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1

Biotechnology as a Competitive Edge for the Finnish Forest Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have collected information by interviewing all identified parties within the Finnish forest sector who might have a potential biotechnology connection : university research groups, research institutions, small and medium-sized biotechnology-companies and up to the largest forest companies. The ultimate goal was to assess how resources have been allocated and biotechnologies utilized within the value chain of

Terhi Hakala; Olli Haltia; Raine Hermans; Martti Kulvik; Hanna Nikinmaa; Albert Porcar-Castell; Tiina Pursula

2007-01-01

2

Econometric analysis of forest conservation: the Finnish experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the dynamic effects of forest conservation measures. Both short-term and long-term impacts on timber markets are studied using a Finnish example. Forest conservation is interpreted as an exogenous negative shock in the standing timber growth owned by private forest owners, and its effects are retrieved through an impulse response analysis based on a dynamic demand supply and

Mikael Linden; Jussi Uusivuori

2002-01-01

3

Finnish Research Network for Generation Four Nuclear Energy Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives the reasoning for establishing a Finnish research network on future nuclear energy systems. This research network would be closely linked to the ongoing international efforts, which are also described here. The Finnish Generation IV rese...

2008-01-01

4

Finnish nursing research: Issues and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finnish nursing science has advanced by leaps and bounds during the past two decades. The overriding objective of nursing research has been to increase our understanding and knowledge of nursing phenomena to better promote the health and well-being of individuals and, by the same token, influence the nation's public health. This article provides an overview of issues and challenges of

Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen

2000-01-01

5

Forest biorefineries – A business opportunity for the Finnish forest cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioenergy and biomass-based products offer the greatest new opportunities for diversifying business in the forest cluster. In particular, biorefineries, which can be integrated into the pulp and paper industry, seem to have immense future potential. This article aims to explore the biorefinery concept and related new products and business operations, as well as new business strategies and company models, which

Sari Hämäläinen; Annukka Näyhä; Hanna-Leena Pesonen

2011-01-01

6

Use, Production, and Competitiveness of Wood Chips as a Fuel - According to the Finnish Forest Development Programme ''Forest 2000''.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the use, production and competitiveness of wood chips as a fuel. The harvesting potential of wood chips as a fuel is also presented regarding the Finnish forest development programme ''Forest 2000''. As a district heating fuel wood c...

A. Vitikka

1987-01-01

7

The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring plots in Finland have recently been included in LTER platforms, thus potentially increasing scientific collaboration between researchers across different governmental institutes and education bodies.

Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

2007-12-01

8

European Forest Institute: Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This European Forest Institute (EFI) is "An independent non-governmental organization conducting European forest research." This website provides information about EFI's mission, research goals, strategies and programs. Site users can view information about on-going and completed projects in any of the four EFI research programs which include: Forest Ecology and Management, Forest Products Markets and Socio-Economics, Policy Analysis, and Forest Resources and Information. EFI also provides a search engine for locating specific research projects as well as information about how to propose an EFI project.

9

Finnish forest energy systems and CO 2 consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of wood fuel production technology has been active in Finland since 1993, when the Ministry of Trade and Industry started eight new energy technology research and development programmes, one of which is the Bioenergy Research Programme. The objective is to improve the competitiveness of indigenous fuels—wood fuel and fuel peat—compared to imported fossil fuels.Due to new, effective equipment

Antti Korpilahti

1998-01-01

10

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013 ... Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and ... technically suitable forest lands using geographic information systems analysis, Iverson, ... Influence of herbivory and competition on invasive weed fitness: ...

11

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and ... 1992 Forest Service/IUFRO Workshop on AI and Related Topics, Schmoldt, Daniel L. ... A Computer Program You Can Use: Edging and Trimmer Trainer ...

12

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and ... 1992 Forest Service/IUFRO Workshop on AI and Related Topics, Schmoldt, Daniel L. 1993, -- ... 3-D Signal Processing in a Computer Vision System, Zhu, Dongping; ...

13

Forest products research and development organizations ...  

Treesearch

Forest Service National Links, Forest Service Home, Employment, Fire and ... The lead administrator of each organization was given an opportunity to ... Keywords: Research projects, commercial products, testing, forest products, ... review article, management, policies, programs, forest products laboratories, product testing.

14

Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station ...  

Treesearch

Title: Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. ... Most of the edition has been distributed to lumbermen, foresters and librarians. ... It has undoubtedly started some new lines of thought and introspection in the ...

15

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and ... Science. gov - We Participate ... and conservation implications, Haag, Wendell R.; Rypel, Andrew L.. ... Brain L; Iliff, Marshall J.; Ralph, Peter L.; Ralph, C. J.; Kelling, Steven T. ... Understanding the social and economic transitions of forest ...

16

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and Development ... A Hierarchical Model and Analysis of Factors Affecting the Adoption of ... Eggs from Russia and the United States After Exposure to Different ...

17

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and Development ... Differential expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium of membrane- associated proteins ... Single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity, Rong, Xiaoying; Qi, ... Characterization of nonderivatized plant cell walls using ...

18

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and ... Outdoor weathering of sol-gel-treated wood, Tshabalala, Mandla A; Libert, Ryan; ... Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project FY08 Progress Report, Shaw,  ...

19

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and ... 1: Planning a native plant nursery, Wilkinson, Kim M.; Landis, Thomas D. 2009, -- ... Outdoor weathering of sol-gel-treated wood, Tshabalala, Mandla A; Libert, Ryan; ...

20

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and Development ... Subsurface drip irrigation for native wildflower seed production, Shock, Clint C.; ... Surface modification of wood by alkoxysilane sol-gel deposition to create ...

21

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and Development ... Wood surface modification by in-situ sol-gel deposition of hybrid ... Invasion by non-native brook trout in Panther Creek, Idaho: Roles of habitat quality, biotic ...

22

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and Development ... The effects of wildfire on native tree species in the Middle Rio Grande bosques of ... Surface modification of wood by alkoxysilane sol-gel deposition to create ...

23

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Marketing of specialty forest products in the southeast: opportunities for research, ... Daniel L.; Occena, Luis G.; Abbott, A. Lynn; Gupta, Nand K. 1999, -- ... The world wide web: an emerging technology for marketing special ...

24

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Treesearch: Your onestop site for US Forest Service Research and Development Publications online. ... Effects of biomass removal treatments on stand-level fire ... Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Chen, Jiquan; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Cook, David ... Short-term response of ground-dwelling arthropods to prescribed ...

25

Researching the Rain Forest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An autobiography of a female ecologist working in the Costa Rican rainforest is provided as an inspiration for girls. The scientist briefly tells her life story and describes her research activities. (LZ)|

Chazdon, Robin L.

1995-01-01

26

Family Nursing Research for Practice: The Finnish Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the efforts of the Department of Nursing Science, University of Tampere, Finland, to advance knowledge about family nursing over the past 15 years. Definitions of family, family nursing, and family nursing science are offered. Programs of research include families’ experiences of care received in health care settings, family violence and child maltreatment, and the psychometric development of

Päivi Åstedt-Kurki

2010-01-01

27

Forest Service Watershed Research in the Southwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest watershed research in the Southwest started in Arizona because of concerns about sediment inputs into the newly constructed Roosevelt Reservoir. The Summit Plots were established in 1925 to study the effects of vegetation establishment and mechanical soil stabilization on stormflow and sediment yields. In 1932 the Forest Service dedicated the Parker Creek Experimental Forest, later renamed Sierra Ancha Experimental

Daniel G. Neary; Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano; Malchus B. Baker

28

Barriers to and facilitators of research utilization among Finnish registered nurses.  

PubMed

1. The aim of nursing research is to produce a sound foundation for evidence-based nursing; the job of nurses is to make the best possible use of that foundation and apply the knowledge produced to the practice of nursing. 2. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe barriers to and facilitators of research utilization from the point of view of Finnish Registered Nurses. 3. The BARRIERS Scale was administered to 316 nurses in two major hospitals; 253 nurses returned the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 80%. The structured data were processed with SPSS 9.0, and the unstructured data were interpreted using the method of content analysis. 4. The main barriers to research utilization identified by the respondents were: the fact that most research is published in a foreign language; that physicians will not co-operate with implementation; and that statistical analyses are difficult to understand. The facilitators mentioned most often were nurses' positive attitudes and abilities. Other important facilitators included the support and activity of a ward sister as well as encouragement, a favourable attitude and collaboration on the part of all staff members. 5. The findings are discussed in relation to the Finnish healthcare context and nurse education, and evidence-based nursing practice. PMID:11903720

Oranta, Olli; Routasalo, Pirkko; Hupli, Maija

2002-03-01

29

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013 ... Forest resources of the Nez Perce National Forest, Disney, Michele, 2010, -- ... Appalachian Watersheds, Dolloff, C. Andrew; Jennings, Holly E. 1997, -- ... Wildfire risk and housing prices: a case study from Colorado Springs.

30

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Red Pine Pocket Mortality - Unknown Cause, United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest ... HOW to Identify and Control Noninfectious Diseases of Trees, USDA Forest ... Permanent sample plots, Woolsey, Theodore S. 1912, --.

31

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Red Pine Pocket Mortality - Unknown Cause, United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest ... HOW to Identify and Control Noninfectious Diseases of Trees, USDA Forest Service Northern ... Permanent sample plots, Woolsey, Theodore S. 1912, --.

32

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013 ... Human Dimensions of Forest Disturbance by Insects: An International ... Nanomaterials in the forest products industry, Moon, Robert J. 2008, -- ... Effects of pore-scale dispersion, degree of heterogeneity, sampling size, and ...

33

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012... Pedigrees, Sewell, Mitchell M.; Sherman, Bradley K.; Neale, David B. 1998, -- ... Non-timber forest products in Central Appalachia: market ... The world wide web: an emerging technology for marketing special forest products ...

34

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Global Forest Information Service ... Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire ... Baboquivari Mountain plants: Identification, ecology, and ethnobotany [book review], Pendleton, Rosemary L. 2011, --.

35

Democratic Deliberations in the Finnish Elementary Classroom: The Dilemmas of Deliberations and the Teacher's Role in an Action Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finnish youth are found to be, despite their broad knowledge, uninterested in politics and in societal participation. As a remedy, international studies suggest enabling democratic experiences in schools. This article discusses an action research project aimed at developing deliberation-based democratic practice in an elementary classroom.…

Tammi, Tuure

2013-01-01

36

A GDSS-Based Approach to the Strategy Analysis of Forest Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the results of a study where a GDSS-approach was used for a SWOT-based strategy analysis of the Finnish forest industries. Forest industries belong to the basic, strategic industries in the world, and they have a great importance for the Finnish economy. This study is the first part of a research program that aims at finding

Jukka Korpela; Pentti Sierila; Markku Tuominen

2001-01-01

37

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... Employment, Fire and Aviation, International Forestry, Just for Kids, Maps and Brochures ... 2005, The banded elm bark beetle: A new threat to elms in North America ... of the American elm on the Chippewa National Forest through generation of ... 2004, Native and exotic insects and diseases in forest ecosystems in the ...

38

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Global Forest Information Service ... Improving the performance of painted wood siding : rain screen, end-grain seal, and back priming, Burke, Edward ... Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States, Burns, ... the United Kingdom: market needs and satisfaction with U. S. Products, Bush, ...

39

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013 ... Assessing surface area of coarse woody debris with line intersect and ... western hemlock forest stands: a matrix model with stand diversity effects. ... soil fumigation and surface containment treatment in bare-root forest nurseries ... Predicting Potential Changes in Suitable Habitat and Distribution by 2100 ...

40

CLIMATE CHANGE MODELS AND FOREST IMPACTS RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent Earth Summit in Rio has once again focused world attention on the importance of climate, human and biological interactions. nder programs such as the Forest Service Global Change Research Program (FSGCRP), scientists are exploring and assessing a variety of forest reso...

41

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... Jersey Pinelands, Sumner, David M.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Clark, Kenneth L. ... in forest seedling nurseries and efforts to acquire registration, Starkey, Tom E.; ... planting the SEED to get youth outdoors in nature, Chavez, Deborah J.; Fehr, ...

42

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... forest road sideslopes, Grace, Johnny M., III; Rummer, Robert; Stokes, Bryce J. 1997, -- ... Physical and mechanical properties of clear wood, Green, David W.; White, ... Greenlaw, Jon S.; Shackelford, Clifford E.; Brown, Raymond E. 1998, -- ...

43

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Permanent sample plots, Woolsey, Theodore S. 1912, -- ... HOW to Identify and Control Noninfectious Diseases of Trees, USDA Forest Service ... Red Pine Pocket Mortality - Unknown Cause, United States Dept. of Agriculture, ...

44

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Permanent sample plots, Woolsey, Theodore S. 1912, -- ... HOW to Identify and Control Stem Rusts of Jack Pine, Robbins, Kathryn; Smeltzer, Dale K.; ... Red Pine Pocket Mortality - Unknown Cause, United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest ...

45

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... of hemp fiber polypropylene composites at different operating temperatures, Tajvidi, ... Length of multiple-funnel traps affects catches of smoke bark and wood ... Spatial and temporal variation in invertebrate consumer diets in forested and ...

46

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... and structure, Kampe, Thomas U.; Johnson, Brian R.; Kuester, Michele; Keller, Michael. ... 2011, Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security ... 2010, Invasive species and disturbances: Current and future roles of Forest ...

47

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Sediment production and runoff from forest road sideslopes, Grace, Johnny M., ... Photosynthesis and xanthophyll cycle-mediated photoprotection in ... Host fishes and reproductive biology of 6 freshwater mussel species from ...

48

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... All Treesearch publications were written or produced by Forest Service personnel ... Decline of a diverse fish fauna: patterns of imperilment and ... Age- class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir ...

49

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012... I. R.; Urbanski, Shawn; Miller, W.; Weise, D. R.; Johnson, T. J., 2010, -- ... the timber rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus, in eastern Texas, Rudolph, ... Northeastern Forests, Franzreb, Kathleen E.; Rosenberg, Kenneth V. 1997, --.

50

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

1993, Interplanting woody nurse crops promotes differential growth of black ... semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in ... Ryazanova, T. V.; Gromoykh, V. S.; Prudnicova, S. V.; Tulpanova, V. A., RMRS.

