. The final stage of the assignment was composing a report in essay format. The goal of this presentation was to examine the historical interpretation of the events and to simultaneously

  19. Forest Research The Research Agency of the

    E-print Network

    on climate change adaptation planned by Forest Research and help inform the countries on existing evidence economic evidence on the health benefits provided by street trees1 . This will feed into research the role of street trees in moderating the climate and environment of urban areas, the following benefits

  20. Forest Research Wildfires in Wales

    E-print Network

    Forest Research Wildfires in Wales: Executive Summary Matthew Jollands, Jake Morris and Andy Moffat The `Wildfires in Wales' project sought to characterise and understand the problem of wildfires in the South is available online at: www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/wildfiresinwales. #12;2 Scope of the problem Wildfires

  1. Parallel estimates of gross primary production of Finnish forests - comparison of two process models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Markkanen, Tiina; Hrknen, Sanna; Muukkonen, Petteri; Thum, Tea; Aalto, Tuula; Mkel, Annikki

    2014-05-01

    Land Surface Models (LSM) describe the material and energy fluxes between the atmosphere, vegetation and soils for climate models and earth system models. Especially, for past and future climate change studies, LSMs need to include ecosystem carbon cycle. Process-based forest growth models and ecosystem impact analysis models, on the other hand, benefit from stand-alone predictions of carbon cycle. In this study, we compared the predictions of GPP made with two modelling systems that are currently applied in Finland. The first one is JSBACH that is LSM of ECHAM6, which is now being applied in Finland with the REMO regional climate model. The second one is the eddy-flux-based GPP and water balance model PRELES that has recently been integrated with large-scale data sets to be run with inventory-based forest data and ground-based meteorological measurements. JSBACH was run with information about plant functional type fractions in 0.167 degree pixels. PRELES applied inventory-scaled information about forest structure on fine resolution (100 m). Both models used same weather data as inputs. When we compared the results of the two model systems, we found little difference between the model predicted annual GPP when aggregated over Finland. Spatial differences in annual GPP and its inter-annual variation over the simulation period (2000-2011) was also parallel, but differences were detected in the seasonal pattern of GPP. Two modelling system showed remarkable converge in predicted annual total GPP, but both models could benefit from a better understanding of timing of the season start and end, especially regarding deciduous species.

  2. Long-term changes in acidity and DOC in throughfall and soil water in Finnish forests.

    PubMed

    Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Starr, Mike; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Nieminen, Tiina M

    2014-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine if any detectable trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sulphate (SO4-S) concentrations and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in throughfall (TF) and soil water (SW) could be found during 1990-2010 and to relate them to recent changes in decreased acid deposition. The study was conducted in seven boreal coniferous forest sites: four of which are managed and three unmanaged forests sites. Generally, temporal trend showed a significant decrease in SO4-S concentrations in bulk precipitation (BP), TF and SW. At some of the sites, there was an increasing tendency in BP and TF in the DOC concentrations. This feature coincides with decreasing SO4-S concentration, indicating that SO4-S may be an important driver of DOC release from the canopy. However, a slightly increased temperature, larger senescing needle mass and consequently increased decaying activity in the canopy may partly explain the increasing trend in DOC. In SW, no consistent DOC trend was seen. At some sites, the decreased base cation concentrations mostly account for the decrease in the ANC values in SW and TF. PMID:25096641

  3. Judges' views of child sexual abuse: evaluating beliefs against research findings in a Finnish sample.

    PubMed

    Korkman, Julia; Svanbck, Jatta; Finnil, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Beliefs impact our decision-making and different professionals have been shown to have beliefs about child sexual abuse (CSA) that do not coincide with scientific findings. In the present study, judges' beliefs regarding CSA were explored. Finnish judges (N=104) answered a questionnaire about CSA related issues as well as questions regarding their professional experience of CSA cases. The judges held both correct and incorrect beliefs; while their CSA prevalence estimates were rather well in line with research findings, half of the participants estimated that no professionals use suggestive methods when interviewing children and more than 40% thought suggestive methods can be useful when trying to get a child to tell about real events. Judges correctly assumed symptoms cannot be used to assess a CSA case, however, the majority thought play observations were appropriate means for evaluating such suspicions. Experience seemed to lead to more confidence in their own expertise but not in an actual increase in knowledge, namely, judges thought themselves more expert when more experienced although their expertise as measured by the questionnaire did not improve. Overall, the judges had both correct and erroneous beliefs but while experience did not improve the situation, gaining information about CSA did. More research about the beliefs of judges and how such beliefs impact legal decision-making is needed. PMID:25040839

  4. Forest Service Watershed Research in the Southwest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel G. Neary; Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano; Malchus B. Baker

    Forest watershed research in the Southwest started in Arizona because of concerns about sediment inputs into the newly constructed Roosevelt Reservoir. The Summit Plots were established in 1925 to study the effects of vegetation establishment and mechanical soil stabilization on stormflow and sediment yields. In 1932 the Forest Service dedicated the Parker Creek Experimental Forest, later renamed Sierra Ancha Experimental

  5. Publications Forest Research publishes a wide range

    E-print Network

    for recreation and nature tourism ­ European COST Action E33 Forest School: a marvellous opportunity to learn and barriers Woodland owners' attitudes to public access provision in south-east England 20 | Forest Research Chase and North Dorset Perspectives on forests and trees: a view from Vermont People's experiences

  6. Forest density mapping in the lower 48 states: A regression procedure. Forest Service research paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhu

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis (SO-FIA) research unit conducted a project to map the distribution of forest lands for the entire United States. Forest types and forest densities were mapped, and a new forest type group map for the country was produced (Powell and others, in press; Zhu and

  7. Forest Research Much more than trees

    E-print Network

    and objectives, Forest Research comprises three interlinking Centres: The Centre for Forestry and Climate Change much more than trees ­ it's about adapting to, and mitigating the risks from, climate change and supplying scientific evidence on the human, ecological and economic aspects of sustainable forest management

  8. CLIMATE CHANGE MODELS AND FOREST IMPACTS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent Earth Summit in Rio has once again focused world attention on the importance of climate, human and biological interactions. nder programs such as the Forest Service Global Change Research Program (FSGCRP), scientists are exploring and assessing a variety of forest reso...

  9. Research Update Seminar Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, EH25 9SY

    E-print Network

    industry and those with an interest in forests. This Update Seminar aims to provide the attendee with a brief overview of a number of different current topics. Forest Research has been supporting the industry Executive, Forest Research All speakers are from Forest Research unless otherwise stated 0930-0950 Coffee

  10. Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website presents the Finnish Meteorological Institute's objective "to provide the best possible information about the atmosphere above and around Finland, to ensure public safety relating to atmospheric and airborne hazards, and to satisfy requirements for specialized meteorological products." The site divides the Institute's countless research projects into six main categories: meteorology, air quality, middle and upper atmosphere, space research, climate change, and polar research. Each section contains concise, educational summaries and helpful images. Students can find tutorials about lightning, thunder, northern lights, and temperature. Users who can't seem to find the answers to their meteorological questions can correspond with the Institute's scientists.

  11. Advisory Committee on Forest Research Paper 2001/02

    E-print Network

    Advisory Committee on Forest Research Paper 2001/02 Report of Visiting Group Forest Research Environmental Research Branch 29 30 October 2001 1. Review Procedures On the invitation of Mr Jim Dewar, Chief Executive Forest Research, three independent scientists formed a Visiting Group to review the quality

  12. Research Summary Forest School: a marvellous opportunity to learn

    E-print Network

    School on young people by funding research in this area. Participatory action research was undertakenResearch Summary Forest School: a marvellous opportunity to learn In the past five years Forest by the New Economics Foundation and Forest Research in a two-phase approach. Phase 1 started in Wales in 2003

  13. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts

    E-print Network

    biodiversity Iterative learning from social research Forest Management Seed dormancy and climate change sites, climate and management regimes and so indicate the most suitable management techniques to enhance demonstrates how environmental conditions and management practices affect both growth rates and the quality

  14. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts

    E-print Network

    defence. In particular, information is required about the actual flood storage potential of floodplain the flood and pollution control functions of floodplain woodland. Forest Research's involvement began understand and help quantify these effects. Work on investigating the role of floodplain woodland in flood

  15. Influence of English on Modern Finnish: Preliminary Report on a Research Programme. Further Contrastive Papers, Jyvaskyla Contrastive Studies, 6. Reports from the Department of English, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; And Others

    A study of the influence of English on modern Finnish was designed to determine how Anglicisms are used, how they are understood, and how they are adapted to the Finnish language system. Features of present-day Finnish were analyzed to discover to what extent the Finnish language and the Finns' sense of language are changing. Anglicisms were

  16. Forest Estate Modelling (Part 2) Forest Research Institute, Rotorua

    E-print Network

    Garca, Oscar

    . or whole countries. We consider here only even- aged forests, and focus on general-purpose mod- elling justification, have been developed for this purpose. Some remarkable examples of near-normal forests, attained after centuries of continued forest management, exist in Europe. Some countries still base their forest

  17. Recent Finnish Research on Higher Education, 1985. Kasvatustieteiden Tutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisuja 364.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinen, Raimo, Ed.; And Others

    The results of current research in higher education in Finland are described in 11 articles, published with the aim of reinforcing contacts with international researchers. Articles' titles and authors include: "University Development, Social Change, and Regional Policy" (Ari Antikainen); "Research on the Economics of Higher Education in Finland"

  18. USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station: Publications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This database contains publications in support of this group\\'s mission to create the science and technology needed to sustain and enhance southern forest ecosystems and the benefits they provide. The database can be searched by author, title, keyword, date range, and publication origin; publication number; and by the most recent publications added to the database. There are also online versions of Compass, a publication catalog of research products from scientists at SRS.

  19. Research Summary Consultation and community involvement in forest planning

    E-print Network

    Research Summary Consultation and community involvement in forest planning: research in Cranborne of the Forestry Commission's `Long-Term Forest Plan' process. It also builds on various investigations into stakeholder analysis and the use of participatory tools in relation to Forest Design Plans (FDPs). The NFNF

  20. Liz O'Brien Social Research Group, Forest Research Trees and woodlands

    E-print Network

    Liz O'Brien Social Research Group, Forest Research Trees and woodlands Nature's health service #12'Brien Social Research Group Forest Research #12;2 Trees and woodlands: nature's health service Acknowledgements should be addressed to: Liz O'Brien Social Research Group Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham Surrey

  1. Solar energy at Forest Research Solar Power at Alice Holt

    E-print Network

    Solar energy at Forest Research Solar Power at Alice Holt research station provides a renewable source of energy reducing reliance on power from the national grid Forest Research, an agency to install a solar photovoltaic system to meet some of the research station's energy needs. #12;In January

  2. Towards Communication and Learning Based Leadership: Observations in Finnish Public Research Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saari, Eveliina; Talja, Heli

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Management systems designed for the purposes of the industrial era are not sufficient to rise to the challenge of knowledge-creating organizations. This paper seeks to analyse how the motives and aims of top management and knowledge workers differ from each other. In order to avoid confrontation between managerialism and research work

  3. China forest park website differentiation rule and actuation mechanism research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bai Cui Ling; Qin An Chen

    2010-01-01

    Based on the forest tourism rapidly developing, the network traveling market development is rapid, the traveling way personalization and the region traveling informationization strengthen unceasingly. The article researches forest park space and function differentiation rule, And uses the least squares method, uses the Eviews 5.0 software to analysis the local environment, the forest park supplies and the traveling market scale,

  4. New perspectives in forest management: Background, science issues, and research agenda. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.J.; Grant, G.E.

    1992-09-01

    Scientific, management, and social factors that have contributed to the changes in United States forest management are examined in the report. Principles underlying new approaches are developed and implications are considered at various spatial and temporal scales. A general framework for a research program is outlined.

  5. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2011201210 Woodlands and forests

    E-print Network

    and pathogens, drought and wildfire, losses to forest biodiversity and amenity, windthrow and landslips in regulating and supporting ecosystem services such as carbon capture, climate mitigation, and soil and water

  6. Habitat quality assessment using Weights-of-Evidence based GIS modelling: The case of Picoides tridactylus as species indicator of the biodiversity value of the Finnish forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul Romero-Calcerrada; Sandra Luque

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity issues have gained importance in forestry as a result of the increased awareness of forest landscape changes, but still there is much to do before forest management meets reasonable goals for forest protection and renewal of biodiversity. In this work, we focus on boreal forest landscapes, using Finland as a case study, and taking advantage of a valuable databasethe

  7. The impact of tourism and reindeer herding on forest vegetation at Saariselk, Finnish Lapland: a pollen analytical study of a high-resolution peat profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satu Rsnen; Cynthia Froyd; Tomasz Goslar

    2007-01-01

    A high-resolution peat profile from the vicinity of Saariselk (6825.24'N, 2725.19'E), a large tourist centre in northern Finnish Lapland, was sampled continuously at near annual resolution to a depth of 22 cm in order to interpret the changes in pollen assemblages and vegetation resulting from human interference and reindeer herding. Fifteen AMS dates were wiggle-matched with the atmospheric 14C calibration

  8. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Statement on Internal Control, which were previously owned and managed on behalf of the Forestry Commission by the Forest Enterprise agency, with appropriate intra-departmental charges made, and recorded on the Forest Enterprise balance

  9. Research SummaryForest Research Estimating the aggregate amenity value of woodland views using spatial analysis

    E-print Network

    of multiple objectives in forest management. 2. The elevation aspect of data at the forest stand level shouldResearch SummaryForest Research Estimating the aggregate amenity value of woodland views using to an observer. Informed by this review, an improved viewshed analysis methodology was developed and successfully

  10. FOREST RESPONSE PROGRAM: NATIONAL RESEARCH ON FOREST DECLINE AND AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Forest Response Program (FRP) is a major research undertaking. t is fortunate to have the support of many of the nation's top scientists. he involvement of the Forest Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the broader scientific community gives the program a unique...

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Estimation of forest harvesting-induced stream temperature

    E-print Network

    Hinch, Scott G.

    and indirect impacts of increased stream temperature following harvesting on fish health, condition, growthRESEARCH ARTICLE Estimation of forest harvesting-induced stream temperature changes coastal British Columbia, Canada, were analyzed to assess the thermal effects of clearcut harvesting

  12. Finnish PACS project.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, J; Kiuru, A; Heiska, K; Krkkinen, A; Kormano, M

    1991-01-01

    A Finnish PACS project has been set up with the participation and financing of 13 university and central hospitals, the Medical Board of Finland, the Hospital League of Finland, the Post and Teleoffice of Finland and the Helsinki Telephone Company with the Medical Engineering Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland as the principal investigator. The project started in December 1988 and ended in December 1990. The project focused on the functional needs for PACS. The image production, archive sizes, network capacity and workstation requirements have been studied in a big university hospital. The results show that without compression the image archive size needs to be at least 10 TB. The network capacity requirement depends very much on the interactivity requirements. In normal situations less than 1 Mbit/s is needed, if the network is configured in an efficient way. In some cases, however, the speed requirement can be of the order of 100 Mbit/s. A proposal for a hospital-wide PACS network was made. Simple calculation rules to estimate the needed capacities were also developed. PMID:1786695

  13. FOREST RESEARCH SEMINAR -AVIEMORE, NOVEMBER 2011

    E-print Network

    Terrain: Three Year Project Funded by Forest Enterprise, Scotland. Steep slope working on the National Slope stability Traffic control Manpower Equipment Weather Logistics #12;30/11/201114 FR Seminar FOST

  14. Forest Inventory Attribute Estimation Using Airborne Laser Scanning, Aerial Stereo Imagery, Radargrammetry and Interferometry-Finnish Experiences of the 3d Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.; Karjalainen, M.; Karila, K.; Kaasalainen, S.; Honkavaara, E.; Hyypp, J.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote sensing has enabled detailed mapping of terrain and vegetation heights. Consequently, forest inventory attributes are estimated more and more using point clouds and normalized surface models. In practical applications, mainly airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been used in forest resource mapping. The current status is that ALS-based forest inventories are widespread, and the popularity of ALS has also raised interest toward alternative 3D techniques, including airborne and spaceborne techniques. Point clouds can be generated using photogrammetry, radargrammetry and interferometry. Airborne stereo imagery can be used in deriving photogrammetric point clouds, as very-high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are used in radargrammetry and interferometry. ALS is capable of mapping both the terrain and tree heights in mixed forest conditions, which is an advantage over aerial images or SAR data. However, in many jurisdictions, a detailed ALS-based digital terrain model is already available, and that enables linking photogrammetric or SAR-derived heights to heights above the ground. In other words, in forest conditions, the height of single trees, height of the canopy and/or density of the canopy can be measured and used in estimation of forest inventory attributes. In this paper, first we review experiences of the use of digital stereo imagery and spaceborne SAR in estimation of forest inventory attributes in Finland, and we compare techniques to ALS. In addition, we aim to present new implications based on our experiences.

  15. Metals in Finnish liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Harju, K; Ronkainen, P

    1984-05-01

    The metal content of some representative Finnish berry liqueurs was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The berry liqueurs were prepared from cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus), cranberry (Vaccinum oxycoccus), lingonberry (Vaccinum vitis-idaea) and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). In addition some other Finnish berry, fruit and herbal liqueurs were analyzed. The trace elements studied were Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, and Zn. The level of poisonous metals in all the samples was very low: As less than 0.1, Cd less than 0.005 and Pb less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l. PMID:6464557

  16. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,

  17. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2009201018 Published by Forest Research

    E-print Network

    brochure (printed and online, free) Trees and forests in British society ­ Ten years of social science): Active England evaluation Growing Places: a study of social change in The National Forest A decision and forest management in rehabilitation A valuation of the economic and social contribution of forestry

  18. A Research Agenda for Forest Products Marketing and Business Development in Louisiana: 2009-2013

    E-print Network

    Wu, Qinglin

    A Research Agenda for Forest Products Marketing and Business Development in Louisiana: 2009-2013 Richard P. Vlosky Professor and Director Louisiana Forest Products Development Center School of Renewable Natural Resources Louisiana Agricultural Center Baton Rouge, Louisiana Louisiana Forest Products

  19. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts

    E-print Network

    , and difficulties of, integrating multiple uses. Arguably, some of these themes can be traced back quality ­ `landscape planning', landscape character areas, landscape view. · A spatial scale and extent within which to target action, for example the Forest Landscape Restoration initiative. · An entity

  20. Long-Term Research at the USDA Forest Service's Experimental Forests and Ranges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ARIEL E. LUGO, FREDERICK J. SWANSON, OLGA RAMOS GONZÁLEZ, MARY BETH ADAMS, BRIAN PALIK, RONALD E. THILL, DALE G. BROCKWAY, CHRISTEL KERN, RICHARD WOODSMITH, and ROBERT MUSSELMAN (; )

    2006-01-01

    This peer reviewed article from BioScience is on USDA Forest Service's long-term databases. The network of experimental forests and ranges administered by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service consists of 77 properties that are representative of most forest cover types and many ecological regions in the nation. Established as early as 1908, these sites maintain exceptional, long-term databases on environmental dynamics and biotic responses. Early research at these sites focused on silviculture, ecosystem restoration, and watershed management. Over time, many of the properties have evolved into a functional network of ecological observatories through common large-scale, long-term experiments and other approaches. Collaboration with other institutions and research programs fosters intersite research and common procedures for managing and sharing data. Much current research in this network focuses on global change and interdisciplinary ecosystem studies at local to global scales. With this experience in developing networks and compiling records of environmental history, the experimental forests and ranges network can contribute greatly to formation of new networks of environmental observatories.

  1. Forest Research "Assessing the contribution of forestry grants to

    E-print Network

    Forest Research "Assessing the contribution of forestry grants to equal access for disabled people: the research centre for inclusive access to outdoor environments Edinburgh College of Art and Heriot or deafened people) and mental impairment (learning disability and mental health problems such as Alzheimer

  2. 1998 Proceedings: Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Proceedings of the 1998 Puerto Rico conference on Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research (sponsored in part by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) are available at this Website. The proceedings include the program, abstracts from presentations and posters, and contact information for presenters.

  3. 78 FR 22225 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Integrated Forest Products Research Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...Integrated Forest Products Research Program AGENCY: National...Integrated Forest Products Research (FPR) program and...stakeholder input is to gather topic areas for research which will be used in...creative and innovative science and technology and...

  4. Towards an international electronic repository and virtual laboratory of open data and open-source software for telehealth research: comparison of international, Australian and Finnish privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Health data includes all content related to health in all data formats, document types, information systems, publication media and languages from all specialties, organisations, regions, states and countries. Capabilities to share, integrate and compare these data contents, clinical trial results and other evaluation outcomes together with telehealth applications for data processing are critical to accelerate discovery and its diffusion to clinical practice. However, the same ethical and legal frameworks that protect privacy hinder this open data and open-source code approach and the issues accumulate if moving data across national, regional or organisational borders. This can be seen as one of the reasons why many telehealth applications and health-research findings tend to be limited to very narrow domains and global results are lacking. The aim of this paper is to take steps towards establishing an international electronic repository and virtual laboratory of open data and open-source code for research purposes by comparing international, Australian and Finnish frameworks. The frameworks seem to be fundamentally similar; they apply the principles of accountability and adequacy to using and disclosing personal data. Their requirements to inform data subjects about the purposes of data collection and use before the dataset is collected, assure that individuals are no longer identifiable and to destruct data when the research activities are finished make sharing data and even secondary data difficult. Using the Internet or cloud services for sharing without proper approvals by ethics committees is technically not allowed if the data are stored in another country. The research community needs to overcome these barriers and develop a virtual laboratory, which operates on distributed data repositories. This empowers the community by enabling systematic evaluations of new technologies and research hypotheses on a rich variety of data and against existing applications, and subsequent tracking of quality improvements in time. PMID:23138090

  5. The Multi-source National Forest Inventory of Finland methods and results 2009

    E-print Network

    Tomppo, Erkki

    , Matti Katila, Kai Mäkisara and Jouni Peräsaari Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2013/mwp273.htm 3 Authors Tomppo, Erkki, Katila, Matti, Mäkisara, Kai & Peräsaari, Jouni Title

  6. Biogeographical and taxonomic biases in tropical forest fragmentation research.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2014-12-01

    Despite several decades of research on the effects of fragmentation and habitat change on biodiversity, there remain strong biases in the geographical regions and taxonomic species studied. The knowledge gaps resulting from these biases are of particular concern if the forests most threatened with modification are also those for which the effects of such change are most poorly understood. To quantify the nature and magnitude of such biases, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on forest fragmentation in the tropics for the period 1980-2012. Studies included focused on any type of response of single species, communities, or assemblages of any taxonomic group to tropical forest fragmentation and on fragmentation-related changes to forests. Of the 853 studies we found in the SCOPUS database, 64% were conducted in the Neotropics, 13% in Asia, 10% in the Afrotropics, and 5% in Australasia. Thus, although the Afrotropics is subject to the highest rates of deforestation globally, it was the most disproportionately poorly studied biome. Significant taxonomic biases were identified. Of the taxonomic groups considered, herpetofauna was the least studied in the tropics, particularly in Africa. Research examining patterns of species distribution was by far the most common type (72%), and work focused on ecological processes (28%) was rare in all biomes, but particularly in the Afrotropics and for fauna. We suggest research efforts be directed toward less-studied biogeographic regions, particularly where the threat of forest fragmentation continues to be high. Increased research investment in the Afrotropics will be important to build knowledge of threats and inform responses in a region where almost no efforts to restore its fragmented landscapes have yet begun and forest protection is arguably most tenuous. PMID:25065550

  7. The European Forest Institute and the Finnish Forest Research Institute: The supply of woody biomass from the forests in the EU can be

    E-print Network

    in 2030. Alternatively, if possible negative environmental effects of intensified use of wood.g., the political environment and the attitude of society towards use of wood. If there will be a strong focus

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE Isolation from forest reduces pollination, seed predation

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    landscape (500 m radius). We experimentally exposed primroses, sunflower seeds and cricket corpses duringRESEARCH ARTICLE Isolation from forest reduces pollination, seed predation and insect scavenging and fragmentation lead to changes in species richness and composition which may affect ecosystem services. Yet, few

  9. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  10. Overview of Contemporary Issues of Forest Research and Management in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong S.; Shifley, Stephen R.; Thompson, Frank R.

    2011-12-01

    With 207 million ha of forest covering 22% of its land area, China ranks fifth in the world in forest area. Rapid economic growth, climate change, and forest disturbances pose new, complex challenges for forest research and management. Progress in meeting these challenges is relevant beyond China, because China's forests represent 34% of Asia's forests and 5% of the worlds' forests. To provide a broader understanding of these management challenges and of research and policies that address them, we organized this special issue on contemporary forest research and management issues in China. At the national level, papers review major forest types and the evolution of sustainable forestry, the development of China's forest-certification efforts, the establishment of a forest inventory system, and achievements and challenges in insect pest control in China. Papers focused on Northern China address historical, social, and political factors that have shaped the region's forests; the use of forest landscape models to assess how forest management can achieve multiple objectives; and analysis and modeling of fuels and fire behavior. Papers addressing Central and South China describe the "Grain for Green" program, which converts low productivity cropland to grassland and woodland to address erosion and soil carbon sequestration; the potential effects of climate change on CO2 efflux and soil respiration; and relationships between climate and net primary productivity. China shares many forest management and research issues with other countries, but in other cases China's capacity to respond to forest management challenges is unique and bears watching by the rest of the world.

  11. Alice Holt Forest The Forest Research Alice Holt Research Station is located in the centre of the Forest

    E-print Network

    Cupressus spp. 8 Western Red cedar Thuja plicata 7 Mixed/others 24 Total conifer 376 TOTAL 767 #12;Alice on page 4. Tree species The range of conifer species represented across Alice Holt forest is shown in the Altlantic Period (5500 B.C. ­ 2600 B.C.) with pedunculate oak emerging as the main tree species. Man has

  12. Katherine Tubby For over a decade, numerous volunteers have been involved in a Forest Research (FR)-

    E-print Network

    with LiDAR Dendrochronology and climate change research Forest Management overview Sustainable management the impact of pinewood nematode Ecology overview Criteria for changing forest land use Conservation measuresKatherine Tubby For over a decade, numerous volunteers have been involved in a Forest Research (FR

  13. United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station

    E-print Network

    to forest, range, aquatic, and urban forest ecosystem health. Exotic species invasions in the United States Technical Report RMRS-GTR-265 November 2011 Rocky Mountain Research Station Invasive Species Visionary White of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 37 p. AbstrAct Invasive species represent one

  14. Research Summary Growing Places: a study of social change in The National Forest

    E-print Network

    Research Summary Growing Places: a study of social change in The National Forest The National months in 2005, aimed to describe processes of social change brought about by the Forest, with a view: mexplore linkages between changes to the physical and social environments in the Forest mexplore how people

  15. A Multidimensional Approach to Finnish Managers' Moral Decision-Making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna Kujala

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses managers' moral decision-making, and studies the role of ethical theories in it by following the research tradition using the multidimensional ethics scale. The research question is: what kinds of ethical dimensions do Finnish business managers reveal when they are making moral decisions, and how have these dimensions changed in the 1990s? This question is answered by examining

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Comparison of historical and current forest surveys

    E-print Network

    He, Hong S.

    and Inventory plots for Minnesota's Laurentian Mixed and Eastern Broadleaf Forest prov- inces. We used for historical forests and we used known densities of FIA plots to predict current densities with random forests isoccurringbytransition fromearly-successional to late-successional species, with associated changes in forest ecosystems

  17. Forest Research Executive Board Meeting 6 December 2005 by Video Conference

    E-print Network

    to improve FR's standing and networking in the three countries, in the first instance, in Wales. Action: HE1 Forest Research Executive Board Meeting ­ 6 December 2005 by Video Conference Present: Prof J M to be put in place changing the `Emeritus Scientist/Research Associate' titles to `Fellow of Forest Research

  18. United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station

    E-print Network

    Flury, Markus

    United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station Research Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 8 p water repellency, vegetative cover, and other site characteristics. The median sediment yield in post

  19. FINLAND SOURCES 2007 -Forest industry production Authorities

    E-print Network

    , research, leisure and arts Record amount of Finnish pulp, paper and paperboard in 2006 Finland produced 14 » Paper Mills » Paperboard Mills » Finnish companies in Europe » Finnish companies outside Europe.1 million tons of paper and paperboard in 2006, which was more than ever before. Chemical and mechanical

  20. Finnish in America: Two Kinds of Finglish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karttunen, Frances; Moore, Kate

    The Finnish language spoken by Finns who emigrated to America is often called "Finglish;" two distinct varieties are discussed in this paper. American Finnish differs from native Finnish in its assimilation of a substantial number of loan words that augment and sometimes replace the original vocabulary. Many loan words deal with employment,

  1. Humans, forests, and global environmental change: Planning a social science research agenda. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, M.; Paananen, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    In early 1995, the USDA Forest Service`s Northern Global Change Program (NGCP) convened two meetings--one in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the other in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania--to advance its commitment to human dimensions research by clearly defining the scope of a research program appropriate to its mission and objectives. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of those meetings.

  2. Forest statistics for Michigan`s northern lower peninsula unit, 1993. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherberry, E.C.

    1994-10-30

    Michigan`s Northern Lower Peninsula Unit (fig. 1) is comprised of 33 counties. This region of the State is rich with resources that support a network of social, economic, and ecological processes that are forest dependent. The forest resource of the Unit presently supports an industry that operates on a sustaining basis. In 1990 nearly half of Michigan`s saw-log production--297 million board feet--was harvest in the Unit. The forests of the Northern Lower Peninsula are vital to the region. The forest contains a variety of both deciduous and coniferous forest species, which results in regionally unique ecosystems that contribute to biodiversity.

  3. Changing national forest values: A content analysis. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, D.N.; Xu, Z.