51

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012... Finch, Deborah M.; Block, William M.; Fletcher, Reg A.; Fager, Leon F. ... Conserving biodiversity using risk management: hoax or hope? ... Ohio's forests and wood-using industries, Hutchinson, O. Keith; Morgan, James T.

52

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sediment production and runoff from forest road sideslopes, Grace, Johnny M., III; ... Competition-Induced Reductions in Soil Water Availability Reduced Pine ... Blue-stain Fungi Associated with Roots of Southern Pine Trees Attacked by the ...

53

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

2005, Invasion by a N2-fixing tree alters function and structure in wet lowland ... 2010, Invasive species and disturbances: Current and future roles of Forest ... 2008, Invasive species detection in Hawaiian rainforests using airborne imaging  ...

54

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

2008, Forest fires in the insular Caribbean, Robbins, A.M.J.; Eckelmann, C.M.; Quiñones, M. IITF ... Schaffner, Urs; Ridenour, Wendy M.; Wolf, Vera C.; Bassett, Thomas; Muller, Caroline; Muller-Scharer, Heinz; ... Return to the Treesearch Home ...

55

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Projecting Forest Policy and Management Effects across Ownerships in Coastal ... Of Wisconsin: Pilot Monitoring Project 2002, Cumming, Anne Buckelew; Nowak , ... Bujanovic, Biljana; Hirth, Kolby C.; Ralph, Sally A.; Reiner, Richard S.; Atalla,  ...

56

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012... Christian; Talbert, Luther E.; Lamb, Peggy; Carlson, Gregg R. 2009, -- ... and challenges for the forest products sector, Patterson, T.M.; Coelho, D.L., 2009, -- ... Stropki, Cody L.; Ffolliott, Peter F.; Gottfried, Gerald J. 2009, --.

57

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Spatial Assessment of Model Errors from Four Regression Techniques, Zhang, ... tropical forest cover change as observed with multiple scales of optical satellite data. ... Spray Distribution of Boomless Nozzles: The Boomjet 5880, Radiarc and  ...

58

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... of Piedmont Loblolly Pine After Severa1 Site Preparation and Regeneration ... Assessing pine regeneration for the South Central United States, McWilliams, ... The use of remote sensing for updating extensive forest inventories, Kelly, John F  ...

59

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012... sensing to forested ecosystems, Iverson, Louis R.; Lambert Graham, Robin; Cook, Elizabeth A. 1989, -- ... Logging Damage, Nyland, Ralph D. 1989, -NC- ... Seeding and Planting Upland Oaks, Johnson, Paul S. 1989, -NC-.

60

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... despite turbulence of the economic crisis : wood energy markets, 2008-2009 ... Investigating the use of small-diameter softwood as guardrail posts (dynamic test ... forest cover change as observed with multiple scales of optical satellite data.

61

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Band vs. Circular Sawmills: Relative Labor & Maintenance Costs, Steele, Philip ... and habitat use in three forest types in eastern Texas, Shackelford, Clifford E.; ... Johnson-Maynard, J. L.; McDaniel, P. A.; Ferguson, D. E.; Falen, A. L., 1997, --.

62

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

All Treesearch publications were written or produced by Forest Service ... Johnson, Brittany G.; Johnson, Dale W.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Blank, Robert ... First county records of red crossbill in the pineywoods region of eastern Texas, Schaefer, ...

63

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013 ... All Treesearch publications were written or produced by Forest ... Restoration of pitcher plant bogs in eastern Texas, USA, Mize, ... Circumpolar variation in periodicity and synchrony among gypsy moth populations, Johnson, ...

64

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

2006, Long-term changes in forest structure and species composition of an upland oak ... Borkh., American chestnut, Fagaceae (Beech Family), Wang, G. Geoff; Knapp, .... 1954, A potential timber-type Chinese chestnut, Diller, Jesse D. NRS.

65

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012... Jose F.; Costello, Sheryl L.; Rhoades, Charles C.; West, Daniel R.; ... Rotation Length for Forest Wildlife, Backs, Steven E.; Titus, Russel R. 1989, -NC- ... on Moisture Movement, Harris, Robert A.; Schroeder, James G.; Addis, ...

66

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... on tanoak, Beh, Maia M.; Metz, Margaret; Seybold, Steven J.; Rizzo, David, PSW ... changes in redwood forests caused by sudden oak death, Cobb, Richard C.; ... Davidson, J. M.; Patterson, H. A.; Wickland, A. C.; Fichtner, E. J.; Rizzo, D. M. ...

67

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... changes in redwood forests caused by sudden oak death, Cobb, Richard C.; ... Grunwald, Niklaus J.; Garbelotto, Matteo; Goss, Erica M.; Huengens, Kurt; ... Davidson, J. M.; Patterson, H. A.; Wickland, A. C.; Fichtner, E. J.; Rizzo, D. M., PSW.

68

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... Maps From TwoOutbred Three-Generation Pedigrees, Sewell, Mitchell M.; ... distribution of nozzles used for herbaceous plant control, Miller, James H. 1994, - - ... Thirty years of management on a small longleaf pine forest, Boyer, William D.

69

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... using artificial infestation, Montgomery, Michael E.; Bentz, S.E.; Olsen, Richard T. NRS ... 2003, Mapping forest risk associated with the hemlock woolly adelgid ... Bentz, S. E.; Griesbach, Robert J.; Pooler, Margaret R.; Townsend, A. M., NRS.

70

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Reinforcement of Wood Pallets with Metal Connector Plates, Clarke, John W.; McLain, Thomas ... The Central Hardwood Forest, Clark, F. Bryan, 1989, -NC- ... Clark, Neil A.; Zarnoch, Stanley J.; Clark, Alexander, III; Reams, Gregory A. 2001, --.

71

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... and developing international collaborations in forest pathology, Cannon, Phil ... Sweeney, Katarina; Stone, Jeffrey; Cook, Kathy; Sniezko, Richard A.; Kegley, ... Jurgens, Joel A.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Zambino, Paul J.; David, Andrew, RMRS  ...

72

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013 ... Building social capital in forest communities: Analysis of New ... Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent of aerosols observed by the Chinese ... Imidacloprid mobility and logevity in soil columns at a termiticidal ...

73

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

2009, An economic impact assessment for oak wilt in Anoka County, Minnesota ... 2007, A review of introductions of pathogens and nematodes for classical biological ... 2010, Arkansas' forests, 2005, Rosson, James F.; Rose, Anita K. SRS.

74

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

2011, Effectiveness of Cedar Oil Products for Preventing Host Use by Ips avulsus ... of pines with natural and artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in Texas ... communities in the Linville Gorge Wilderness, western North Carolina, Elliott, ... 2013, 8 Forests and Climate Change in the Southeast, McNulty, Steven; Sun, ...

75

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013 ... Pyranose 2-oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium ... Pollock, Jarrod L.; Callaway, Ragan M.; Thelen, Giles C.; Holben, William E. 2009, -- ... of planted forests, Powers, R.F.; Tiarks, A.E.; Burger, J.A.; Carter, M.C., 1996, --.

76

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013... Maps and Brochures, Passes and Permits, Photo and Video Gallery, Publications ... Linking 3D spatial models of fuels and fire: Effects of spatial heterogeneity ... Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 ... Measurements of trace gases and particles in fresh and aged smoke ...

77

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Ethanol and (-)-?-pinene: attratant kairomones for bark ad ambrosia beetles in the ... Visualization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose using AFM phase imaging, Liu, Hao; ... Do fungi have a role as soil stabilizers and remediators after forest fire? ... Any, INT, FPL, NA, NC, NE, NRS, PNW, PSW, RM, RMRS, SE, SO, SRS, WO.

78

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013 ... A red-cockaded woodpecker group with two simultaneous nest trees ... Accuracy of tracking forest machines with GPS, Veal, M.W.; Taylor, S.E.; ... Ferguson, Dennis; Harvey, Al; Mahalovich, Mary Francis; McDonald, Geral I.; ...

79

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Paying our way: thinking strategically to offset the cost of reducing fire hazard ... Susanne C.; Neilson, Ronald P.; O'Halloran, Kathy; Peterson, David L. 2008, -- ... Circulionidae: Scolytinae) invasion in Eastern U.S. forests, Koch, F. H.; Smith ... Acoustic evaluation of Alaskan young-growth wood, Wang, Xiping; Ross, Robert J.

80

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... Small-diameter roundwood, strong-post W-beam guardrail systems ... Himes, John G.; Hardy, Laurence M.; Rudolph, D. Craig; Burgdorf, Shirley J. 2006, -- ... forest cover change as observed with multiple scales of optical satellite data. ... Comparing riparian and catchment influences on stream habitat in a ...

81

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Carbohydrate reserves in Acer saccharum trees damaged during the ... Michael A.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Joshua B. 2005, -- ... Applications of satellite remote sensing to forested ecosystems, Iverson, Louis R.; Lambert Graham, Robin; Cook, Elizabeth A. 1989, -- ... Last Modified: July 1, 2013.

82

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

A Simple Competition Assessment System Associated with Intensive Competition ... Species abundances, guild dominance patterns, and community structure of ... Building a Forest Resource Constituency, Brockway, D.G.; [Editor], 1989, -- ... Response of Sapling Stands to Cultural Treatment, Smith, H. Clay, 1989, -NC-.

83

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... in Municipal Solid Waste from the Quarantine Area of New York City to Landfills Outside ... 2010, Modeling spatial establishment patterns of exotic forest insects in urban ... Anoplophora glabripennis, towards objects of different shapes and colors ... 2003, Effects of temperature on the life history parameters of Anoplophora ...

84

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012... Lee, Jae-Won; Rodrigues, Rita C.L.B.; Jeffries, Thomas W. 2009, --100 ... Kubicek, Christian P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; ... Ore was the biggest producer in a year that ended with a whimper, Spelter, Henry, 2009, -- 34 ... Testing for change in structural elements of forest inventories ...

85

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... in Control and Burned Forested Sites, Knoepp, Jennifer D.; Swank, Wayne T. ... measurements in paper, Vahey, David W.; Considine, John M.; Kahra, Andy; ... K. ; Cumming, G.S.; Ernest, S.K.M.; Findlay, C.S.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Stevens, R.D.; ...

86

Lost Forest Research Natural Area,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research natural area is a part of a federal system of such tracts established for research and educational purposes. Each of these constitutes a site where some natural features are preserved for scientific purposes and natural processes are allowed ...

W. H. Moir J. F. Franklin C. Maser

1973-01-01

87

Science Advisory Board Review of the Forest Effects Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Science Advisory Board review document of the Forest Effects Research Program lays out the rationale, scope, and approach for implementing a joint research program sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Forest Service to invest...

A. Fege A. M. Bartuska E. B. Cowling J. E. Barnard R. L. Bradow

1985-01-01

88

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Sep 21, 2012 ... The Changing Hardwood Export Market and Research to Keep the U.S. Competitive ... Oak Pests Image Library, Wilson, A. Dan; Lester, D.G., 1998, --. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System Technology for the Hardwood ...

89

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... Peter F.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hokit, Grant; Maxell, Bryce A.; Munger, ... North American long-term soil productivity research program, Tiarks, Allan E.; ... Nursery manual for native plants: A guide for tribal nurseries - Volume 1: ...

90

Timber Bridge Research by the Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive timber bridge research program is currently in progress at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. Much of this research is funded through the Timber Bridge Initiative and involves cooperative work with universities, local government agencies, and other branches of the USDA Forest Service. Within the program, major research is included in the areas of engineering design criteria,

Michael A. Ritter; Russell C. Moody

1991-01-01

91

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... Photo and Video Gallery, Publications, Recreational Activities, Research and ... Enhancing fire science exchange: The Northern Rockies Fire Science ... Resilience and high performance: What the wildland fire community can learn from the U.S. Military ... Chemical and physical transformations of organic aerosol from the ...

92

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Research on the biology of fusiform rust in the southeastern United States, Spaine, Pauline ... History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly ... Spies, T.A.; Johnson, K.N.; Burnett, K.M.; Ohmann, J.L.; McComb, B.C.; ...

93

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... Photo and Video Gallery, Publications, Recreational Activities, Research and ... Influence of volcanic history on groundwater patterns on the west slope of the ... of marginality and ethnicity theory, Johnson, Cassandra Y.; Bowker, J. Michael; ... identities in rural Charleston County, South Carolina: Cultural, environmental, ...

94

Private industrial foresters and Forest Service research - the ...  

Treesearch

Description: What is the nature of the relationship between U.S. Forest Service ... Advisory Committee that works with local citizens and the Bitterroot National Forest. ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on ...

95

USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database contains publications in support of this group\\'s mission to create the science and technology needed to sustain and enhance southern forest ecosystems and the benefits they provide. The database can be searched by author, title, keyword, date range, and publication origin; publication number; and by the most recent publications added to the database. There are also online versions of Compass, a publication catalog of research products from scientists at SRS.

2007-02-17

96

Forest genetic research at the Institute of Paper Chemistry  

Treesearch

Source: In: Proceedings of the Ninth Lake States Forest Tree Improvement Conference; Res ... Description: Forest genetics research is carried on in the Genetics and ... chemistry, chemical engineering, mathematics, and environmental control.

97

FOREST HYDROLOGICAL RESEARCH AT THE CATHEDRAL PEAK RESEARCH STATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cathedral Peak Forest Influences Research Station was established in Natal in 1938 to determine the effect of exotic conifer plantations on water supplies.The major investigation is the planting to within one chain of any streams, of six catchments with Pinus patula at eight year intervals. One catchment is to be protected from burning and grazing for an indefinite period

U. W. Nänni

1956-01-01

98

43 CFR 8224.1 - Use of the Fossil Forest Research Natural Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of the Fossil Forest Research Natural Area. 8224...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.1 Use of the Fossil Forest Research Natural...

2010-10-01

99

43 CFR 8224.1 - Use of the Fossil Forest Research Natural Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Use of the Fossil Forest Research Natural Area. 8224...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.1 Use of the Fossil Forest Research Natural...

2009-10-01

100

[Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].  