    1995-11-01

    This evolution of forest values is currently being widely discussed and debated in the forestry community. It is often claimed that a fundamental shift in forest values has taken place in recent decades. Gordon argued that a shift in public values is part of the explanation for the declining influence of the multiple-use sustained-yield paradigm of forest management. It is increasingly recognized that the values people hold about forest ecosystems are an important part of the social underpinning of ecosystem management, the emerging forest management paradigm. In either case, values play a critical role in identifying ecosystem management goals, setting the context for decisionmaking, and guiding our choices.

  4. for the year ended 31 March 2007 Forest Research

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Statement on Internal Control by the Forest Enterprise agency, with appropriate intra- departmental charges made, and recorded on the Forest Enterprise balance sheet as at 31 March 1997. Two organisational reviews took place during 2002 and 2003

  5. Nature Climate Change features Los Alamos forest research

    E-print Network

    devastating effects of global warming particularly on the forests of the Southwest. See the original news, the paper, "Temperature as a potent driver of regional forest drought stress and tree mortality," and its

  6. United States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    .S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 38 p. Abstract Climate change-based service is available for providing this input for climate predictions generated by down scaling generalUnited States Department of Agriculture / Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station General

  7. Thematic Mapper simulator research for forest resource mapping in the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Spanner, M. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ulliman, J. J.; Brockhaus, J.

    1984-01-01

    Per-pixel maximum likelihood digital classification and photo interpretation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) composited images for a managed conifer forest were used to evaluate both land cover and forest structure characteristics. TMS channels 4, 7, 5 and 3, which were found to be optimal for forest vegetation analysis, used the full range of the Thematic Mapper's spectral capability. Photo interpretation results indicate that a false color composite from TMS channels 4, 7, and 2 provided the highest accuracies; the combination of improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of the Thematic Mapper yielded greater sensitivity to forest structural characteristics.

  8. Technical Report TR-014 May 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-print Network

    Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife just like Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology

  9. Research article Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    alternative vegetation man- agement scenarios on forest succession and the subsequent risk of canopy fire of undeveloped land Cardille et al. 2001a . The primary tools used to mitigate fire susceptibilityResearch article Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility

  10. Research article Habitat selection and breeding success in a forest-nesting Alcid, the marbled

    E-print Network

    Research article Habitat selection and breeding success in a forest-nesting Alcid, the marbled of a protected seabird (family Alcidae), the marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), in a relatively intact habitat fragmentation. We conclude that marbled murrelets can successfully breed in old-growth forests

  11. Research Summary Community experiences of the National Forest Land Scheme

    E-print Network

    , local economy and democracy. This study focuses on one scheme managed by Forestry Commission ScotlandBackground The National Forest Land Scheme (NFLS) gives Scottish communities the opportunity to buy forest land currently, by low average local incomes, scattered distribution of households, and by a focus on local jobs

  12. Forest models: their development and potential applications for air pollution effects research

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, H.H.; McLaughlin, S.B.; West, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    As research tools for evaluating the effects of chronic air pollution stress, forest simulation models offer one means of integrating forest growth and development data with generalized indices of pollution stress. This approach permits consideration of both the competitive interactions of trees in the forest stand and the influences of the stage of stand development on sensitivity of component species. A review of forest growth models, including tree, stand, and gap models, is provided as a means of evaluating relative strengths, weaknesses, and limits of applicability of representative examples of each type. Data from recent simulations with a gap model of eastern deciduous forest responses to air pollution stress are presented to emphasize the potential importance of competition in modifying individual species' responses in a forest stand. Recent developments in dendroecology are discussed as a potential mechanism for model validation and extended application.

  13. Forest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Ryan

    2013-02-12

    Become an expert on the Forest habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can learn about the Broadleaf forest or the Coniferous forest! Kathryn! You can learn a lot about worms from Herman the Worm. Read the information to learn about worms! You can also visit Earthworms to learn more! Colter! You can learn about American Black Bears and Black Bears! Click the underlined words and read read read! Happy trails! ...

  14. Data Archive of the Harvard Forest, a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    Since 1907 research and education have been the mission of the Harvard Forest is one of the oldest and most intensively studied forests in North America. Located in Petersham, Massachusetts, its 3000 acres of land have been a center of research and education since 1907. The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program, established in 1988 and funded by the National Science Foundation, provides a framework for much of this activity. An understanding of forest responses to natural and human disturbance and environmental change over broad spatial and temporal scales pulls together research topics including biodiversity studies, the effects of invasive organisms, large experiments and permanent plot studies, historical and retrospective studies, soil nutrient dynamics, and plant population and community ecological interactions. Major research in forest-atmosphere exchange, hydrology, and regional studies places the work in regional and global context, aided by modeling tools. Conservation and management research and linkages to policy have been part of the Forest since its beginning, and the approaches used in New England can often apply to international studies. [Copied from http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu/research.html] In addition to more than 150 datasets, the Visual Information Access system at Harvard University Library makes nearly 900 images pertaining to Harvard Forest research available online to the public.

  15. Research in Support of Forest Management. Final report, 1986--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H. [comp.

    1991-12-01

    This final research report on Research in Support of Forest Management for the Savannah River Forest Station covers the period 1986 thru 1991. This report provides a list of publications resulting from research accomplished by SEFES scientists and their cooperators, and a list of continuing research study titles. Output is 22 research publications, 23 publications involving technology transfer of results to various user groups, and 11 manuscripts in pre-publication format. DOE funding contributed approximately 15 percent of the total cost of the research.

  16. U.S. Forest Service-Rocky Mountain Research Station: Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Administered by the U.S. Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Research Station, the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute is devoted "to providing the quality, peer-reviewed research necessary to develop guidelines and management practices that assure sustainable wild ecosystems endure for generations to come." The Institute website provides information about numerous research projects, staff, conferences, and more. Site visitors can also browse, or search for, over 500 Leopold Institute publications of which more than 100 are downloadable. Publications may be also be ordered free of charge by email or post. In addition, site visitors can link to several databases including the Wilderness and Recreation Impact Database, Wilderness Invaders-Surveys and Databases on Invasive & Exotic Species; National Wilderness Preservation System Database; and Wilderness Stewardship Reference System: Legislative, Administrative, and Judicial, and Scientific Information.

  17. Publications Forest Research publishes a wide range of material, from corporate reports and plans, to

    E-print Network

    seeding of birch on restock sites Ian Willoughby, Alan Harrison, Peter Gosling and Gary Kerr 85 Evaluating markers to reduce pesticide use Ian Willoughby *Authors outwith the Agency. Forest Research Annual Report

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE Rural housing is related to plant invasions in forests

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    Gregorio I. Gavier-Pizarro Volker C. Radeloff Susan I. Stewart Cynthia D. Huebner Nicholas S, Evanston, IL 60201, USA C. D. Huebner USDA-Forest Service Northern Research Station, 180 Canfield Street

  19. FOREST RESEARCH NOTES J I U.S.DEPARTMENT OFAGRICULTURE

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    , 500 to 11., 000 feet. It coinmonly grows on sites occupied by big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata~ERBRUSH IN CALIFORNIAl/ By August L. Hormay Associate Forest Ec~logist INTRODUCTION Bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata D. C

  20. Research SummaryForest Research Engaging with rivers: using imaginative and creative approaches as a learning tool

    E-print Network

    Research SummaryForest Research Engaging with rivers: using imaginative and creative approaches communities. In the RIVERS project we tested the use of creative writing as a tool to engage with river but systematic review of research evidence on innovative approaches to participatory river basin planning m

  1. Upland forests of the American/Pacific islands: Research opportunities in Micronesia and American Samoa. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    DeBell, D.S.; Whitesell, C.D.

    1993-07-01

    The Upland forests of Micronesia and American Samoa can provide many social, ecological, and esthetic benefits for island inhabitants. Substantial upland areas (the majority of acreage on some islands) are now occupied by secondary and grassland/savanna vegetation: such areas represent opportunities for restoration, with both native forest cover and plantations of introduced species. The review briefly describes characteristics of the islands and the nature of existing and potential upland forests, including the most common upland tree species. Principal information needs and research opportunities are discussed for 10 subjects: watershed rehabilitation, forest restoration in secondary vegetation areas, basic ecology, soils and nutrient relationships, damaging agents, forest inventory and productivity assessment, silvicultural systems, valuation of forest products and services, threatened and endangered species, and description and protection of native forest habitats.

  2. Forests under climate change and air pollution: gaps in understanding and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Calfapietra, C; de Vries, W; Dizengremel, P; Ernst, D; Jolivet, Y; Mikkelsen, T N; Mohren, G M J; Le Thiec, D; Tuovinen, J-P; Weatherall, A; Paoletti, E

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems ("supersites") will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development. PMID:22035926

  3. Managing coarse woody debris in forests of the Rocky Mountains. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.T.; Harvey, A.E.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Jain, T.B.; Tonn, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Recommendations for managing coarse woody debris after timber harvest were developed for 14 habitat types, ranging from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) habitat types of Arizona to subalpine fir (Abis lasiocarpa) habitat types of western Montana. Ectomycorrhizae were used as a bioindicator of health, productive forest soils. Undisturbed stands were studied to determine the optimum amounts of organic material for ectomycorrhizal activity. The management recommendations are intentionally conservative to ensure that enough organic matter is left after timber harvest to maintain long-term forest productivity.

  4. Rain Forest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Ryan

    2013-02-12

    Become an expert on the Rain Forest habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. All about Rainforests has lots of great facts about the Rain Forest! Rainforests of the world tells about different Rain Forests in the world. To find out about each one click on the words about different Rain Forests. To research about animals in the Rain Forest, visit Animals of the Rain Forest and Rain Forest Animals. Rain Forest Animals and Rain Forest also has more information about Rain ...

  5. Interactions of forests with secondary air pollutants: some challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Cape, J N

    2008-10-01

    The effects of ozone and other photochemical oxidants on individual trees have been studied for several decades, but there has been much less research on the potential effects on entire forest ecosystems. Given that ozone and other oxidants affect the production and subsequent fate of biogenic volatile organic compounds that act as signalling molecules, there is a need for more detailed study of the role of oxidants in modifying trophic interactions in forests. Deposition of fine particulates to forests may act as a source of nutrients, but also changes leaf surface properties, increasing the duration of surface wetness and modifying the habitat for epiphytic organisms, leading to increased risks from pathogens. Even where this pathway contributes a relatively small input of nutrients to forests, the indirect effects on canopy processes and subsequent deposition to the forest floor in throughfall and litter may play a more important role that has yet to be fully investigated. PMID:18342419

  6. Various Portraits of Finnish Open University Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arto Jauhiainen; Hanna Nori

    2007-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the background and goals of students at the Finnish open university in the beginning of the twenty?first century. The material consists of statistics based on the student records of the Finnish open university in 2000 (n=9080) and of the stories, educational autobiographies written by the adult learners (n=106) at the open university. As a result

  7. Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic

  8. A Finnish viewpoint on professionalism in early childhood education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsti Karila

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses professionalism in early childhood education through the analytical tool of a research?based multi?level perspective that sees this as a cultural, communal, organisational, and individual phenomenon. Starting from an understanding of professionalism derived from a model of professional expertise, the article discusses the Finnish day?care context at the social and cultural level, followed by a discussion of field?specific

  9. [Measurement and estimation methods and research progress of snow evaporation in forests].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Dong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2013-12-01

    Accurate measurement and estimation of snow evaporation (sublimation) in forests is one of the important issues to the understanding of snow surface energy and water balance, and it is also an essential part of regional hydrological and climate models. This paper summarized the measurement and estimation methods of snow evaporation in forests, and made a comprehensive applicability evaluation, including mass-balance methods (snow water equivalent method, comparative measurements of snowfall and through-snowfall, snow evaporation pan, lysimeter, weighing of cut tree, weighing interception on crown, and gamma-ray attenuation technique) and micrometeorological methods (Bowen-ratio energy-balance method, Penman combination equation, aerodynamics method, surface temperature technique and eddy covariance method). Also this paper reviewed the progress of snow evaporation in different forests and its influencal factors. At last, combining the deficiency of past research, an outlook for snow evaporation rearch in forests was presented, hoping to provide a reference for related research in the future. PMID:24697085

  10. Research Article Landscape Models to Predict the Influence of Forest

    E-print Network

    Sisk, Thomas D.

    in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Because of more than a century of fire suppression aberti) is a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)obligate species, endemic to the southwestern United States interactions of mycorrhizal fungi with ponderosa pine through consumption of fruiting bodies and dispersal

  11. The Research on Panoramic Modeling Method in Forest Scene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Hui-jun; He Dong-jian; Xue Hai-bin; Zhang Zhi-yi; Wang Xin

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the real time panoramic methods in modeling forest scene is mainly based on a single geometry volume. However, due to the limitation of view of cylindrical surface, distortion of spherical surface and accurate video camera orientation of cube surface, we canpsilat achieve the vivid scene. In this paper, we proposed a method of comprehensive dummy volume panorama (CDVP) using

  12. European Journal of Forest Research ISSN 1612-4669

    E-print Network

    is protected by copyright and all rights are held exclusively by Springer- Verlag. This e one-third of the Earth's ice- free land surface and represent a fundamental natural and economic resource and a significant part of the global carbon stock (FAO 2005). The assessment of forest eco- system

  13. Research on planting stock and forest regeneration in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zwolinski; A. D. Bayley

    2001-01-01

    Unlike countries with substantial forest resources, South Africa has a limited area available for forestry development and timber production. This is mainly because of insufficient rainfall for a viable timber production in most of the country, and the priority to utilize land for other purposes such as food production, fundamental community needs and water harvesting. The timber production has steadily

  14. Studies in Teaching: 2004 Research Digest. Proceedings of the Annual Research Forum at Wake Forest University (December, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    These Proceedings document an educational research forum held at Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) on December 8, 2004. Table of contents and 26 research studies of high school teaching are included. Studies include: The Use of Authentic Materials in the K-12 French Program (Katherine Elizabeth Baird), Surveying Students: What

  15. Research Summary Forests for recreation and nature tourism European COST Action E33

    E-print Network

    and employed the following methods: 1. Desk-based reviews of research and practice 2. Case studies of woodland considered on a scientific level. This knowledge has often been fragmented and based upon studies outside planning and management Methods Forest Research participated in Working Group One of the Action, which

  16. Suggested stocking levels for forest stands in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, P.H.; Geist, J.M.; Clemens, D.L.; Clausnitzer, R.R.; Powell, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Catastrophes and manipulation of stocking levels are primary determinants of stand development and the appearance of future forest landscapes. Managers need stocking level guides particularly for sites incapable of supporting stocking levels presented in normal yield tables. To take advantage of information currently available the authors used some assumptions to relate growth basal area (GBA) to stand density index (SDI) and then create stocking level curves for use in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Use of these curves cannot be expected to eliminate all insect and disease problems, but the impact of mountain pine beetle should be moderated.

  17. Forest Watch: An educational research program of the New Hampshire Space Grant Consortium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Forest Watch is a student-scientist partnership and education outreach program to study white pine health in New England. Primary and secondary students collect and process data on air pollution damage to forests near their schools, which is used by University of New Hampshire researchers, and compared with spectral data. These are then compared to tropospheric ozone data, beginning from 1991. Data spreadsheets for the student to enter forest biometric data and spectral curves are provided, as well as EOS-Webster satellite imagery, and GPS, ALTA, and Topo-Map activities forms. The student activities include forest stand assessment, laboratory assessment of damage symptoms, and image processing and data analysis of Thematic Mapper data around their school. There is information on teacher workshops and a message board.

  18. Kriging direct and indirect estimates of sulfate deposition: A comparison. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Reams, G.A.; Huso, M.M.P.; Vong, R.J.; McCollum, J.M.

    1997-08-01

    Due to logistical and cost constraints, acidic deposition is rarely measured at forest research or sampling locations. A crucial first step to assessing the effects of acid rain on forests is an accurate estimate of acidic deposition at forest sample sites. The authors examine two methods (direct and indirect) for estimating sulfate deposition at atmospherically unmonitored forest sites. The direct method only uses directly measured deposition data, while the indirect method additionally incorporates precipitation measurements from a spatially denser network of monitoring sites. Sulfate deposition values were estimated by point kriging using both the direct and indirect methods. By using the supplemental data from the precipitation monitoring network, estimates of sulfate deposition improved substantially, particularly at sites that are relatively isolated to the acid deposition monitoring network. Cross-validated procedures indicate that by using the indirect method, a reduction of approximately 20 to 25 percent in the predicted error sum of squares occurred.

  19. Principals' Perceptions for Finnish- and Swedish-Language Schools in Finland: An Analysis of School-Level Indices from Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi; Vettenranta, Jouni; Kanervio, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    The Finnish educational system is known for its equality. However, in many key areas in national and international assessments, Swedish-language schools in Finland have lagged behind their Finnish-language counterparts. So far there is little research into the underlying reasons for this discrepancy. In this article, in order to illuminate the

  20. Long-term research impacts on seedling community structure and composition in a permanent forest plot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory R. Goldsmith; Liza S. Comita; Leslie L. Morefield; Rick Condit; Stephen P. Hubbell

    2006-01-01

    Long-term ecological research projects have become cornerstones for the study of forest dynamics worldwide. The intense, large-scale research efforts necessary to monitor ecological processes may alter natural processes and be a source of error in analyses. This study evaluated whether trampling due to concentrated researcher presence has altered the structure and composition of the seedling layer in the 50ha permanent

  1. A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 200929 55 The Role of the Forest Service

    E-print Network

    of the Forest Service in Aquatic Invasive Species Research Susan B. Adams1 , Kelly M. Burnett2 , Peter Bisson3 to sustainably manage aquatic habitats and native species on National Forest System (NFS) lands. Invasive species and Development (R&D) scientists have much expertise to apply, aquatic invasive species research has not been

  2. Danish and Finnish PISA Results in a Comparative, Qualitative Perspective: How Can the Stable and Distinct Differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA Results Be Explained?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Frans Orsted

    2010-01-01

    The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g.

  3. Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network.

    PubMed

    Badea, Ovidiu; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Silaghi, Diana; Neagu, Stefan; Barbu, Ion; Iacoban, Carmen; Iacob, Corneliu; Guiman, Gheorghe; Preda, Elena; Seceleanu, Ioan; Oneata, Marian; Dumitru, Ion; Huber, Viorela; Iuncu, Horia; Dinca, Lucian; Leca, Stefan; Taut, Ioan

    2012-12-01

    Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006-2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O(3)) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH(3)) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to deposition of nutritional nitrogen (N) and could affect biodiversity changes. Higher that 50% contribution of acidic rain (pH?forest soils. Foliar N concentrations for Norway spruce (Picea abies), Silver fir (Abies alba), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) were normal, phosphorus (P) was high, while those of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and especially of manganese (Mn) were significantly below the typical European or Carpathian region levels. The observed nutritional imbalance could have negative effects on forest trees. Health of forests was moderately affected, with damaged trees (crown defoliation >25%) higher than 30%. The observed crown damage was accompanied by the annual volume losses for the entire research forest area up to 25.4%. High diversity and evenness specific to the stand type's structures and local climate conditions were observed within the herbaceous layer, indicating that biodiversity of the vascular plant communities was not compromised. PMID:22234644

  4. Expanding Research Horizons: USDA Forest Service Initiative for Recycled Paper Technology Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore H. Wegner; Theodore L. Laufenberg

    The landfill crisis is posing a great environmental challenge to the United States: What are we to do with the ever-increasing accumulation of waste products? In response, the USDA Forest Service has undertaken a major research program aimed at developing systems and technologies for more complete and efficient use of recovered paper, paperboard, and wood waste. This report describes studies

  5. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRSP13. 2000428 Abstract.--Researchers, educator's and land management personnel

    E-print Network

    - duced from the Beaver Creek watershed project in north central Arizona; a USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station project located at Flagstaff, Arizona. The Beaver Creek project was established is currently available at http://www.rms.nau.edu/ beaver_cr/. Reference Retrieval The Beaver Creek bibliography

  6. [Research progress on unsaturated and saturated soil water movement in forest catchments].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Pei, Tiefan

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviewed the studies on the movement ways, i. e., infiltration, phreatic evaporation, ground water recharge and interflow, of unsaturated and saturated soil water in forest catchments, and introduced the present advances in soil hydraulic parameters, including soil water characteristic curve, and unsaturated and saturated soil hydraulic conductivity. Research directions in the future were also proposed. PMID:16355800

  7. Chapter 2. The Influence of Edges on Plant Communities: Research Frontiers for Forested Landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugnie S. Euskirchen; Karen A. Harper; Qinglin Li

    1. ABSTRACT As landscapes become increasingly fragmented due to both natural and anthropogenic activities, the influence of edges on these landscapes has taken on even more significance. The influence of edges on forest structure and composition has been studied for decades, but researchers still lack general knowledge and a unifying theoretical framework linking edge influences to the overall structure and

  8. emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and Use Energy Research Programme (2003­ 2006), the research regarding the application of ex situ mineral carbonation processes. One aspect was to verify the possible use of mineral carbon- ation for the separation

  9. The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission1 | SERG Newsletter Forest Research ISSUE 11

    E-print Network

    looking at how beliefs in climate change in the private sector have influenced forest management practices. We studied private forest owners and managers in North Wales and found that perceptions of risk and uncertainties in forestry are more influenced by experiences of tree disease than climate change itself. One

  10. Professional judgment in non-industrial private forestry: Forester attitudes and social norms influencing biodiversity conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eeva Primmer; Heimo Karppinen

    2010-01-01

    The integration of conservation into management of non-industrial private forests rests with professional foresters. This paper empirically examines the intentions of foresters to conserve habitats beyond what is the minimum legally defined requirement when planning forestry operations: either by delineating particular habitats defined in the Finnish Forest Act completely outside the operation, despite this not being the obligation, or by

  11. Knowing and doing: research leading to action in the conservation of forest genetic diversity of Patagonian temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Leonardo A; Marchelli, Paula; Chauchard, Luis; Pealba, Marcelo Gonzalez

    2009-08-01

    Researchers dealing with conservation subjects usually do not put the results of their work into practice, even when the primary purpose of their research is the preservation of biodiversity. In the South American temperate forests we identified an area with the highest genetic diversity in Argentina of Nothofagus nervosa, one of the most relevant southern beech species. Based on the information of our scientific study and our recommendations, the authorities of Lanin National Park changed the protection status of this area to avoid logging. The new forestry management plans include consideration of "high genetic diversity" in decisions on where logging will be allowed. Results of our initial genetic study induced the analysis of biodiversity at the species and ecosystems levels, which yielded results similar to our genetic studies. A strong connection among researchers and managers from the onset of our study and the awareness of the former about the importance of the implementation of the research work were key to bridging the gap between conservation research and conservation practice. PMID:19627318

  12. Tropical forest responses to increasing [CO2]: current knowledge and opportunities for future research

    SciTech Connect

    Cernusak, Lucas [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Winter, Klaus [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Dalling, James [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Holtum, Joseph [James Cook University; Jaramillo, Carlos [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Korner, Christian [University of Basel; Leakey, Andrew D.B. [University of Illinois; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Poulter, Benjamin [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Turner, Benjamin [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Wright, S. Joseph [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

    2013-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric [CO2] (ca) will undoubtedly affect the metabolism of tropical forests worldwide; however, critical aspects of how tropical forests will respond remain largely unknown. Here we review the current state of knowledge about physiological and ecological responses, with the aim of providing a framework that can help to guide future experimental research. Modelling studies have indicated that elevated ca can potentially stimulate photosynthesis more in the tropics than at higher latitudes, because suppression of photorespiration by elevated ca increases with temperature. However, canopy leaves in tropical forests could also potentially reach a high temperature threshold under elevated ca that will moderate the rise in photosynthesis. Belowground responses, including fine root production, nutrient foraging, and soil organic matter processing, will be especially important to the integrated ecosystem response to elevated CO2. Water-use efficiency will increase as ca rises, potentially impacting upon soil moisture status and nutrient availability. Recruitment may be differentially altered for some functional groups, potentially decreasing ecosystem carbon storage. Whole-forest CO2 enrichment experiments are urgently needed to test predictions of tropical forest functioning under elevated ca. Smaller scale experiments in the understory and in gaps would also be informative, and could provide stepping stones toward stand-scale manipulations.

  13. Forest Research ISSUE 7 The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission1 | SERG Newsletter

    E-print Network

    and likely future changes in structure and funding, this role looks set to become much more prominent and maintain quality environments. Trees, woods and forests can have substantial impacts upon the social

  14. Finnish Higher Education in Transition: Perspectives on Massification and Globalisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valimaa, Jussi, Ed.

    This book discusses recent changes in Finnish higher education, pinpointing the changes and analyzing what they mean. The chapters are: (1) "GeoPolitical and Cultural Coordinates for Finnish History" (Jussi Valimaa); (2) "A Historical Introduction to Finnish Higher Education" (Jussi Valimaa); (3) "Analysing Massification and Globalisation" (Jussi

  15. Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

    The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A History" (Yrjo

  16. Young Children Learning for the Environment: Researching a Forest Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambino, Agatha; Davis, Julie; Rowntree, Noeleen

    2009-01-01

    Field experiences for young children are an ideal medium for environmental education/education for sustainability because of opportunities for direct experience in nature, integrated learning, and high community involvement. This research documented the development--in 4-5 year old Prep children--of knowledge, attitudes and actions/advocacy in

  17. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts I20042005

    E-print Network

    and Research Professor of Landscape Architecture Edinburgh College of Art/ Heriot-Watt University PROFESSOR D PROFESSOR P. JARVIS, FRS Emeritus Professor of Forestry and Natural Resources Institute of Atmospheric Quine Head of Ecology Division ED Dr Andy Moffat Head of Environmental and Human Sciences Division EHSD

  18. Finnish Upper Secondary Students' Collaborative Processes in Learning Statistics in a CSCL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oikarinen, Juho Kaleva; Jrvel, Sanna; Kaasila, Raimo

    2014-01-01

    This design-based research project focuses on documenting statistical learning among 16-17-year-old Finnish upper secondary school students (N = 78) in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. One novel value of this study is in reporting the shift from teacher-led mathematical teaching to autonomous small-group learning in

  19. A Validation of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Finnish Kindergartens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eija Pakarinen; Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Noona Kiuru; Martti Siekkinen; Helena Rasku-Puttonen; Jari-Erik Nurmi

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the validity and reliability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; R. C. Pianta, K. M. La Paro, & B. K. Hamre, 2008) in Finnish kindergartens. A pair of trained observers used the CLASS to observe 49 kindergarten teachers (47 female, 2 male) on two different days. Questionnaires measuring teachers' efficacy beliefs, exhaustion at work,

  20. Having, Loving, and Being: Children's Narrated Well-Being in Finnish Day Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila; Syrjala, Leena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to answer the following question: what do children tell about their well-being in Finnish day care centres? The theoretical and methodological framework of this study is based on a narrative approach. The research material was collected by participating in the everyday life of three groups of children and listening to

  1. Corporate Social Reporting in the European Context and Human Resource Disclosures: An Analysis of Finnish Companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taru Vuontisjrvi

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores by means of content analysis the extent to which the Finnish biggest companies have adapted socially responsible reporting practices. The research focuses on Human Resource (HR) reporting and covers corporate annual reports. The criteria has been set on the basis of the analysis of the documents published at the European level in the context of corporate social

  2. Vocational Career Decision-Making of Finnish Upper Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merilinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to clarify the characteristics of Finnish upper secondary school students as vocational decision-makers. The focus was especially on what skills and competences were related to decision-making at different phases of the decision-making process. Altogether, 216 upper secondary school students filled in the

  3. Special Features of the Finnish Labour Market and Challenges for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouhelo, Anne; Ruoholinna, Tarita

    Research synthesized from three studies of the Finnish labor market indicates that a rapidly changing working life in Finland (and the rest of Europe) sets many different challenges for the workforce. In Finland, the population is even more aged than in the other European Union (EU) member states, and the transition of older workers to retirement

  4. Not Babies Anymore: Young Children's Narrative Identities in Finnish Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puroila, Anna-Maija; Estola, Eila

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of deepening understanding of young children's identity construction, the study explores small stories produced in a Finnish day care center context. Small stories are understood as identity-constituting social practices that occur and recur in day care settings. Taking ideas on narrative ethnography as starting point, research

  5. Research on Non-Timber Forest Products in Selected Countries in Southern and East Africa: Themes, Research Issues, Priorities and Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ruiz P rez; A. J. Broekhoven; J. R. W. Aluma; S. Iddi; J. D. Lowore; S. M. Mutemwa; J. A. Odera

    Summary In this paper, the outcomes of a consultative meeting on non-timber forest products are reported and discussed. The meeting was organised by CIFOR and IUCNs Eastern Africa Regional Office on 15 and 16 September 1995 in Nairobi, Kenya, with the aim of discussing research priorities and information gaps related to non-timber forest products. The workshop brought together 11 people,

  6. PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS Forest ecology, with an emphasis on productivity, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Current areas of research

    E-print Network

    Binkley, Dan

    April 2012 PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS Forest ecology, with an emphasis on productivity, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Current areas of research focus on longterm changes in ecosystems including restoration ecology, productivity, and nutrient cycling. Major current projects include projects

  7. Sawing hardwoods in five tropical countries. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Loehnertz, S.P.; Vazquez Cooz, I.; Guerrero, J.

    1994-09-01

    In this study, hardwood sawing technology was identified in five tropical countries: Ghana, Brazil, Venezuela, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The density of wood and presence of silica make it a challenge to saw many tropical hardwoods. The handsaw is the most commonly used machine and is employed in many sizes and configurations. Sawblade parameters and operating procedures vary according to the nature of the species being sawn and are influenced as much by local custom as technical knowledge of the process. The most commonly reported problems include poor saw maintenance, lack of trained personnel, obsolete equipment, and inadequate sawtooth geometry and wear resistance. Some problems can be addressed by technology transfer, others must be addressed by research.