PubMed

With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology. PMID:12682982

He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

2002-12-01

101

Rocky Mountain Research Station - USDA Forest Service  

Treesearch

Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain ... have the power to pass laws to protect the health, safety, and welfare of their citizens. ... In addition, results from a survey of wildfire program managers provide  ...

102

Thermocouple errors in forest fire research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperatures measured in forest fires are usually low because of radiant heat loss from thermocouples. The authors offer a\\u000a method, based on their recent experiments, for estimating true flame temperatures in the field.

J. D. Walker; B. J. Stocks

1968-01-01

103

Author - Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... 2006, Ecological and ecophysiological attributes and responses to fire in eastern oak forests, Abrams, Marc D. NRS ... 2005, Polymorphic sequence-characterized codominant loci in the chestnut blight fungus, ...

104

20 Newest SRS Publications - Forest Service Research ...  

Treesearch

... Evaluation of a portable MOS electronic nose to detect root rots in shade tree species (2013); New county records from Grundy County, Tennessee on the ... Use of ancillary data to improve the analysis of forest health indicators (2013) ...

105

Environmental Research in Forest Decline. 3 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report of the Federal German Government on the state of knowledge regarding the causes and effects of forest decline and evaluation of current investigation results. Interim report (December 1984) on the investigation project of the Federal German Governm...

1985-01-01

106

20 Newest Research & Development Publications - Forest Service ...  

Treesearch

... Urban forest justice and the rights to wild foods, medicines, and materials in the ... South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, ... V: Legal, institutional, and economic framework for rangeland conservation ...

107

Vegetation Data Collection in Temperature Forest Research Natural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite a long history of research natural area preservation by the USDA Forest Service and other governmental agencies, ecological baseline data have been gathered for few areas. This report presents a framework, including possible sampling schemes, for ...

L. F. Ohmann

1973-01-01

108

Using Qualitative Research Strategies in Cross-National Projects: The English-Finnish Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…

Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary

2009-01-01

109

Exploring invisible scientific communities: Studying networking relations within an educational research community. A Finnish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on making invisiblecolleges of educational science in Finlandvisible through analysing networking relationsbetween scientific research communities. Thestudy aims at developing methods to analyse theintensity and focus of social collaborationbetween educational research groups in order tounderstand internal relations of scientificdiscipline and support scientific evaluationwith information about participation andinformal communication beyond quantity ofpublished products. Informal and formalnetworking connections of

Palonen Tuire; Lehtinen Erno

2001-01-01

110

Does wood ash application increase heavy metal accumulation in forest berries and mushrooms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experiments have been established at the Finnish Forest Research Institute during the last few decades to study the effect of wood ash application on soil substrate, ground vegetation and stand growth on drained mires and mineral soil forests. In this study, the plots of 23 experiments were sampled to determine whether ash application significantly increases heavy metal

Mikko Moilanen; Hannu Fritze; Mika Nieminen; Sirpa Piirainen; Jorma Issakainen; Juha Piispanen

2006-01-01

111

Southern Research Station - USDA Forest Service  

Treesearch

species are a significant portion of the forest in the Eastern United States. ... Acorns are essential for oak regeneration and are a major food source for more than ... During years of high production, insect losses are usually low in proportion to ...

112

20 Newest NRS Publications - Forest Service Research ...  

Treesearch

... Fire and Aviation, International Forestry, Just for Kids, Maps and Brochures, Passes ... Development of methods for the restoration of the American elm in forested ... The influence of inoculated and native ectomycorrhizal fungi on morphology, ... restoration (2013); Generation of American elm trees with tolerance to Dutch ...

113

Northern Research Station - USDA Forest Service  

Treesearch

Description: Results of the 3-year Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project indicate ... the Chicago area of Cook and DuPage Counties; 66 percent of these trees rated in good ... Shade, lower summer air temperatures, and a reduction in windspeed ... indicating that the long-term benefits of trees are more than twice their costs.

114

Southern Research Station - USDA Forest Service  

Treesearch

Source: Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 126(1): ... Natural Area is a 32-ha second-growth forest with little human intervention for nearly 60 years. ... However it is a larger file size and some people may experience long download times.

115

USDA Forest Service Research and Development: Code of Scientific Ethics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This code has been developed by a committee of scientists in USDA Forest Service Research & Development (FS R&D) after feedback from colleagues and extensive research on science ethics. The code is based on the Code of Scientific Ethics of the USDA Agricu...

2000-01-01

116

Forest Service Global Change Research Strategy Overview 2009-2019.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objective: In keeping with the research goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), helps define climate change policy and develop best management prac...

2009-01-01

117

RESPONSES OF FORESTS TO ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION. NATIONAL RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE FOREST RESPONSE PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The document presents the national research plan for the Forest Response Program. The introduction provides an overview, a statement of the program objective, and a brief description of the program's organizational structure. A Program Foundations section forms the heart of the r...

118

The Finnish decision-making process to recommend a new vaccine: From vaccine research to vaccination policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  This article takes a closer look at the decision-making process to recommend a new vaccine in the light of the Finnish experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subject and methods  The criteria for evidence-based knowledge are examined in order to consider how public health decision-making in the area\\u000a of immunisation evolves over time and from one context to the other on the basis of three of

Hanna Nohynek

2008-01-01

119

Avian studies and research opportunities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest: A tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) located on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico has a rich history of ecological research, including a variety of avian studies, and is one of the most active ecological research sites in the Neotropics. The LEF spans an elevational range from 100 to 1075m over which five life zones and four forest types are found

Joseph M. Wunderle; Wayne J. Arendt

2011-01-01

120

Southern Research Station - USDA Forest Service  

Treesearch

... the non-growing season leads to a reduced subsoil zone, which restricts root ... To address these issues, we established ten research sites in southern Arkansas. ... CO2 assimilation were collected during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons. ... Loblolly Pine Seedlings Under Different Cultural Practices on Poorly Drained ...

121

The supra-long Scots pine tree-ring record for Finnish Lapland: Part 1, chronology construction and initial inferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the development of the current ‘supra-long’ pine chronology for northern Finnish Lapland. In the forest-tundra ecotone region of northern Finnish Lapland over 250 samples from living Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) and over 1700 samples of subfossil pines have been collected for dendrochronological studies. In addition, over 1400 subfossils have been sampled from the forested area of

Matti Eronen; Pentti Zetterberg; Keith R. Briffa; Markus Lindholm; Jouko Meriläinen; Mauri Timonen

2002-01-01

122

Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

2009-01-01

123

Finnish Art Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the role of the mass media, district theaters, national and provincial commissions on the arts, and adult education oriented national organizations in setting art education policy and improving access by Finnish adults to cultural education. (LY)|

Laurila, Aarne

1970-01-01

124

Finnish-Soviet Cooperation in Flue Gas Desulphurisation Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research and development in the USSR in the area of flue gas desulfurization and the related technology were investigated. At the same time, contacts with research institutes and other organizations in the USSR were established. The possibility of Finnish...

K. Rantanen

1987-01-01

125

[Advance in researches on the effect of forest on hydrological process].  

PubMed

According to the effects of forest on hydrological process, forest hydrology can be divided into three related aspects: experimental research on the effects of forest changing on hydrological process quantity and water quality; mechanism study on the effects of forest changing on hydrological cycle, and establishing and exploitating physical-based distributed forest hydrological model for resource management and engineering construction. Orientation experiment research can not only support the first-hand data for forest hydrological model, but also make clear the precipitation-runoff mechanisms. Research on runoff mechanisms can be valuable for the exploitation and improvement of physical based hydrological models. Moreover, the model can also improve the experimental and runoff mechanism researches. A review of above three aspects are summarized in this paper. PMID:12722452

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xinxiao; Zhao, Yutao; Qin, Yongsheng

2003-01-01

126

Propitious omens? Finnish social work research as a laboratory of change Suotuisia enteitä? Suomalainen sosiaalityön tutkimus muutoksen laboratoriona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social work research has expanded in the USA and Europe. This growth has made the tensions and contradictions in the methodology of social work research more visible. Doctoral programmes are becoming more common in universities with social work MA education. Finland has adopted a strong commitment to social work research and research training for all social workers. Slowly, social work

Mikko Mäntysaari

2005-01-01

127

51-100 - Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

2010, The social impacts of sudden oak death and other forest diseases: a ... in two forest stream networks, Hwang, Jaesoon; Jeffers, Steven N.; Oak, Steven W. PSW ... 2010, Mapping the risk of sudden oak death in Oregon: prioritizing locations for .... 2008, Forest health conditions in North America, Tkacz, B.; Moody , B.; ...

128

Ten Years of Research on the MeadWestvaco Wildlife and Ecosystem Research Forest: An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains 90 citations and annotations of publications and final reports that describe research conducted on or in association with the MeadWestvaco Wildlife and Ecosystem Research Forest in West Virginia from 1994 through 2004.

P. D. Keyser W. M. Ford

2005-01-01

129

The System Dynamics of Forest Cover in the Developing World: Researcher Versus Community Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to increase forest cover in the developing world will only succeed if the root causes of deforestation are addressed. Researchers designing reforestation initiatives tend to emphasize macro-level drivers of deforestation, about which they have extensive data and knowledge. On the other hand, local people have contextually based knowledge of forest cover dynamics in their region—about which external researchers may

Laura Schmitt Olabisi

2010-01-01

130

Knowledge management and growth in Finnish SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The impact of knowledge management on the financial success of companies has not yet been properly researched. This paper aims to make a contribution by examining the relationship between sustainable sales growth and knowledge management activities in 108 Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were generated from a questionnaire survey of 108 SMEs from different

Sari Salojärvi; Patrick Furu; Karl-Erik Sveiby

2005-01-01

131

The private cost and timber market implications of increasing strict forest conservation in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the private costs of strict forest conservation are studied using Finnish data. First, the conservation-induced changes in the net present value of forest land are estimated together with the consequent compensation needs. Second, a dynamic reduced-form econometric model is estimated to derive the dynamic impacts of forest protection on the Finnish timber markets and forest sector. The

Jussi Leppänen; Mika Linden; Jussi Uusivuori; Heikki Pajuoja

2005-01-01

132

Real Estate Portfolio Strategies and Management of Finnish Foundations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research has two objectives: to ascertain how to develop the real estate investment strategies and management of Finnish foundations; and what kind of services could become new business areas for real estate consultants providing services to the larg...

J. Palmu

1994-01-01

133

An imperative need for global change research in tropical forests.  

PubMed

Tropical forests play a crucial role in regulating regional and global climate dynamics, and model projections suggest that rapid climate change may result in forest dieback or savannization. However, these predictions are largely based on results from leaf-level studies. How tropical forests respond and feedback to climate change is largely unknown at the ecosystem level. Several complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the effects of climate change on tropical forests, but the results are conflicting, largely due to confounding effects of multiple factors. Although altered precipitation and nitrogen deposition experiments have been conducted in tropical forests, large-scale warming and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) manipulations are completely lacking, leaving many hypotheses and model predictions untested. Ecosystem-scale experiments to manipulate temperature and CO2 concentration individually or in combination are thus urgently needed to examine their main and interactive effects on tropical forests. Such experiments will provide indispensable data and help gain essential knowledge on biogeochemical, hydrological and biophysical responses and feedbacks of tropical forests to climate change. These datasets can also inform regional and global models for predicting future states of tropical forests and climate systems. The success of such large-scale experiments in natural tropical forests will require an international framework to coordinate collaboration so as to meet the challenges in cost, technological infrastructure and scientific endeavor. PMID:24128847

Zhou, Xuhui; Fu, Yuling; Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Bo; Luo, Yiqi

2013-09-01

134

Finnish Science and Culture[.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue serves as a package of information for foreigners about Finnish science and culture and about international cooperation in these fields. It contains a speech on security and cooperation in Europe and articles on the university in an international world, the Academy of Finland, information activity in cultural studies, and activities of…

Numminen, Jaakko; And Others

1985-01-01

135

Why Is Finnish Teacher Education Successful? Some Goals Finnish Teacher Educators Have for Their Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, Finnish research-based teaching, according to international surveys, has been shown to lead to excellent results. Previous research has demonstrated that teacher education has often had difficulties in incorporating theory into practice, and that the effects of teacher education on the prior beliefs and views on teaching and…

Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu

2009-01-01

136

Size and composition measurements of background aerosol and new particle growth in a Finnish forest during QUEST 2 using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the growth of nucleation-mode particles is important, as this prevents their loss through diffusion and allows them to reach sizes where they may become effective cloud condensation nuclei. Hyytiälä, a forested site in southern Finland, frequently experiences particle nucleation events during the spring and autumn, where particles first appear during the morning and continue to grow for several hours afterwards. As part of the QUEST 2 intensive field campaign during March and April 2003, an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed alongside other aerosol instrumentation to study the particulate composition and dynamics of growth events and characterise the background aerosol. Despite the small mass concentrations, the AMS was able to distinguish the grown particles in the <100 nm regime several hours after an event and confirm that the particles were principally organic in composition. The AMS was also able to derive a mass spectral fingerprint for the organic species present, and found that it was consistent between events and independent of the mean particle diameter during non-polluted cases, implying the same species were also condensing onto the accumulation mode. The results were compared with those from offline analyses such as GC-MS and were consistent with the hypothesis that the main components were alkanes from plant waxes and the oxidation products of terpenes.

Allan, J. D.; Alfarra, M. R.; Bower, K. N.; Coe, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.; Hyötyläinen, T.; Cavalli, F.; Laaksonen, A.

2005-09-01

137

Size and composition measurements of background aerosol and new particle growth in a Finnish forest during QUEST 2 using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the growth of nucleation-mode particles is important, as this prevents their loss through diffusion and allows them to reach sizes where they may become effective cloud condensation nuclei. Hyytiälä, a forested site in southern Finland, frequently experiences particle nucleation events during the spring and autumn, where particles first appear during the morning and continue to grow for several hours afterwards. As part of the QUEST 2 intensive field campaign during March and April 2003, an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed alongside other aerosol instrumentation to study the particulate composition and dynamics of growth events and characterise the background aerosol. Despite the small mass concentrations, the AMS was able to distinguish the grown particles in the <100 nm regime several hours after an event and confirm that the particles were principally organic in composition. The AMS was also able to derive a mass spectral fingerprint for the organic species present, and found that it was consistent between events and independent of the mean particle diameter during non-polluted cases, implying the same species were also condensing onto the accumulation mode. The results were compared with those from offline analyses such as GC-MS and were consistent with the hypothesis that the main components were alkanes from plant waxes and the oxidation products of terpenes.

Allan, J. D.; Alfarra, M. R.; Bower, K. N.; Coe, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.; Hyötyläinen, T.; Cavalli, F.; Laaksonen, A.

2006-02-01

138

Contributions of acid rain research to the forest science-policy ...  

Treesearch

International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... Source: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. ... Description: During the 1970s, there was growing concern by scientists, policy officials and the general public in the USA over the possible effects of acid rain on human health and the environment (crops, forests, water, etc.).

139

U.S. Forest Service-Rocky Mountain Research Station: Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Administered by the U.S. Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Research Station, the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute is devoted "to providing the quality, peer-reviewed research necessary to develop guidelines and management practices that assure sustainable wild ecosystems endure for generations to come." The Institute website provides information about numerous research projects, staff, conferences, and more. Site visitors can also browse, or search for, over 500 Leopold Institute publications of which more than 100 are downloadable. Publications may be also be ordered free of charge by email or post. In addition, site visitors can link to several databases including the Wilderness and Recreation Impact Database, Wilderness Invaders-Surveys and Databases on Invasive & Exotic Species; National Wilderness Preservation System Database; and Wilderness Stewardship Reference System: Legislative, Administrative, and Judicial, and Scientific Information.

140

Forest products research in IUFRO history and potential - Treesearch  

Treesearch

... was essential for airplanes, ships, packaging, construction, and derived products. ... (2) new approaches to the efficient use of wood as an engineering material, ... and (12) sustainable forest development and its interdependence with the ...

141

151-200 - Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

2007, Iowa's forest resources, 2005, Crocker, Susan J.; Brand, Gary J.; ... Desantis, Ryan D.; Moser, W. Keith; Hugett, Robert J. Jr.; Li, Ruhong; Wear, David N.; ... stem volume to any top diameter for ash in Wisconsin, Doruska, Paul F.; Hart, ...

142

The Many Faces of Life Satisfaction among Finnish Young Adults’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to measure the levels of general life satisfaction among Finnish young adults, and to clarify the\\u000a way in which life satisfaction is constructed. In order to explore these aims, the following research questions were specified:\\u000a (1) What is the level of general life satisfaction among young Finnish adults?, (2) Which factors in young adults’

Liisa Martikainen

2009-01-01

143

Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Forest habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can learn about the Broadleaf forest or the Coniferous forest! Kathryn! You can learn a lot about worms from Herman the Worm. Read the information to learn about worms! You can also visit Earthworms to learn more! Colter! You can learn about American Black Bears and Black Bears! Click the underlined words and read read read! Happy trails! ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

144

Forest Regeneration at Northern Latitudes Close to Timber Line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A historical overview and future program direction of the Forest Silviculture and Management Working Party; Forest regeneration at high altitudes in northern Sweden; Artificial regeneration on the polar timberline in Finnish Lapland; Reforestati...

O. Martinsson E. C. Packee A. F. Gasbarro T. Lawson

1989-01-01

145

Economic Impacts on the Forest Sector of Increasing Forest Biodiversity Conservation in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next coming years, political decisions will be made upon future actions to safeguard forest biodiversity in Southern Finland. We address the economic consequences on the Finnish forest sector of conserving additional 0.5% to 5% of the old growth forest land in Southern Finland. The impacts on supply, demand and prices of wood and forest industry production are analysed

Riitta Hänninen; A. Maarit; I. Kallio

146

Research in large, long-term tropical forest plots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past 15 years has seen the creation oflarge (>\\/16 ha) permanent inventory plots in each of the major tropical forest formations of the world. Currently, six such plots have been fully mapped, and five more and under way. A standardized methodology is used at all sites — a complete census of all trees and saplings down to 1 cm

Richard Condit

1995-01-01

147

Finnish care integrated?  

PubMed Central

Abstract The public Finnish social and health care system has been challenged by the economic crisis, administrative reforms and increased demands. Better integration as a solution includes many examples, which have been taken to use. The most important are the rewritten national and municipals strategies and quality recommendations, where the different sectors and the levels of care are seen as one entity. Many reorganisations have taken place, both nationally and locally, and welfare clusters have been established. The best examples of integrated care are the forms of teamwork, care management, emphasis on non-institutional care and the information technology.

Niskanen, J. Jouni

2002-01-01

148

Studies in Teaching: 2004 Research Digest. Proceedings of the Annual Research Forum at Wake Forest University (December, 2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These Proceedings document an educational research forum held at Wake Forest University (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) on December 8, 2004. Table of contents and 26 research studies of high school teaching are included. Studies include: The Use of Authentic Materials in the K-12 French Program (Katherine Elizabeth Baird), Surveying Students:…

McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

2005-01-01

149

Characterization of psychrotolerant heterotrophic bacteria from Finnish Lapland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 331 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from various ecosystems of Finnish Lapland (68–69°N) including forest soil, arctic alpine-tundra soil, stream water, lake and mire sediments, lichen and snow algae. Whole cell fatty acid and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and microscopy indicated that the isolates were dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, while only 20 Gram-positive strains were

Minna K. Männistö; Max M. Häggblom

2006-01-01

150

Rain Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Rain Forest habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. All about Rainforests has lots of great facts about the Rain Forest! Rainforests of the world tells about different Rain Forests in the world. To find out about each one click on the words about different Rain Forests. To research about animals in the Rain Forest, visit Animals of the Rain Forest and Rain Forest Animals. Rain Forest Animals and Rain Forest also has more information about Rain ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

151

Validation Studies of the Finnish Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ) and Finnish Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)  

Cancer.gov

Validation Studies of the Finnish Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ) and Finnish Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) Arkela-Kautiainen et al. 2005 See reference #75 Methods Relation between the Finnish MDHAQ (Finn-MDHAQ) function

152

Forest condition and chemical characteristics of atmospheric depositions: research and monitoring network in Lombardy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1987, the Regional Forestry Board of Lombardy and the Water Research Institute of the National Research Council have been carrying out surveys of forest conditions and the response of the ecosystem to environmental factors. The study approach is based on a large number of permanent plots for extensive monitoring (Level 1). At this level, crown condition is assessed annually,

Raffaella BALESTRINI; Antonio TAGLIAFERRI; Gianni TARTARI; Flaminio DI GIROLAMO

153

Suggested stocking levels for forest stands in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Catastrophes and manipulation of stocking levels are primary determinants of stand development and the appearance of future forest landscapes. Managers need stocking level guides particularly for sites incapable of supporting stocking levels presented in normal yield tables. To take advantage of information currently available the authors used some assumptions to relate growth basal area (GBA) to stand density index (SDI) and then create stocking level curves for use in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Use of these curves cannot be expected to eliminate all insect and disease problems, but the impact of mountain pine beetle should be moderated.

Cochran, P.H.; Geist, J.M.; Clemens, D.L.; Clausnitzer, R.R.; Powell, D.C.

1994-04-01

154

Forest Watch: An educational research program of the New Hampshire Space Grant Consortium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forest Watch is a student-scientist partnership and education outreach program to study white pine health in New England. Primary and secondary students collect and process data on air pollution damage to forests near their schools, which is used by University of New Hampshire researchers, and compared with spectral data. These are then compared to tropospheric ozone data, beginning from 1991. Data spreadsheets for the student to enter forest biometric data and spectral curves are provided, as well as EOS-Webster satellite imagery, and GPS, ALTA, and Topo-Map activities forms. The student activities include forest stand assessment, laboratory assessment of damage symptoms, and image processing and data analysis of Thematic Mapper data around their school. There is information on teacher workshops and a message board.

155

Willingness to communicate, communication apprehension, introversion, and self?reported communication competence: Finnish and American comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to make comparisons between Finnish persons and persons from other populations, particularly those from the United States, on a variety of common measures of communication orientations. The results of the study indicated that differences between Finnish and United States samples do exist, but the differences are primarily restricted to willingness to communicate and introversion.

James C. McCroskey; Virginia P. Richmond

1991-01-01

156

Finnish and English children's color use to depict affectively characterized figures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that children use colors systematically in relation to how they feel about certain colors and the figures that they draw. This study explored cultural differences between Finnish and English children's use of color to represent figures with contrasting emotional characters. One hundred and eight children (54 Finnish, 54 English) were divided into two age groups (5–7

Esther Burkitt; Katri Tala; Jason Low

2007-01-01

157

Between Kant and Hobbes: Finnish Security Policy after the Cold War and European Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based upon the writer's PhD thesis that is soon to be submitted for examination at Manchester Metropolitan University in the UK. Central to the work has been interviews with around 25 Finnish (plus a few non-Finnish) politicians, civil servants, soldiers, journalists, civil society activists and academic researchers. No interviewee requested anonymity and all are listed in thesis,

Toby Archer

2009-01-01

158

Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network.  

PubMed

Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006-2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O(3)) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH(3)) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to deposition of nutritional nitrogen (N) and could affect biodiversity changes. Higher that 50% contribution of acidic rain (pH?forest soils. Foliar N concentrations for Norway spruce (Picea abies), Silver fir (Abies alba), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) were normal, phosphorus (P) was high, while those of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and especially of manganese (Mn) were significantly below the typical European or Carpathian region levels. The observed nutritional imbalance could have negative effects on forest trees. Health of forests was moderately affected, with damaged trees (crown defoliation >25%) higher than 30%. The observed crown damage was accompanied by the annual volume losses for the entire research forest area up to 25.4%. High diversity and evenness specific to the stand type's structures and local climate conditions were observed within the herbaceous layer, indicating that biodiversity of the vascular plant communities was not compromised. PMID:22234644

Badea, Ovidiu; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Silaghi, Diana; Neagu, Stefan; Barbu, Ion; Iacoban, Carmen; Iacob, Corneliu; Guiman, Gheorghe; Preda, Elena; Seceleanu, Ioan; Oneata, Marian; Dumitru, Ion; Huber, Viorela; Iuncu, Horia; Dinca, Lucian; Leca, Stefan; Taut, Ioan

2012-01-11

159

The Need for Forest Policy Research and Articulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy research is an area that has suffered considerable neglect in the forestry sector. It is a specialized field of activity that leads to informed articulation of policies. Policy conflicts and repetition of past mistakes are avoided when policy research feeds into sectoral analysis and planning. Policies are principles that govern actions to achieve specified objectives. Good policies support long

CHERUKAT CHANDRASEKHARAN

160

Geographic Information Quality Management and Standardization in Finnish Defence Forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The main issue in Geographic Information Quality Management (GIQM) and standardization is to achieve interoperability through standardization. This still ongoing research project defines a quality model for geographic information in Finnish Defence Forces (FDF). The quality model is strongly based on international ISO standardization. The quality model defines a basis for consistent concepts and methods for GIQM. FDF quality

Kari INGBERG

161

Deprivation of Liberty in Psychiatric Treatment: a Finnish perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the deprivation of patients' liberty while undergoing psy- chiatric treatment, with special reference to the situation in Finland. It is based on a review of Finnish law, health care statistics, and empirical and theoretical studies. Relevant research findings from other countries are also discussed. In Finland, it is required that patients are cared for by

M. Valimaki; Johanna Taipale; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

2001-01-01

162

Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens’ perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political

Ilkka Ruostetsaari

2009-01-01

163

Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

2006-01-01

164

The construction of male menopause in Finnish popular magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the construction of male menopause by examining articles published on the topic between 1982 and 2002 in Finnish popular magazines. The main research question was how men's midlife stage was medicalized in the articles analysed. The number of articles published grew during the study period. In the articles, male menopause was initially

Kirsi Vainionpää; Päivi Topo

2006-01-01

165

Innocents in the Forest: Forecasting and Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents guidelines for making forecasts and draws inferences about research techniques.Inertia produces highly autocorrelated time series in which random events have lasting effects. Such series make it easy to draw incorrect inferences about causal processes. They also make it easy to predict accurately over the short run, using variants of linear extrapolation.In forecasting, simplicity usually works better than

P. Narayan Pant; William H. Starbuck

1990-01-01

166

All Publications For: SRS Publications - Forest Service Research ...  

Treesearch

(2004); Applying photosynthesis research to increase crop yields (2010) ... to improve sustainable management of Actaea racemosa, a globally important medicinal ...... respect to stream discharge in a second–order stream in South Alaska (2009) ...... The effect of curve sawing two-sided cants from small diameter hardwood ...

167

Young Children Learning for the Environment: Researching a Forest Adventure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Field experiences for young children are an ideal medium for environmental education/education for sustainability because of opportunities for direct experience in nature, integrated learning, and high community involvement. This research documented the development--in 4-5 year old Prep children--of knowledge, attitudes and actions/advocacy in…

Gambino, Agatha; Davis, Julie; Rowntree, Noeleen

2009-01-01

168

[The research on bidirectional reflectance computer simulation of forest canopy at pixel scale].  