  8. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2010201110 Our research into climate

    E-print Network

    chestnut directly via lenticels, leaf scars and other discontinuities in the bark (see image, top be found at: www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/pae Monitoring caterpillar risk to Scots pine Caterpillars of the pine-tree lappet moth, Dendrolimus pini, are major defoliators of Scots pine in Europe. Scientists at Forest

  9. Forest Research ISSUE 9 The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission1 | SERG Newsletter

    E-print Network

    to landowners to encourage woodland creation and management. With a budget of approximately £3.25 million per) is the reference standard for sustainable forest management in the UK. Along with its supporting guidelines more in the management and delivery of forestry. For more information about the UKFS and guidelines

  10. TAPIR Finnish national geochemical baseline database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaana Jarva; Timo Tarvainen; Jussi Reinikainen; Mikael Eklund

    2010-01-01

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil

  11. The Spitzer Study and the Finnish Parliament

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olli Stlstrm; Jussi Nissinen

    2003-01-01

    In Finland, legal recognition of same-gender partnerships was first proposed in 1974 in the charter of the Finnish Organization for Sexual Equality. As the civil rights struggle against more blatant forms of discrimination (such as criminalization of homosexual acts, censorship laws limiting the dissemination of factual information about homosexuality) advanced, the demands for legal recognition for same-gender couples became stronger.

  12. Intention in School Choice among Finnish Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective

  13. Young physicians and the Finnish welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arttu Saarinen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article aims to focus on how young physicians in general and different subpopulations, in particular, see the role of the welfare state. The author seeks to compare young physicians' opinions with those of older physicians, a similar age group in the general population and all physicians. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A random sample was picked from the Finnish Medical

  14. Draft Inventory of Finnish Mass Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsila, Tapani, Comp.; And Others

    Media studied in this report include broadcasting (radio and television), press (newspapers and magazines), literature, motion pictures, and sound and video recordings. First, there is an overview of Finnish mass communications on a qualitative level. After this, quantitative data are presented, divided into categories of production and

  15. Polytechnic Graduate Placement in Finnish Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite

  16. Market Efficiency in Finnish Harness Horse Racing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niko Suhonen

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the efficiency of betting markets in harness horse racing during the transition from on-track betting to Internet gambling. In order to test the market efficiency hypotheses, an alternative testing approach to other grouping methods is introduced. The betting market efficiency is tested by using a database accumulated from the Finnish harness horse racing. The results imply that

  17. Are Students Customers in Finnish Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This study examines Finnish higher education students' perceptions of whether students are customers, based on qualitative interview data. The article contributes to the discussion on students as customers by giving attention to students' own voices from a country where tuition fees are not generally collected. The data are presented and analysed

  18. Personnel Training in the Finnish Lutheran Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtio, Pirkko

    1985-01-01

    Examines various personnel positions in the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church (the largest organized religion in Finland), the basic training of Church personnel (cantors, theologians, deacons, youth leaders, financial administrators, preschool teachers), personnel structure of the Church, and training in the Church itself (familiarization

  19. Locally Defined Measures of Successful Forest Co-management: A Case Study of Tl'azt'en Nation and the John Prince Research Forest

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    as a potential process for sharing authority between First Nations and others, though evaluative tools, and a method evaluation. The method successfully engaged participants in generating effective measures of the John Prince Research Forest. Through a case study, it presents a method for working with local First

  20. Forest management under changing climate conditions: Is timing a tool for Sustainable Forest Management? Relevant questions for research development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; McShane, Paul; Tapper, Nigel

    2013-04-01

    Change of climate conditions influence energy fluxes applicable to forest ecosystems. These affect cycles of nutrients and materials, primary productivity of the ecosystem, biodiversity, ecological functionality and, consequently, carbon equilibria of the forest ecosystem. Temporal factors influence physical, biological, ecological, and climatic processes and functions. For example, seasonality, cycles, periodicity, and trends in climate variables; tree growth, forest growth, and forest metabolic activities (i.e., photosynthesis and respiration) are commonly known to be time-related. In tropical forests, the impacts of changing climate conditions may exceed temperature and/or precipitation thresholds critical to forest tree growth or health. Historically, forest management emphasises growth rates and financial returns as affected by species and site. Until recently, the influence of climate variability on growth dynamics has not been influential in forest planning and management. Under this system, especially in climatic and forest regions where most of species are stenoecious, periodical wood harvesting may occur in any phase of growth (increasing, decreasing, peak, and trough). This scenario presents four main situations: a) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is decreasing: future productivity is damaged; the minimum biomass capital may be altered, and CO2 storage is negatively affected; b) harvesting occurs during a trough of the rate of growth: the minimum biomass capital necessary to preserve the resilience of the forest is damaged; the damage can be temporary (decades) or permanent; CO2 storage capacity is deficient - which may be read as an indirect emission of CO2 since the balance appears negative; c) harvesting occurs when the rate of growth is increasing: the planned wood mass can be used without compromising the resilience and recovery of the forest; CO2 storage remains increasing; d) harvesting occurs during a peak period of growth: the wood mass harvested can be even higher than planned, and the rate of CO2 storage can be above the average. A real risk for SFM under changing climatic conditions is that negative effects may be amplified; critical thresholds of temperature and/or rainfall for tree growth and stress may be exceeded with impacts on growth response, resilience, and CO2 balance that are not completely known. Furthermore, temporal changes in silvicultural and harvesting operations may lead to increased carbon emissions. Under this scenario and the consequent risks to SFM forestry operations should be planned or scheduled in periods when climate variables influencing tree growth and stress are within the relative thresholds. In this way, silvicultural operations and harvesting are going to be optimised to climate variability and forest growth responses, rather than just forest timber production.

  1. Biomass relations for components of five minnesota shrubs. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Buech, R.R.; Rugg, D.J.

    1995-08-31

    The tall shrub stratum is an important component of upland forests in the Lake States, especially of deciduous forest communities. The prevalance of tall shrubs has produced a recurring research interest in this stratum both in ecological studies and wildlife habitat surveys within the region. For such purposes, estimates of the biomass of tall shrubs or their component parts are often needed. The authors examine goodness of fit of two predictor variables (shrub height and stem diameter class) in three relations. The authors provide equations that use stem diameter class or stem diameter class and height to estimate biomass of six components of five shrub species, as well as generalized equations derived from a composite of all five species. Finally, the authors provide the information needed to construct standard errors for biomass estimates.

  2. Chimpanzee responses to researchers in a disturbed forest-farm mosaic at Bulindi, western Uganda.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Matthew R; Hill, Catherine M

    2010-09-01

    We describe the behavior of a previously unstudied community of wild chimpanzees during opportunistic encounters with researchers in an unprotected forest-farm mosaic at Bulindi, Uganda. Data were collected during 115 encounters between May 2006 and January 2008. Individual responses were recorded during the first minute of visual contact. The most common responses were "ignore" for arboreal chimpanzees and "monitor" for terrestrial individuals. Chimpanzees rarely responded with "flight". Adult males were seen disproportionately often relative to adult females, and accounted for 90% of individual responses recorded for terrestrial animals. Entire encounters were also categorized based on the predominant response of the chimpanzee party to researcher proximity. The most frequent encounter type was "ignore" (36%), followed by "monitor" (21%), "intimidation" (18%) and "stealthy retreat" (18%). "Intimidation" encounters occurred when chimpanzees were contacted in dense forest where visibility was low, provoking intense alarm and agitation. Adult males occasionally acted together to repel researchers through aggressive mobbing and pursuit. Chimpanzee behavior during encounters reflects the familiar yet frequently agonistic relationship between apes and local people at Bulindi. The chimpanzees are not hunted but experience high levels of harassment from villagers. Human-directed aggression by chimpanzees may represent a strategy to accommodate regular disruptions to foraging effort arising from competitive encounters with people both in and outside forest. Average encounter duration and proportion of encounters categorized as "ignore" increased over time, whereas "intimidation" encounters decreased, indicating some habituation occurred during the study. Ecotourism aimed at promoting tolerance of wildlife through local revenue generation is one possible strategy for conserving great apes on public or private land. However, the data imply that habituating chimpanzees for viewing-based ecotourism in heavily human-dominated landscapes, such as Bulindi, is ill-advised since a loss of fear of humans could lead to increased negative interactions with local people. PMID:20806338

  3. Living without herbicides in Qubec (Canada): historical context, current strategy, research and challenges in forest vegetation management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson Thiffault; Vincent Roy

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation management is crucial to meeting the objectives of forest plantations. Following public hearing processes, chemical\\u000a herbicides were banned on Crown forest lands in Qubec (Canada) in 2001. Release now mainly relies on mechanical treatments.\\u000a Our objectives are to review the historical context and the research conducted over the past 15years that has led to the\\u000a provinces current vegetation management

  4. Botanical reconnaissance of Big Run Bog Candidate Research Natural Area. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Muzika, R.M.; Hunsucker, R.; DeMeo, T.

    1996-07-25

    To document the botanical diversity of the Big Run Bog candidate Research Natural Area on the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, a botanical survey was conducted in 1993-94. The survey identified 193 species of vascular plants in 118 genera and 52 families. Six species of rare vascular plants were found. Vascular plant families with the most species present were Cyperaceae (24), Asteraceae (23), Poaceae (16), and Ericaceae (14). For each taxon, family, species, habitat and estimated abundance are reported. Nonvascular plants totaled 87 species in 55 genera and 33 families.

  5. Speech Perception and Vocabulary Growth: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish-Russian Bilinguals and Finnish Monolinguals from Infancy to Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvn, Maarit; Voeten, Marinus; Kouvo, Anna; Lundn, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level, but not growth rate of vocabulary in both Finnish

  6. Participatory Action Research in Community Forestry: A Case Study of A Community Forest Users' Group From A Hill Village of Eastern Nepal

    E-print Network

    Uprety, Laya Prasad

    2003-01-01

    PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH IN COMMUNITY FORESTRY: A CASE STUDY OF A COMMUNITY FOREST USERS' GROUP FROM A HILL VILLAGE OF EASTERN EPAL Laya Prasad Uprety* 1.0 The Context and Introduction Traditionally, forests in Nepal are managed by the user... Upreti/ Participatory Action Research... 19 Indonesia, and the Philippines) and African countries (Ghana, Cameroon, Zimbabwe and Malawi) countries. The ACM research in Nepal was a formal collaboration of the Ministry of the Forests and Soil Conservation...

  7. Finnish guidelines for workplace drug testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirjo Lillsunde; Katariina Haavanlammi; Ritva Partinen; Kristiina Mukala; Matti Lamberg

    2008-01-01

    The Finnish guidelines for workplace drug testing outlined here represent what is considered the best practice for workplace drug testing to be followed in Finland. The guidelines are based on the act on the protection of privacy in working life (759\\/2004), the occupational health care act (1383\\/2001) and the decree on workplace drug testing (218\\/2005). They start by defining situations

  8. Louisiana's Forests and Forest Products Industries

    E-print Network

    Wu, Qinglin

    Louisiana's Forests and Forest Products Industries Working Paper # 11 Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Baton Rouge, LA Mr. N. Paul Chance Research the questions, "What specifically happened in Louisiana?" and "What does the future hold for Louisiana's forest

  9. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenstrm, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four

  10. Construction Grammar in onomastics: the case of Finnish hydronyms

    E-print Network

    Leino, Antti

    to it in recent times. However, there are two reasons to take a new look at these issues. The first such reason Abstract Structural analysis of Finnish toponyms has been well established for the past three decades for such a new look. This article is a concise study of Finnish hydronyms as analysed in the framework

  11. Core Geographical Concepts: Case Finnish Geo-Ontology Riikka Henriksson

    E-print Network

    Hyvnen, Eero

    Core Geographical Concepts: Case Finnish Geo-Ontology Riikka Henriksson Helsinki University +358 9 451 3362 eero.hyvonen@tkk.fi ABSTRACT In this paper we examine 1) the scope of geo and their mutual relations, and 3) the properties the concepts have. Furthermore, we present the Finnish geo

  12. Actualizing Talent in Science: Case Studies of Finnish Olympians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    This paper discusses the critical events in the personal and professional lives of Finnish Olympians that have helped them to actualize their talent in science. The data include quantitative data from 158 Finnish Olympians in math, physics, and chemistry. The qualitative data include twelve in-depth interviews of these Olympians and their

  13. Regional variation in Finnish lake and hill names Antti Leino

    E-print Network

    Leino, Antti

    Regional variation in Finnish lake and hill names Antti Leino Abstract The Finnish basic map. These places include some 58 000 lakes and 86 000 hills. As seen in tables 1 and 2, there are some very common and their distributions cannot be presented in the form of traditional distribution maps. Simply discarding the least

  14. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 20032004146 Accounts for the year ended

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Statement on Internal Control by the Forest Enterprise agency, with appropriate intra-departmental charges made, and recorded on the Forest Enterprise balance sheet as at 31 March 1997. Two organisational reviews took place during 2002 and 2003

  15. USDA Forest Service RMRS-P-55. 2008. 219 In: Olberding, Susan D., and Moore, Margaret M., tech coords. 2008. Fort Valley Experimental Forest--A Century of Research 1908-2008.

    E-print Network

    and Nitrogen in Mineral Soil After 26 Years of Prescribed Fire: Long Valley and Fort Valley Experimental at Fort Valley and Long Valley Experimental Forests in 1976. This paper reports on mineral soil total coords. 2008. Fort Valley Experimental Forest--A Century of Research 1908-2008. Proceedings RMRS-P-55

  16. Height-diameter relationships for conifer species on the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest. Forest Service research note (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, K.L.; Mori, S.R.; Oliver, W.W.

    1995-03-01

    An equation is presented for predicting total height as a function of diameter outside bark at breast height for conifer species of the eastside pine type on the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest in northeastern California. Weighted nonlinear regression was used to estimate the equation coefficients. The equation, along with the species-specific regression coefficients, provides a reliable basis for estimating missing heights on inventory and growth plots.

  17. The Centre for Forestry and Climate Change investigates the complex interaction between climate change and forests. Our researchers provide high-quality scientific evidence to

    E-print Network

    The Centre for Forestry and Climate Change investigates the complex interaction between climate change and forests. Our researchers provide high-quality scientific evidence to support policies and forest biosecurity issues. Scope of our work Our research into climate change aims to help all those

  18. Post-fire management in Mediterranean forest: researching to prevent global change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Over the last few decades forest fire regimes have been changing, with fire recurrence and burned surfaces increasing: about 45000 forest fires occur in Europe each year and more than 4 million hectares were burned in the Mediterranean Basin, from 1995 to 2004. These processes could be influenced and are influencing global climate change. Forests are giving various improvements such

  19. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003200498 Recent advances in the

    E-print Network

    -purpose perspective. When describing future forest dynamics the environmental implications of climate change on long that underpin forest system dynamics are increasingly required in order to manage forests from a multi, as a function of soils, climate, species and management practice I account for the forecasted impacts of climate

  20. Ontario's forest growth and yield modelling program: Advances resulting from the Forestry Research Partnership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahadev Sharma; John Parton; Murray Woods; Peter Newton; Margaret Penner; Jian Wang; Al Stinson; F. Wayne Bell

    2008-01-01

    The province of Ontario holds approximately 70.2 million hectares of forests: about 17% of Canada's and 2% of the world's forests. Approximately 21 million hectares are managed as commercial forests, with an annual harvest in the early part of the decade approaching 200 000 ha. Yield tables developed by Walter Plonski in the 1950s provide the basis for most wood

  1. Look at Me! Does the Adult Truly See and Respond to the Child in Finnish Day-Care Centres?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalliala, Marjatta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Kangaroo research project was to enhance the well-being of children under three years of age in Finnish day-care centres. In this experimental intervention study adults were encouraged to take a more sensitive and active role especially during "free play." In six Kangaroo groups and five control groups adults (N = 28) and children

  2. The Effectiveness of Two Methods of Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Some Finnish Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Daniel J.

    The purpose of the research reported in this paper -- (1) to describe in general terms the teaching of English as a foreign language in Finnish secondary schools, (2) to define method as it relates to language teaching and to develop an instrument to measure method as a quantitative value or a point on a continuum, and (3) to evaluate the

  3. 30 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 APPLICATION OF DNA BARCODING IN FOREST

    E-print Network

    30 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 APPLICATION OF DNA BARCODING IN FOREST of DNA barcoding shows promise to circumvent some of the obstacles of pest monitoring and surveillance. We review the requirements for integrating DNA barcoding into monitoring and detection programs

  4. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Marketing Strategy for the UBC / Alex Fraser Research Forest

    E-print Network

    ;6 ABSTRACT The markets that I wish to target are companies within the secondary wood industry whoUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Marketing Strategy Industry Marketing Strategy for the UBC / Alex Fraser Research Forest By Shaun St-Amour #98924970 ? #12

  5. Ministry of Forests Research Program W O R K I N G P A P E R

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    and Alan Vyse (editors). 1997. Sicamous Creek Silvicultural Systems Project: Workshop Proceedings. April 24;Ministry of Forests Research Program Chris Hollstedt and Alan Vyse (editors) Sicamous Creek Silvicultural­25, 1996. Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada. Res. Br., B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Work Pap. 24/1997

  6. Illinois' Forests Resource Bulletin

    E-print Network

    /hickory and elm/ash/cottonwood forest-type groups, which occupy 93 percent of total forest land area. The volume The authors would like to thank the many individuals who contributed to both the inventory and analysis. Wilson, and Christopher W. Woodall are research foresters with the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program

  7. Research Article Open Access Forest Fire Risk Zonation Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    E-print Network

    Tahir Malik; Ghulam Rabbani; Majid Farooq

    2013-01-01

    Copyright 2013 Tahir Malik, Ghulam Rabbani and Majid Farooq. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited Abstract Forest fire is a major cause of changes in forest structure and function. Forest fires are as old as forests themselves. Forest fires are one of the major natural risks in the Uttarakhand forests. In such areas, fires occur frequently and there is a need for supranational approaches that analyze wide scenarios of factors involved. It is impossible to control nature, but is possible to map forest fire risk zone and thereby minimize the frequency of fire. Forest and wild land fire are considered vital natural processes initiating natural exercises of vegetation succession. However uncontrolled and misuse of fire can cause tremendous adverse impacts on the environment and the human society. A risk model for fire spreading is set up for Kansrao Forest Range of Rajaji National Park where Forest and wild land fires have been taking place historically, shaping landscape structure, pattern and ultimately the species composition of ecosystems both flora and fauna. It is based upon a combination of remote sensing and GIS data. In this study, Resourcesat P6 LISS III (spatial resolution 23.5m, 4 bands (Red) (Green) (NIR) (SWIR), Topo Sheet (SOI) no.53 J/4 on scale 1:50,000 and contour interval 20

  8. Electromagnetic wave scattering from a forest or vegetation canopy - Ongoing research at the University of Texas at Arlington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Amar, Faouzi; Fung, Adrian K.

    1993-01-01

    The Wave Scattering Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington has developed a scattering model for forest or vegetation, based on the theory of electromagnetic-wave scattering in random media. The model generalizes the assumptions imposed by earlier models, and compares well with measurements from several forest canopies. This paper gives a description of the model. It also indicates how the model elements are integrated to obtain the scattering characteristics of different forest canopies. The scattering characteristics may be displayed in the form of polarimetric signatures, represented by like- and cross-polarized scattering coefficients, for an elliptically-polarized wave, or in the form of signal-distribution curves. Results illustrating both types of scattering characteristics are given.

  9. Airborne laser scanning of forest resources: An overview of research in Italy as a commentary case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaghi, Alessandro; Corona, Piermaria; Dalponte, Michele; Gianelle, Damiano; Chirici, Gherardo; Olsson, Hkan

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the recent literature concerning airborne laser scanning for forestry purposes in Italy, and presents the current methodologies used to extract forest characteristics from discrete return ALS (Airborne Laser Scanning) data. Increasing interest in ALS data is currently being shown, especially for remote sensing-based forest inventories in Italy; the driving force for this interest is the possibility of reducing costs and providing more accurate and efficient estimation of forest characteristics. This review covers a period of approximately ten years, from the first application of laser scanning for forestry purposes in 2003 to the present day, and shows that there are numerous ongoing research activities which use these technologies for the assessment of forest attributes (e.g., number of trees, mean tree height, stem volume) and ecological issues (e.g., gap identification, fuel model detection). The basic approaches - such as single tree detection and area-based modeling - have been widely examined and commented in order to explore the trend of methods in these technologies, including their applicability and performance. Finally this paper outlines and comments some of the common problems encountered in operational use of laser scanning in Italy, offering potentially useful guidelines and solutions for other countries with similar conditions, under a rather variable environmental framework comprising Alpine, temperate and Mediterranean forest ecosystems.

  10. NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates: 3-D Characterization and Comparison of Vegetation Structure in a Tropical Premontane Wet Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Davis, K.; Falkowski, T.; Tarbox, B.; Delgado, A.; March, R.; Moore, G. W.; Tjoelker, M.; Gonzalez, E.; Houser, C.

    2011-12-01

    This National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) site hosted by Texas A&M University to allow selected undergraduate students to conduct original research on various aspects of the ecohydrology of understudied tropical pre-montane forest at the Texas A&M Soltis Center for Research and Education in Central Costa Rica. This particular study was conducted by 3 students under the guidance of 5 mentors who assisted in experimental design, equipment use, maintenance, and training, plant species identification and other logistical requirements. The goal of this study was to determine the change in 3-D structure of tropical premontane wet forest under 3 different land uses: a carbon tree farm, secondary logged forest, and primary unlogged forest. Traditional forest mensuration techniques including glass prisms (stand basal area), laser clinometers (height), vertical and horizontal PAR, spherical densiometers, and hemispherical photography (GAP fraction and LAI) and, root cores, and diameter-at-breast height (DBH) tapes were acquired in one 30-m diameter plot per land and use compared to similar metrics collected by a terrestrial scanning laser (TSL) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) at 400 MHz and 1.5 GHz across 3 land uses along an elevation gradient from ~380-masl to 525-masl. Besides discovery, another goal of this study was to see if the TSL and GPR can help meet the Tier 2 and 3 monitoring and verification goals of the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries for estimating above- and below-ground biomass using remote sensing. This is of particular importance because the GPR may be able to capture below-ground biomass in a more efficient manner than traditional coring and the TSL and GPR can capture data on highly sloped terrain where both airborne and satellite RADAR and LIDAR are limited. The 50, 000 pts/sec 532 nm TSL collected 3 to 5 scans per 30-m diameter plots at 4-cm spacing, 270 vertical, and 360 horizontal, generating a >100 million point cloud per site at 2-mm range accuracy. Registration within 2-mm RMSE yielded a 3-D virtual environment per site where tree measurements were made manually. Comparisons showed that GPR may be masked by high soil moisture. DBH error measures ranged from 0.6 to 5.18 % and height was 0.26 to 20.19 % for carbon farm to primary forest. The height comparison indicated that the laser clinometer consistently underestimated tree heights, particularly on the primary forest site where trees were over 35-m.

  11. Mass Media and Public Opinion: Report of the Soviet-Finnish Seminar (5th, Moscow, USSR, May 18-22, 1987). Publications Series B, Number 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jyrkiainen, Jyrki, Comp.

    A compilation of papers from a joint Finnish-Russian seminar on problems of communication research, this collection presents diverse opinions and results from researchers and observers in both countries. The titles of the papers and their authors are as follows: (1) "Role of Research and Training in Mass Communication and Public Opinion" (Pertti

  12. Research Gaps Related to Forest Management and Stream Sediment in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. AndersonB; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2011-01-01

    Water quality from forested landscapes tends to be very high but can deteriorate during and after silvicultural activities.\\u000a Practices such as forest harvesting, site preparation, road construction\\/use, and stream crossings have been shown to contribute\\u000a sediment, nutrients, and other pollutants to adjacent streams. Although advances in forest management accompanied with Best\\u000a Management Practices (BMPs) have been very effective at reducing

  13. Managing the Southern Pine ForestRetained Wetland Interface for Wildlife Diversity: Research Priorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip D. Jones; Brice B. Hanberry; Stephen Demarais

    2010-01-01

    Forest certification programs require program participants to manage for biodiversity using science-based information. Management\\u000a at the interface of retained wetland features and plantations provides opportunities to enhance wildlife diversity on commercial\\u000a pine forest lands. We review the scientific literature to document how wildlife in managed pine forests might benefit from\\u000a retention of isolated wetlands and riparian zones, and potential effects

  14. An Undergraduate Research Experience: Wireless Propagation and Position Location in a Forest Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson, Christopher

    Over the past several years, the undergraduate curriculum at many universities has been evolving to incorporate laboratory exercises and research projects to reinforce and support traditional classroom lectures. In particular, involving undergraduates in meaningful research projects is a key to providing them with the hands-on activities students are demanding. Unfortunately, two areas in the electrical engineering curriculum are suffering from a lack of meaningful hands-on learning activities: electromagnetics and communications. At many universities, electromagnetics is taught as a highly theoretical, highly mathematical class with the goal of providing students a deep understanding of Maxwells equations. Students that complete such a course generally struggle when faced with applying Maxwells equations to real-world electromagnetics problems such as transmission lines, antenna design, or wireless propagation. Introductory communications courses may have laboratory components, however, involving students in an undergraduate research project is an excellent mechanism to supplement and reinforce the laboratory exercises. This paper presents a summer undergraduate research experience that involved characterizing ultra wideband wireless propagation and position location in a forest environment. Four undergraduate students were selected to participate in the research experience. All four students had taken the basic electromagnetics and communications courses, although only one had prior hands-on experience. Additionally, the use of impulse ultra-wideband signals represented a new wireless communication scheme that students had to master at the beginning of the research experience. After an initial training period, students were tasked with site selection, experimental design, recording measurements, analyzing data, and troubleshooting equipment failures. Although it is too early to assess the impact of the research experience on these students careers, the experience appears to have been a success. All four students reported a greater depth of understanding of the concepts taught in electromagnetics and communications courses. Additionally, students gained valuable experience in developing and carrying out field experiments sometimes in less than ideal conditions and as a result of this experience, some students expressed a desire to pursue a graduate degree. Designing this research project also provided several valuable lessons to the instructors which will aid in the further development of hands-on learning activities for electromagnetics and communications courses.

  15. Factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory among Finnish nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Kanste, Outi; Miettunen, Jouko; Kyngs, Helvi

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) among Finnish nursing staff. Although the factorial validity of the MBI-HSS has been studied across different countries, the factor structure has never been investigated among Finnish nursing staff. The data were gathered by postal questionnaires from nursing staff working in health-care organizations around Finland. The sample consisted of 627 nurses and nurse managers. The factor structure was studied by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The fit of the hypothesized three-factor model to the data was superior to the alternative one-factor and two-factor models. The three-factor structure (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, reduced personal accomplishment) showed the best fit, while the internal consistencies of the subscales were satisfactory. The MBI-HSS is a highly suitable instrument for measuring burnout among nursing staff and it is very applicable to Finnish health-care research. PMID:17081145

  16. Meat inspection education in Finnish veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lundn, Janne; Bjrkroth, Johanna; Korkeala, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Finnish meat-inspection curriculum and presents an expert-panel evaluation of meat-inspection education. The work tasks of the meat-inspection veterinarian are challenging and include classical meat inspection, meat hygiene, hygiene control, and animal disease and welfare. The meat-inspection veterinarian is not only an inspector, which by itself is very demanding, but also an expert or "consultant" on food safety. The significant role of the meat-inspection veterinarian in society puts high demands on meat-inspection education, which should provide veterinary students with sufficient tools to perform meat inspection and hygiene control in slaughterhouses, cutting premises, and further processing plants. To be of high quality, such education must be evaluated from time to time. An expert panel evaluated Finnish undergraduate meat-inspection education and found that it provides veterinary students with good knowledge of meat inspection. The structure of the curriculum, with theoretical studies followed by four weeks of practice in a slaughterhouse, was considered vital for learning and for creating interest in meat inspection. The evaluation also revealed that certain subjects should receive greater emphasis and some new subjects should be introduced. Hygiene-control tasks, in particular, have increased and should receive more emphasis in education. Personnel management and interaction skills should be introduced into the curriculum as these skills influence all the duties of the meat-inspection veterinarian. This article outlines the subjects to be included in the modern, high-quality meat-inspection curriculum recommended by the expert panel. PMID:17446650

  17. Research of Forest Fire in Inner Mongolia Based on CA and GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Hongye; He Qiaoli; Liu Yuewen

    2009-01-01

    The paper integrated the geographical information system with cellular automata (CA) and made use of VB and ArcGIS as development tools to design and implement the system of forest fire spread in Inner Mongolia Region. It realized the simulation of the 2D forest fire spread based on CA and visualization of the 3D realtime images transmitted from the fire site.

  18. IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS - EMERGING RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure - Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, USA are summarized. Tropospheric ozone is st...

  19. USDA Forest Service Research Note RMRS-RN-36. 2008 1 United States

    E-print Network

    Abella, Scott R.