PubMed

Computer simulation is based on computer graphics to generate the realistic 3D structure scene of vegetation, and to simulate the canopy regime using radiosity method. In the present paper, the authors expand the computer simulation model to simulate forest canopy bidirectional reflectance at pixel scale. But usually, the trees are complex structures, which are tall and have many branches. So there is almost a need for hundreds of thousands or even millions of facets to built up the realistic structure scene for the forest It is difficult for the radiosity method to compute so many facets. In order to make the radiosity method to simulate the forest scene at pixel scale, in the authors' research, the authors proposed one idea to simplify the structure of forest crowns, and abstract the crowns to ellipsoids. And based on the optical characteristics of the tree component and the characteristics of the internal energy transmission of photon in real crown, the authors valued the optical characteristics of ellipsoid surface facets. In the computer simulation of the forest, with the idea of geometrical optics model, the gap model is considered to get the forest canopy bidirectional reflectance at pixel scale. Comparing the computer simulation results with the GOMS model, and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) multi-angle remote sensing data, the simulation results are in agreement with the GOMS simulation result and MISR BRF. But there are also some problems to be solved. So the authors can conclude that the study has important value for the application of multi-angle remote sensing and the inversion of vegetation canopy structure parameters. PMID:19839326

Song, Jin-Ling; Wang, Jin-Di; Shuai, Yan-Min; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang

2009-08-01

169

Adapting modern strategic decision support tools in the participatory strategy process—a case study of a forest research station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategic planning of a forest research organization is based on anticipating the changes in the operational environment of the entire forest cluster and in the organization itself. Scanning operational environment to attain a systematic approach and support for a decision situation can be carried out by applying a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis, for example. In this

Leena A. Leskinen; Pekka Leskinen; Mikko Kurttila; Jyrki Kangas; Miika Kajanus

2006-01-01

170

The Finnish Public Sector Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees, the authors examined the association between workplace social capital and depression. Data were obtained from 33,577 employees, who had no recent history of antidepressant treatment and who reported no history of physician-diagnosed depression at baseline in 2000- 2002. Their risk of depression was measured with two indicators: recorded purchases of

Anne Kouvonen; Tuula Oksanen; Jussi Vahtera; Mai Stafford; Richard Wilkinson; Justine Schneider; Ari Vaananen; Marianna Virtanen; Sara J. Cox; Jaana Pentti; Marko Elovainio; Mika Kivimaki

171

Finnish Geomagnetically Induced Currents Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a summary of Results of the Finnish Project on Geomagnetically Induced Currents,'' published in Surveys in Geophysics 15:383-408, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1994. IVO and FMI carried out a 1-year GIC project from June 1991 to May 1992. The time of the project was a little after the sunspot maximum, and the geomagnetic activity was high; there

A. Vilianen; R. Pirjola

1995-01-01

172

Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.

Gansner, D.A.; Quimby, J.W.; King, S.L.; Arner, S.L.; Drake, D.A.

1994-08-01

173

Financial aspects of partial cutting practices in central Appalachian hardwoods. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Unveven-aged silvicultural practices can be used to regenerate and manage many eastern hardwood stands. Single-tree selection methods are feasible in stands where a desirable shade-tolerant commercial species can be regenerated following periodic harvests. A variety of partial cutting practices, including single-tree selection and diameter-limit cutting have been used for 30 years or more to manage central Appalachian hardwoods on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia. Results from these research areas are presented to help forest managers evaluate financial aspects of partial cutting practices. Observed volume growth, product yields, changes in species composition, and changes in residual stand quality are used to evaluate potential financial returns. Also, practical economic considerations for applying partial cutting methods are discussed.

Miller, G.W.

1993-06-01

174

Finnish geomagnetically induced currents project  

SciTech Connect

This article is a summary of Results of the Finnish Project on Geomagnetically Induced Currents,'' published in Surveys in Geophysics 15:383-408, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1994. IVO and FMI carried out a 1-year GIC project from June 1991 to May 1992. The time of the project was a little after the sunspot maximum, and the geomagnetic activity was high; there were 34 major or severe magnetic storm days (A[sub k] index at least 50). The main aim was to derive reliable statistics of the occurrences of GICs at different sites of the Finnish 400 and 220 kV power systems. Besides the practical engineering purpose, the project is also geophysically relevant by providing a GIC data set usable for large-scale investigations of auroral ionospheric-magnetospheric processes and of the earth's structure.

Vilianen, A.; Pirjola, R. (Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Geophysics)

1995-01-01

175

“I'm forgetting both”: L1 maintenance and codeswitching in Finnish-English language contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a case study investigating the maintenance of Finnish in the language of two young Finnish-American bilinguals. The main source of data is a 90mins audio-taped conversation between the research participants, which was recorded in Finland after they had lived eight years in the United States and become fully fluent in English. Three main questions are addressed: (1)

Helena Halmari

2005-01-01

176

Professional judgment in non-industrial private forestry: Forester attitudes and social norms influencing biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of conservation into management of non-industrial private forests rests with professional foresters. This paper empirically examines the intentions of foresters to conserve habitats beyond what is the minimum legally defined requirement when planning forestry operations: either by delineating particular habitats defined in the Finnish Forest Act completely outside the operation, despite this not being the obligation, or by

Eeva Primmer; Heimo Karppinen

2010-01-01

177

Chimpanzee responses to researchers in a disturbed forest-farm mosaic at Bulindi, western Uganda.  

PubMed

We describe the behavior of a previously unstudied community of wild chimpanzees during opportunistic encounters with researchers in an unprotected forest-farm mosaic at Bulindi, Uganda. Data were collected during 115 encounters between May 2006 and January 2008. Individual responses were recorded during the first minute of visual contact. The most common responses were "ignore" for arboreal chimpanzees and "monitor" for terrestrial individuals. Chimpanzees rarely responded with "flight". Adult males were seen disproportionately often relative to adult females, and accounted for 90% of individual responses recorded for terrestrial animals. Entire encounters were also categorized based on the predominant response of the chimpanzee party to researcher proximity. The most frequent encounter type was "ignore" (36%), followed by "monitor" (21%), "intimidation" (18%) and "stealthy retreat" (18%). "Intimidation" encounters occurred when chimpanzees were contacted in dense forest where visibility was low, provoking intense alarm and agitation. Adult males occasionally acted together to repel researchers through aggressive mobbing and pursuit. Chimpanzee behavior during encounters reflects the familiar yet frequently agonistic relationship between apes and local people at Bulindi. The chimpanzees are not hunted but experience high levels of harassment from villagers. Human-directed aggression by chimpanzees may represent a strategy to accommodate regular disruptions to foraging effort arising from competitive encounters with people both in and outside forest. Average encounter duration and proportion of encounters categorized as "ignore" increased over time, whereas "intimidation" encounters decreased, indicating some habituation occurred during the study. Ecotourism aimed at promoting tolerance of wildlife through local revenue generation is one possible strategy for conserving great apes on public or private land. However, the data imply that habituating chimpanzees for viewing-based ecotourism in heavily human-dominated landscapes, such as Bulindi, is ill-advised since a loss of fear of humans could lead to increased negative interactions with local people. PMID:20806338

McLennan, Matthew R; Hill, Catherine M

2010-09-01

178

Botanical reconnaissance of Big Run Bog Candidate Research Natural Area. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

To document the botanical diversity of the Big Run Bog candidate Research Natural Area on the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, a botanical survey was conducted in 1993-94. The survey identified 193 species of vascular plants in 118 genera and 52 families. Six species of rare vascular plants were found. Vascular plant families with the most species present were Cyperaceae (24), Asteraceae (23), Poaceae (16), and Ericaceae (14). For each taxon, family, species, habitat and estimated abundance are reported. Nonvascular plants totaled 87 species in 55 genera and 33 families.

Muzika, R.M.; Hunsucker, R.; DeMeo, T.

1996-07-25

179

Living without herbicides in Québec (Canada): historical context, current strategy, research and challenges in forest vegetation management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation management is crucial to meeting the objectives of forest plantations. Following public hearing processes, chemical\\u000a herbicides were banned on Crown forest lands in Québec (Canada) in 2001. Release now mainly relies on mechanical treatments.\\u000a Our objectives are to review the historical context and the research conducted over the past 15 years that has led to the\\u000a province’s current vegetation management

Nelson Thiffault; Vincent Roy

2011-01-01

180

Development of an Urban Boreal Forest Observatory for Ecosystem and Carbon Exchange Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have begun to establish an Urban Boreal Forest Observatory (UBFO) on the University of Alaska Anchorage campus as a research and teaching platform for long-term measurements of atmosphere-biosphere interactions and ecosystem and organismic process studies. During the summer of 2005, two 10-m towers equipped with meteorological sensors were deployed at the UBFO to monitor meteorological parameters throughout the forest canopy, including canopy temperature profiles, soil temperature regimes, soil moisture, and canopy interception of precipitation and solar irradiance. The towers are located in contrasting habitats; an upland site dominated by white spruce and birch and a lowland site dominated by black spruce and sphagnum mosses. Measurements collected this summer indicate the upland and lowland sites have seasonal mean soil temperatures of 12.7 ± 0.9 and 10.6 ± 0.4 °C, respectively. Additionally, soil water content at the lowland site is a factor of 2.6 greater than that of the upland site (0.214 ± 0.002 and 0.082 ± 0.005 dS m-1, respectively) while the seasonal mean air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation values are similar for the two sites. This research will contribute to establishing long-term monitoring of the Boreal Forest in an urban setting as part of the National Ecological Observatory Network, NEON, and our measurement array will expand this fall to include CO2 and H2O vapor vertical profiling for analysis of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and real-time data delivery to a web site and display screen in the Ecosystem Biomedical Laboratory at UAA. In the coming year, an infrared spectrometer (e.g., Fourier transform infrared or tunable diode laser system) capable of making in situ measurements of atmospheric 13CO2 and 12CO2 will be added to the platforms to observe isotopic CO2 flux ratios and for partitioning NEE of CO2 into its components of assimilation and respiration.

Bertschi, I.; Welker, J.; Sveinbjornsson, B.; Peterson, K.; Olsson, P.; Boggs, K.; Carlson, M.

2005-12-01

181

Patient counselling profile in a Finnish pharmacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the patient satisfaction on Finnish community pharmacy services with a special focus on patient counselling. Two different study methods were performed in one Finnish community pharmacy to clarify the patient counselling profile. In autumn 1996, 200 of local citizens were interviewed and a questionnaire has been filled by the pharmacists after counselled episodes. The patient opinion

Heli Kansanaho; Nina Isonen-Sjölund; Kirsi Pietilä; Marja Airaksinen; Taisto Isonen

2002-01-01

182

Finnish Culture and Early Childhood Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the early childhood education programs of Finland as a development of the Finnish welfare state. Claims that these programs are related to family policy and are considered part of the educare programs, which tend to be child centered and tied to family values. Discusses the future of the Finnish educational system. (MOK)|

Hujula-Huttunen, Eeva; Jarvi, Seija

1996-01-01

183

Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

2004-01-01

184

A Finnish viewpoint on professionalism in early childhood education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses professionalism in early childhood education through the analytical tool of a research?based multi?level perspective that sees this as a cultural, communal, organisational, and individual phenomenon. Starting from an understanding of professionalism derived from a model of professional expertise, the article discusses the Finnish day?care context at the social and cultural level, followed by a discussion of field?specific

Kirsti Karila

2008-01-01

185

Interpreting and using outputs from the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System in research applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and being able to predict forest fire occurrence, fire growth and fire intensity are important aspects of forest\\u000a fire management. In Canada fire management agencies use the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) to help predict\\u000a these elements of forest fire activity. In this paper a review of the CFFDRS is presented with the main focus on understanding

B. Mike Wotton

2009-01-01

186

Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric COâ. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed

E. A. Davidson; D. B. Dail; D. Hollinger; N. Scott; A. Richardson

2012-01-01

187

Soil nutrient management research in the humid forest zone of Nigeria for cocoa production between 1940 and 2000: missing gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil nutrient balances in the forest znoe of Nigeria to sustain cocoa production has been an object of research for some sixty years. After its introduction into the zone of West Africa in 1890, the area planted to cocoa increased rapidly to its present 1.5 million hectares and yield increased to peak of 310,000 tons in 1965. However, as early

2002-01-01

188

Puhumme Suomeksi (Let\\'s Speak Finnish)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn to speak the Finnish Language Try out these websites for some fun \\"learning language\\" adventures Verbix Verbix Foreign Languages for Travelers Foreign Languages for Travelers Goethe Tests: Multilingual Vocabulary Exercises Goethe Tests: Multilingual Vocabulary Exercises ...

Cannon, Mr.

2005-10-25

189

Nitrogen deposition and leaching from two forested catchments in Southwest China--preliminary data and research needs.  

PubMed

Increased nitrogen deposition has resulted in increased nitrogen pools and nitrogen leaching in European and North American forest soils. The development in Asia in general, and China in particular, suggests increased deposition of reduced nitrogen from changes in agricultural practices and of oxidized nitrogen from rapid growth of the transportation sector. Decreased nitrogen retention in forested areas in the future may cause increased NO3- leaching and, thus, acidification and eutrophication in surface waters. The differences in climate, ecosystems, land use, and deposition history make direct application of knowledge from studies in Europe and North America difficult. In Southwest China the potential for nitrogen mobilization from forest soils may be high because of the warm and humid climate, resulting in high decomposition rates of soil organic matter. However, there are very few data available for quantifying the suspected potential for increased nitrogen leaching in forest ecosystems. Here we present data from two forested catchments, dominated by Masson pine (Pinus massoniana), near Guiyang and Chongqing, respectively, in Southwest China. The present nitrogen deposition is moderate, estimated in the range from 10 to 40 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). The C/N ratios of the soils are generally below 15. Nitrate concentrations in soil water are rather variable in space, with highest values of several hundred microequivalents per liter. The turnover rate of nitrogen in the forest ecosystem is quite high compared to the atmospheric deposition rate. At present, nitrate runoff from the catchments is low and intermediate in Guiyang and Chongqing, respectively. More research is needed to improve our ability to predict future nitrogen leaching from subtropical Asian coniferous forests. PMID:12805807

Larssen, T; Mulder, J; Wang, Y; Chen, X; Xiao, J; Zhao, D

2001-11-15

190

Danish and Finnish PISA Results in a Comparative, Qualitative Perspective: How Can the Stable and Distinct Differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA Results Be Explained?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g.…

Andersen, Frans Orsted

2010-01-01

191

Traditional Ecological Knowledge of a Riverine Forest in Turkana, Kenya: Implications for Research and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of Turkana pastoralists and cultivators in the context of\\u000a a riverine forest in northern Kenya. The Turkwel River and its floodplain sustain a thick forest, which is used for grazing\\u000a and extraction of non-timber forest products. However, sedentarisation and agricultural expansion have resulted in localised\\u000a clear-felling of trees, while river damming has

Jørn Stave; Gufu Oba; Inger Nordal; Nils Chr Stenseth

2007-01-01

192

Having, loving, and being: children's narrated well-being in Finnish day care centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to answer the following question: what do children tell about their well-being in Finnish day care centres? The theoretical and methodological framework of this study is based on a narrative approach. The research material was collected by participating in the everyday life of three groups of children and listening to their narratives. The research

Anna-Maija Puroila; Eila Estola; Leena Syrjälä

2012-01-01

193

NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates: 3-D Characterization and Comparison of Vegetation Structure in a Tropical Premontane Wet Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) site hosted by Texas A&M University to allow selected undergraduate students to conduct original research on various aspects of the ecohydrology of understudied tropical pre-montane forest at the Texas A&M Soltis Center for Research and Education in Central Costa Rica. This particular study was conducted by 3 students under the guidance of 5 mentors who assisted in experimental design, equipment use, maintenance, and training, plant species identification and other logistical requirements. The goal of this study was to determine the change in 3-D structure of tropical premontane wet forest under 3 different land uses: a carbon tree farm, secondary logged forest, and primary unlogged forest. Traditional forest mensuration techniques including glass prisms (stand basal area), laser clinometers (height), vertical and horizontal PAR, spherical densiometers, and hemispherical photography (GAP fraction and LAI) and, root cores, and diameter-at-breast height (DBH) tapes were acquired in one 30-m diameter plot per land and use compared to similar metrics collected by a terrestrial scanning laser (TSL) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) at 400 MHz and 1.5 GHz across 3 land uses along an elevation gradient from ~380-masl to 525-masl. Besides discovery, another goal of this study was to see if the TSL and GPR can help meet the Tier 2 and 3 monitoring and verification goals of the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries for estimating above- and below-ground biomass using remote sensing. This is of particular importance because the GPR may be able to capture below-ground biomass in a more efficient manner than traditional coring and the TSL and GPR can capture data on highly sloped terrain where both airborne and satellite RADAR and LIDAR are limited. The 50, 000 pts/sec 532 nm TSL collected 3 to 5 scans per 30-m diameter plots at 4-cm spacing, 270° vertical, and 360° horizontal, generating a >100 million point cloud per site at ±2-mm range accuracy. Registration within 2-mm RMSE yielded a 3-D virtual environment per site where tree measurements were made manually. Comparisons showed that GPR may be masked by high soil moisture. DBH error measures ranged from ± 0.6 to 5.18 % and height was 0.26 to 20.19 % for carbon farm to primary forest. The height comparison indicated that the laser clinometer consistently underestimated tree heights, particularly on the primary forest site where trees were over 35-m.

Washington-Allen, R. A.; Davis, K.; Falkowski, T.; Tarbox, B.; Delgado, A.; March, R.; Moore, G. W.; Tjoelker, M.; Gonzalez, E.; Houser, C.

2011-12-01

194

An Undergraduate Research Experience: Wireless Propagation and Position Location in a Forest Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past several years, the undergraduate curriculum at many universities has been evolving to incorporate laboratory exercises and research projects to reinforce and support traditional classroom lectures. In particular, involving undergraduates in meaningful research projects is a key to providing them with the hands-on activities students are demanding. Unfortunately, two areas in the electrical engineering curriculum are suffering from a lack of meaningful hands-on learning activities: electromagnetics and communications. At many universities, electromagnetics is taught as a highly theoretical, highly mathematical class with the goal of providing students a deep understanding of Maxwells equations. Students that complete such a course generally struggle when faced with applying Maxwells equations to real-world electromagnetics problems such as transmission lines, antenna design, or wireless propagation. Introductory communications courses may have laboratory components, however, involving students in an undergraduate research project is an excellent mechanism to supplement and reinforce the laboratory exercises. This paper presents a summer undergraduate research experience that involved characterizing ultra wideband wireless propagation and position location in a forest environment. Four undergraduate students were selected to participate in the research experience. All four students had taken the basic electromagnetics and communications courses, although only one had prior hands-on experience. Additionally, the use of impulse ultra-wideband signals represented a new wireless communication scheme that students had to master at the beginning of the research experience. After an initial training period, students were tasked with site selection, experimental design, recording measurements, analyzing data, and troubleshooting equipment failures. Although it is too early to assess the impact of the research experience on these students careers, the experience appears to have been a success. All four students reported a greater depth of understanding of the concepts taught in electromagnetics and communications courses. Additionally, students gained valuable experience in developing and carrying out field experiments sometimes in less than ideal conditions and as a result of this experience, some students expressed a desire to pursue a graduate degree. Designing this research project also provided several valuable lessons to the instructors which will aid in the further development of hands-on learning activities for electromagnetics and communications courses.

Anderson, Christopher; Buehrer, Richard

2009-10-09

195

Research on tropical forest aboveground biomass estimating using ICESat\\/GLAS data in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the aboveground biomass (AGB) was estimated for the forest in Xishuangbanna (Southwestern China) area by combining forest field investigation data and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data, onboard the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). The tree height prediction models at GLAS footprint level were developed from GLAS waveform variables and filed survey plot tree height

Hong Chi; Zhifeng Guo; Guoqing Sun

2011-01-01

196

The Research on Forest Fire Prevention Information System Based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important and essential natural resource to human development, forest has an extremely important significance for the sustainable socio-economic development. This paper primarily carries out the overall design of forest fire prevention information system based on GIS. Posterior, C# and C++ language are used on .NET platform, based on ArcEngine Geography Information Component Library, Janus UI Controls interface component

Liu Xiaosheng; Meng Yao

2010-01-01

197

Simulation research on control system and ballistic of a remote forest fire fighting cannon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fire fighting cannon is fire-fighting equipment developed for fighting against forest fires; it is considered the tree crown fire and the inaccessible areas which are dangerous for man to get close as extinguishing object. The forest fire fighting cannon is launched by pneumatic method; the timing device within the extinguishing shell will be triggered after launching. After the free-flying

Yonggang Pang; Shaogang Liu

2010-01-01

198

New Interdisciplinary Research on Mexico's Common Property Forests: A National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to develop strategies coordinating federal forest policy objectives with local governance institutions in Mexico have met with major obstacles. Federal forestry projects, including Programa de Desarrollo Forestal in the seventies and Proyecto de Conservación y Manejo Sustentable de Recursos Forestales (PROCYMAF) currently, have focused on improving state, private and community sectors' capacity to implement forestry management activities that incorporate

Camille Antinori; Octavio Magaña Torres; Juan Manuel; Torres Rojo; Gerardo Segura Warnholz; David Barton

199

IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS - EMERGING RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure - Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10-16, 2006, Riverside, CA, USA are summarized. Tropospheric ozone is st...

200

Kansas Forest Inventory, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forest Inventory and Analysis (formerly called Forest Survey) is a continuing endeavor as mandated by the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, which was preceded by the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of 1928. Its objective ...

J. S. Spencer J. K. Strickler W. J. Moyer

1984-01-01

201

Analysis of the distribution of epiphytic lichens on Cedrus libani in Elmali Research Forest (Antalya, Turkey).  

PubMed

In order to evaluate environmental factors limiting distribution of species, diversity of epiphytic lichens was studied in 34 sites along an altitudinal gradient from 1300 to 1900 m on north-facing and south-facing slopes of Elmali Cedar Research Forest (Antalya province, Turkey) regarding the dispersion of lichens in different tree-diameter classes (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-45 cm, 45-60 cm and >75 cm). The results showed that the relationship between diameter classes with the number of lichen species was R2=0.6022. The highest number of species was in the diameter class of 30-45 cm. There was a clear relationship between all parameters, diameter, altitude and aspect, with species richness. Changes in the community structure of the epiphytic lichen vegetation were detected along an altitudinal gradient revealing the highest species richness in the highest zone. The elevation affected both the number and the composition of the lichen communities and the relationship between the attitudinal zones with number of lichen species was designated as R2=0.6462. The number of species was higher in the north aspects than in the south aspects in all diameter classes. The species number depending on the altitude was also higher in the north-facing slopes than in the south-facing slopes. PMID:20121019

Cobanoglu, Gulsah; Sevgi, Orhan

2009-03-01

202

The changing picture of substance abuse problems among Finnish prisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Marginalized people are often absent from population surveys of substance use and from research based on care data. Special\\u000a methods are needed to reach these small but very significant groups. This study analyses how patterns of intoxicant use have\\u000a changed over time among one of the most marginalized group of people, the prisoners.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nationally representative samples of Finnish prisoners were

Tomi Lintonen; Yaira Obstbaum; Jorma Aarnio; Virpi von Gruenewaldt; Sirpa Hakamäki; Juha Kääriäinen; Aino Mattila; Heikki Vartiainen; Päivi Viitanen; Terhi Wuolijoki; Matti Joukamaa

203

Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges: Analyses and Reminiscences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The origins, evolution, and current state of Finnish-American academic and professional exchange are reviewed. Personal evaluations by Finnish scholars are provided as follows: "Scholarly Exchanges with Finland: The Benefits to the United States" (Allan A. Kuusisto); "Finnish-American Academic and Professional Exchanges, A History" (Yrjo…

Copeland, William, Ed.; And Others

204

78 FR 22225 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Integrated Forest Products Research Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Integrated Forest Products...Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of Request for Stakeholder Input...utilization issues, NIFA is soliciting stakeholder input that will allow it to...

2013-04-15

205

Vegetation in group-selection openings: Early trends. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Nine openings that ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 acres and were grouped into small, medium, and large size classes comprised the initial group-selection cut on the Boggs Mountain State Forest in north central California. Five growing seasons after site preparation by pile and burn, 81 plant species in 35 families were present. Forbs, ferns, graminoids, manzanita, other shrubs, and ponderosa pine seedlings were sampled in a variety of environments that ranged from the surrounding forest to near plot centers. Few statistically significant differences were found among opening sizes, but developing trends suggest that significant differences will occur in the near future. Many statistical differences were present when the location of the vegetation in the forest and openings was tested. In general, the density of manzanita, other shrubs, and ferns in the openings was greater than that in the forest. Cover of pine seedlings, manzanita, ferns, and forbs showed similar trends.

McDonald, P.M.; Anderson, P.J.; Fiddler, G.O.

1997-12-01

206

Monitoring Design for Riparian Forests in the Pacific Northwest. Research Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to recommend a broadly-acceptale efficient and effective methodology for characterizing streamside riparian attributes in forested settings at the site grain for regional monitoring. The authors consider monitoring design in th...

P. L. Ringold J. Barker M. Bollman G. Bradshaw W. Carson S. Cline M. Fiorella J. Stepp

1997-01-01

207

Research about the location technologies of forest fire detecting based on GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire caused damages of property and loss of human life. Detecting a forest fire and get the location is very significant in the fire early warning. More early and more prompt detecting fire and determining fire position as far as possible could avoid and reduce loss of the disaster. At present there are three ways regarding the forest fire early warning and location determining which included: monitoring form Remote Sense Satellite image, manual observation and patrols, and automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video. Overall evaluation regarding the three location technologies in forest fire early warning, the CCD camera detecting method is suitable in the fire rapid Response. An automatic forest fire surveillance system was running to detect the fire by using visible light images from the remote cameras. If a forest fire was detected, an alarm will be activated. The observation point elevation values, vertical offsets, horizontal and vertical scanning angles, and scanning distances will be also be sent to the central control room. The spatial orientation will be computed and showed on the electronic map. Key location technologies based on CCD camera included the image processing technique for automatically detecting forest fire and the visibility analyzes technique for the digital elevation model. Jing gang Mountain which locates in Jiangxi province of China is taken as an example. With the help of this automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video and visibility analyzes, scientists and government administrators can make decision-supporting easily when they know exactly where a forest fire is. At last the shortage of CCD camera detecting method was discussed. We cannot depend on CCD camera detecting equipment and technologies only. With foundation of the automatic video frequency supervisory system, we should also strengthen manual observation and satellite remote sensing monitor.

Zhang, An; Qi, Qingwen; Jiang, Lili; Guo, Chaohui

2007-08-01

208

Confronting the Technological Pedagogical Knowledge of Finnish Net Generation Student Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research reported here is concerned with a critical examination of some of the assumptions concerning the "Net Generation" capabilities of 74 first-year student teachers in a Finnish university. There are assumptions that: (i) Net Generation students are adept at learning through discovery and thinking in a hypertext-like manner (Oblinger &…

Valtonen, Teemu; Pontinen, Susanna; Kukkonen, Jari; Dillon, Patrick; Vaisanen, Pertti; Hacklin, Stina

2011-01-01

209

A Validation of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Finnish Kindergartens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: This study examined the validity and reliability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; R. C. Pianta, K. M. La Paro, & B. K. Hamre, 2008) in Finnish kindergartens. A pair of trained observers used the CLASS to observe 49 kindergarten teachers (47 female, 2 male) on two different days. Questionnaires measuring teachers' efficacy beliefs, exhaustion at work,

Eija Pakarinen; Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Noona Kiuru; Martti Siekkinen; Helena Rasku-Puttonen; Jari-Erik Nurmi

2010-01-01

210

Product-related information for sustainable use of laundry detergents in Finnish households  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to report on research on how product-related information can guide sustainable product use in the context of laundry detergents. More precisely, the purpose of the study was designed to analyse how the detergent package information and dosing instructions are read, understood and followed in the Finnish households. Data collection methods included interviews in 340

Pentti Järvi; Ari Paloviita

2007-01-01

211

Finnish Disease Heritage I: characteristics, causes, background.  

PubMed

This review of the Finnish Disease Heritage (FDH), a group of rare hereditary diseases that are overrepresented in Finland, includes the following topics: FDH characteristics, causes and background, primary theory, revis(it)ed theory, consanguineous marriages in Finland, internal migration of the 1500s, family series for further FDH studies, geography and population structure as a basis for FDH, geography of individual diseases, the structure of FDH families, family structure in individual diseases, Finnish gene mutations, linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes, age of gene mutations, frequencies of disease genes and carriers, and a short description of the possible future of FDH. PMID:12627295

Norio, Reijo

2003-03-08

212

Pennsylvania's Forest 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2000, the Pennsylvania Department of Conservations Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry and the Northern Research Stations Forest Inventory and Analysis unit implemented a new annual system for inventorying and monitoring Pennsylvanias forests. This r...