    (Pinus ponderosa) trees have increased in density in southwestern forests since the late 1800s. It may and others 1997; Madany and West 1983). AbstractDensities of small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Peter Z. 2008. Changes in Gambel oak densities in southwestern ponderosa pine forests since Euro

  20. Ungulates in temperate forest ecosystems: perspectives and recommendations for future research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Putman

    1996-01-01

    This paper was prepared as a synthesis with which to draw together into fuller context the various contributions of this special issue of Forest Ecology and Management on Ungulates in Temperate Forest Ecosystems. From a largely European standpoint it explores the normal role that ungulates may play in the ecological functioning of natural woodland systems and reviews the potential conflicts

  1. Measuring a Roller Coaster: Evidence on the Finnish Output Gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Billmeier

    2004-01-01

    The output gap-which measures the deviation of actual output from its potential-is frequently used as an indicator of slack in an economy. This paper estimates the Finnish output gap using various empirical methods. It evaluates these methods against economic history and each other by a simulated out-of-sample forecasting exercise for Finnish CPI inflation. Only two gap measures, stemming from a

  2. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 1. The pioneer research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerd, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    After forest fires, the ash and the remaining vegetation cover on the soil surface are the main protection against erosion agents. The control ash exert on runoff generation mechanism was researched during the 90's (Cerd, 1998a; 1998b). This pioneer research demonstrated that after forest fires there is a short period of time that runoff and surface wash by water is controlled by the high infiltration rates achieved by the soil, which were high due to the effect of ash acting as a mulch. The research of Cerd (1998a; 1998b) also contributed to demonstrate that runoff was enhanced four month later upon the wash of the ash by the runoff, but also due to the removal of ash due to dissolution and water infiltration. As a consequence of the ephemeral ash cover the runoff and erosion reached the peak after the removal of the ash (usually four month), and for two years the soil erosion reached the peak (Cerd, 1998a). Research developed during the last decade shown that the ash and the litter cover together contribute to reduce the soil losses after the forest fire (Cerd and Doerr, 2008). The fate of the ash is related to the climatic conditions of the post-fire season, as intense thunderstorms erode the ash layer and low intensity rainfall contribute to a higher infiltration rate and the recovery of the vegetation. Another, key factor found during the last two decades that determine the fate of the ash and the soil and water losses is the impact of the fauna (Cerd and Doerr, 2010). During the last decade new techniques were developed to study the impact of ash in the soil system, such as the one to monitor the ash changes by means of high spatial resolution photography (Prez Cabello et al., 2012), and laboratory approaches that show the impact of ash as a key factor in the soil hydrology throughout the control they exert on the soil water repellency (Bod et al., 2012). Laboratory approaches also shown that the fire severity is a key factor on the ash chemical composition (Pereira and beda, 2010) and Pereira et al., 2012). Some of the new research challenges related to ash impact in the fire affected soils are related to the ash redistribution after the fire, the impact of ash in soil and water chemistry, the temporal changes of soil erosion, the control ash exert on vegetation recovery and the role to be played by ash in the best management of fire affected land. Those topics needs new ideas and new scientists such as Paulo Pereira show in the Part II of this abstract. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bod, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerd, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerd, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerd, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerd, A., and Doerr, S. H.2010. The effect of ant mounds on overland flow and soil erodibility following a wildfire in eastern Spain. Ecohydrology, 3, 392-401. Cerd, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Pereira, P., and beda, X. 2010. Spatial distribution of heavy metals released from ashes after a wildfire, Journal of Environment Engineering and Landscape Management, 18, 13-22. Pereira, P., Ubeda, X., Martin, D.A. 2012. Fire severity effects on ash chemical composition and extractable elements. Geoderma, 191, 105 - 114. Prez-Cabello, F., Cerd, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverra, M.T., Garca-Martn, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using hig

  3. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003200454 Leisure landscapes: understanding the

    E-print Network

    economies, social exclusion and obesity. There is also a mounting awareness that it can work to support was selected in order to obtain a diversity of situations in terms of natural environment, including forest

  4. Research about the location technologies of forest fire detecting based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, An; Qi, Qingwen; Jiang, Lili; Guo, Chaohui

    2007-06-01

    Forest fire caused damages of property and loss of human life. Detecting a forest fire and get the location is very significant in the fire early warning. More early and more prompt detecting fire and determining fire position as far as possible could avoid and reduce loss of the disaster. At present there are three ways regarding the forest fire early warning and location determining which included: monitoring form Remote Sense Satellite image, manual observation and patrols, and automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video. Overall evaluation regarding the three location technologies in forest fire early warning, the CCD camera detecting method is suitable in the fire rapid Response. An automatic forest fire surveillance system was running to detect the fire by using visible light images from the remote cameras. If a forest fire was detected, an alarm will be activated. The observation point elevation values, vertical offsets, horizontal and vertical scanning angles, and scanning distances will be also be sent to the central control room. The spatial orientation will be computed and showed on the electronic map. Key location technologies based on CCD camera included the image processing technique for automatically detecting forest fire and the visibility analyzes technique for the digital elevation model. Jing gang Mountain which locates in Jiangxi province of China is taken as an example. With the help of this automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video and visibility analyzes, scientists and government administrators can make decision-supporting easily when they know exactly where a forest fire is. At last the shortage of CCD camera detecting method was discussed. We cannot depend on CCD camera detecting equipment and technologies only. With foundation of the automatic video frequency supervisory system, we should also strengthen manual observation and satellite remote sensing monitor.

  5. The expertise of Finnish occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Naumanen, Paula

    2007-06-01

    This study describes the self-assessed activities, features, prerequisites, and consequences of occupational health nurses' expertise. The quantitative data were gathered from 468 Finnish occupational health nurses, of whom 373 (80%) returned the completed questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using one-way-anova, the Kruskal-Wallis or the chi(2)-tests. The activities of the occupational health nurses included working with employees, workplaces, and collaborative partners, administrative and office work, and other duties. The most important expert features were the holistic perspective and listening to clients. Continuing training and a positive attitude were the most necessary prerequisites for expertise. The main benefits of expertise, from the perspective of the occupational health nurses, were improved health and a decreased number of work-related health risks. Support by the work community and good educational possibilities were important for expert practice. Occupational health nurses need to develop their expertise continually because they play a key role in promoting workers' health. PMID:17470182

  6. DNA-barcoding clarifies species definitions of Finnish Apatania (Trichoptera: Apataniidae)

    E-print Network

    Wahlberg, Niklas

    DNA-barcoding clarifies species definitions of Finnish Apatania (Trichoptera: Apataniidae) Juha Salokannnel, Markus J. Rantala & Niklas Wahlberg Salokannel, J., Rantala, M. J. & Wahlberg, N. 2010: DNA-barcoding11. Alltheknown8FinnishApataniaKolenatispecieswereanalysedusingtheDNA barcoding method. The Finnish species were

  7. PISA, TIMSS and Finnish Mathematics Teaching: An Enigma in Search of an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Sayers, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Finnish students' success on all three content domains of each of the four cycles of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has created much international interest. It has also prompted Finnish academics to offer systemic explanations typically linked to the structural qualities of Finnish schooling and teacher

  8. Publications of the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society -23 New Developments in Artificial

    E-print Network

    Hyvnen, Eero

    Publications of the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society - 23 New Developments in Artificial Intelligence and the Semantic Web Proceedings of the 12th Finnish Artificial Intelligence Conference STeP 2006 Kauppinen, Jukka Kortela, Mikko Laukkanen, Tapani Raiko, and Kim Viljanen Finnish Artificial Intelligence

  9. In Search of Naming Patterns: A Survey of Finnish Lake Names

    E-print Network

    Leino, Antti

    1 In Search of Naming Patterns: A Survey of Finnish Lake Names Antti Leino University of Helsinki is an attempt to address the issue: the goals were, first, to find regularities in the naming of Finnish lakes Finnish lake names found on the 1:20 000 Basic Map. These revealed several groups of names that appear

  10. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, E.A.; Dail, D.B., Hollinger, D.; Scott, N.; Richardson, A.

    2012-08-02

    Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed and debated, some of which include C sequestration resulting from forest management as a possible tradeable commodity. However, uncertainties regarding sources of variation in sequestration rates, validation, and leakage remain significant challenges for devising strategies to include forest management in C markets. Hence, the need for scientifically-based information on C sequestration by forest management has never been greater. The consequences of forest management on the US carbon budget are large, because about two-thirds of the {approx}300 million hectare US forest resource is classified as 'commercial forest.' In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere. However, forest management practices could be designed to meet the multiple goals of providing wood and paper products, creating economic returns from natural resources, while sequestering C from the atmosphere. The shelterwood harvest strategy, which removes about 30% of the basal area of the overstory trees in each of three successive harvests spread out over thirty years as part of a stand rotation of 60-100 years, may improve net C sequestration compared to clear-cutting because: (1) the average C stored on the land surface over a rotation increases, (2) harvesting only overstory trees means that a larger fraction of the harvested logs can be used for long-lived sawtimber products, compared to more pulp resulting from clearcutting, (3) the shelterwood cut encourages growth of subcanopy trees by opening up the forest canopy to increasing light penetration. Decomposition of onsite harvest slash and of wastes created during timber processing releases CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, thus offsetting some of the C sequestered in vegetation. Decomposition of soil C and dead roots may also be temporarily stimulated by increased light penetration and warming of the forest floor. Quantification of these processes and their net effect is needed. We began studying C sequestration in a planned shelterwood harvest at the Howland Forest in central Maine in 2000. The harvest took place in 2002 by the International Paper Corporation, who assisted us to track the fates of harvest products (Scott et al., 2004, Environmental Management 33: S9-S22). Here we present the results of intensive on-site studies of the decay of harvest slash, soil respiration, growth of the remaining trees, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO{sub 2} during the first six years following the harvest. These results are combined with calculations of C in persisting off-site harvest products to estimate the net C consequences to date of this commercial shelterwood harvest operation. Tower-based eddy covariance is an ideal method for this study, as it integrates all C fluxes in and out of the forest over a large 'footprint' area and can reveal how the net C flux, as well as gross primary productivity and respiration, change following harvest. Because the size of this experiment precludes large-scale replication, we are use a paired-airshed approach, similar to classic large-scale paired watershed experiments. Measurements of biomass and C fluxes in control and treatment stands were compared during a pre-treatment calibration period, and then divergence from pre-treatment relationships between the two sites measured after the harvest treatment. Forests store carbon (C) as they accumulate biomass. Many forests are also commercial sources of timber and wood fiber. In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the at

  11. Business vs. Cultural Frames of Reference in Group Decision Making: Interactions Among Austrian, Finnish, and Swedish Business Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Auer-Rizzi; Michael Berry

    2000-01-01

    This study evolved out of an ethnographic approach to teaching, learning, and researching the different ways that business and cultural frames of reference can affect decision making in groups consisting of Austrian, Finnish, and Swedish business students. The data is based on videotaped and audio taped recordings, post-exercise debriefings and discussions, and post-exercise written reflections on two decision-making exercises. The

  12. Predominant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Types Persist in Finnish Chicken Production

    PubMed Central

    Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Huneau, Adeline; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Hnninen, Marja-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%]), and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST), but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC) accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3%) delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types) generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU) countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks. PMID:25700264

  13. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various environmental applications. PMID:20673967

  14. Expected injury cost indices on Finnish farms.

    PubMed

    Sinisalo, A

    2012-01-01

    Annually, more than 6000 work-related injuries occur on Finnish farms. One-fourth of these injuries are classified as severe, resulting in considerable economic losses to agricultural enterprises and the national economy. The injury rate among farmers is more than twice that among all employees on average. This study aimed to identify the risk factors that should be considered when targeting interventions, thus improving their cost-effectiveness. The expected injury cost (EIC) risk index method, which combines the probability of injuries with their severity and costs, was implemented. The potential risk factors included the type of agricultural operation, worker characteristics (gender, age), agricultural work tasks performed, and the geographical location of the farm enterprise. Crop production emerged as the type of agricultural operation with the highest risk index (1.12). The lowest risk index was in sheep and goat husbandry operations (0.35). The risk index was higher for men compared to women (1.11 vs. 0.77). The highest risk age group was farmers from 55 to 59 years of age (1.36). Farmers under 40 (0.17 to 0.89) and over 65 years old (0.70) had the lowest injury risks. No evidence was found that dangerous regions are concentrated in certain geographical parts of the country. The most common agricultural work tasks in which injuries occurred were the repair and maintenance of machinery and equipment, the transportation and relocation of animals, and milking. These accounted for more than one-third of all compensated work injuries in 2005. The identified risk factors could be considered when setting priorities in injury prevention and resource allocation. PMID:22458014

  15. The effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system - What works, what doesn't, and what could be improved?

    SciTech Connect

    Poeloenen, Ismo, E-mail: Ismo.Polonen@uef.f [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Law, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Hokkanen, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.hokkanen@ely-keskus.f [Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for Central Finland, P.O. Box 250, FIN-40101 (Finland); Jalava, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.j.jalava@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-03-15

    The article summarises the results of a multidisciplinary research project on the effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system. It examines the main strengths and weaknesses of EIA as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool. The study concludes that EIA has achieved a meaningful role in the environmental policy toolbox in Finland and has clearly enhanced the possibilities for high-quality environmental decision making. The research cites the liaison authority system as a clear strength of the Finnish EIA system in its enabling a single regional authority to specialise in and gain wide experience on EIA issues. In examining potential weaknesses of the regime, the article concludes that the key constraint on EIA effectiveness is inadequacy of the action-forcing mechanisms at the decision-making phase. The primary means to improve the effectiveness of EIA would be to strengthen the legal provisions on development consents. On the whole, the research indicates that the EU and Finnish legislation and guidance on environmental impact assessment provide a good framework for effective utilisation of the instrument.

  16. Differences in ozone response between two Finnish wild strawberry populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Manninen; N Siivonen; U Timonen; S Huttunen

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of two Finnish wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) populations of seed origin (Kainuu 64N, 27E; Etel-Hme 61N, 25E) to slightly elevated tropospheric O3 was studied during two summers in open-top chambers (OTC; NF=non-filtered air and NF+O3=non-filtered air+supplemental O3) and on open-field plots (AA=ambient air). The hypothesis was that the southern Finnish population may be less O3 sensitive, as the

  17. Impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds on ozone production at the Taehwa Research Forest near Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So-Young; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Lee, Meehye; Turnipseed, Andrew; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Jong-Choon; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Saewung

    2013-05-01

    The importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in understanding of air-quality and climate on regional to global scales has been highlighted in a number of modeling and observational studies. At the same time, another important emerging research topic in atmospheric chemistry is the regional and global impacts of fast growing East Asian megacities. These two research topics must be integrated in order to adequately understand and address air quality challenges emerging from Eastern Asian megacities surrounded by planted or natural forest areas. We present initial measurement results for May, June and September 2011 from the Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) which has been developed to serve as a long term observatory for investigating biosphere-atmosphere interactions at the edge of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (population of 23.5 million). The comprehensive measurement datasets of ozone and its precursors such as CO, NOx, SO2 and VOCs shows that high ozone episodes in the suburban site could not be explained by just anthropogenic pollutants alone. In addition, isoprene (C5H8) and monoterpenes (C10H16) were observed as two of the most important OH chemical sinks inside of the forest canopy. In order to understand the impacts of these BVOCs on ozone and related photochemistry, we conducted model sensitivity simulations using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem) for conditions including with and without BVOC emissions. The modeling results suggest that BVOC emissions could enhance regional daytime ozone production from 5 to 20 ppbv. The observed temporal variations in ozone correspond well with the variations in BVOCs, which likely reflects the influence of BVOCs on ozone formation. These findings strongly suggest that interactions between anthropogenic pollutants and BVOCs must be understood and quantified in order to assess photochemical ozone formation in the regions surrounding East Asian megacities.

  18. Research Summary Exploring disabled people's perceptions and use of forest recreation goods,

    E-print Network

    Exploring disabled people's perceptions and use of forest recreation goods, facilities and services these affect use of woodland recreation goods, facilities and services "Like me they want to get out and take to woodland, and make recommendations on the ways in which woodland recreation goods, facilities and services

  19. A trial site planted with ash saplings. During the past year, Forest Research has continued to

    E-print Network

    and the wider community, including policy-makers, land planners and industry. For further information, see www to identify where woodland creation might best deliver these benefits to society. This has led.forestry.gov.uk/fr/ woodlandforwater Abies amabilis in the Kilmun Forest Garden. Areas eligible for additional grant payment to reduce

  20. PROJECT GOALS Research has shown that Canberra's urban forest is ageing and

    E-print Network

    responses to ensure continuous effective management, should there be a change in personnel. ANU-G&G start the city simultaneously. This study aims to improve overall risk management of Canberra's urban forest to ensure the `Bush Capital' legacy. The study compares two contrasting risk management systems of Canberra

  1. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Dail, David Bryan [University of Maine

    2012-08-02

    This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

  2. Forest Research Executive Board Meeting 26 July 2005 Present: Prof. Jim Lynch

    E-print Network

    nominations. Action: PF-S, HoDs 4. FREB agreed that following the retirement of Jane Smyth, TC would take over. Action: XC 11. BM to invite the Scottish Parliament Cross Party Group on Sustainable Forestry and Forest to sustainability in land management, especially the linkage between quantitative and qualitative measures

  3. Understanding and Reaching Family Forest Owners: Lessons from Social Marketing Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett J. Butler; Mary Tyrrell; Geoff Feinberg; Scott VanManen; Larry Wiseman; Scott Wallinger

    2007-01-01

    Social marketingthe use of commercial marketing techniques to effect positive social changeis a promising means by which to develop more effective and efficient outreach, policies, and services for family forest owners. A hierarchical, multivariate analysis based on landowners' attitudes reveals four groups of owners to whom programs can be tailored: woodland retreat, working the land, supplemental income, and ready to

  4. Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Elaine T; Wrtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnstrm, Karola; Esko, Tnu; Mgi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hmlinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K; Reilly, Muredach P; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P; Stitziel, Nathan O; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lehtimki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Daly, Mark J; Palotie, Aarno

    2014-07-01

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5-5%) variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<510??) including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a) levels (P?=?1.510??). Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR?=?0.84, P?=?310??), demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health Registers. PMID:25078778

  5. A national collaboration process: Finnish engineering education for the benefit of people and environment.

    PubMed

    Takala, A; Korhonen-Yrjnheikki, K

    2013-12-01

    The key stakeholders of the Finnish engineering education collaborated during 2006-09 to reform the system of education, to face the challenges of the changing business environment and to create a national strategy for the Finnish engineering education. The work process was carried out using participatory work methods. Impacts of sustainable development (SD) on engineering education were analysed in one of the subprojects. In addition to participatory workshops, the core part of the work on SD consisted of a research with more than 60 interviews and an extensive literature survey. This paper discusses the results of the research and the work process of the Collaboration Group in the subproject of SD. It is suggested that enhancing systematic dialogue among key stakeholders using participatory work methods is crucial in increasing motivation and commitment in incorporating SD in engineering education. Development of the context of learning is essential for improving skills of engineering graduates in some of the key abilities related to SD: systemic- and life-cycle thinking, ethical understanding, collaborative learning and critical reflection skills. This requires changing of the educational paradigm from teacher-centred to learner-centred applying problem- and project-oriented active learning methods. PMID:22095059

  6. Plant biomass in the Tanana River Basin, Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Vegetation biomass tables are presented for the Tanana River Basin. Average biomass for each species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in the 13 forest and 30 nonforest vegetation types is shown. These data combined with area estimates for each vegetation type provide a tool for estimating habitat carrying capacity for many wildlife species. Tree biomass is reported for the entire aboveground tree, thereby allowing estimates of total fiber content.

  7. Haplotype and multipoint linkage analysis in Finnish choroideremia families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eeva-Marja Sankila; Thomas Lehner; Aldur W. Eriksson; Henrik Forsius; Jussi Kiirnii; David Page; Jiirg Ott; Albert Chapelle

    1989-01-01

    Multipoint linkage analysis of choroideremia (TCD) and seven X chromosomal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) was carried out in 18 Finnish TCD families. The data place TCD distal to PGK and DXS72, very close to DXYS1 and DXYS5 (Zmax = 24 at ? = 0) and proximal to DXYS4 and DXYS12. This agrees with the data obtained from other linkage

  8. On Moral Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    1978-01-01

    Basic values of moral education in Finnish schools come from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral tenets are taught in religion and civics. The textbooks deal with moral questions mainly on the individual level and provide limited opportunities for practice necessary for the internalization of values. (Author/SJL)

  9. Pain Alleviation in Animals: Attitudes and Practices of Finnish Veterinarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Raekallio; K. M Heinonen; J Kuussaari; O Vainio

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 911 Finnish veterinarians to assess their attitudes and practices to pain relief in animals. Responses to statements about recognition and treatment of pain were either to agree or to disagree. The pain caused by specified surgical and clinical conditions was rated. Inquiries were also posed about the number of analgesics available and their use in

  10. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case

  11. Formal corporate social responsibility reporting in Finnish listed companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulla Kotonen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse CSR reporting in large Finnish listed companies, focusing on the following questions: what kinds of motives and objectives appear behind CSR reporting, what kinds of documents are used in CSR reporting, and what kind of information related especially to CSR policy, stakeholders, as well as economic, social and environmental responsibilities,

  12. A Special Education Teacher's Networks: A Finnish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuomainen, Jenna; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    This case study analyzed a special education (SE) teacher's activity within his workplace community and external professional network in a Finnish special education context. The nature of the SE teacher's networks and his networking role were examined using an interview and a questionnaire, completed by the teachers working in the community

  13. Finnish Cooperating Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Physics Teachers' Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the

  14. Early Literacy Practices and the Finnish National Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkeamaki, Riitta-Liisa; Dreher, Mariam Jean

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 the Finnish National Board of Education launched a new curriculum framework that includes principles, instructional aims, and a brief list of content by subject areas. The intent of this framework is that teachers should interpret the core curriculum at the local level and apply it in their own schools and classrooms. This approach

  15. Interculturally trained Finnish teachers' conceptions of diversity and intercultural competence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katri Jokikokko

    2005-01-01

    As schools become increasingly multicultural, teachers need special sensitivity to recognize differences and intercultural competences to be able to support the personal and academic growth of diverse students. This paper introduces newly qualified teachers' conceptions of diversity and intercultural competence in a Finnish context. The teachers in the study graduated from a Masters of Education International Teacher Education Programme, which

  16. Interculturally Trained Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Diversity and Intercultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokikokko, Katri

    2005-01-01

    As schools become increasingly multicultural, teachers need special sensitivity to recognize differences and intercultural competences to be able to support the personal and academic growth of diverse students. This paper introduces newly qualified teachers' conceptions of diversity and intercultural competence in a Finnish context. The teachers

  17. Defining Expected Injury Cost indexes on Finnish farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alina Sinisalo

    2005-01-01

    According to work injury statistics, farming is a hazardous industry. Every year more than 6 000 work-related injuries occur on Finnish farms of which one fourth are classified as severe. Usually work injuries causing disability to work lasting more than 30 days are clas- sified as severe. Farmers' accident rate is more than double compared with employees. The most severe

  18. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Bjrk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial

  19. Shared leadership in Finnish social and health care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Konu; Elina Viitanen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The background reports covering the ongoing reforms in Finnish social service and health care noted that people managing in this field were presented with certain challenges. These included such human resource management challenges as support for the implementation of new work practices, employee commitment, motivation and maintaining wellbeing at work. The purpose of this paper, as part of

  20. Young Children's Well-Being in Finnish Stepfamilies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broberg, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Changing family relationships as a result of divorce are considered a potential threat to children's well-being. This study investigates the well-being of children under the age of eight years in Finnish stepfamilies from the viewpoint of the mother. The goal of this study is to explore how the structural characteristics of the stepfamily and the

  1. Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarlstrom, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career

  2. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious

  3. Research on the impact of forest stand structure on atmospheric deposition.

    PubMed

    Draaijers, G P; van Ek, R; Meijers, R

    1992-01-01

    Dry and wet deposition onto thirty forest stands in relation to stand structure is studied by sampling throughfall and bulk precipitation. Nine measurement sites are situated in Pseudotsuga menziesii stands, ten in Pinus sylvestris and eleven in Quercus robur stands. All stands are situated within a radius of 1.2 km to assure a more or less equal air pollution load. In each stand, detailed forest structure inventories are made to determine aerodynamic roughness, collecting efficiency and surface area parameters. Measurements to data cover a four month period (April-July 1990). First results show relatively high throughfall deposition in Pseudotsuga menziesii stands. Lowest throughfall fluxes are recorded for Quercus robur and intermediate values for Pinus sylvestris stands. There are indications of a relatively strong canopy exchange in Quercus robur stands during the measurement period. Many results from forest stand structure inventories are not available yet. However, a strong relation is observed between throughfall deposition in Pseudotsuga menziesii stands and total crown volume. PMID:15092040

  4. Discussions on Some Educational Issues II. Research Report 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansanen, Pertti, Ed.

    This international research report consists of five papers discussing five different topics in education. "Views on the Implementation of the Curriculum--Experiences of the Finnish Practice" (P. Kansanen) analyzes research results regarding the national curriculum for the Finnish comprehensive school system and compares them with a similar system

  5. Working Paper #7 Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Working Paper #7 Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA, and Graduate Research Assistant, Forest Products Marketing, Louisiana Forest Product Laboratory, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The authors wish to acknowledge Anne

  6. Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Northwest Forest Plan

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Northwest Forest Plan 2001 Annual Summary Report Patrick Jodice Marbled Murrelet Module Lead Northwest Forest Plan Interagency Monitoring Program March 2002 Team Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station #12;Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Jodice

  7. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  8. Managing lodgepole pine to yield merchantable thinning products and attain sawtimber rotations. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.M.; Koch, P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper suggests solution for a longstanding problem in managing lodgepole pine forests- that of managing individual stands to reach their planned rotation age, despite serious hazard from bark beetles and wildfire. The management regimes presented yield merchantable thinning products. The 80-year sawtimber rotation can be achieved using these management recommendation. Thinning at 30 years of age is central to achieving the recommended alternative management regimes. The authors suggest that agencies give roundwood operators a portion of the thinning stemwood as payment. Management regimes that provide attainable rotations are presented in summary tables, by three site index classes and a number of initial stand density classes.

  9. Leguminous ground covers could reduce herbicide use in forestry. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ponder, F.

    1994-01-01

    Establishing tree seedlings in mixed stands after harvesting is difficult without adequate vegetation control. Artificial regeneration can be used to ensure desirable future stands, but competing vegetation decreases survival and growth. Vegetation control can be costly and laborious. Large amounts of herbicides are used annually in forest management to reduce vegetation that competes with trees for growing space, nutrients, water, light, and other essential components. Using herbicides to control weeds is economical, but may not always be environmentally acceptable. One alternative is to establish nitrogen-fixing (legume) ground covers, which may suppress the more competitive weeds and enrich the soil.

  10. Grazing on regeneration sites encourages pine seedling growth. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Ratliff, R.D.; Denton, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the seedlings were significantly taller, with longer leaders with season-long grazing than without grazing. Treatment comparisons for plant group and non-plant percent cover differed only for litter and bare soil, but cover and composition of bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey) were greater without grazing.

  11. Population dynamics of the major north American needle-eating budworms. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.W.

    1993-04-01

    The report includes data from six western States provided 1,251 life tables representing western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis. These data provided projection capabilities for defoliation and successive budworm densities, as well as a basis for comparing survival rates among the three principal North American needle-eating budworms (western and eastern spruce budworms, and the jack pine budworm). Several modifications are suggested in current methods for managing budworm susceptible forests, and suggestions are provided for further studies on the budworm life systems.

  12. Investigating the spatial expression of millennial-scale Holocene climate changes: a multi-proxy lake sediment approach, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fower, D.; Wilson, G. P.; Pepin, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has identified global Holocene climate instability. Oscillations at c. 2500 year intervals, identified in ocean and ice core records, are thought to be driven by solar variation. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC), a regulator of climate, oscillates with quasi-periodicities of c. 1500 years, the cause and spatial expression of which is uncertain. This project investigates how these subtle oscillations influenced the climate of northern Scandinavia through high-resolution, multi-proxy analysis (diatoms, isotope geochemistry, organic content, particle size, biogenic silica) of a lacustrine sediment sequence in Northern Finland. The resulting high-resolution, multi-proxy climate record clarifies the role of the THC in driving terrestrial climate change in this region. A 1.99m sediment core was extracted from Sirrajrvi, Northern Finnish Lapland in March 2012. Lake Sirrajvri (69.761619oN, 26.892815oE) is located 208 m.a.s.l. and lies at the boreal forest-alpine tundra ecotone. It is surrounded by low alpine heaths and isolated stands of birch (Betula pubescens spp. tortuosa). The lake is situated within a nature reserve, and <4km to Kevo subarctic research station, which houses a meteorological station with >50 yrs. of observations. The lake, which is 0.182 km2 in area and 11.2m deep at the centre, is ice covered between Sept. and May. The duration of lake ice cover is the main influencing factor on lake physio- chemistry and thus diatom ecology. The lake is hydrologically open and ?18O analysis of its waters (-11.2) predominantly reflects the mean annual weighted isotopic composition of precipitation. The core has been dated at 11160 yrs BP at 195cm and 2810 yrs BP at 69cm. In addition, sediment was collected from 30 lakes along a north-south transect in Finland in July 2012 to form the basis of a diatom-based transfer function, used to identify the major influencing variable(s) on diatom species assemblages which, in turn, is used in a quantitative reconstruction. In addition, monthly monitoring of Lake Sirrajvri ice cover and diatom population dynamics (ongoing since March 2011) further informs palaeoenvironmental interpretation. The resulting high-resolution, multiproxy (diatom, ?18Odiatom, ?13Corganic, C/N, particle size, organic content) palaeoclimate reconstruction provides a much-needed additional record in an area dominated by a complex relationship between the North Atlantic THC and regional terrestrial climate.

  13. Successional changes of ant assemblages: from virgin and ditched bogs to forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Vepslinen; Riitta Savolainen; Juha Tiainen; Jussi Viln

    2000-01-01

    135-149. We studied ant assembly changes after ditching of bogs with nest and pitfall sampling in the southern Finnish taiga. The study sites clustered in dendrograms to hierarchical sets: virgin bogs and young ditchings, older ditchings, and forests. Species richness was low on virgin bogs and young ditchings, and increased with the age of ditching. The number of species was

  14. Forest Features

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson plan students learn about different types of forests - temperate deciduous forests, temperate evergreen forests, and tropical rain forests. Students will concentrate on the tropical rain forest and learn about the Congo Trek made by the explorer Michael Fay through the African rain forest.

  15. Forest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest

  16. Employees' Motivation for SPI: Case Study in a Small Finnish Software Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtanen, Anu; Sihvonen, Hanna-Miina

    In small software companies the resources available for SPI are often limited. With limited resources, the motivation of the employees becomes one of the key factors for SPI. In this article, the motivational factors affecting a small company's SPI efforts are discussed. In the research, we carried out interviews and a survey in a small Finnish software company considering the motivation towards SPI. The results are presented here and compared with earlier motivation research. There were differences revealed while comparing the motivating factors of smaller companies to those of larger ones. In large companies the focus seems to be on the business related motivators and in small ones the motivators related to comfortability of work are emphasized. Motivation survey and the interviews proved to be useful tools in planning the future SPI strategy. A lot of valuable information was discovered for planning and implementing the next steps of SPI.