B. J. Butler C. L. Alerich M. L. Hoppus S. P. Cassell W. H. McWilliams

2007-01-01

213

Teacher Students' MA Theses--A Gateway to Analytic Thinking about Teaching? A Case Study of Finnish Primary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finnish teacher education has been higher academic education since 1979. Thus, all primary school teachers graduate as Masters and they conduct an MA thesis. For this research 23 teachers were interviewed in order to determine their conceptions of reflection, teacher research and their future research intentions. These teacher students worked…

Maaranen, Katriina

2010-01-01

214

Finnish Students’ Attitudes towards Commercialised Sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines attitudes towards sexuality and its commercial representations among Finnish students aged 18–30. In order to evaluate commercialised sex as broadly as possible, we approached it from three angles: sex as a special effect in media and marketing; display of a ‘sexy’ body and clothing as a part of young person's identity; and sex or pornography as a

Pekka Räsänen; Terhi-Anna Wilska

2007-01-01

215

Management by Results at Finnish Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The funding of Finnish Universities has been based on a "management by results" strategy since 1991. This paper analyses the effects of this strategy on university management and administration. Empirically the study is based on material collected from four multidisciplinary universities. Theoretically it is based on organization theory and…

Kuoppala, Kari

2005-01-01

216

Introduction to the History of Finnish Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the book are to present the history of Finland in special reference to the development of Finnish architecture, and to provide material for a more general understanding of how architecture develops in any country, region, or culture. In ...

A. Nevanlinna

1986-01-01

217

Integrated Panel of Finnish Companies and Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the compiling of the integrated data which comprises longitudinal information on Finnish companies and workers. The company panel of the data is dynamically representative over time and covers a wide range of the economy. The worker panel covers in principle all people who have been employed in the private sector during the period 1988-96. Worker

Ossi Korkeamäki; Tomi Kyyrä

2000-01-01

218

Gender and injury in Finnish comprehensive schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to analyze the gender differences in injuries at Finnish comprehensive schools. Nine schools reported a total of 1135 injuries to the injury register over two school years. Boys (56%) were injured more often than girls, their injuries happened more often during breaks at school yard, whereas girls hurt themselves during sport lectures in the

Simo Salminen; Anne Lounamaa; Marja Kurenniemi

2008-01-01

219

Finnish Security and European Security Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1995 Finland joined the European Union (EU). This action culminated several years of a fundamental reorientation of Finnish security policy as Finland moved from the neutrality imposed on it by the Soviet Union to a policy with a priority on European i...

S. J. Blank

1996-01-01

220

Educational needs of Finnish polytechnic librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polytechnic experiment, which started in the beginning of the 1990s, is the largest educational reform in the history of the Finnish system of higher education. The polytechnics were built on former colleges and institutes of higher vocational education. Hardly any of the polytechnics had sufficient library and information services. This reform has meant many changes in the libraries of

Marjariitta Viiri

1999-01-01

221

Polytechnic Graduate Placement in Finnish Manufacturing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite…

Bockerman, Petri

2007-01-01

222

Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. METHODS: The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study.

Sari Laanterä; Tarja Pölkki; Anette Ekström; Anna-Maija Pietilä

2010-01-01

223

Finnish Physicians’ Interest in Genetic Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To report on Finnish physicians’ opinions on the possible future use of genetic screening and their interest in knowing their own risk for diseases. Methods: A questionnaire survey mailed to gynaecologists, paediatricians, general practitioners and clinical geneticists. Both leading physicians and a sample of other practitioners were included (response rate 74%, n = 571). Results: Physicians preferred genetic testing

Hanna Toiviainen; Elina Hemminki

2001-01-01

224

Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed and debated, some of which include C sequestration resulting from forest management as a possible tradeable commodity. However, uncertainties regarding sources of variation in sequestration rates, validation, and leakage remain significant challenges for devising strategies to include forest management in C markets. Hence, the need for scientifically-based information on C sequestration by forest management has never been greater. The consequences of forest management on the US carbon budget are large, because about two-thirds of the {approx}300 million hectare US forest resource is classified as 'commercial forest.' In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere. However, forest management practices could be designed to meet the multiple goals of providing wood and paper products, creating economic returns from natural resources, while sequestering C from the atmosphere. The shelterwood harvest strategy, which removes about 30% of the basal area of the overstory trees in each of three successive harvests spread out over thirty years as part of a stand rotation of 60-100 years, may improve net C sequestration compared to clear-cutting because: (1) the average C stored on the land surface over a rotation increases, (2) harvesting only overstory trees means that a larger fraction of the harvested logs can be used for long-lived sawtimber products, compared to more pulp resulting from clearcutting, (3) the shelterwood cut encourages growth of subcanopy trees by opening up the forest canopy to increasing light penetration. Decomposition of onsite harvest slash and of wastes created during timber processing releases CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, thus offsetting some of the C sequestered in vegetation. Decomposition of soil C and dead roots may also be temporarily stimulated by increased light penetration and warming of the forest floor. Quantification of these processes and their net effect is needed. We began studying C sequestration in a planned shelterwood harvest at the Howland Forest in central Maine in 2000. The harvest took place in 2002 by the International Paper Corporation, who assisted us to track the fates of harvest products (Scott et al., 2004, Environmental Management 33: S9-S22). Here we present the results of intensive on-site studies of the decay of harvest slash, soil respiration, growth of the remaining trees, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO{sub 2} during the first six years following the harvest. These results are combined with calculations of C in persisting off-site harvest products to estimate the net C consequences to date of this commercial shelterwood harvest operation. Tower-based eddy covariance is an ideal method for this study, as it integrates all C fluxes in and out of the forest over a large 'footprint' area and can reveal how the net C flux, as well as gross primary productivity and respiration, change following harvest. Because the size of this experiment precludes large-scale replication, we are use a paired-airshed approach, similar to classic large-scale paired watershed experiments. Measurements of biomass and C fluxes in control and treatment stands were compared during a pre-treatment calibration period, and then divergence from pre-treatment relationships between the two sites measured after the harvest treatment. Forests store carbon (C) as they accumulate biomass. Many forests are also commercial sources of timber and wood fiber. In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the at

Davidson, E.A.; Dail, D.B., Hollinger, D.; Scott, N.; Richardson, A.

2012-08-02

225

Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

Dail, David Bryan [University of Maine

2012-08-02

226

Using column lysimetry to evaluate acid-precipitation effects. Forest Service research paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the experimental design and approach used to solve problems encountered with soil column collection, instrumentation, materials and methods, and maintenance of natural soil temperatures. Some preliminary results are presented. Also, basic data on the soil and vegetation of the sampled sites are included to form a database for use by forest soil scientists and land managers. The

A. R. Harris; D. M. Stone

1990-01-01

227

The Conservation of Saproxylic Insects in Tropical Forests: A Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invariably, insects are overlooked when tropical forest management issues are discussed, because there are so many species, they are taxonomically intractable and so poorly known. Often people take the view that if you look after the vegetation and vertebrates, the insects will look after themselves. This may be true for some functional groups, but for saproxylic insects, this seems unlikely.

Simon J. Grove; Nigel E. Stork

1999-01-01

228

Impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds on ozone production at the Taehwa Research Forest near Seoul, South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in understanding of air-quality and climate on regional to global scales has been highlighted in a number of modeling and observational studies. At the same time, another important emerging research topic in atmospheric chemistry is the regional and global impacts of fast growing East Asian megacities. These two research topics must be integrated in order to adequately understand and address air quality challenges emerging from Eastern Asian megacities surrounded by planted or natural forest areas. We present initial measurement results for May, June and September 2011 from the Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) which has been developed to serve as a long term observatory for investigating biosphere-atmosphere interactions at the edge of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (population of ˜23.5 million). The comprehensive measurement datasets of ozone and its precursors such as CO, NOx, SO2 and VOCs shows that high ozone episodes in the suburban site could not be explained by just anthropogenic pollutants alone. In addition, isoprene (C5H8) and monoterpenes (C10H16) were observed as two of the most important OH chemical sinks inside of the forest canopy. In order to understand the impacts of these BVOCs on ozone and related photochemistry, we conducted model sensitivity simulations using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem) for conditions including with and without BVOC emissions. The modeling results suggest that BVOC emissions could enhance regional daytime ozone production from 5 to 20 ppbv. The observed temporal variations in ozone correspond well with the variations in BVOCs, which likely reflects the influence of BVOCs on ozone formation. These findings strongly suggest that interactions between anthropogenic pollutants and BVOCs must be understood and quantified in order to assess photochemical ozone formation in the regions surrounding East Asian megacities.

Kim, So-Young; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Lee, Meehye; Turnipseed, Andrew; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Jong-Choon; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Saewung

2013-05-01

229

Danish and Finnish PISA results in a comparative, qualitative perspective: How can the stable and distinct differences between the Danish and Finnish PISA results be explained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research project presented in this article was designed to provide a better understanding of the stable and significant\\u000a differences in the PISA results between two otherwise very similar Nordic welfare states, Denmark and Finland. In the PISA\\u000a studies, Finnish students repeatedly achieve the highest Nordic (and partly worldwide) scores in e.g. reading, science and\\u000a math, while Danish students score

Frans Ørsted Andersen

2010-01-01

230

The empirical research on the existential crisis on the basis of income levels of staff of the state-owned forest zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research adopts stratified sampling with random sampling methods and uses household survey of one-to-one interview. It makes the large-scale continuous tracking study to estimate the income of 913 staff families which in state-owned forest zone of Heilongjiang Province and contrast the difference before and after the national nature forest protection program in 1997, 2004 and 2007. Based on the

Li-hong Liu; Yu-kun Cao; Jia-bin Yu; Yu-hang Wang; Li Qiu

2011-01-01

231

Upland forests of the American\\/Pacific islands: Research opportunities in Micronesia and American Samoa. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upland forests of Micronesia and American Samoa can provide many social, ecological, and esthetic benefits for island inhabitants. Substantial upland areas (the majority of acreage on some islands) are now occupied by secondary and grassland\\/savanna vegetation: such areas represent opportunities for restoration, with both native forest cover and plantations of introduced species. The review briefly describes characteristics of the

D. S. DeBell; C. D. Whitesell

1993-01-01

232

BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen, and moss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral and directional reflection properties of pine forest understory in Suonenjoki, Finland were measured using a newly developed transportable field goniospectrometer under direct sunlight or plant lamp. The samples represent the most typical types in Finnish forests. Large differences between species were found. Wax-leaved shrubs such as lingonberry and blueberry proved to be strong forward scatterers, whereas lichen and

Jouni I. Peltoniemi; Sanna Kaasalainen; Jyri Näränen; Miina Rautiainen; Pauline Stenberg; Heikki Smolander; Sampo Smolander; Pekka Voipio

2005-01-01

233

A Study of Offense Patterns and Psychopathological Characteristics Among Recidivistic Finnish Homicide Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is based on a number of research projects on offender profiling and homicidal crime scene behavior carried out\\u000a at the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. This specific study investigated homicidal recidivism in Finland and analyzed\\u000a offense and offender characteristics in these cases. The results diverge in many respects from the previous research findings\\u000a attributed to serial homicide and

Helinä Häkkänen

234

Correlation and prediction of snow water equivalent from snow sensors. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Since 1982, under an agreement between the California Department of Water Resources and the USDA Forest Service, snow sensors have been installed and operated in Forest Service-administered wilderness areas in the Sierra Nevada of California. Because analysis of snow water equivalent(SWE) data from these wilderness sensors would not be possible until just before they are due to be removed, surrogate pairs of high- and low-elevation snow sensors were selected to determine whether correlation and prediction might be achieved. Surrogate pairs of sensors with between 5 and 15 years of concurrent data were selected, and correlation and regression were used to examine the statistical feasibility of SWE prediction after removal of the wilderness sensors. Of the 10 pairs analyzed, two pairs achieved a correlation coefficient of 0.95 or greater.

McGurk, B.J.; Azuma, D.L.

1992-01-01

235

Hardwood supply in the Pacific northwest: A policy perspective. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but in the long term, the supply is uncertain and cause for concern. Hardwoods need to be recognized in forest management in the Pacific Northwest.

Raettig, T.L.; Connaughton, K.P.; Ahrens, G.R.

1995-01-01

236

Vegetation in group-selection openings: Early trends. Forest Service research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine openings that ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 acres and were grouped into small, medium, and large size classes comprised the initial group-selection cut on the Boggs Mountain State Forest in north central California. Five growing seasons after site preparation by pile and burn, 81 plant species in 35 families were present. Forbs, ferns, graminoids, manzanita, other shrubs, and ponderosa

P. M. McDonald; P. J. Anderson; G. O. Fiddler

1997-01-01

237

The Finnish Disease Heritage III: the individual diseases.  

PubMed

This article is the third and last in a series entitled The Finnish Disease Heritage I-III. All the 36 rare hereditary diseases belonging to this entity are described for clinical and molecular genetic purposes, based on the Finnish experience gathered over a period of half a century. In addition, five other diseases are mentioned. They may be included in the list of the "Finnish diseases" after adequate complementary studies. PMID:12627297

Norio, Reijo

2003-03-08

238

Western Bark Bettle Research Group: A Unique Collaboration with Forest Health Protection. Proceedings of a Symposium at the 2007 Society of American Foresters Conference, October 23-28, 2007, Portland, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The compilation of papers in this proceedings is based on a symposium sponsored by the Insect and Diseases Working Group (D5) at the 2007 Society of American Foresters (SAF) convention in Portland, Oregon. The selection of topics parallels the research pr...

J. E. Lundquist J. L. Hayes

2009-01-01

239

Finnish guidelines for workplace drug testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Finnish guidelines for workplace drug testing outlined here represent what is considered the best practice for workplace drug testing to be followed in Finland. The guidelines are based on the act on the protection of privacy in working life (759\\/2004), the occupational health care act (1383\\/2001) and the decree on workplace drug testing (218\\/2005). They start by defining situations

Pirjo Lillsunde; Katariina Haavanlammi; Ritva Partinen; Kristiina Mukala; Matti Lamberg

2008-01-01

240

Finnish participation in the Soviet Mars program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two planned projects for spaceflight to Mars are the U.S. Mars observer and the Soviet Mars-94 mission. Finnish participation in the Phobos mission includes the Aspera plasma spectrometer, the LIMA-D test laser to measure the consistence of elements of the Phobos moon, the DION test, the VSK-FREGAT camera, and the spectrometer system. Discussions of future applications (Mars-94) include the Aspera C plasma spectrometer, the camera system, spectrometer, and SPICAM monitor.