  17. Kansas' Forests Resource Bulletin

    E-print Network

    , Susan J. Crocker, Grant Domke, Cassandra M. Kurtz, Andrew Lister, Patrick D. Miles, Mark D. Nelson with FIA, Northern Research Station, St. Paul, MN. Andrew Lister is a research forester with FIA, Northern

  18. "Seeing the Forest for the Trees": Towards a Framework Effective Change Research in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff

    2001-01-01

    Raises issues concerning effective change research in education. Highlights include: action-research, change management and continuous quality improvement and innovation; individual and organizational learning for change; evidence-based change priorities; researching good practice; monitoring change implementation and impact; change in learning

  19. Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard

  20. RESEARCH PROJECTS A Basic research

    E-print Network

    Pentti Lautala, Tomas Björkqvist Funding: The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Tekes Duration completely the pulp properties and process variables. The last main development step in wood grinding of wood fibers and fines are allowed to happen. The tool for this progress is purely grinding material

  1. Three levels of integrating ecology with the conservation of South American temperate forests: the initiative of the Institute of Ecological Research Chilo, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Rozzi; JOHN SILANDER JR; Juan J. Armesto; Peter Feinsinger; Francisca Massardo

    2000-01-01

    The diversity of native species assemblages and that of indigenous cultures that once characterized the temperate forests of southern Chile have experienced a process of homogenization ever since the Spanish conquest. Today this process continues to erode both biotic and cultural diversity. With the goal of linking ecological research with actions to conserve the biological and cultural richness of this

  2. Forest Research Schematic diagram of the life cycle of Agrilus biguttatus on native oak trees in Britain -from egg to adult

    E-print Network

    Forest Research Schematic diagram of the life cycle of Agrilus biguttatus on native oak trees through 5 instar phases before pupation. Acute oak decline (AOD) is a condition of mature native oak Agrilus biguttatus (syn. Agrilus pannonicus) Common names: 1) Two-spotted oak buprestid (Br.) 2) Oak jewel

  3. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:436-441. 1993 Genetic variation and productivity of Populus trichocarpa T.& G. and its hybrids. VI. Field

    E-print Network

    Hsiang, Tom

    Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:436-441. 1993 Genetic variation and productivity of Populus in western North America attacks P. trichocarpa and P. balsamifera L. Melampsora medusae Thuem., which occurs. trichocarpa (Ziller 1974). Populus maximowiczii is known to be susceptible to M. larici-populina Kleb. in Asia

  4. 60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 103GTR-NRS-P-123 Vascular Flora oF the Penobscot exPerimental Forest,

    E-print Network

    Experimental Forest (PEF), Bradley, Maine. More than 300 taxa of vascular plants in 71 families and 186 genera of an area, among many other uses (Palmer et al. 1995). This report is the first comprehensive vascular plant60 Years of Research and Demonstration in Maine, 1950-2010 103GTR-NRS-P-123 Vascular Flora

  5. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service 1996 annual report wetlands research related to the Pen Branch restoration effort on the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Kolka, R.K. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Trettin, C.C. [USDA Forest Service, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service and their collaborators (SRTC, SREL, and several universities) in wetlands monitoring and research on the Savannah River Site. This report describes the rationales, methods, and results (when available) of these studies and summarizes and integrates the available information through 1996.

  6. Increasing Regional Disparities in the 1990s: The Finnish Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aki Kangasharju; Sari Pekkala

    2004-01-01

    Kangasharju A. and Pekkala S. (2004) Increasing regional disparities in the 1990s: the Finnish experience, Reg. Studies38, 255-267. This paper investigates why regional disparities in Finland started to grow in the early 1990s, after a decades-long period of convergence. The analysis focuses on per capita GDP and its subcomponents, particularly labour productivity, jobs and population. The results show, first, that

  7. Prevalence of primary fibromyalgia in the Finnish population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Mkel; M Helivaara

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To obtain descriptive epidemiological data on fibromyalgia and its components in a representative sample of the Finnish population. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of 8000 Finns aged 30 or more invited for screening and a main examination for musculoskeletal disorders and other major disorders. SETTING--A mobile clinic. POPULATION--7217 subjects who attended the screening phase; 3434 subjects positive on screening who attended the

  8. Genomewide Linkage Analysis of Celiac Disease in Finnish Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Liu; Suh-Hang Juo; Pivi Holopainen; Joseph Terwilliger; Xiaomei Tong; Adina Grunn; Miguel Brito; Peter Green; Kirsi Mustalahti; Markku Mki; T. Conrad Gilliam; Jukka Partanen

    2002-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD), or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a common multifactorial disorder resulting from intolerance to cereal prolamins. The only established genetic susceptibility factor is HLA-DQ, which appears to explain only part of the overall genetic risk. We performed a genomewide scan of CD in 60 Finnish families. In addition to strong evidence for linkage to the HLA region at 6p21.3

  9. Research ethics committees: agents of research policy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elina Hemminki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to describe the unintended effects ethics committees may have on research and to analyse the regulatory and administrative problems of clinical trials. DISCUSSION: The Finnish law makes an arbitrary distinction between medical research and other health research, and the European Union's directive for good clinical trials further differentiates drug trials. The starting point of

  10. Vegetation structure in old-growth stands in the Coram Research Natural Area in northwestern Montana. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Elzinga, C.L.; Shearer, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    Forest stand structure, understory composition, and tree seedling composition are described for eight permanent tenth-hectare plots established in Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir, western larch, and interior Douglas-fir forest cover types in northwestern Montana. Sites have been protected as examples of old-growth stands since the establishment of the Coram Research Natural Area in 1937. Plot data clearly illustrate a successional trend toward shade-tolerant conifiers, placing old-growth stands at risk of loss from succession or catastrophic fire. Management issues associated with use of prescribed fire to maintain old-growth characteristics in natural areas are discussed.

  11. Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pentti Hakkila

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration

  12. GIS Data Services Specialist Forest disturbance and carbon cycling Location: Newton Square, Pennsylvania (U.S. Forest Service Northern Research Station)

    E-print Network

    Lichstein, Jeremy W.

    in biological or environmental sciences with a strong emphasis on GIS and data management is preferredGIS Data Services Specialist Forest disturbance and carbon cycling Location: Newton Square: Richard Birdsey (http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/people/Birdsey/) and Jeremy Lichstein (http://biology

  13. DETERMINING THE CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF FORESTED WETLANDS: EPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM, AND CHOICES FOR RESEARCH AND MONITORING DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cumulative impacts component of EPA's wetlands research arises from a concern - that many individual permit applications for wetland alteration involve seemingly minimal change, yet collectively their impact may be significant. umerous studies have documented the potential be...

  14. Maintaining wildlife habitat in southeastern Alaska: implications of new knowledge for forest management and research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Hanley; Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende

    2005-01-01

    We review results and implications from recent wildlife studies that followed from the 1997 Tongass Land Management Plan (TLMP) and identify information needs and directions for research, development, and application. Sustained population viability of wildlife species was identified as a major issue in the TLMP planning process. Several species were identified as management indicator species, and research was conducted to

  15. Changes in winter conditions impact forest management in north temperate forests

    E-print Network

    Rissman, Adena

    Adaptation Multiple stressors a b s t r a c t Climate change may impact forest management activitiesChanges in winter conditions impact forest management in north temperate forests Chadwick D with important implications for forest eco- systems. However, most climate change research on forests has focused

  16. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of northwest Spain forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  17. Research on Mathematics and Science Education: From Beliefs to Cognition, from Problem Solving to Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahtee, Maija, Ed.; Bjorkqvist, Ole, Ed.; Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.; Vatanen, Virpi, Ed.

    This book contains selected research papers presented at seminars held throughout the year 2000 in Finland by members of the Finnish Association for Research in Mathematics and Science Education (FARMSE) and students at the Finnish Graduate School of Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry Education. This volume also contains papers professor Laurence

  18. A Prospectus on Restoring Late Successional Forest Structure to Eastside Pine Ecosystems Through Large-Scale, Interdisciplinary Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Zack; William F. Laudenslayer; T. Luke George; Carl Skinner; William Oliver

    At two different locations in northeast California, an interdisciplinary team of scientists is initiating long-term studies to quantify the effects of forest manipulations intended to accelerate andlor enhance late-successional structure of eastside pine forest ecosystems. One study, at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest, uses a split-plot, factorial, randomized block design. Twelve 100-ha. split plots provide for three replications of two levels

  19. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed

  20. Mapping Forest Change Walk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation depicts a virtual walk through a Virginia forest to examine the impact of a non-native, invasive insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid, on a population of eastern hemlocks. Field research is conducted using the same scientific methodologies and tools that Smithsonian scientists use to monitor forest biodiversity, including scatter graph comparisons and field observations.

  1. Performance Dialogs Implemented in a Finnish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Keskinen, Soili

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses performance dialogs (PDs) in the university context in Finland. These are held annually between employers and employees. The study was carried out to assess the efficacy of this technique. Research methods included an electronic questionnaire over two different years delivered to the whole staff of the Department of Teacher

  2. Morphological Family Size in a Morphologically Rich Language: The Case of Finnish Compared With Dutch and Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin; Bertram, Raymond; Haikio, Tuomo; Schreuder, Robert; Baayen, R. Harald

    2004-01-01

    Finnish has a very productive morphology in which a stem can give rise to several thousand words. This study presents a visual lexical decision experiment addressing the processing consequences of the huge productivity of Finnish morphology. The authors observed that in Finnish words with larger morphological families elicited shorter response

  3. Logistics and financial performance : An analysis of 424 Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juuso Tyli; Lotta Hkkinen; Lauri Ojala; Tapio Naula

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To explore the present logistics performance of Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to analyse the relationship between logistics performance and financial performance in these firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The dataset comprises 424 SMEs that participated in a nationwide Finnish logistics survey in 2006. Logistics performance measures were derived from the survey data, and based on these values

  4. Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men

  5. Health Knowledge Construction and Pedagogical Style in Finnish Health Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Anna-Liisa; Haapala, Irja; Kuurala, Sade; Mielonen, Salla; Hanninen, Osmo; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the construction of health knowledge in the Finnish national curriculum and recent Finnish health education textbooks, at primary and secondary levels of education. The authors examine the visual and textual content of the textbooks in an attempt to identify their pedagogical style and approach to

  6. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.

  7. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their

  8. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student

  9. International Graduates from Finland: Do They Satisfy the Needs of Finnish Employers Abroad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that to increase the competitiveness of Finnish higher education institutions in the global education market international graduates' employability must be enhanced. International graduates from Finnish higher education institutions are rarely employed in Finland for a number of reasons, such as the language barrier and a

  10. A stochastic programming model for asset liability management of a Finnish pension company

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petri Hilli; Matti Koivu; Teemu Pennanen; Antero Ranne

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a stochastic programming model that was developed for asset liability management of a Finnish pension insurance company. In many respects the model resembles those presented in the literature, but it has some unique features stemming from the statutory restrictions for Finnish pension insurance companies. Particular attention is paid to modeling the stochastic factors, numerical solution of the

  11. THE STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FINNISH LANGUAGE. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAKULINEN, LAURI

    THIS INDIANA UNIVERSITY PUBLICATION IS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND REVISION OF THE FINNISH ORIGINAL "SUOMEN KIELEN RAKENNE JA KEHITYS," (OTAVA, HELSINKI, 1941 AND 1946). CHAPTERS IN PART I TREAT--(1) THE PHONETIC STRUCTURE OF FINNISH, (2) HISTORICAL PHONOLOGY, (3) THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OR PARTS OF SPEECH, AND (4) INFLECTION AND DERIVATION. CHAPTERS

  12. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-01-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The

  13. Towards increasing business orientation: Finnish management accountants in a changing cultural context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Granlund; Kari Lukka

    1998-01-01

    The key elements of this study consist of management accounting, communication cultures and people pursuing management accounting in companies. Based on our evidence, we argue that management accounting practice in Finland is tied to the national culture surrounding it, i.e. Finnishness and that the Finnish management accounting culture is currently in a significant transition. The most prominent sign of such

  14. Finnish Students' School Engagement Profiles in the Light of PISA 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirjo Linnakyl; Antero Malin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine Finnish students' school engagement profiles in the light of the data collected in the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) in 2003. Even though Finnish students' cognitive achievement has proved excellent in various international assessments, their school engagement has not been flattering. The article first defines the concept of school engagement and

  15. Significant Trends in the Development of Finnish Teacher Education Programs (1860-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusiautti, Satu; Maatta, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    The roots of teacher training in Finland extend to the 1860s. The evolution of teacher training was closely connected to the history of elementary education and changes in educational policy and the Finnish society. Recently, the Finnish educational system and its teacher education programs have fared extremely well in international comparisons.

  16. Importance of Change Appraisal for Employee Well-being during Organizational Restructuring: Findings from the Finnish Paper Industrys Extensive Transition

    PubMed Central

    PAHKIN, Krista; NIELSEN, Karina; VNNEN, Ari; MATTILA-HOLAPPA, Pauliina; LEPPNEN, Anneli; KOSKINEN, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The global recession has forced the Finnish forest industry to carry out major restructuring activities. Employees have faced different kinds of restructuring, mainly aimed at reducing staff and production. Many studies have shown the negative consequences of restructuring on employee well-being by using negative, ill-health indicators. Our aim is to examine the extent to which change appraisal influences both the negative and positive aspects of work-related well-being among employees who continue working in the organization after the restructuring process. We also examine the role of different actors (top management, immediate supervisor, employees themselves) in how the change is appraised. The study investigated blue-collar employees working in the Finnish forest industry during a period of extensive transition (20082009). All six participating factories underwent restructuring between baseline and the follow-up survey (n=369). After adjustment for gender, age and baseline well-being, negative change appraisal increased the risk of experiencing more stress and less work enjoyment. Negative change appraisals thus also damaged the positive, motivational aspects of employee well-being. The results showed the importance of offering employees the opportunity to participate in the planning of changes related to their work as regards positive change appraisal. PMID:24975107

  17. Lumber recovery from Pacific yew logs: An exploratory study. Forest Service research paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Loehnertz; E. C. Lowell; W. T. Simpson; K. A. McDonald

    1993-01-01

    In the past several years, thousands of Pacific yew trees were stripped of their bark from which the cancer-fighting compound taxol is obtained. Research has determined that the wood from the Pacific yew does not yield enough taxol to supplement the supply from the bark. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess the quantity and quality of lumber

  18. Best Practices in the Reporting of Participatory Action Research: Embracing Both the Forest and the Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Rosenzweig, Lisa; Schmidt, Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) represents an approach that is deeply consonant with counseling psychology's commitments to social equity and action. However, counseling psychologists who would like to study this literature, or who would like to write about a project of their own, may discover that the reporting of PAR is not straightforward:

  19. Alice Holt has been intensely studied by scientists since the 1950s. As a result, Forest Research (FR),

    E-print Network

    ecosystems respond to environmental drivers such as air pollution and climate change. Open-air growth. Their findings have helped shape international policies on pollution and sustainable forest management. It was at Alice Holt Forest that the common tree shelter, now an integral feature of new woodland plantings

  20. Energy plantations in the Republic of the Philippines. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    Development and management of plantations to support wood-energy programs have been aggressively promoted in the Philippines since 1979. Over 60,000 hectares of energy plantations have been planted under government-supported programs. The paper documents the problems and accomplishments of these programs and describes plantation establishment, maintenance, protection, growth and yield, harvesting, and wood transport. Research priorities for improving energy-farm operations are also suggested.

  1. PACIFIC SOUTHWEST FOREST SERVICE

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    SEEDLINGS Donald T. Gordon USDA Forest Service Research Note PSW-210 1970 ABSTRACT: Effect of shade on 2 got seedling survival rates of -about 82 percent when stem bases were protected by cotton batting

  2. Forest Fire Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  3. Wildland Fire Behavior & Forest Structure Environmental Consequences

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    Wildland Fire Behavior & Forest Structure Environmental Consequences Economics Social Concerns Forest Structure and Fire Hazard in Dry Forests of the Western United States United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station General Technical Report PNW-GTR-628 February

  4. Genomewide linkage analysis of celiac disease in Finnish families.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianjun; Juo, Suh-Hang; Holopainen, Pivi; Terwilliger, Joseph; Tong, Xiaomei; Grunn, Adina; Brito, Miguel; Green, Peter; Mustalahti, Kirsi; Mki, Markku; Gilliam, T Conrad; Partanen, Jukka

    2002-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD), or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a common multifactorial disorder resulting from intolerance to cereal prolamins. The only established genetic susceptibility factor is HLA-DQ, which appears to explain only part of the overall genetic risk. We performed a genomewide scan of CD in 60 Finnish families. In addition to strong evidence for linkage to the HLA region at 6p21.3 (Z(max)>5), suggestive evidence for linkage was found for six other chromosomal regions--1p36, 4p15, 5q31, 7q21, 9p21-23, and 16q12. We further analyzed the three most convincing regions--4p15, 5q31, and 7q21--by evaluation of dense marker arrays across each region and by analysis of an additional 38 families. Although multipoint analysis with dense markers provided supportive evidence (multipoint LOD scores 3.25 at 4p15, 1.49 at 5q31, and 1.04 at 7q21) for the initial findings, the additional 38 families did not strengthen evidence for linkage. The role that HLA-DQ plays was studied in more detail by analysis of DQB1 alleles in all 98 families. All but one patient carried one or two HLA-DQ risk alleles, and 65% of HLA-DQ2 carriers were affected. Our study indicates that the HLA region harbors a predominant CD-susceptibility locus in these Finnish families. PMID:11715113

  5. Re-census the UCSC Forest Ecology Research Plot 2-unit, 5-unit, and Senior Internships Fall, Winter, Spring

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    Internships Fall, Winter, Spring Faculty sponsor: Professor Gregory, evolution, and environmental sciences at UCSC. 2-unit internships: Requires one forest plots. (Fall, Winter, Spring) 5-unit internships: Requires 15 hours

  6. Biomass and nutrient distributions in central Oregon second-growth ponderosa pine ecosystems. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.N.; Shainsky, L.J.

    1995-03-01

    We investigated the distributioin of biomass and nurtrients in second-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystems in central Oregon. Destructive sampling of aboveground and belowground tree biomass was carried out at six sites in the Deschutes National Forest; three of these sites also were intensively sampled for biomass and nutrient concentrations of the soil, forest floor, residue, and shrub components. Tree biomass equations were developed that related component biomass to diameter at breast height and total tree height.

  7. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  8. Validation Studies of the Finnish Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ) and Finnish Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  9. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. The role of tropical forests on the world carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A. E.; Liegel, B. [eds.

    1980-08-01

    Tropical forests constitute about half of the world's forest and are characterized by rapid rates of organic matter turnover and high storages of organic matter. Tropical forests are considered to be one of the most significant terrestrial elements in the equation that balances the carbon cycle of the world. As discussed in the paper by Tosi, tropical and subtropical latitudes are more complex in terms of climate and vegetation composition than temperate and boreal latitudes. The implications of the complexity of the tropics and the disregard of this complexity by many scientists is made evident in the paper by Brown and Lugo which shows that biomass estimates for tropical ecosystems have been overestimated by at least 100%. The paper by Brown shows that that rates of succession in the tropics are extremely rapid in terms of the ability of moist and wet forests to accumulate organic matter. Yet, in arid tropical Life Zones succession is slow. This leads to the idea that the question of whether tropical forests are sinks or sources of carbon must be analyzed in relation to Life Zones and to intensities of human activity in these Zones. The paper by Lugo presents conceptual models to illustrate this point and the paper by Tosi shows how land uses in the tropics also correspond to Life Zone characteristics. The ultimate significance of land use to the question of the carbon balance in a large region is addressed in the paper by Detwiler and Hall.

  11. Factors behind Leisure-Time Physical Activity Behavior Based on Finnish Twin Studies: The Role of Genetic and Environmental Influences and the Role of Motives

    PubMed Central

    Kujala, Urho M.; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Different approaches are being taken to clarify the role of various factors in the development of physical activity behaviors. Genetic studies are a new area of physical activity research and also the motives for physical activity have been widely studied. The purpose of this paper is to review the findings emerging from the longitudinal genetic studies on leisure-time physical activity and to evaluate the associations between motivational factors and leisure-time physical activity. The focus is to review recent findings of longitudinal Finnish twin studies. The results of the latest longitudinal Finnish twin studies point to the existence of age-specific genetic and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity. Variations in environmental factors seem to explain the observed deterioration in leisure-time physical activity levels. A decline in genetic influences is seen first from adolescence to young adulthood and again from the age of thirty to the mid-thirties. In the Finnish twin participants, mastery, physical fitness, and psychological state were the major motivation factors associated with consistent leisure-time physical activity behavior. The results also indicate that intrinsic motivation factors may be important for engagement in leisure-time physical activity. PMID:24809061

  12. On the construction of a Finnish audiometric sentence test.

    PubMed

    Mtt, T K; Sorri, M J; Huttunen, K H; Vlimaa, T T; Muhli, A A

    2001-01-01

    To respond to the demands of clinical practice and the needs of rehabilitation, a Finnish audiometric sentence test is being developed. The test consists of 10 sets of 10 sentences, each set serving as an independent test. The test is scored by words (50 per set). Homogeneity between the sets was guaranteed by a number of linguistic and phonetic criteria, controlled by using the Virko Sentence Analyzer, a programme especially constructed for the purpose. Recognition tests for the validation of the sentence sets were made with young normally hearing adults (n = 70; age group 18-25 years). Psychometric recognition properties of the test are described. The selection process of the final 10 sentence sets is illustrated. PMID:11318458

  13. The architecture of high status among Finnish youth.

    PubMed

    Caravita, Simona C S; Pyhnen, Virpi; Rajala, Irene; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-09-01

    We tested the construct validity of a two-dimensional model of high status, consisting of social acceptance and perceived popularity (hereafter, acceptance and popularity) among Finnish children and adolescents. In addition, we investigated the correlates of the two forms of high status, as well as their relations to resource control. Participants were 563 boys and girls in grades four and eight, that is, aged 10-11 and 14-15. CFA and SEM models supported the hypothesis of acceptance and popularity representing distinct, yet associated constructs that have partly different correlates. Acceptance and popularity were most closely connected among grade four students, particularly among boys. Prosocial behaviour was associated with acceptance, whereas peer-valued characteristics (physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and aggression were related especially to popularity. Popularity, but not acceptance, was positively related to resource control. PMID:21848752

  14. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  15. graduate school school of forest resources

    E-print Network

    and management (ms), applied ecology (ms), forest science (phd) Maria Janowiak '07 Scientist, Climate Change-edge interdisciplinary research programs. Research areas range from climate change and invasive species to forest and funding The School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science manages over 4,500 acres of land

  16. IUFRO Spotlight is an initiative of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations. Its aim is to introduce, in a timely fashion, significant findings in forest research from IUFRO officeholders and member organizations to a worldwide network of

    E-print Network

    and incorporating interacting priorities, such as agriculture, health, forestry, land-use planning, water resources, energy, education, etc. ­ as a key element in implementing any effective climate change adaptation in Africa are highly dependent on forest goods and services. Those people are, and will continue to be

  17. Architectural Judgements and Their Causes in Finnish and British Architects and Lay People

    E-print Network

    Willis, Kirsti Kaarina

    2008-06-27

    more Minimalist, high style buildings to decorative, popular style ones. Thirdly, the British and the Finnish participants will differ in their architectural preferences, due to acculturation. The aesthetic preferences for 10 buildings reflecting...

  18. Forest Research Phytophthora austrocedrae

    E-print Network

    of the crown (Figs 1 and 2). When the outer bark is cut away from the base of infected trees discoloured phloem of juniper for diagnosis Phloem (inner bark) samples are used for diagnosis purposes. Sample from a tree nootkatensis). So far all known hosts of P. austrocedrae reside in the cuppressaceae. Symptoms on juniper

  19. Forest Service Research Note

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    ~ urement; lightning protection; wind speed conversion; wind gages;anemom- eters; wind instrument exposure the lightning protection system, hence must become part of the system. One objective of the lightning protec-foot wind. Tower-mounted instruments must meet the require- ments of a lightning conductor system

  20. Forest Service Research Note

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    : 453--414.12 Lindane -Y-isomer L--174.7 Pinus ponderosa+ 145.719. 92 Dendroctonus brevicomis +145.719. 92 Dendroctonus]ponderosa + 145.719. 92 Ips con fusu s +174.7 Pinus ponder- osa--453--414. 12 Lindane

  1. Forest Research Annual Report

    E-print Network

    and Section 5 of the Exchequer and Audit Departments Act 1921 Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 31 advice in support of the development and implementation of the Government's forestry policies. Objectives is funded by the Forestry Commission with the Policy and Practice Division of the FC acting as purchaser

  2. The effect of chiropractic care on jet lag of finnish junior elite athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Straub; Michael P. Spino; Medhat M. Alattar; Bruce Pfleger; John W. Downes; Marco A. Belizaire; Olli J. Heinonen; Tommi Vasankari

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of chiro-practic care on jet lag in Finnish junior elite athletes.Subjects: Fifteen Finnish junior elite athletes.Methods: Through use of a table of random numbers, each athlete was assigned by sex to one of 3 groups: chiropractic adjustment,sham adjustment, or control. As needed,the chiropractic adjustment group athletes (n = 5) were adjusted on a daily basis

  3. Recordings and occurrence of geomagnetically induced currents in the Finnish natural gas pipeline network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antti Pulkkinen; Ari Viljanen; Kari Pajunp; Risto Pirjola

    2001-01-01

    A project implemented to study the effects of space weather on the Finnish natural gas pipeline was started in August 1998. The aims of the project were (1) to derive a model for calculating geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) and pipe-to-soil (P\\/S) voltages in the Finnish natural gas pipeline, (2) to perform measurements of GIC and P\\/S voltages in the pipeline

  4. Coffee consumption and the risk of heart failure in Finnish men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yujie Wang; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Pekka Jousilahti; Riitta Antikainen; Markku Mhnen; Satu Mnnist; Peter T Katzmarzyk; Gang Hu

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesTo evaluate the association of coffee consumption with the risk of heart failure (HF) in the Finnish population.DesignProspective population-based cohort study.SettingThis study, which is a part of FINRISK study, was carried out in Finland.SubjectsStudy cohorts included 59 490 Finnish participants aged 2574 years who were free of HF at baseline.Main outcome measuresHF (2020 men and 1807 women) during a mean

  5. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayo Siemsen

    2011-01-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which\\u000a Finns consider normal (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is normal in Finnish culture\\u000a cannot be considered normal for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will\\u000a trace the central ideas, which

  6. PUBLICATIONS LIST Louisiana Forest Products Development Center

    E-print Network

    PUBLICATIONS LIST Louisiana Forest Products Development Center School of Renewable Natural reports from our website http://www.rnr.lsu.edu/lfpdc/publication/ INFORMATIONAL BROCHURES _ Louisiana Forest Products Development Center RESEARCH BRIEFS #1 An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood

  7. Temperate Evergreen Forest, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Boreal Forest

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    Temperate Evergreen Forest, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Boreal Forest Lectures 11 & 12 #12;Distribution of Temperate Evergreen Forest (5), Temperate Deciduous Forest (6), and Boreal Forest (8) #12;A. Lines on maps! #12;In the Temperate Evergreen Forest and in the warmer parts of the Temperate Deciduous

  8. Application of merged 1-m and 4-m resolution satellite data to research and management in tropical forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane M. Read; David B. Clark; Eduardo M. Venticinque; Marcelo P. Moreira

    2003-01-01

    Summary 1. Until very recently there have been no digital data from satellites for studying events that occur at scales of 10-1000 m 2 over large areas (100-100 000 ha). Many phenomena of interest to ecologists, such as impacts of selective logging on forest processes, occur over large extents but at local scales. Here we report results from a pilot

  9. Kelp Forest

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Kelp forests are often called the rainforest of the sea. They support wide varieties of marine life. Sea otters are both a sentinal and a keystone species for the health of kelp forests. Without sea otters, there is a shift in the ecosystem that can severly damage the kelp forests. USGS scientists s...

  10. Variability within the 10-Year Pollen Rain of a Seasonal Neotropical Forest and Its Implications for Paleoenvironmental and Phenological Research

    PubMed Central

    Haselhorst, Derek S.; Moreno, J. Enrique; Punyasena, Surangi W.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical paleoecologists use a combination of mud-water interface and modern pollen rain samples (local samples of airborne pollen) to interpret compositional changes within fossil pollen records. Taxonomic similarities between the composition of modern assemblages and fossil samples are the basis of reconstructing paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. Surface sediment samples reflect a time-averaged accumulation of pollen spanning several years or more. Due to experimental constraints, modern pollen rain samples are generally collected over shorter timeframes (13 years) and are therefore less likely to capture the full range of natural variability in pollen rain composition and abundance. This potentially biases paleoenvironmental interpretations based on modern pollen rain transfer functions. To determine the degree to which short-term environmental change affects the composition of the aerial pollen flux of Neotropical forests, we sampled ten years of the seasonal pollen rain from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and compared it to climatic and environmental data over the same ten-year span. We establish that the pollen rain effectively captured the strong seasonality and stratification of pollen flow within the forest canopy and that individual taxa had variable sensitivity to seasonal and annual changes in environmental conditions, manifested as changes in pollen productivity. We conclude that modern pollen rain samples capture the reproductive response of moist tropical plants to short-term environmental change, but that consequently, pollen rain-based calibrations need to include longer sampling periods (?7 years) to reflect the full range of natural variability in the pollen output of a forest and simulate the time-averaging present in sediment samples. Our results also demonstrate that over the long-term, pollen traps placed in the forest understory are representative samples of the pollen output of both canopy and understory vegetation. Aerial pollen traps, therefore, also represent an underutilized means of monitoring the pollen productivity and reproductive behavior of moist tropical forests. PMID:23320089

  11. Variability within the 10-year pollen rain of a seasonal neotropical forest and its implications for paleoenvironmental and phenological research.

    PubMed

    Haselhorst, Derek S; Moreno, J Enrique; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-01-01

    Tropical paleoecologists use a combination of mud-water interface and modern pollen rain samples (local samples of airborne pollen) to interpret compositional changes within fossil pollen records. Taxonomic similarities between the composition of modern assemblages and fossil samples are the basis of reconstructing paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. Surface sediment samples reflect a time-averaged accumulation of pollen spanning several years or more. Due to experimental constraints, modern pollen rain samples are generally collected over shorter timeframes (1-3 years) and are therefore less likely to capture the full range of natural variability in pollen rain composition and abundance. This potentially biases paleoenvironmental interpretations based on modern pollen rain transfer functions. To determine the degree to which short-term environmental change affects the composition of the aerial pollen flux of Neotropical forests, we sampled ten years of the seasonal pollen rain from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and compared it to climatic and environmental data over the same ten-year span. We establish that the pollen rain effectively captured the strong seasonality and stratification of pollen flow within the forest canopy and that individual taxa had variable sensitivity to seasonal and annual changes in environmental conditions, manifested as changes in pollen productivity. We conclude that modern pollen rain samples capture the reproductive response of moist tropical plants to short-term environmental change, but that consequently, pollen rain-based calibrations need to include longer sampling periods (?7 years) to reflect the full range of natural variability in the pollen output of a forest and simulate the time-averaging present in sediment samples. Our results also demonstrate that over the long-term, pollen traps placed in the forest understory are representative samples of the pollen output of both canopy and understory vegetation. Aerial pollen traps, therefore, also represent an underutilized means of monitoring the pollen productivity and reproductive behavior of moist tropical forests. PMID:23320089

  12. Forest Descriptions and Photographs of Forested Areas

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    in Eastern Montana, USA Theresa Jain, Molly Juillerat, Jonathan Sandquist, Brad Sauer, Robert Mitchell, Scott, Jonathan; Sauer, Brad; Mitchell, Robert; McAvoy, Scott; Hanley, Justin; and David, John. 2007. Forest, Klamath Falls, OR. Jonathan Sandquist is a forestry technician, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Moscow

  13. Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 16GTR-NRS-P-105 USING MULTIPLE RESEARCH METHODS

    E-print Network

    of relationships between people and forests is complex. First, family forests are subject to myriad social family forest holding; smaller social or biophysical areas such as watersheds or communities; and largerMoving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 16GTR-NRS-P-105 USING

  14. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerd, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerd, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerd and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerd and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bod, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerd, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerd, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerd, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerd, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerd, A., beda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., beda, X., Cerd, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerd, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualizacin en mtodos y tcnica

  15. Forest Ecology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial discusses the concept of forest succession, the stages of development which forest plants follow as they grow or re-grow following an event such as a forest fire or insect infestation. Topics include the role of pioneer species, the transition to longer-lived plants such as lodgepole pine, Douglas fir, and subalpine fir, and the transition to climax species such as cedars, hemlocks and spruce. There is also a discussion of the lifespan of climax forests and the wildlife species that inhabit the forest in each stage of succession. A quiz and glossary are provided.

  16. Forest Encyclopedia Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jointly developed by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station and Southern Regional Extension Forestry, this website has multiple online encyclopedias regarding the forests of the Southern United States, as well as one that covers the environmental threats facing all North American forests. This website is very user-friendly, both for visitors who are not natural resource professionals and those who are. For those visitors who are involved in the forest sciences, this website helpfully provides "scientific results, conclusions, and impacts with management needs and issues." On the left side of the page is a menu which allows the visitor to peruse the site through a thematic lens, or a global one. To view by theme, click on "Thematic" at the top of the menu. The themes visitors can click on include "So. Appalachian", "So. Pine Beetle", and "So. Fire Science". Under each theme are a multitude of clickable subthemes. For those visitors looking for a global view of the site, click on "Global" at the top of the menu. Topics include "Landscape", "Ecology", "Socio-Economics", and "Forest Health Protection". Forest scientists interested in contributing new scientific content to the Forest Encyclopedia Network can click on "Help" at the top of the website, which will take them to a link on the left side of the page entitled "Author Help".

  17. Organization types and corporate social responsibility reporting in Finnish forest industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pasi Tuominen; Terhi Uski; Iiro Jussila; Ulla Kotonen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to contribute to literature on corporate social responsibility by comparing CSR reporting between co-operative organizations and listed companies. The authors aim to illustrate whether the different values and principles of co-operatives and public limited companies result in differences in CSR reporting between these organization types. Design\\/methodology\\/approach First, the authors introduce the

  18. Maternal serum persistent organic pollutants in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Rantakokko, Panu V; Hinkka-Yli-Salomki, Susanna; Surcel, Helj-Marja; McKeague, Ian W; Kiviranta, Hannu A; Sourander, Andre; Brown, Alan S

    2013-01-01

    Recent research emphasizes the contribution of environmental as well as genetic factors to the etiology of autism but studies testing associations between chemical exposures and autism have been limited. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has previously been associated with decrements in cognitive and developmental performance. We conducted a pilot study in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism (FiPS-A). Seventy-five cases with autism and 75 controls matched on sex, birth year, urbanization and maternal age were sampled from first-born children in the Finnish Maternity Cohort, which includes over 1million births. The study sample included births occurring from 1991 to 2000. Subjects were followed up for autism through 2007. DDT, DDE, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-156, PCB-170, PCB-180, hexachlorobenzene, and BDE-47 were measured in archived maternal serum samples taken during pregnancy using gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Correlations between pollutant measures were assessed and mechanistically-related weighting schemes for summarizing PCB levels were compared. Case and control differences were assessed using graphical and statistical methods. All analytes, with the exception of DDT and BDE-47, were detected above the limit of quantification in all samples. The correlation between levels of individual PCB congeners and weighted summary measures was high (0.71-1.00). Paired t-tests revealed no significant differences between cases and controls for log-transformed mean values of any analyte; however, in an adjusted model the odds ratios for autism were 1.91 (p=0.29) and 1.79 (p=0.36) respectively, for subjects with total PCBs and DDE above the 90th percentile of control values. Levels of prenatal PCB exposure in FIPS-A were similar to the levels which previously correlated with poorer neurodevelopmental measures in other populations. Further study in a larger sample will be required to fully determine whether exposure to high POP levels is associated with autism diagnosis in the population. PMID:23591055

  19. Forest Fires in a Random Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhal; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1) understand the importance of environmental features, 2) to assess the predictability of forest fires using environmental variables, and 3) to compare RF with other machine learning algorithms for this particular case study. Risk maps were plotted by estimating the burned area taking into account the environmental variables and according to the most relevant selected variables. Key words: Random Forest, classification and regression trees, forest fires, risk maps. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References - Breiman L., 2001, Random Forest, Machine Learning, vol. 45-1: 5-32. - Oliveira S., Oehler F., San-Miguel-Ayanz J., Camia A., Pereira J.M.C., 2012, Modeling spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Mediterranean Europe, Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 275: 117-129.

  20. Analysing forest sustainability under various climate change scenarios: a case study in northern Scotland

    E-print Network

    : sustainability, forest management, social, environmental, economic indicators INTRODUCTION From providing habitatAnalysing forest sustainability under various climate change scenarios: a case study in northern Scotland S. PIZZIRANI, B. GARDINER, and D. EDWARDS Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin

  1. How to develop local physical activity promotion programmes with national support: the Finnish experience.

    PubMed

    Vuori, I; Paronen, O; Oja, P

    1998-04-01

    Stimulated by recent research findings regarding the health effects of physical activity, an extensive policy development for sports and for health took place in Finland in the early 1990s resulting in two national programmes. The 'Finland on the Move' programme's aim was to stimulate new local projects by financial support, training and consultation services, and media promotion. The evaluation of the programme listed several general characteristics of successful local projects. The ongoing 'Fit for Life' programme is based on the experience gained from the previous programme, but is focused mostly on the 40-60-year-olds as a target group, and utilises a more intensive mass media approach. It is concluded that the two programmes have been successful in creating plenty of new local initiatives and increasing population participation related to physical activity. The Finnish experience demonstrates that deliberate efforts to communicate scientific knowledge can lead to a better acceptance of physical activity on the national level and that well-planned and sensitive state-level support of grassroots activities can succeed. PMID:10889753

  2. Trials of mixed-conifer plantings for increasing diversity in the lodgepole pine type. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    Greater forest diversity is needed in the lodgepole pine forest cover type--particularly, along and east of the Continental Divide in Montana--if large-scale losses from cyclical bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent wildfires are to be reduced. Three species were compared to lodgepole pine in a test of mixed-species planting in three ecological habitat types of the lodgepole pine type. Differences in seedling survival, condition, and growth were observed among species and among habitat types by the fifth year after planting. The results indicate Englemann spruce and Douglas-fir can be used to attain mixed-species stands by interplanting naturally regenerated lodgepole pine seedling stands. Western larch probably can succeed only when planted in moist Douglas-fir, spruce, or the warmer subalpine fir habitat types east of the Continental Divide. Because of greater frost tolerance, western larch x alpine larch hybrids are promising for increasing forest diversity in some of the colder subalpine fir habitat types.

  3. Modelling Forest Growth and Yield: Applications to mixed tropical forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome K Vanclay

    1994-01-01

    Growth models assist forest researchers and managers in many ways. Some important uses include the ability to predict future yields and to explore silvicultural options. Models provide an efficient way to prepare resource forecasts, but a more important role may be their ability to explore management options and silvicultural alternatives. For example, foresters may wish to know the long-term effect

  4. Media portrayal of older people as illustrated in Finnish newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Sanna; Salminen, Leena; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Media portrayals of older people, such as those in newspapers, both inform and reflect public attitudes. By becoming aware of culturally influenced attitudes about older people, and how these attitudes are reflected in the ways older people are viewed, treated, and cared for in society, the healthcare profession can better understand how to provide high-quality care. By applying an ethnographic approach in textual reality, this paper explores how newspaper articles focusing on health portray older people in society, using Finland as an example. The data consist of articles selected from three of the main Finnish daily newspapers during a 3-month period in the spring of 2012. The findings show that, overall, the society regards older people and their care as important. However, there were suggestions of paternalistic attitudes towards older people. Furthermore, the perceptions regarding different groups of older people could lead to the possibility of inequality. The media portrayals of older people worldwide seem to share similarities, although the findings of this study are particularly in accordance with the cultural attributes of the Nordic countries and societies. PMID:25261872

  5. A mortality study of Finnish pulp and paper workers.

    PubMed Central

    Jppinen, P

    1987-01-01

    Mortality among workers in the Finnish pulp and paper industry was evaluated in a retrospective cohort study of 3520 workers who had been employed continuously for at least one year between 1945 and 1961. Six subcohorts were formed according to six work areas: sulphite, sulphate, paper, and board mills, maintenance department, and power plant. National mortality rates were used for comparison. The mortality of a cohort of 1290 sawmill workers was also studied in order to have a socially, geographically, and occupationally similar group without the exposures typical of the pulp and paper industry for comparison. Smoking habits were surveyed. Mortality was followed up until 31 December 1981. Overall mortality for the entire cohort did not differ from that expected (1044 obs, 1029.4 exp, SMR 101), but there was an excess of deaths from diseases of the circulatory system among the men (489 obs, 404.9 exp, SMR 121). This was due to the excess of deaths from ischaemic heart disease found among the men at the sulphite, sulphate, and paper mills, maintenance department, and power plant, but not at the sawmill. The existing smoking data did not explain this finding and it may therefore be associated with occupational exposures. PMID:3663525

  6. Alcohol use and its control in Finnish and Soviet marriages.

    PubMed

    Holmila, M; Mustonen, H; Rannik, E

    1990-04-01

    The paper reports the results of a comparative study conducted in Finland and in Estonia. A representative sample of young couples were interviewed in both countries. Husbands in both countries usually drink more often than their wives and are less dependent on their spouses' drinking company. Wives are more likely to attempt to control their spouses' drinking. Drinking and its control are associated with the emotional relationship between the spouses, and the attempts to control are logically associated with the controlled person's frequency of drinking. The wife's attempts to control the husband's drinking are more a blue collar than a white collar phenomenon. Finnish women and men drink more often than their Estonian counterparts. Maybe as a result of the greater frequency of drinking, drinking in Finland is more family-oriented than in Estonia. The Estonian culture seems more prone to informal control of the family members' drinking. These differences may be at least partly caused by differing alcohol policy climate in the two countries. PMID:2346790

  7. Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S; Viitala, Sirja M; Vilkki, Johanna H

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments. PMID:18298935

  8. World's forests

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A.; Clawson, M.

    1982-10-01

    An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)

  9. Wildland Fire Behavior & Forest Structure Environmental Consequences

    E-print Network

    Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station in Corvallis, OR. Abstract Diseases in Coniferous Forests of the Inland West: Potential Implications of Fuels Treatments Root Diseases in Coniferous Forests of the Inland West: Potential Implications of Fuels Treatments RMRS-GTR-141 August 2005

  10. PACIFIC SOUTHWEST FOREST SERVlCE

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    improvement, average air temperatures may be changed by removing all forest cover. Recent research has seedling success, stand development, vegetation changesand responses, and other forest events. And the dataPACIFIC SOUTHWEST FOREST SERVlCE U.S.DEPARTMENTOF AGRICULTURE. P.O. BOX 245, BERKELEY

  11. Insect pest management in forest ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Dahlsten; David L. Rowney

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and

  12. Measuring Forest Structure with LiDAR

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) instrument measures the 3-D structure of a ponderosa pine forest stand in Coconino National Forest near Flagstaff, Arizona, on July 13, 2009. The LiDAR observations support research on remote sensing of forest biomass and carbon sequestration by the USGS Southwe...

  13. Unearthing Secrets of the Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beldin, Sarah I.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Forests are a defining feature for large areas of the Pacific northwestern United States from northern California to Alaska. Coniferous temperate rainforests in the western Cascade and coastal mountain ranges are appreciated for their aesthetic value and abundant natural resources. Few people recognize the riches beneath the forest floor; yet, soil is a key ecosystem component that makes each type of forest unique. Soils harbor immense biological diversity and control the release of water and nutrients that support life above ground. Understanding how carbon and nutrients cycle in forests, known as forest biogeochemistry, is crucial for evaluating forest productivity, composition, diversity, and change. At the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, research in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Laboratory focuses on nutrient cycling in five themes: climate change, nutrition and sustainability, fire effects, restoration, and forest-stream linkages. This research is essential to understand the entire forest ecosystem and to use the best science available to make informed policy and management decisions.

  14. Brief report: self-reported psychopathic-like features among Finnish community youth: investigation of the factor structure of the antisocial personality screening device.

    PubMed

    Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Lipsanen, Jari; Aronen, Eeva T

    2014-10-01

    The Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self-Report (APSD-SR) is a self-report measure for assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the APSD-SR in a sample of 4855 Finnish community adolescents. A three-factor structure with factors representing impulsivity (IMP), narcissism (NAR) and callous-unemotional (CU) features was found. Internal consistency indices ranged from moderate to good. The findings provide promising data on applicability of the APSD-SR instrument to Scandinavian youth. Results have implications for researchers and clinicians interested in measuring adolescent psychopathy. PMID:25190497

  15. Accuracy of early stand exam age estimates in the Swan Valley of Western Montana. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M.; Lesica, P.

    1994-04-01

    The stand exams conducted in western Montana over 50 years ago provide a valuable source of information on prefire suppression and preharvest condition of the region's forests. Of the early exam estimates of stand origin, 52 percent were within 20 years of estimates taken from stand exams conducted in the 1980's, and 73 percent were within 60 years. There was no significant bias toward either higher or lower age estimates. The early stand exam data can give an accurate estimate of stand age distributions over large areas.

  16. Highly stocked coniferous stands on the Olympic Peninsula: chemical composition and implications for harvest strategy. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.N.; Waddell, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents an assessment of macronutrients and their distribution within highly stocked, stagnant stands of mixed conifers on the Quilcene Ranger District, Olympic National Forest, northwest Washington. These stands consisted of predominantly three species: western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzeisii), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata). Preliminary investigation suggests that the living crown contains a small portion of the nutrient capital on the site. Extracting this material from the site during harvest or site preparation should not pose a threat to future production of biomass. Bioassays suggested that no macronutrients were deficient for growth of Douglas-fir seedlings.

  17. Socialization of Junior Researchers in New Academic Research Environments: Two Case Studies from Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakala, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the modes of research training in two Finnish academic research centres, where research is project based, application oriented and externally funded. In particular, the article asks what duties, skills and qualities are considered appropriate for people in different positions (PhD student, post-doctoral researcher,

  18. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: A Comparison of Pupils' Images of Intelligence in Finnish and Russian Karelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim; Hamalainen, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The study set out to examine Finnish and Russian children's images of intelligence as contextualized in the systems of the school and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent and an ordinary pupil and a good and an ordinary pupil. A distinctive feature shared by the children in both

  19. Noun and Noun Phrase Stress: A Phonetic Study of English Supplemented with an Error Analysis Using Finnish Speaker-Hearers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi

    1979-01-01

    Confirms previous observations about the tonal character of English stress. Notes that Finnish listeners relied on duration as the perceptual cue for noun/noun phrase distinction (blackbird/black bird), reflecting the absence of linguistic contrasts based on an active use of the larynx in standard Finnish stress and intonation. (Author/RL)

  20. Transfer to and study at secondary school in Finnish school culture: developing schools on the basis of pupils experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janne Pietarinen

    2000-01-01

    This chapter is a based on a study that examined, first, Finnish comprehensive school pupils transfer to secondary school and, second, the ways in which pupils experiences of schooling can contribute to the development and planning of an undivided comprehensive school system. Traditionally, Finnish discourse on the flexibility of the transfer has concentrated on the teacher's role as the central

  1. Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2013-01-01

    To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national

  2. In: Forest Ecology Research Horizons ISBN: 1-60021-490-8 Editor: Nole C. Verne, pp. 147-166 2007 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Abrams, Marc David

    Adirondack Ecological Center, SUNY Environmental Science and Forestry, 6312 State Route 28N, Newcomb, NY in the central Appalachian Mountains of the eastern USA. Forests in this region have undergone profound forest

  3. Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

    2006-07-31

    In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way. PMID:16458952

  4. Impacts of peatland forestation on regional climate conditions in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Backman, Leif; Henttonen, Helena M.; Pietikinen, Joni-Pekka; Laaksonen, Ari

    2014-05-01

    Climate response to anthropogenic land cover change happens more locally and occurs on a shorter time scale than the global warming due to increased GHGs. Over the second half of last Century, peatlands were vastly drained in Finland to stimulate forest growth for timber production. In this study, we investigate the biophysical effects of peatland forestation on near-surface climate conditions in Finland. For this, the regional climate model REMO, developed in Max Plank Institute (currently in Climate Service Center, Germany), provides an effective way. Two sets of 15-year climate simulations were done by REMO, using the historic (1920s; The 1st Finnish National Forest Inventory) and present-day (2000s; the 10th Finnish National Forest Inventory) land cover maps, respectively. The simulated surface air temperature and precipitation were then analyzed. In the most intensive peatland forestation area in Finland, the differences in monthly averaged daily mean surface air temperature show a warming effect around 0.2 to 0.3 K in February and March and reach to 0.5 K in April, whereas a slight cooling effect, less than 0.2 K, is found from May till October. Consequently, the selected snow clearance dates in model gridboxes over that area are advanced 0.5 to 4 days in the mean of 15 years. The monthly averaged precipitation only shows small differences, less than 10 mm/month, in a varied pattern in Finland from April to September. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis was conducted on the peatland forestation area with a 23% decrease in peatland and a 15% increase in forest types. 11 day running means of simulated temperature and energy balance terms, as well as snow depth were averaged over 15 years. Results show a positive feedback induced by peatland forestation between the surface air temperature and snow depth in snow melting period. This is because the warmer temperature caused by lower surface albedo due to more forest in snow cover period leads to a quicker and earlier snow melting. Meanwhile, surface albedo is reduced and consequently surface air temperature is increased. Additionally, the maximum difference from individual gridboxes in this area over 15 years of 11 day running means of daily mean surface air temperature reaches 2 K, which is four times as much as the maximum difference of 15-year regional average of that. This illustrates that the spring warming effect from peatland forestation in Finland is highly heterogeneous spatially and temporally.

  5. Forest Fires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will assume the role of a Department of Forestry Ranger one of whose major concerns is forest fires. Using NASA Surface Scene Type data (biomes) and Monthly Equivalent Water Thickness Land Mass Change Data from 2006, the students will determine areas at high risk for forest fire development.

  6. Mathematics Education Research in Finland Yearbook 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupari, Pekka, Ed.

    For the purpose of promoting international cooperation in mathematics, physics, and chemistry teaching research, this first yearbook of the Finnish Association of Mathematics and Science Education Research contains articles of recent research on mathematics teaching. The contents consist of five articles in English, two in German, and one thesis

  7. Evaluating Escherichia coli O157 control in finnish primary production.

    PubMed

    Leimi, Anna; Mikkel, Antti; Tuominen, Pirkko

    2014-03-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) has become a threat in the modern cattle sector because of its adverse impact on human health. Systems have been developed to reduce the risk of EHEC infection associated with the beef production chain. In Finland, the risk management of EHEC is mainly targeted at primary production, which is controlled by a national program. The prevalence of E. coli O157 in slaughter animals and herds appears to have remained relatively low over the years (0.2 to 1.2% and 0.3 to 1.5%, respectively). The effectiveness of the Finnish EHEC control program (FECP) was analyzed with a Bayesian statistical model based on the results from 2006 through 2010. According to the model, the estimated true prevalence of EHEC in slaughter animals was at its highest in 2007 (95% credible interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.85% of animals), and the estimated true prevalence in herds was its highest in 2007 (95% CI, 1.28 to 2.55% of herds). However, the estimated probability of the FECP detecting an EHEC-positive slaughter animal or herd was 0.52 to 0.58% and 4.74 to 6.49%, respectively. The inability to detect EHEC-positive animals was partly due to animal-based random sampling, which ignores herd-level testing and therefore emphasizes the testing of slaughter animals from herds that send more animals to slaughter. Some slaughterhouses collected samples incorrectly as a consequence of an incorrectly implemented FECP. Farmers may also have questionable reasons for choosing to send animals to be slaughtered in small abattoirs, in which testing is less likely, to avoid suspicion of EHEC or other zoonotic infections. PMID:24674427

  8. Family history in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Saarimki, Lasse; Tammela, Teuvo L; Mttnen, Liisa; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula M; Raitanen, Jani; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-05-01

    Family history (FH) is one of the few known risk factors for prostate cancer (PC). There is also new evidence about mortality reduction in screening of PC with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Therefore, we conducted a prospective study in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial to evaluate the impact of FH on outcomes of PC screening. Of the 80,144 men enrolled, 31,866 men were randomized to the screening arm and were invited for screening with PSA test (cut-off 4 ng/ml) every 4 years. At the time of each invitation, FH of PC (FH) was assessed through a questionnaire. The analysis covered a follow-up of 12 years from randomization for all men with data on FH. Of the 23,702 (74.3%) invited men attending screening, 22,756 (96.0%) provided information of their FH. Altogether 1,723 (7.3%) men reported at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with PC and of them 235 (13.6%) were diagnosed with PC. Men with a first-degree FH had increased risk for PC (risk ratio (RR) 1.31, p?

  9. Prevalence of norovirus GII-4 antibodies in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Nurminen, K; Blazevic, V; Huhti, L; Rsnen, S; Koho, T; Hytnen, V P; Vesikari, T

    2011-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the second most common cause of viral gastroenteritis after rotavirus in children. NoV genotype GII-4 has emerged as the major type not only in outbreaks of NoV gastroenteritis but also endemic gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. Using baculovirus-insect cell system virus-like particles (VLPs) of NoV genotype GII-4 and an uncommon genotype GII-12 were produced. These VLPs were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for detection of NoV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies in 492 serum specimens from Finnish children 0-14 years of age collected between 2006 and 2008. NoV IgG antibody prevalence was 47.3% in the age group 7-23 months and increased up to 91.2% after the age of 5 years. Avidity of NoV IgG antibodies was low in the primary infections while high avidity antibodies were detected in the recurrent infections of the older children. In GII-4 infections, the homologous antibody response to GII-4 VLPs was stronger than to GII-12 VLPs but cross-reactivity between GII-4 and GII-12 was observed. Binding of GII-4 VLPs to a putative carbohydrate antigen receptor H-type 3 could be blocked by sera from children not infected with NoV during a waterborne outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. Therefore, protection against NoV infection correlated with strong blocking activity. PMID:21264875

  10. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study. PMID:23316078

  11. Perinatal risk factors for asthma in Finnish adolescent twins

    PubMed Central

    Rasanen, M.; Kaprio, J.; Laitinen, T.; Winter, T.; Koskenvuo, M.; Laitinen, L.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUNDPrevious studies have suggested that, in addition to genetic liability and environment in early childhood, intrauterine life also influences the risk for asthma beyond childhood. Low birth weight, prematurity, young maternal age, and maternal smoking have all shown an association with asthma. The effect of perinatal factors on the risk for asthma in relation to familial and social risk factors was studied in a nationwide population-based sample of adolescent twins. In addition to a distribution of birth characteristics among twins which differs from that of singletons, data on twins enable a distinction to be made between genetic and environmental sources of variation.?METHODSQuestionnaires were sent to five consecutive birth cohorts of Finnish 16 year old twins born in 1975-9 and to their parents (3065 families). The outcome measure was life time prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma in these adolescents. The association between asthma and potential risk factors was assessed by multiple logistic regression and discordant twin pair analysis.?RESULTSRisk for asthma increased with increasing ponderal index (p for trend <0.01) and decreasing maternal age (p for trend <0.05). Among the 25% of twins with the highest ponderal index, the odds ratio for asthma was 1.82 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.79) compared with those in the lowest 25%. Neither birth weight, gestational age, nor Apgar score was associated with asthma. When perinatal risk factors were combined with familial and social risk factors, ponderal index, maternal smoking, parental asthma, and sibship size were all significant independent determinants of asthma in these adolescents.?CONCLUSIONSThe risk for asthma in adolescent twins increases with increasing ponderal index when adjusted for familial and social factors.?? PMID:10607798

  12. Differential Insar Studies in the Boreal Forest Zone in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karila, K.; Karjalainen, M.; Hyypp, J.

    2004-06-01

    In this paper we present preliminary results on the applicability of differential SAR interferometry to detect and measure land movement in the vegetated areas where only few targets or small areas maintain coherence. Strong temporal decorrelation in the vegetated areas makes traditional DINSAR impracticable and, therefore, techniques that are based on phase values of single pixels and long time series should be applied. The study area is located on the southwest coast of Finland (2235'E, 6015'N). The area consists mostly of forest and fields but it also comprises cities of Turku, Salo and Hanko and several small settlements. Related to the INSAR research there occur two interesting phenomena within the study area. Firstly, postglacial land uplift of a few millimeters per year is known to take place in the area. And secondly, since the center of Turku has been built on clay soil there occurs subsidence of many buildings. The data set consists of 24 ERS SAR images from 1992-2002. Weather data provided by Finnish Meteorological Institute were used in the selection of SAR acquisitions. A new precise leveling, to be completed in 2004, will be used as a reference data for the land uplift study. Altogether 23 differential interferograms were generated and the analysis on the amount of coherent targets was carried out. Coherent targets or permanent scatterers can be found throughout the study area: buildings, cliffs and rocky islands in Turku archipelago. Preliminary analysis of the phase values has shown that there is remarkable phase noise present in the data. The phase data should be corrected for possible atmospheric effects and orbital errors in order to get deformation data. First we must investigate further whether the coherent target density is high enough for permanent scatterers analysis. And secondly more data will be acquired to get more reliable results.

  13. Seeing the Forest for the Trees Botany Profile

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    -SIGEO is a global network of forest research plots committed to the study of tropical and temperate forest functionSeeing the Forest for the Trees Botany Profile Continued on page 9 New Series - Vol. 15 - No. 2 for Tropi- cal Forest Science-Smithsonian Institution Global Earth Obser- vatory (CTFS-SIGEO) will relocate

  14. Interspecific variation in soil compaction sensitivity among forest floor species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Godefroid; N. Koedam

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the response of herbaceous plant species to soil compaction in forest soils. The research was conducted in central Belgium, in a 4383 ha beech forest. Of the 107 taxa studied, the cover of 65 species (61%) was significantly related to soil compaction. Twenty four forest species (58% of all forest species tested) showed significant

  15. @ SOUTH EST FOREST SERVICE

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    MORE CAL A-POPPY N STUBBLE F Raymond D. Ratliff USDA Forest Service Research Note PSW-271 N972 poppy studied in an old field and a stubble field near Madera, California. The stubble field had more poppy a harsh microcbate or redues competition or both will favor Cafifornia-poppy and that this variety tends

  16. Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Sanna; Riihinen, Kaisu; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p?Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378

  17. Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Sanna; Riihinen, Kaisu; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2013-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p < 0.01) against all the tested pathogens was found from willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) honeys. This is the first report on antimicrobial activity of Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378

  18. Finnish Disease Heritage II: population prehistory and genetic roots of Finns.

    PubMed

    Norio, Reijo

    2003-05-01

    In the second part of my review of the Finnish Disease Heritage (FDH), I discuss the settling of Finland; factors influencing the genes of a population, such as agriculture versus hunting/fishing/gathering, trading and cultural relations, wars and other kinds of violence, and bottlenecks; relatives of the Finns in the light of classical European studies, classical Finnish studies, mtDNA and Y-chromosomal studies; the genes of the Finns today, characterizing FDH, the east-west difference among Finns, and minorities in Finland, viz. the Lapps or Saami and Swedish-speaking Finns. PMID:12627296

  19. The Finnish case: community prevention in a time of rapid change in national and international trade.

    PubMed

    Holmila, M

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at the present Finnish situation in planning and development of community-level prevention of alcohol and drug problems, and the experiences gained so far. Results from the first extensive evaluated project of this kind in Finland, the Lahti Project, and the program and evaluation plans for a new project in the Helsinki metropolitan area are also described. It is argued that in the present Finnish context there is need for detailed theoretical and well-measured evaluation on why the results of community-based prevention are or are not achieved. PMID:10677878

  20. Dendrome: Forest Tree Genome Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in California, Dendrome is a project of the Institute of Forest Genetics (USDA Forest Service) that aims to act as "a central electronic resource for the study of forest tree genomes." Users will find a wealth of information at the site, including several excellent genome resources (complete with genetic maps), links to research institutes, upcoming scientific meetings and courses, and job opportunities. Of particular use to researchers are the genetic databases with linkage maps for numerous species of the genus Cryptomeria, Eucalyptus, Picea, Pinus and Populus. A selection of specific resources rounds out the site.

  1. Distribution of biomass and nutrients in lodgepole pine/bitterbrush ecosystems in central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.N.; Shainsky, L.J.

    1992-09-01

    The authors investigated the distribution of biomass and nutrients in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murryana Dougl.) ecosystems on pumice soils in south-central Oregon. Sixty-three trees were sampled to develop equations for estimating dry weights of tree crowns, boles, bark, and coarse roots from diameter at breast height and height. The concentrations of total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur were determined for each of these components. Biomass, nutrient concentrations, and nutrient contents of the associated vegetation, forest floor, woody debris, fine roots, and soil horizons also were determined. An example stand illustrates the use of these data for determining the effects of bole versus whole-tree harvesting on nutrient capital in a lodgepole pine ecosystem.

  2. Development of a mixed shrub-tanoak-douglas-fir community in a treated and untreated condition. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.

    1996-08-01

    On a medium site in northern California, a tanoak-mixed shrub community was given several treatments (manual release two and three times, a combination chainsaw and cut surface herbicide treatment, two foliar herbicides, and a tank mix of the two herbicides) to study its development in both a natural (control) and treated condition. The herbicides were 2,4-D, Garlon 3A, and Garlon 4, each applied two times. Survival of planted Douglas-fir seedlings was recorded for 11 years and growth was quantified for 9 years after the last treatment application. In addition to Douglas-fir, data are presented individually for the two most abundant species (tanoak and snowbrush), for greenleaf manzanita, and for the hardwood tree and shrubs combined. The treatment response data, cost information, and plant community relationships provides the forest land manager with knowledge on how to attain some specific plant communities in the future, and their developmental potentials.

  3. Forest Research A N N U A L R E P O R T A N D A C C O U N T S 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 4

    E-print Network

    and Research Professor in Landscape Architecture Edinburgh College of Art PROFESSOR D. EVANS Consultant of Surrey PROFESSOR P. JARVIS Emeritus Professor of Forestry and Natural Resources at the School of Geo Dr Andy Moffat Head of Environmental and Human Sciences Division Mr Bill Mason Head of Forest

  4. Research Publications with Kellogg Forest Data KFPUBS 2-23-99 1. Recovery of a Southern Michigan Trout Stream. by W.F.Morofsky, P.I.Tack, and W.A. Lemmien, August 1949.

    E-print Network

    1 Research Publications with Kellogg Forest Data KFPUBS 2-23-99 1. Recovery of a Southern Michigan Trout Stream. by W.F.Morofsky, P.I.Tack, and W.A. Lemmien, August 1949. Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station Quarterly Bulletin 32: 59-63. 2. The Survival and Growth of Hybrid Poplars in Four Michigan Test

  5. Research on: A. Reclamation of borrow pits and denuded lands; B. Biochemical aspects of mycorrhizae of forest trees

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H. (comp.)

    1990-12-01

    This report furnishes a list of compiled and ongoing studies and a list of publications which resulted from the research accomplished by Institute scientists and other collaborators. The research accomplished can be placed in four categories: I. Research on borrow pit rehabilitation with 12 publications; II. Research on artificial regeneration of southern pines with 34 publications; III. Research on artificial regeneration of eastern hardwoods with 16 publications; and IV. Cooperative research with the University of Georgia on biochemical aspects of mycorrhizae with 5 publications. Major accomplishments of this research are: 1. Procedures to successfully reclaim borrow pits with sludge, subsoiling and seedlings with specific mycorrhizae. 2. Protocols to successfully artificially regenerate southern pines (particularly ling leaf pine) and certain eastern hardwoods. 3. Basic understanding of the biochemistry of mycorrhizae and the discovery of a new pathway for sucrose utilization in plants. 67 refs.

  6. Wind Dynamics and Forests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students will set up a model forest using plastic bottles to observe changes caused by differences in wind speed and forest density. An extension to the activity will allow students to explore the concept of evapotranspiration. From this activity students will understand that living organisms in an ecosystem can have profound effects upon the local atmosphere, changes in vegetation can have profound effects upon wind speed, and models are useful to researchers in understanding the shaping of ecosystems. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

  7. Fire and Forest History in Mixed-Conifer Forests of Southwest Colorado

    E-print Network

    Mountain Tree-Ring Research Rosalind Wu, San Juan National Forest Carissa Aoki, Colorado State University Bill Romme, Colorado State University Jeff Redders, San Juan National Forest Erica Bigio, University Creek (56 plots spanning ponderosa/dry mixed-conifer to subalpine forests) Bear Park (43 plots spanning

  8. Great Lakes Surges in Forest Certification Forests.org --Print An Archived News Story

    E-print Network

    Great Lakes Surges in Forest Certification Forests.org -- Print An Archived News Story http The Great Lakes region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan and Ontario) holds 30 percent of North America and released today at a meeting of the Great Lakes Forest Alliance. The study, conducted by a research team

  9. Technical Report TR-014 May 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-print Network

    Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife TR-014 Tools9T 6E9, 250-751-7001 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

  10. Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Timonen, M.; Mielikainen, K.; Helama, S.; Kanatjev, A. G.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity vary regionally, and major volcanic eruptions do not always result in regional cooling. A response of tree growth at the Kola Peninsula to climatic changes due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions was revealed. For example, Dalton minimum of solar activity (1801-1816 AD) and Laki (1783 AD) and Tambora (1815 AD) volcanic eruptions appeared to cause the greatest ring-width reduction and cooling. The minima of solar activity Sporer (1416-1534 AD) and Maunder (1645-1715 AD) were as well accompanied by temperature decreases. Intervals with an absence of significant volcanic eruptions correspond to intervals of increased ring-width values. A superposed epoch analysis of 19 large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI>5) volcanic events revealed a significant suppression of tree growth for up to 8 years following volcanic eruptions. The similar effect (supression of tree growth after powerful volcanic eruptions) was obtained under analysis of the 7641-year supra-long pine tree-ring chronology for Finnish Lapland. Our results documenting the regional climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity permit us to understand the dynamics of the climate system and its response to external forcing. This work is financially supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

  11. Landscape dynamics of northeastern forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canham, Charles D.; Silander, John A., Jr.; Civco, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    This project involves collaborative research with Stephen W. Pacala and Simon A. Levin of Princeton University to calibrate, test, and analyze models of heterogeneous forested landscapes containing a diverse array of habitats. The project is an extension of previous, NASA-supported research to develop a spatially-explicit model of forest dynamics at the scale of an individual forest stand (hectares to square kilometer spatial scales). That model (SORTIE) has been thoroughly parameterized from field studies in the modal upland environment of western Connecticut. Under our current funding, we are scaling-up the model and parameterizing it for the broad range of upland environments in the region. Our most basic goal is to understand the linkages between stand-level dynamics (as revealed in our previous research) and landscape-level dynamics of forest composition and structure.

  12. Physical activity and sleep profiles in Finnish men and women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and sleep are related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. The interrelationship between these behaviors has been studied, but there remain questions regarding the association of different types of PA, such as occupational, commuting, and leisure time to sleep, including quality, duration and sufficiency. It is also unclear to what extent sleep affects peoples PA levels and patterns. Our aim is to investigate the interrelationship between PA and sleep behaviors in the Finnish population, including employment status and gender. Methods The study comprised population based data from the FINRISK 2012 Study. A stratified, random sample of 10,000 Finns, 25 to 74 years-old, were sent a questionnaire and an invitation to a health examination. The participation rate was 64% (n?=?6,414). Latent class analysis was used to search for different underlying profiles of PA and sleep behavior in men and women, respectively. Models with one through five latent profiles were fitted to the data. Based on fit indicators, a four-class model for men and women, respectively, was decided to be the best fitted model. Results Four different profiles of PA and sleep were found in both men and women. The most common profile of men comprised 45% of the total participants, and in women, 47%. These profiles were distinguished by probabilities for high leisure time PA and sleep, subjectively rated as sufficient, as well as sleep duration of 77.9hours. The least common profiles represented 5% (men) and 11% (women) of the population, and were characterized by probabilities for physical inactivity, short sleep, and evening type for women and morning type for men. There was also one profile in both genders characterized by likelihood for both high occupational PA and subjectively experienced insufficient sleep. Conclusions The use of latent class analysis in investigating the interrelationship between PA and sleep is a novel perspective. The method provides information on the clustering of behaviors in people and the profiles found suggest an accumulative nature of leisure time PA, and better sleep. Our data also suggest that high levels of occupational PA are associated with shorter and poorer sleep. PMID:24467881

  13. Kelp Forest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-12-08

    This video from Jean Michel Cousteau: Ocean Adventures, describes the unique, interdependent characteristics of an underwater kelp forest ecosystem and explores the delicate balance of life between sea otters, urchins, and the kelp plant.

  14. Happy Spouses, Happy Parents? Family Relationships Among Finnish and Dutch Dual Earners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaisa Malinen; Ulla Kinnunen; Asko Tolvanen; A. Ronka; Hilde Wierda-Boer; J. R. M. Gerris

    2010-01-01

    In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of satisfaction in the spousal relationship were related to higher quality in

  15. Democratisation of Early Childhood Education in the Attitudes of Slovene and Finnish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnsek, Nada; Pekkarinen, Asko

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the findings of the comparative survey on attitudes (beliefs, preferences) of 222 Slovenian and 230 Finnish early childhood teachers (Turnsek 2005). They have completed the questionnaire on aspect of democratisation of early childhood education, which consisted of attitude (Likart) scales and questions of ranking the

  16. Executive Functioning among Finnish Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Humphrey, Lorie A.; Tapio, Terttu; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Yang, May H.; Dang, Jeff; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that executive function deficit (EFD) was more frequent in ADHD groups than in those without ADHD.

  17. Biodiversity in Finnish Wilderness Areas: Historical and Cultural Constraints to Preserve Species and Habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna-Liisa Sippola

    The present status of species and habitats in Finnish wilderness areas is largely a consequence of past administrative, use, and management traditions in northern Finland. The existing wilderness legislation sets a framework for management, but historical uses and administrative decisions have influenced many prevailing practices. In addition, manage- ment of many uses is complicated by overarching legislation. The present wilderness

  18. The choice of initial web search strategies: a comparison between Finnish and American searchers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirja Iivonen; Marilyn Domas White

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodology to analyse differences between Finnish and American web searchers (n=27 per country) in their choice of initial search strategies (direct address, subject directory and search engines) and their reasoning underlying these choices, with data gathered via a questionnaire. The paper looks at these differences for four types of questions with

  19. Validation of the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) for Clinical Settings and Total Population Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Kielinen, Marko; Bloigu, Risto; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Joskitt, Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the validity and determined cut-off scores for the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A population sample of 8-year-old children (n = 4,408) was rated via the ASSQ by parents and/or teachers, and a subgroup of 104 children was examined via structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school

  20. Teachers' Views on Curriculum Development in Health Promotion in Two Finnish Polytechnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Auli; Poskiparta, Marita; Liimatainen, Leena; Kettunen, Tarja

    2003-01-01

    Ten nursing teachers in two Finnish polytechnics stated that their involvement in curriculum development was impeded by lack of time. They felt that health promotion was adequately addressed, although there was no evidence that new approaches recommended by the World Health Organization and other bodies were being used. (Contains 49 references.)

  1. Comparison of Estonian and Finnish physicians' opinions of menopause and hormone therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirpa-Liisa Hovi; Tiina Karttunen; Helle Karro; Elina Hemminki

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare Estonian and Finnish gynaecologists' and general practitioners' (GP) opinions on and prescribing practices in hormone treatment (HT) during and after menopause. Methods:Data was collected using similar postal questionnaires. In 2000 in Estonia, a random sample included 212 gynaecol- ogists and 288 GPs (68% responded); and in 1989 in Finland, 100 male and 100 female gynaecologists, 100 general

  2. Socio-Spatial Practices in a Finnish Daycare Group for One- to Three-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutanen, Niina

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study approaches early childhood education and care practices from a socio-spatial point of view. One Finnish daycare group for one- to three-year-olds participated in the study. The ethnographic observations from the practices are analyzed together with the ECE practitioners' audio-recorded team meetings and video-elicited

  3. Displaying Now-Understanding: The Finnish Change-of-State Token "aa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivisto, Aino

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Finnish change-of-state token "aa" that has previously not been identified. The central claim is that even though "aa" indicates a cognitive shift experienced by the speaker, it does not function as a receipt of new information. Instead, the token "aa" indicates that the speaker

  4. Finnish Pre-Service Teachers' and Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of Division and Reasoning Strategies Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaasila, Raimo; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hellinen, Anu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on Finnish pre-service elementary teachers' (N = 269) and upper secondary students' (N = 1,434) understanding of division. In the questionnaire, we used the following non-standard division problem: "We know that 498:6 = 83. How could you conclude from this relationship (without using long-division algorithm) what 491:6 = ?

  5. Identity and potential pathogenicity of Phytophthora species found on symptomatic Rhododendron plants in a Finnish nursery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rytknen; A. Lilja; A. Vercauteren; S. Sirki; P. Parikka; M. Soukainen; J. Hantula

    2012-01-01

    In this study, microbial isolations were made from symptomatic Rhododendron plants from a large Finnish nursery, known to be harbouring Phytophthora based on PCR screenings. The nearby waterways were also sampled. A diversity of common Nordic plants was screened for Phytophthora susceptibility. Isolates recovered from Rhododendron plants included P. ramorum, P. cactorum, P. plurivora, P. pini and Pestalotiopsis sp. Baits

  6. Management control systems in Finnish technology companies: search for a typology of MCS mix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkki K. Laitinen; Tom Wingren; William A. Nixon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to search for a typology of management control system mix (MCSM) in 110 Finnish technology firms. MCSM is considered as a portfolio of management control mechanisms. In a MCSM, single systems are implemented and changed as a package. Instead of analysing such single systems, this paper is focused on a mix (package) of such

  7. Attitudes of Finnish veterinarians about programs to control canine genetic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minna Leppnen; Annukka Paloheimo; Hannu Saloniemi

    1999-01-01

    A mailed questionnaire survey was performed amongst the members of the Finnish Veterinary Association in order to study veterinarians' knowledge of canine inherited diseases and the present screening and control programs in Finland. The purpose was also to study the veterinarians' attitudes about and compliance with such programs. Veterinarians estimated that their knowledge is quite poor but they believed

  8. Variation in Finnish students' understanding of Lutheranism and its implications for religious education: a phenomenographic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elina Hella

    2008-01-01

    This article contains the results of how a selected group of Finnish upper secondary students understand Lutheranism. The data consisted of 63 students' responses to a writing task together with complementary interviews of 11 students. The outcomes of phenomenographic analysis of variation in the students' understanding of Lutheranism are presented in five hierarchically ordered categories. The implications for religious education

  9. Variation in Finnish Students' Understanding of Lutheranism and Its Implications for Religious Education: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hella, Elina

    2008-01-01

    This article contains the results of how a selected group of Finnish upper secondary students understand Lutheranism. The data consisted of 63 students' responses to a writing task together with complementary interviews of 11 students. The outcomes of phenomenographic analysis of variation in the students' understanding of Lutheranism are

  10. Professionalism--A Breeding Ground for Struggle. The Example of the Finnish Day-Care Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinos, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the Finnish day-care centre out of a neo-Weberian-Bourdieuan frame of reference. The leading idea is that the day-care centre field is continuously shaping as a result of both inner struggles and struggles with other fields. The state, the education system, and trade unions act as the dealers of professional playing cards.

  11. Happy Spouses, Happy Parents? Family Relationships among Finnish and Dutch Dual Earners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinen, Kaisa; Kinnunen, Ulla; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna; Wierda-Boer, Hilde; Gerris, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of

  12. Multi method approach to the assessment of data quality in the Finnish Medical Birth Registry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Teperi

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess comprehensively the validity of the data in the Finnish Medical Birth Registry (MBR) by the combined use of several controls and internal analysis of the data. DESIGN--The MBR data were individually linked to a medical record sample (n = 775) and to all perinatal death certificates in 1987. The data were also compared with annual hospital statistics. The

  13. Analysis of the Development of Academic Writing in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhanen-Nuutinen, Liisa; Janhonen, Sirpa; Tuomi, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the genre of the reviewed scientific articles published in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science") during its history. The aim was to bring a critical approach to writing in nursing science and to discuss the dominant conventions of scientific writing in nursing. A total of 27 journals, which

  14. Amount of external CME in groups of specialties: a nation-wide survey among Finnish doctors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arja Helin-Salmivaara; Mira Kajantie; Jukka Vnsk; Hannu Halila; Taina Autti; Juha P Turunen; Amos Pasternack

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuing medical education (CME) is an integral part of continuing professional development and a prerequisite for good quality in health care. We aimed to describe and analyse the number of days spent in formal CME outside the workplace by specialty among Finnish doctors of working age. FINDINGS: The number of days in formal CME outside the workplace in 2005

  15. Activities of Telithromycin, Erythromycin, Fluoroquinolones, and Doxycycline against Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Finnish Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schnberg-Norio, Daniela; Hnninen, Marja-Liisa; Katila, Marja-Leena; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku; Koskela, Markku; Eerola, Erkki; Uksila, Jaakko; Pajarre, Sini; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 478 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from Finnish subjects during 2002 to 2004 were determined. Susceptibility to erythromycin remained high, and telithromycin did not offer any advantage over erythromycin. Reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones and doxycycline were detected almost exclusively among isolates of foreign origin. PMID:16495275

  16. Activities of telithromycin, erythromycin, fluoroquinolones, and doxycycline against Campylobacter strains isolated from Finnish subjects.

    PubMed

    Schnberg-Norio, Daniela; Hnninen, Marja-Liisa; Katila, Marja-Leena; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku; Koskela, Markku; Eerola, Erkki; Uksila, Jaakko; Pajarre, Sini; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2006-03-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 478 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from Finnish subjects during 2002 to 2004 were determined. Susceptibility to erythromycin remained high, and telithromycin did not offer any advantage over erythromycin. Reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones and doxycycline were detected almost exclusively among isolates of foreign origin. PMID:16495275

  17. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the

  18. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at

  19. Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland? Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    "Finnish Lessons" is a first-hand, comprehensive account of how Finland built a world-class education system during the past three decades. The author traces the evolution of education policies in Finland and highlights how they differ from the United States and other industrialized countries. He shows how rather than relying on competition,

  20. Homicide Crime Scene Behaviors in a Finnish Sample of Mentally Ill Offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helin Hkknen; Taina Laajasalo

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether crime scene behaviors in Finnish homicides are associated with differences in offenders' mental status. Homicide crime scene behaviors were analyzed among five groups of offenders: those with schizophrenia, those with personality disorder, drug addicts, alcoholics, and offenders without a diagnosis (N= 182). The results showed that crime scene behaviors, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship differed between

  1. Recordings of geomagnetically induced currents and a nowcasting service of the Finnish natural gas pipeline system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Viljanen; A. Pulkkinen; R. Pirjola; K. Pajunp; P. Posio; A. Koistinen

    2006-01-01

    The geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in the Finnish natural gas pipeline have been measured at one site in southern Finland since November 1998. We give an overview of this long and uniform time series covering one sunspot maximum. We also briefly discuss the conventional magnetic activity indices K and Ak, and, additionally, the range of the magnetic field and of

  2. Geography in the Finnish School Curriculum: Part of the "Success Story"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the status of geography education in the Finnish national curricula from the 1970s until today. Conceptions of teaching, learning and change in society are traced through curriculum texts; in addition, the ways in which these are applied in the subject-specified aims and content of the geography curriculum are explored.

  3. Non-Linear Modeling of Growth Prerequisites in a Finnish Polytechnic Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokelainen, Petri; Ruohotie, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the factors of growth-oriented atmosphere in a Finnish polytechnic institution of higher education with categorical exploratory factor analysis, multidimensional scaling and Bayesian unsupervised model-based visualization. Design/methodology/approach: This study was designed to examine employee perceptions of

  4. Changing Regulation and Governance of Finnish Energy Policy Making: New Rules but Old Elites?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilkka Ruostetsaari

    2010-01-01

    Energy policy making is commonly seen as a sector dominated more by experts and technocrats than politicians. Regulation of Finnish energy policy, which was traditionally characterized by state-centeredness and detailed governmental control, was step by step annulled in the mid-1980s on, and a deregulation policy was introduced. The return of regulation can be timed to in the beginning of the

  5. Analysing Finnish Steering System from the Perspective of Social Space: The Case of the "Campus University"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuthardt, Leena; Valimaa, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyses Finnish higher education steering system, management by results, from the perspective of higher education institutions. We ask what happens inside a higher education institution, called here the "Campus University", during the actual negotiations related to the national steering system. We analyse not only the management

  6. Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A): Overview and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Banerjee, P. Nina; Gissler, Mika; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; Huttunen, Jukka; Kulmala, Ulla; Lindroos, Jarna; Niemela, Solja; Rihko, Maria; Ristkari, Terja; Saanakorpi, Kristiina; Sarlin, Tanja; Sillanmaki, Lauri; McKeague, Ian W.; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Helenius, Hans; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (FIPS-A), a new study designed to examine the relationship between prenatal serologic factors, mediating and moderating developmental antecedents, and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The FIPS-A is based on register linkages between

  7. Enhancing Overseas Chinese Graduate Employability: The Case of Chinese Graduates with Finnish Academic Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance overseas Chinese graduate employability by taking Finnish-educated Chinese students/graduates as an example. In so doing, it understands that graduate employability development is a joint effort of multiple stakeholders including students, graduates, academics, program coordinators, employers, and policymakers.

  8. Second Home Countryside. Representations of the Rural in Finnish Popular Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vepsalainen, Mia; Pitkanen, Kati

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the representation of post-productive countryside in Finland by exploring how the rural is presented in the context of second home tourism. Being an integral part of rural areas and their history, second homes are an established example of the post-productive consumption of countryside. The international and Finnish

  9. Measuring Phonological Development: A Follow-Up Study of Five Children Acquiring Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaristo-Helin, Katri

    2009-01-01

    This study applies the Phonological Mean Length of Utterance measurement (PMLU; Ingram & Ingram, 2001; Ingram, 2002) to the data of five children acquiring Finnish and evaluates their phonological development longitudinally at four different age points: 2;0, 2;6, 3;0, and 3;6. The children's results on PMLU and related measures are discussed

  10. Towards ICT in Everyday Life in Finnish Schools: Seeking Conditions for Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Vahtivuori-Hanninen, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses how to strengthen educational use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Finnish schools. The conceptions and experiences of the successful integration of ICT in everyday school settings are reported. Participant observations in 20 schools in different parts of Finland were carried out, including discussions

  11. Population genetics of the invasive water weed Elodea canadensis in Finnish waterways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Huotari; H. Korpelainen; E. Leskinen; K. Kostamo

    2011-01-01

    Invasions of exotic species often involve a rapid evolutionary change in the introduced populations. Elodea canadensis is an invasive aquatic weed native to North America. Our aims were to reveal the evolutionary consequences of invasion to\\u000a the population genetic structure of the presumably clonal E. canadensis in Finland and to test the hypothesis that the whole Finnish population originates from

  12. Relationship of Gender and Academic Achievement to Finnish Students' Intercultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intercultural sensitivity of Finnish 12-16-year-old secondary school students (N=549) with a 23-item Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ICSSQ). The ICSSQ is based on Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which is a conceptual tool to situate certain reactions towards cultural

  13. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jussi-Pekka Rauha; Susanna Remes; Marina Heinonen; Anu Hopia; Marja Khknen; Tytti Kujala; Kalevi Pihlaja; Heikki Vuorela; Pia Vuorela

    2000-01-01

    Plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. Antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from Finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. The tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis,

  14. Behavioral and Emotional Strength-Based Assessment of Finnish Elementary Students: Psychometrics of the BERS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Savolainen, Hannu; Lambert, Matthew C.; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    When rating scales are used in different countries, thorough investigation of the psychometric properties is needed. We examined the internal structure of the Finnish translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2) using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis approaches with a sample of youth, parents, and teachers. The results

  15. Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a

  16. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in

  17. From Discrete to Transformed? Developing Inclusive Primary School Teacher Education in a Finnish Teacher Education Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naukkarinen, Aimo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the primary school teacher education curriculum reform currently under way in the Department of Teacher Education at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. A general overview of the Finnish context and relevant inclusive education policy issues are presented. The process of developing inclusive education in the curriculum and

  18. Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in an Adolescent Finnish Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Loo, Sandra K.; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Kaakinen, Marika; Humphrey, Lorie A.; McCracken, James T.; Varilo, Teppo; Yang, May H.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Peltonen, Leena; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its clinical characteristics in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that ADHD is common among Northern Finnish adolescents and is related with psychiatric comorbidity in adolescence.

  19. Measuring Distributive Justice Preferences of Finnish University Students via the State Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetoklis, Takis

    2007-01-01

    We measure the distributive justice preferences of students within eight departments in the faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Turku, Finland. We use the Finnish government's annual budget and its specific appropriations as a proxy to measure the students' underlying preferences. We test whether the type of studies of the respondents

  20. Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence for Linkage on Chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish Affected Sib Pairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumitra Ghosh; Richard M. Watanabe; Elizabeth R. Hauser; Timo Valle; Victoria L. Magnuson; Michael R. Erdos; Carl D. Langefeld; James Balow Jr.; Delphine S. Ally; Kimmo Kohtamaki; Peter Chines; Gunther Birznieks; Hong-Shi Kaleta; Anjene Musick; Catherine Te; Joyce Tannenbaum; William Eldridge; Shane Shapiro; Colin Martin; Alyson Witt; Alistair So; Jennie Chang; Ben Shurtleff; Rachel Porter; Kristina Kudelko; Arun Unni; Leonid Segal; Ravi Sharaf; Jillian Blaschak-Harvan; Johan Eriksson; Tuula Tenkula; Gabriele Vidgren; Christian Ehnholm; Eva Tuomilehto-Wolf; William Hagopian; Thomas A. Buchanan; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Richard N. Bergman; Francis S. Collins; Michael Boehnke

    1999-01-01

    We are conducting a genome scan at an average resolution of 10 centimorgans (cM) for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in 716 affected sib pairs from 477 Finnish families. To date, our best evidence for linkage is on chromosome 20 with potentially separable peaks located on both the long and short arms. The unweighted multipoint maximum logarithm of odds score

  1. Debating Educability: Diverging Social Representations of Abilities in Finnish Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rty, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    By surveying a representative sample of Finnish parents, this study set out to compare two social representations of intelligence current in our educational discourse: the established one, "the idea of natural giftedness", and an emerging one, "the idea of the multifariousness of abilities and support for social equality." It

  2. On the significance of the economic determinants of systematic risk: empirical evidence with Finnish data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teppo Martikainen

    1991-01-01

    The individual and incremental information content of different economic determinants of common stock systematic risk is determined in the Finnish stock market. Based on previous theoretical articles, four financial characteristics of a firm are investigated: profitability, financial leverage, operating leverage, and corporate growth, measured as growth in earnings and dividends. In three of the four subperiods, the most important factor

  3. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the

  4. Repeated Reading of Syllables among Finnish-Speaking Children with Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Sini; Aro, Mikko; Landerl, Karin; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of repeated reading on reading speed among 36 Finnish-speaking poor readers in Grades 4 to 6. A switching replications design was applied: Group A (n = 20) received training first, and during this period Group B (n = 16) acted as a control group. After a midpoint test, the design was switched. The training material

  5. A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjrklund, Tua A.; Nordstrm, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary

  6. Evaluating National Innovation Systems - Key Insights from the Finnish Innoeval Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annu Kotiranta; Tuomo Nikulainen; Antti-Jussi Tahvanainen; Matthias Deschryvere; Mika Pajarinen

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide new insights into the analysis of National Innovation Systems (NIS). Whereas the common approach is to analyze specific parts or a defined set of actors and their interactions, this paper attempts to take a more systemic approach by analyzing results of 13 surveys directed to different sets of actors related to the Finnish NIS. The

  7. Attitudes towards people with mental disorders: the psychometric characteristics of a Finnish questionnaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esa Aromaa; Asko Tolvanen; Jyrki Tuulari; Kristian Wahlbeck

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of mental disorders, espe- cially depression, increasingly creates concern for our mental, social and economic well-being. The public has insufficient knowledge about mental disorders and their treatment. A stigma is attached to mental disorders, which has a multifaceted impact on the lives of patients and their families. A Finnish general population survey studied knowledge of and attitudes

  8. A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 200929 35 The Role of the Forest Service

    E-print Network

    A Dynamic Invasive Species Research Vision: Opportunities and Priorities 2009­29 35 The Role and potential future invasive species and determine which ecosystems are most vulnerable to invasion regarding which species to attempt to control and where to control them. Multidisciplinary research teams

  9. Stability and change in minerotrophic peatlands, Sierra Nevada of California and Nevada. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolome, J.W.; Erman, D.C.; Schwarz, C.F.

    1990-02-01

    Minerotrophic peatlands or fens in California's Sierra Nevada are small wet meadows surrounded by mixed conifer forest. The dynamics of vegetation change at the meadow edge and the ages and development of fens were investigated, in the Sagehen Creek Basin near Truckee, California, through the use of radiocarbon dating of peat, pollen studies, examination of processes of peat development and accumulation, stand age analysis of trees around peatlands, and evaluation of tree-ring variation. These approaches were used to evaluate both short- and long-term changes. Fens varied in age from more than 8000 years to less than 1000 years old. Results suggest that overall fen development proceeds rapidly, with peat buildup dependent upon adequate moisture supply. During fen development trees repeatedly invade and retreat from the fen edges. The timing of invasions appear unrelated to events such as human disturbance and climatic change. Instead, changes are most likely to result from alterations in groundwater supply in interaction with tree establishment, longevity, and water uptake. Little evidence was found that accepted successional models which emphasize predictable and gradual vegetational development apply to fens in the Sagehen Basin.

  10. Nebraska Forest Service Coffee with a Forester

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Nebraska Forest Service Host a Coffee with a Forester Workshop NebraskaForestService 402W.allison@unl.edu 308.696.6718 A Coffee with a Forester workshop is the perfect opportunity to talk with your customers are just some of the groups that may want to host a Coffee with a Forester workshop. These workshops

  11. History of Palaeozoic Forests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Muenster's Palaeobotanical Research Group provides this site with links to Web sources dealing with Paleozoic forests. One educational highlight of the site is the regularly updated introductory text, "History of Palaeozoic Forests," by Hans Kerp, Head of the Palaeobotanical Research Group at Muenster. Available in both English and German, this text features information on the earliest land plants, Carboniferous swamps, and the first flowering plants, among other things. Here, readers will find overviews of biostratigraphic issues such as the existence of the Palaeophytic-Mesophytic boundary. The figures are comprised of Stratigraphic columns, illustrated landscape reconstructions, and paleogeographic maps. Other sections of the site include research, publications, news, and links to palaeobotany-related museums, societies, and courses.

  12. Mid Career Training of Indian Forest Service Officers: International Training Program

    E-print Network

    Zoo · Colorado State Forest Service · USDOI National Park Service, Rocky Mountain National Park Research and Education · Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy · Indian Forest Service · USDA Forest Service, Arapaho/Roosevelt National Forest, Canyon Lakes Ranger District · City of Fort Collins, Natural

  13. Lifestyles of private forest owners as an indication of social change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svantje Ziegenspeck; Ulf H rdter; Ulrich Schraml

    2004-01-01

    Research about small scale forest owners is often dominated by a focus on forest owner's professions. The sources of their income are expected to explain why people use their forest in the way they do it. Studies throughout Central Europe show that only a minority of the forest owners are still full-time farmers. Due to the increased mobility, many forest

  14. Colville study: Wood utilization for ecosystem management. Preliminary results of study of product potential from small-diameter stands. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Willits, S.; Barbour, R.J.; Tesch, S.; Ryland, D.; McNeel, J.

    1996-12-01

    The Colville Study was developed in 1994 to identify and evaluate a series of management options for achieving ecosystem objectives in dense stands of small diameter trees while also producing wood products. The Colville National Forest selected the Rocky II Timber Sale as an example of this type of stand that needed management to achieve the following goals: (1) create late successional forest structure, (2) decrease forest health risk from fire, insects, and disease, (3) improve wildlife habitat by providing large green trees and snags, and (4) improve stand aesthetics by decreasing stand density. The Colville Study was divided into four technical focus areas: Silviculture and Ecology, Forest Operations, Timber Conversion, and Economics.

  15. Global Forests Syllabus -1 GLOBAL FORESTS

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    on Forests Secretariat). Online at: http://www.grida.no/_res/site/file/publications/vital_forest_graphics.pdf humans began migrating out of Africa some 50,000 years ago, the extent of global forests has been reduced

  16. The forest behind the bar charts: bridging quantitative and qualitative research on Roma/Tigani in contemporary Romania.

    PubMed

    Rughini?, Cosima

    2010-01-01

    Rughini? discusses three controversial issues with regard to surveys of the Romani population: ethnonym use, self-identification versus hetero-attribution of Romani ethnicity, and the use of variables in reference to Romani settlements. She uses data sets from ten surveys of Romanian Roma between 2000 and 2008 as well as the 2002 Romanian Census to compare two types of samples, and to explore the consequences of several research choices for the quality of the data. In addition to specific methodological issues, Rughini? addresses the relevance to such surveys of qualitative research in Romani communities. PMID:20857577

  17. FORESTS AND WATER. effects of forest

    E-print Network

    FORESTS AND WATER. effects of forest management on floods, sedimentation, and water supply HENRY ..................................... 49 Fertilizers. Herbicides. and Insecticides ................... 52 Fertilizers.......................................... 52 Herbicides ......................................... 52 Insecticides

  18. The Forests of Southern New England, 2007

    E-print Network

    , Susan J. Crocker, Grant M. Domke, Dale Gormanson, William N. Hill, Cassandra M. Kurtz, Tonya Lister specialist with FIA, Northern Research Station, St. Paul, MN. Tonya Lister is a research forester with FIA

  19. Tropical forest conservation and development: A bibliography. Manual No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, J.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: forest resources; deforestation; conservation and sustainable development; indigenous peoples; management, policy, and planning; trade and industrial development; nontimber forest products; research, education, and training; history; bibliographies and general works; author index.

  20. Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Understanding Carbon Storage in Forests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DATA: Forest Inventory and Analysis data, TOOLS: isee Player, Spreadsheet application. SUMMARY: Compare field collected data with results produced by a forest biomass model to understand the process and challenges scientists face when doing terrestrial carbon cycle research.

  1. Technical Report TR-013 March 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-print Network

    Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife TR-013-751-7001 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Page Abstract

  2. Sau?-ne? [Finn] : a Finnish steam bath in which the steam is provided by water thrown on hot stones

    E-print Network

    Lindman, Pia Maria, 1965-

    1999-01-01

    A Finnish proverb says that the sauna is the most democratic space in the world . Here, we dismantle our vestments of social status and relax in a distinct social space where everyone shares the same basic needs of comfort ...

  3. Forest Research Executive Board Meeting (FREB) Minutes of the meeting held at Alice Holt on 24 August 2004

    E-print Network

    Head of Technical Services Group Head of Communications (to await arrival) Agenda Item 1 - Minutes & Development so that the FC consults research funders and stakeholders (the industry) in a single committee on a regular basis. Action: AM 5. Communications Director. The selection process for the Communications

  4. Forest Research Executive Board Meeting 30 October 2006 Present: Prof. J M Lynch (Chair) Dr H F Evans

    E-print Network

    with regard to personnel, financial and project management training. Her research started with a questionnaire. The needs of staff, in the case of personnel and project management, would best be served by externally Management process. #12;2 Agenda Item 5 ­ Feedback from GB EB 8. JL gave feedback from the GB EB which

  5. Hyperspectral forest monitoring and imaging implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, David G.; Bannon, David

    2014-05-01

    The forest biome is vital to the health of the earth. Canada and the United States have a combined forest area of 4.68 Mkm2. The monitoring of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of improved information products to land managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory (major forest species), forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon. Operationally there is a requirement for a mix of airborne and satellite approaches. This paper surveys some methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and discusses the implications for space initiatives with hyperspectral sensing

  6. Stat 301 Lab 9: Due November 17 Fall 2014 In a study of plant communities in tropical forests, researchers quantified the

    E-print Network

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    are from a dry deciduous tropical forest. 1. Consider the entire set of data for stems of different species1 Stat 301 Lab 9: Due November 17 Fall 2014 In a study of plant communities in tropical forests/g) in stems of different species of trees and shrubs in moist semi-evergreen and dry deciduous tropical

  7. Stat 301 Lab 9: Due November 17 Fall 2014 In a study of plant communities in tropical forests, researchers quantified the

    E-print Network

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    are from a dry deciduous tropical forest. 1. Consider the entire set of data for stems of different speciesStat 301 Lab 9: Due November 17 Fall 2014 In a study of plant communities in tropical forests/g) in stems of different species of trees and shrubs in moist semi-evergreen and dry deciduous tropical

  8. Biosciences Undergraduate Research at Nottingham School of Biosciences, UoN, 2009. 1 Assessing the link between forest composition and soil nutrient

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    losses. At present biodiversity is declining a thousand times faster than at rates found in the fossil Assessing the link between forest composition and soil nutrient availability in contrasting forest plots threat of global climate change, concern is growing about the consequence of large scale biodiversity

  9. A forest ecosystem guide for the Amos Lowlands Ecological Region, northwestern Quebec: A forest management approach.

    PubMed

    Cartier, P; Harvey, B D; Bergeron, Y

    1996-01-01

    In Quebec, forest stations are defined as forest units that are reasonably homogeneous in terms of forest composition and site characteristics - as expressed by surficial deposit and moisture regime - and within which similar operational constraints for silvicultural potential and productivity levels may be expected. In the course of developing a field guide to the forest stations of the Amos Lowlands Ecological Region in northwestern Quebec, classifications of 12 site types and 72 forest stations (38 forest cover types or 16 general cover types) were developed. The classifications were based on a hybrid approach involving cluster analysis of forest ecological units inventoried in subregional studies, classical classification and ordination analyses performed on a regional biophysical inventory database, and empirically associating forest cover types to site types. The guide, while similar to other published forest ecosystem classification guides, emphasizes forest dynamics by presenting forest stations common to a given site type according to their successional stage. Field keys and general interpretations of forest potential and operational constraints are included in the guide. A summary description of the guide and accompanying documents is provided. A first draft has been distributed recently for feedback from industrial and government foresters and researchers in the region. Analyses of inventory data is continuing and modifications will be incorporated into a second draft before publication in 1995. PMID:24198009

  10. The Effect of Pollution on Newly-Formed Particle Composition in Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaattovaara, Petri

    2010-05-01

    Petri Vaattovaara (1), Tuukka Petj (2), Jorma Joutsensaari (1), Pasi Miettinen (1), Boris Zaprudin (1,6), Aki Kortelainen (1), Juha Heijari (3,7), Pasi Yli-Piril (3), Pasi Aalto (2), Doug R. Worsnop (4), and Ari Laaksonen(1,5) (1) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (2) University of Helsinki, Finland (3) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (4) Aerodyne Research Inc., USA (5) Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland (6) Currently at University of Turku, Finland (7) Currently at Maritime Research Centre, Finland Email address of the Corresponding author: Petri.Vaattovaara@uef.fi The geographical extent of the tropical, temperate and boreal forests is about 30% of the Earth's land surface. Those forests are located around the world in different climate zones effecting widely on atmospheric composition via new particle formation. The Boreal forests solely cover one third of the forests extent and are one of the largest vegetation environments, forming a circumpolar band throughout the northern hemisphere continents, with a high potential to affect climate processes [1]. In order to more fully understand the possible climatic effects of the forests, the properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in varying conditions (e.g. a change in meteorological parameters or in the concentrations of biogenic and antropogenic trace gases) need to be better known. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer [2]) and the UFH-TDMA (ultrafine hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer [3]) methods parallel to shed light on the evolution of the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions (via physic-chemical properties) at a virgin boreal forest site in varying conditions. The measurements were carried out at Hyytil forest station in Northern Europe (Finland) during 15 spring nucleation events. We also carried out a statistical analysis using linear correlations in order to explain the variability in the composition behaviour of the particles during multiple nucleation events. The overall results show a clear anthropogenic influence on the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions during the events. The SO2/MTOP and NOx/MTOP (MTOP, monoterpene oxidation products) ratios explain most strongly the variation in the nucleation mode composition during clean and pollution-affected events, suggesting also the importance of organic sulfur compounds, in addition to other sulfur, nitrogen and organic compounds, in particle formation, composition and properties. During the cleanest events, MTOP explain significantly the time behaviour of the 10 nm particle composition with an estimated organic fraction of over 95%. [1] P. Tunved et al., 2006, Science, 312, 261-263. [2] P. Vaattovaara et al., 2005, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 3277-3287. [3] K. Hmeri et al., 2000, J. Geophys. Res. 105(D17), 22231-22242. [4] K. Sellegri et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 373-384. [5] M. Boy et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 863-878.

  11. New Hampshire's Forests Resource Bulletin

    E-print Network

    , Katherine Locke, Jason Morrison, Joyce Quinn, Ann Quinion, Keith Raymond, Jennifer Thompson, Bryan Tirrell. Butler, Grant M. Domke, Susan Francher, Mark H. Hansen, Mark A. Hatfield, Cassandra M. Kurtz, W. Keith with the FIA program, Northern Research Station, St. Paul, MN. Brett J. Butler is a research forester

  12. Hydrological recovery in forested landscapes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttle, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Considerable effort has been expended trying to understand how forest landscapes respond hydrologically to natural (e.g. fire) or anthropogenic (e.g. harvesting) disturbance. However, comparable emphasis has not been placed on assessing whether and how these landscapes recover from such disturbances. Hydrological recovery can be defined as the restoration of hydrologic characteristics (e.g. evapotranspiration rates, soil infiltrability) of disturbed and managed sites to a near pre-disturbance condition. Improved and sustainable use of forest resources depends on better knowledge of the spatial and temporal aspects of recovery of hydrologic properties and processes affected by forest disturbance. This enhanced understanding is particularly pressing given such issues as the implications of climate change for forest ecosystems and the transition of forest management in many regions from forestry for wood, pulp and paper to forest harvesting for biofuels, where the potential magnitude of forest disturbances and hydrological recovery times are largely unknown. Initial studies of hydrological recovery focused on streamflow changes at the basin scale due to forest disturbance and regeneration, while more recent work has examined a variety of hydrologic properties and processes across a range of scales. The differing approaches that are currently used to assess hydrological recovery will be examined, drawing examples of recovery rates of various hydrologic processes in different forest landscapes. Counter-intuitive findings of this research will be highlighted, efforts to incorporate models of hydrological recovery into forest management strategies will be reviewed, and important avenues for future research will be discussed.

  13. Research, part of a Special Feature on Crossing Scales and Disciplines to Achieve Forest Sustainability Sustaining Biodiversity in the Oregon Coast Range: Potential effects of Forest Policies in a Multi-ownership Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda C. McComb; Thomas A. Spies; Keith A. Olsen

    To understand the potential effects of forest policies on sustaining biological diversity at broad scales, we used spatial simulation models to evaluate current and potential future habitat availability over 100 yr for three focal species: Pacific Fisher ( Martes pennanti), Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus). The habitats of these species represent a broad range of spatial

  14. Forests & Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter discusses the disappearance of the world's forests and the resulting environmental problems of erosion and flooding; loss of genetic diversity; climatic changes such as less rainfall, and intensifying of the greenhouse effect; and displacement and destruction of indigenous cultures. The articles, lessons, and activities are

  15. A Student Guide to Tropical Forest Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This student guide provides an introduction to the types and value of tropical forests, deforestation, the practice of forestry, forestry research, and tropical forestry. The guide shows how modern practices can help stem the tide of forest destruction while continuing to provide valuable products for people. Examples of sustainable forestry are cited, which could be used as models for protecting and managing tropical forests worldwide.

  16. Snowmelt decreases in lower-density forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-05-01

    As climate change threatens global freshwater supplies, researchers are looking for better ways to manage water sources like snowmelt. Many regions of the world depend on annual snowmelt for water, and portions of these regions are also forested. Forest dynamics are complex and can vary widely depending on region, precipitation, altitude, and many other factors, which makes it difficult to determine whether dense forests retain snowpack or accelerate melt.

  17. Identification of fifteen novel PHEX gene mutations in Finnish patients with hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Tyynismaa, H; Kaitila, I; Nnt-Salonen, K; Ala-Houhala, M; Alitalo, T

    2000-04-01

    We have carried out a mutation screening of the PHEX gene in Finnish patients with hypophosphatemia. A total of 100% (5/5) of the familial HYP patients (X-linked hypophosphatemia) and 93% (14/15) of the sporadic cases were found to carry a mutation in the PHEX gene. We identified 18 mutations, of which 15 were novel. We report also a new polymorphism 46bp upstream of exon 16. Two families were segregating the same nonsense mutation in exon 1 (R20X), but since this mutation has been previously reported in three independent studies, we consider it to be a mutational hotspot rather than a Finnish founder mutation. We did not find PHEX gene mutations in two additional hypophosphatemia families in which the mode of inheritance was other than X-linked dominant. Also, no mutation could be detected in a patient with suspected oncogenic osteomalacia (OHO). PMID:10737991

  18. Children with Specific Language Impairment in Finnish: The Use of Tense and Agreement Inflections

    PubMed Central

    Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Leonard, Laurence B.; Mkinen, Leena; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) vary widely in their ability to use tense/agreement inflections depending on the type of language being acquired, a fact that current accounts of SLI have tried to explain. Finnish provides an important test case for these accounts because: (1) verbs in first and second person permit null subjects whereas verbs in third person do not; and (2) tense and agreement inflections are agglutinating and thus one type of inflection can appear without the other. Probes were used to compare the verb inflection use of Finnish-speaking children with SLI, and both age-matched and younger typically developing children. The children with SLI were less accurate, and the pattern of their errors did not match predictions based on current accounts of SLI. It appears that children with SLI have difficulty learning complex verb inflection paradigms apart from any problem specific to tense and agreement. PMID:21281548

  19. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity in Finnish cultivated sour cherry ( Prunus cerasus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Antonius; M. Aaltonen; M. Uosukainen; T. Hurme

    The Finnish national sour cherry germplasm collection was established in the end of 1980s following collection missions in\\u000a Southern Finland. The original plantation consisted of 122 trees representing 77 accessions of locally adapted cherry material.\\u000a Cultivar names of the collected samples were not known, and they were registered according to the collection site. Phenotypical\\u000a observations according to the Nordic Genebank

  20. Cross-mapping the Finnish Care Classification and the Oulu Patient Classification.

    PubMed

    Liljamo, Pia; Saranto, Kaija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of cross-mapping and validating the Finnish Care Classification, FinCC and the Oulu Patient Classification, OPC measurement tool for patient care intensity. The process will be carried out with two expert panels. This will result a cross-mapped classification system to use be used in every electronic patient record systems in Finland. PMID:24199095

  1. Comparison of allergic diseases, symptoms and respiratory infections between Finnish and Russian school children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Hugg; Risto Ruotsalainen; Maritta S. Jaakkola; Vadim Pushkarev; Jouni J. K. Jaakkola

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about differences in allergic and respiratory diseases between the Finnish and Russian populations. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study to compare the occurrence of allergic diseases and respiratory infections\\u000a among school children in the towns of Imatra in Finland and Svetogorsk in Russia on either side of the common border. The\\u000a study population consisted of

  2. Association of physical fitness with health-related quality of life in Finnish young men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arja Hkkinen; Marjo Rinne; Tommi Vasankari; Matti Santtila; Keijo Hkkinen; Heikki Kyrlinen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the relationship between level of physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in younger adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of measured cardiovascular and musculoskeletal physical fitness level on HRQoL in Finnish young men. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we collected data regarding the

  3. Carefree and injury prone young people: results from Finnish National Victimisation survey 20032006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Haikonen; J Markkula; A Lounamaa

    2010-01-01

    issueVictimisation surveys are used to compare 1524-year-olds with 2564-year-olds in terms of proportion injured and fear of injury.MethodsNational victimisation surveys are interview studies in which a systematic random sample of the Finnish population older than 15 years is interviewed about injuries, violence and crimes. The surveys have been conducted mainly by telephone in 1980, 1988, 1993, 1997, 2003, 2006 and

  4. Toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in Finnish fresh and coastal waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sivonen; S. I. Niemel; R. M. Niemi; L. Lepist; T. H. Luoma; L. A. Rasanenl

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the occurrence of toxic blooms of cyanobacteria in Finnish fresh and coastal waters was made during 1985 and 1986. Toxicity of the freeze-dried water bloom samples was tested by mouse-bioassay (i.p.). Forty-four per cent (83\\/188) of the bloom samples were found to be lethally toxic. Hepatotoxic blooms (54) were almost twice as common as neurotoxic ones (29).

  5. Contribution of parental and school personnel smoking to health risk behaviours among Finnish adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianna Virtanen; Minna Pietikinen; Mika Kivimki; Pauliina Luopa; Jukka Jokela; Marko Elovainio; Jussi Vahtera

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compared parental smoking with school personnel smoking in relation to adolescents' smoking behaviours, alcohol use, and illicit drug use. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey for 24,379 adolescents was linked to a survey for 1946 school employees in 136 Finnish schools in 2004-2005. Surveys included smoking prevalence reported by school staff, adolescents' reports of school staff and parental smoking,

  6. Hunt for the origin of allergy - comparing the Finnish and Russian Karelia.

    PubMed

    Haahtela, T; Laatikainen, T; Alenius, H; Auvinen, P; Fyhrquist, N; Hanski, I; von Hertzen, L; Jousilahti, P; Kosunen, T U; Markelova, O; Mkel, M J; Pantelejev, V; Uhanov, M; Zilber, E; Vartiainen, E

    2015-05-01

    The Finnish and Russian Karelia are adjacent areas in northern Europe, socio-economically distinct but geoclimatically similar. The Karelia Allergy Study was commenced in 1998 to characterize the allergy profiles in the two areas. Allergy prevalence had increased in Finland since the early 1960s, but the situation in Russia was unknown. The key finding was that allergic symptoms and diseases were systematically more common in Finnish children and adults than in their Russian counterparts. For example, in the early 2000s, hay fever in school children was almost non-existent in Russian Karelia, and only 2% were sensitized to birch pollen compared with 27% in Finnish Karelia. Adult birth cohorts showed that among those born in the 1940s, the sensitization to pollens and pets was at the same low level in both countries, but among younger generation born in the late 1970s, the difference was already manifold. Seropositivity to some pathogens, microbial content in house dust and drinking water seemed to confer allergy protection in Russia. In subsequent studies, it became apparent that on the Finnish side, healthy children had a more biodiverse living environment as well as greater diversity of certain bacterial classes on their skin than atopic children. Abundance of skin commensals, especially Acinetobacter (gammaproteobacteria), associated with anti-inflammatory gene expression in blood leucocytes. In vivo experiments with the mouse model demonstrated that intradermally applied Acinetobacter protected against atopic sensitization and lung inflammation. These observations support the notion that the epidemic of allergy and asthma results from reduced exposure to natural environments with rich microbiota, changed diet and sedentary lifestyle. Genetic studies have confirmed strong influence of lifestyle and environment. With our results from the Karelia study, a 10-year National Allergy Programme was started in 2008 to combat the epidemic in Finland. PMID:25772429

  7. Participation in Prenatal Screening Tests and Intentions Concerning Selective Termination in Finnish Maternity Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pivi Santalahti; Elina Hemminki; Arja R. Aro; Hans Helenius; Markku Ryynnen

    1999-01-01

    Aims: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with womens participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. Methods: Questionnaires were given to pregnant women visiting maternity centres in two Finnish towns in which serum screening was offered (n = 1,035) and

  8. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n=1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n=1,785) or other pervasive

  9. Attitudes towards people with mental disorders: the psychometric characteristics of a Finnish questionnaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esa Aromaa; Asko Tolvanen; Jyrki Tuulari; Kristian Wahlbeck

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe prevalence of mental disorders, especially depression, increasingly creates concern for our mental, social and economic\\u000a well-being. The public has insufficient knowledge about mental disorders and their treatment. A stigma is attached to mental\\u000a disorders, which has a multifaceted impact on the lives of patients and their families. A Finnish general population survey\\u000a studied knowledge of and attitudes towards mental

  10. Site characterization and qualitative human risk assessment for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Building Site, Forest Glen, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Nashold, B.; Meshkov, N.K.; Tome, C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Energy Systems Div.); Boparai, A.S.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Chemical Technology Div.); Sandberg, S.A. (Hydro-Terra, Inc., Columbia, MD (USA)); Foster, S.A.; Schweighauser, M.J. (Clement Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (USA)); Russell, J.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Biologi

    1990-07-01

    The proposed eight-acre building site for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) facility is a former uncontrolled landfill. As a prerequisite to foundation design and to formulation of an excavation plan, it was necessary to characterize the landfill materials and to conduct a qualitative human risk assessment. Chemical analysis of surface-water, groundwater, and landfill soils followed the analytical protocol promulgated under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Contract Laboratory Program for its Target Compound List of contaminants. This protocol was used to determine concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/pesticides, inorganic compounds, radioactive materials, asbestos, and many of the metals analyzed. 49 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Gnthardt-Goerg, M S; Mller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. PMID:20036449

  12. Finnish managers' careers in ICT and paper business sectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia Heilmann

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this research paper is to examine managers' careers, describe and compare career paths between the two most important business sectors in Finland: ICT industry and paper industry. The main research question of this study is: how do the managers construct their careers in ICT and the paper business sectors? Attempts to find out if there

  13. Uncertainty in future water supplies from forests: hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. A.; Achterman, G. L.; Alexander, L. E.; Brooks, K. N.; Creed, I. F.; Ffolliott, P. F.; MacDonald, L.; Wemple, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    Forests account for 33 percent of the U.S. land area, process nearly two-thirds of the fresh water supply, and provide water to 40 percent of all municipalities or about 180 million people. Water supply management is becoming more difficult given the increasing demand for water, climate change, increasing development, changing forest ownership, and increasingly fragmented laws governing forest and watershed management. In 2006, the US National Research Council convened a study on the present understanding of forest hydrology, the hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape, and research and management needs for sustaining water resources from forested landscapes. The committee concluded that while it is possible to generate short-term water yield increases by timber harvesting, there are a variety of reasons why active forest management has only limited potential to sustainably increase water supplies. These include the short-term nature of the increases in most environments, the timing of the increases, the need for downstream storage, and that continuing ground- based timber harvest can reduce water quality. At the same time, past and continuing changes in forest structure and management may be altering water supplies at the larger time and space scales that are of most interest to forest and water managers. These changes include the legacy of past forest management practices, particularly fire suppression and clearcutting; exurban sprawl, which permanently converts forest land to nonforest uses; effects of climate change on wildfires, insect outbreaks, forest structure, forest species composition, snowpack depth and snowmelt; road networks; and changes in forest land ownership. All of these changes have the potential to alter water quantity and quality from forests. Hence, the baseline conditions that have been used to estimate sustained water yields from forested watersheds may no longer be applicable. Stationarity also can no longer be assumed for the long-term control watersheds that have served as the cornerstone for most watershed-scale forest hydrology studies. The net result is that forest and water managers are facing greater uncertainty about future water supplies, water quality, and aquatic ecosystems, and their planning must consider a broader range of future scenarios than in the past. In this presentation, we outline a way forward for the research community to address the challenging questions of the future related to forests and water, and we chart a path for the involvement of various stakeholder groups to engage in water resources research, monitoring and policy formation.

  14. Nonmarket economic impacts of forest insect pests: A literature review. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, R.S.; Smith, E.L.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of research on the nonmarket economic impacts of forest insect pests. The majority of the research reports are journal articles or fulfillment of three USDA Forest Service research contracts. This report also reviews the foundations for methodologies used and classifies the forest insect pests studied, the regions in which research has been conducted, the designated land-use areas, the stakeholders, the values, the measurement methods used, and the measures of value indicators. Information on each research project is described with relevant information condensed in tabular form.

  15. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  16. Nest predator distribution among clearcut forest, forest edge and forest interior in an extensively forested landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David I King; Curtice R Griffin; Richard M DeGraaf

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of avian and mammalian nest predator species in clearcut forest, forest edge and forest interior habitats was assessed on four study plots in 1992 and 1993 using line transect counts. Red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were detected more often than expected by chance in mature forest than clearcut forest (P<0.05). Linear regressions of sciurid

  17. Forest Resources and Management

    E-print Network

    Forest Resources and Management Centre for The Centre for Forest Resources and Management aims the forest resource. Our aim is that British forests from their creation to maturity and regeneration-energy development, forest resource forecasting, genetic improvement, woodland regeneration and creation, management

  18. TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS

    E-print Network

    SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS #12;2 SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS2 #12;SCOTLAND'S TREES FOR THE ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER 4 FORESTS FOR THE ECONOMY CHAPTER 5 SCOTLAND'S REMARKABLE TREES CHAPTER 6 FINDING OUT MORE SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS #12;4 SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS4 This booklet is written

  19. Characteristics of Finnish and Swedish intensive care nursing narratives: a comparative analysis to support the development of clinical language technologies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Free text is helpful for entering information into electronic health records, but reusing it is a challenge. The need for language technology for processing Finnish and Swedish healthcare text is therefore evident; however, Finnish and Swedish are linguistically very dissimilar. In this paper we present a comparison of characteristics in Finnish and Swedish free-text nursing narratives from intensive care. This creates a framework for characterising and comparing clinical text and lays the groundwork for developing clinical language technologies. Methods Our material included daily nursing narratives from one intensive care unit in Finland and one in Sweden. Inclusion criteria for patients were an inpatient period of least five days and an age of at least 16 years. We performed a comparative analysis as part of a collaborative effort between Finnish- and Swedish-speaking healthcare and language technology professionals that included both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The qualitative analysis addressed the content and structure of three average-sized health records from each country. In the quantitative analysis 514 Finnish and 379 Swedish health records were studied using various language technology tools. Results Although the two languages are not closely related, nursing narratives in Finland and Sweden had many properties in common. Both made use of specialised jargon and their content was very similar. However, many of these characteristics were challenging regarding development of language technology to support producing and using clinical documentation. Conclusions The way Finnish and Swedish intensive care nursing was documented, was not country or language dependent, but shared a common context, principles and structural features and even similar vocabulary elements. Technology solutions are therefore likely to be applicable to a wider range of natural languages, but they need linguistic tailoring. Availability The Finnish and Swedish data can be found at: http://www.dsv.su.se/hexanord/data/. PMID:21992572

  20. Multiple effects of forest management onMultiple effects of forest management on cerulean warblers in the Appalachiancerulean warblers in the Appalachian

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    affect CERW? Can we improve quality of habitat using forest management? #12;4/25/2009 3 Previous research of 2006: Experimentally manipulate forest stands by thinning4/25/2009 1 Multiple effects of forest management onMultiple effects of forest management