Liede, Ilkka

241

Forest Fire Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forest fire management systems share much in common with urban fire, police and ambulance systems, but the spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of forest fire occurrence processes and the comparatively long distances over which forest fire management takes\\u000a place pose special challenges to operational researchers. This chapter describes the basic structure of a forest fire management\\u000a system and the decision-making problems

David L. Martell

242

Finnish guidelines for workplace drug testing.  

PubMed

The Finnish guidelines for workplace drug testing outlined here represent what is considered the best practice for workplace drug testing to be followed in Finland. The guidelines are based on the act on the protection of privacy in working life (759/2004), the occupational health care act (1383/2001) and the decree on workplace drug testing (218/2005). They start by defining situations in which workplace testing is allowed and continue up to the point where the certificate is submitted to the employer. The role of the occupational health care system is crucial in the procedure. The guidelines include the best practice procedures to be followed by laboratories providing workplace drug testing services. The laboratory recommendations are based on general principles established internationally. In the Finnish guidelines, accreditation is an absolute prerequisite for a laboratory functioning as a workplace drug testing laboratory. The laboratory section of the guidelines includes specimen collection, laboratory organisation, analysis procedure, quality assurance and quality control measures. These largely conform to the European laboratory guidelines for legally defensible workplace drug testing published by the European workplace drug testing society (EWDTS), but there are differences. In addition to using urine as a specimen, the Finnish guidelines also encompass blood. PMID:17499950

Lillsunde, Pirjo; Haavanlammi, Katariina; Partinen, Ritva; Mukala, Kristiina; Lamberg, Matti

2007-05-17

243

Interactions of fire regimes and land use in the central Rio Grande Valley. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present evidence of dramatic modifications of pre-existing ecological systems by human activities. Our research group at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted extensive studies of fire history in forested ecosystems at more than 60 sites throughout Arizona and New Mexico. Our studies suggest that most of these areas existed in a semi-natural state, litte affected by human populations, before the introduction of large numbers of livestock around the turn of the 20th century. Natural dynamics of biomass accumulation, climatic regimes, and lightning ignitions can account for fire frequencies documented at most sites studied. Recognizable human impacts before the 20 century were probably limited to high use areas and high value resources.

Baisan, C.H.; Swetnam, T.W.

1997-05-01

244

Predicting regeneration establishment with the prognosis model. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

The conifer establishment following regeneration timber harvests is predicted by version 2 of the Regeneration Establishment Model, a submodel of the Prognosis Model. The regeneration model covers 10 species for forests in Montana, central Idaho, and northern Idaho. Most harvest and site preparation methods can be simulated so that alternative treatments can be evaluated. Also included in the model is the influence of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on regeneration success. The model predicts the probability of stocking, seedling density, species composition, and seedling heights 2 to 20 years after harvest. The paper describes the study design, equation development, model formulation, and model behavior for the Regeneration Establishment Model.

Ferguson, D.E.; Carlson, C.E.

1993-08-01

245

Fuel models to predict fire behavior in untreated conifer slash. Forest Service research note (final)  

SciTech Connect

Fire behavior in untreated slash of nine conifer species was simulated for 10 successive years after logging. Two aging factors that affect fire behavior--fuel bed compaction and foliage retention--were modeled by least squares regression techniques. On the basis of spread rate and flame length for a set of weather observations, standard Northern Forest Fire Laboratory fuel models were chosen to predict fire behavior for aging slash of each species at three initial fuel loadings. Differences in the standard fuel model sequences best representing aging process among species were most influenced by foliage surface-area-to-volume ratio, and such differences increased as initial fuel load increased.

Salazar, L.A.; Bevins, C.D.

1984-11-01

246

Managing lodgepole pine to yield merchantable thinning products and attain sawtimber rotations. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

This paper suggests solution for a longstanding problem in managing lodgepole pine forests- that of managing individual stands to reach their planned rotation age, despite serious hazard from bark beetles and wildfire. The management regimes presented yield merchantable thinning products. The 80-year sawtimber rotation can be achieved using these management recommendation. Thinning at 30 years of age is central to achieving the recommended alternative management regimes. The authors suggest that agencies give roundwood operators a portion of the thinning stemwood as payment. Management regimes that provide attainable rotations are presented in summary tables, by three site index classes and a number of initial stand density classes.

Cole, D.M.; Koch, P.

1995-12-01

247

Old-growth boreal forests: Worth protecting for biodiversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes socially optimal forest management in terms of the rotation period and strict protection of stands when society values biodiversity benefits and harvest revenue. By using species presence and decaying wood functions, the Hartman model is extended to tackle biodiversity. A parametric version is developed to assess optimal management by using Finnish data on 32 old-growth stands. The

Artti Juutinen

2008-01-01

248

Environmental Risks Caused by Pesticides at Forest Nurseries in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, various persistent pesticides were used extensively in the production of seedlings at Finnish forest nurseries. The extent and magnitude of the risks arising from the consequent environmental contamination are largely unknown. Therefore, we selected two representative nurseries for which we conducted tiered health risk assessments (HRA) using risk-based benchmarks and two calculation tools (SSL and Risc-Human software). Ecological risk

Jaana Sorvari; Satu Jaakkonen

2011-01-01

249

Non-market benefits of forest conservation in southern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses Finnish citizens’ valuations of forest conservation programmes for southern Finland. Contingent valuation (CV) and choice experiment (CE) methods were applied. According to the CV results, 74% of respondents were prepared to pay for increased conservation and 16% supported increased conservation but were not willing to pay for it. A further 5% were indifferent and 5% supported a

Emmi Lehtonen; Jari Kuuluvainen; Eija Pouta; Mika Rekola; Chuan-Zhong Li

2003-01-01

250

Tropical Forest Conservation and Development: A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Forest Resources; Deforestation; Conservation and Sustainable Development; Indigenous Peoples; Management, Policy, and Planning; Trade and Industrial Development; Nontimber Forest Products; Research, Education, and Training; History; Bibliograph...

J. Albrecht

1993-01-01

251

Genetic relationship of meat and milk production in Finnish Ayrshire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships of meat and milk production traits were studied from a field data set of 50?852 Finnish Ayrshire bulls and heifers and 28?362 Finnish Ayrshire cows, using REML methodology and animal model. Studied meat production traits included carcass weight, fatness and fleshiness for all bulls, heifers and cows, and additionally heifer and mature live weights estimated based on heart

Anna-Elisa Liinamo; Matti Ojala; Johan van Arendonk

2001-01-01

252

British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

2010-01-01

253

Regions, networks and fluidity in the Finnish nation-state  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author applies the topological conception of space to the building of the Finnish nation-state. The process is approached from the vantage point of the unconformable, yet related spatial types of regions, networks and fluids. An understanding of the Finnish identity as an ever-changing and contradictory field of core narratives and meanings, and as an international accomplishment,

Jouni Häkli

2008-01-01

254

Attitudes Toward Professional Foreign Players in Finnish Amateur Basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of foreign professional players may influence the host country's sport culture. To determine the attitudes toward foreign professionals in various Finnish amateur basketball leagues, all clubs (n = 55) playing basketball in the three highest Finnish leagues were interviewed by mailed questionnaire. The results indicated that recruitment of foreign pros was held to effect negatively the team spirit

Kalevi Olin

1984-01-01

255

Employees' Motivation for SPI: Case Study in a Small Finnish Software Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

In small software companies the resources available for SPI are often limited. With limited resources, the motivation of the\\u000a employees becomes one of the key factors for SPI. In this article, the motivational factors affecting a small company’s SPI\\u000a efforts are discussed. In the research, we carried out interviews and a survey in a small Finnish software company considering\\u000a the

Anu Valtanen; Hanna-Miina Sihvonen

2008-01-01

256

Modeling the population dynamics of pacific yew. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

A study of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) population dynamics in the mountains of western Oregon and Washington was based on a combination of long-term population data and computer modeling. Rates of growth and mortality were low in mature and old-growth forest stands. Diameter growth at breast height ranged from 0 to 3 centimeters per decade. The annual mortality rate for individuals greater than 5 centimeters in diameter at breast height was about 1 percent of the population. A matrix population model was constructed by using these and other fundamental data on yew population dynamics. The model was designed to perform population viability analyses of yew under various harvest regimes. Model projections suggested a slow rate of recovery from major disturbance.

Busing, R.T.; Spies, T.A.

1995-05-01

257

Forest owners’ choice of reforestation method: an application of the theory of planned behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is applied in the context of Finnish non-industrial private forest owners’ (NIPF) decision-making. Forest owners’ choice of reforestation method, i.e. choice between natural reforestation and seeding\\/planting, is investigated empirically on the basis of mail inquiry data from two regions in Finland (n=154). The choice of natural reforestation is predicted from forest owners’ attitude, subjective

Heimo Karppinen

2005-01-01

258

Valence and arousal ratings for 420 Finnish nouns by age and gender.  

PubMed

Language-and culture-specific norms are needed for research on emotion-laden stimuli. We present valence and arousal ratings for 420 Finnish nouns for a sample of 996 Finnish speakers. Ratings are provided both for the whole sample and for subgroups divided by age and gender in light of previous research suggesting age- and gender-specific reactivity to the emotional content in stimuli. Moreover, corpus-based frequency values and word length are provided as objective psycholinguistic measures of the nouns. The relationship between valence and arousal mainly showed the curvilinear relationship reported in previous studies. Age and gender effects on valence and arousal ratings were statistically significant but weak. The inherent affective properties of the words in terms of mean valence and arousal ratings explained more of the variance in the ratings. In all, the findings suggest that language- and culture-related factors influence the way affective properties of words are rated to a greater degree than demographic factors. This database will provide researchers with normative data for Finnish emotion-laden and emotionally neutral words. The normative database is available in Database S1. PMID:24023650

Söderholm, Carina; Häyry, Emilia; Laine, Matti; Karrasch, Mira

2013-08-30

259

Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

2010-01-01

260

The adoption of ICT in project-based and traditional organizations : Evidence from Finnish and Swedish companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research aims to investigate the adoption of electronic communication tools and seeks to shed more light on their diffusion process, a challenging task for project-based (PBO) and traditional business organizations (TBO). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data for the study were collected through three surveys, one total population survey in the Finnish and Swedish house building industries representing traditional

Maqsood Sandhu; Mian Ajmal

2012-01-01

261

Options for the Finnish FM/AEC Software Packages for Market Entry in the U.S.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes results of a project executed cooperatively by Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) and the Finland Trade Center (Finpro). The aim of the study has been to find out the opportunities for a group of Finnish Facility Management, ...

T. Koivu T. Laine V. Livonen D. Gonzales

2003-01-01

262

Forest History Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Affiliated with Duke University, the Forest History Society (FHS) "links the past to the future by identifying, collecting, preserving, interpreting, and disseminating information on the history of interactions between people, forests, and their related resources..." Founded in 1946, FHS offers extensive resources for anyone interested in the history of forests. This website contains links to FHS archives, research and publications, U.S. Forest Service history, searchable databases, and more. The searchable databases include a sizeable bibliography "containing annotated descriptions of over 34,000 books, articles, and dissertations on topics in the fields of forest, conservation, and environmental history."

2007-06-19

263

Finnish participation in the Radioastron program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finland is taking part, with ten other countries, in the Soviet Radioastron 1 program. Radioastron 1 is to be launched in 1994. Finland will help construct part of the equipment and will provide ground based support. Finland is a member of the management of Radioastron (RISC) and its Scientific Objectives Committee. A newly proposed study is participation in the VLBI (Very Long Base Interferometry) satellite (IVS/International VLBI Satellite). A study to evaluate the feasibility of Finnish participation in the Japanese VSOP project (the Japanese equivalent of VLBI) is discussed.

Valtaoja, Esko

264

Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary Report  

Treesearch

Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research ... increasing numbers of satellite chip mills, forest pests, and changing air quality. ... forces of change affecting southern forests and the changes they produce.

265

DETERMINING THE CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF FORESTED WETLANDS: EPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM, AND CHOICES FOR RESEARCH AND MONITORING DESIGNS  

EPA Science Inventory

The cumulative impacts component of EPA's wetlands research arises from a concern - that many individual permit applications for wetland alteration involve seemingly minimal change, yet collectively their impact may be significant. umerous studies have documented the potential be...

266

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Research and Education Partnership between NC A&T and the Wake Forest Univ. CCC  

Cancer.gov

To achieve the first objective, the P20 will provide pilot funds for two collaborative research projects, one in prostate cancer chemopreventive agents and the other in glioblastoma cell mobility and resistance to therapeutics.

267

Research on biodeterioration of wood, 1987-1992. 1. Decay mechanisms and biocontrol. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Growing concerns about the environment present an urgent need for new approaches to preserving wood. Some commonly used preservatives have been banned or restricted in several countries. The research paper first describes current knowledge about how white-and-brown rot fungi decay wood and then delineates research in to problem areas: (1) control of wood decay through targeting biosynthetic and degradative pathways, and (2) biological control (biocontrol) of wood decay through non-decay micro-organisms.

Highley, T.L.; Clausen, C.A.; Croan, S.C.; Green, F.; Illman, B.L.

1994-03-01

268

Seedfall, regeneration, and seedling development in group-selection openings. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Forty-eight openings of 30, 60, and 90 feet in diameter were created in previously unmanaged mixed conifer-hardwood stands on a high-quality site in northern California in 1963. They were an attempt to convert an essentially even-aged forest to an uneven-aged arrangement and comprised the initial cut in the group-selection system. Five conifer and three hardwoods produced 36 seed crops that ranged from very light to heavy during the 10-year study period (1964-1973). Sound seed for four conifer species combined (not sugar pine) for 10 years amounted to the equivalent of more than 302,900 seeds per acre and, in general, did not differ significantly among opening sizes. Shade and roots from bordering trees were major influences on seedling survival and development in the openings. Density of established conifer and hardwood seedlings (at least 4 years old) ranged from 12 per acre for incense-cedar in 90-foot openings to about 9,600 ponderosa pines per acre in 60-foot openings after 10 years, and did not differ significantly among opening sizes. Conifer seedling heights ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 feet after 9 years. Average height of ponderosa pines and hardwoods differed significantly between the largest and smallest opening size with height being best in the largest. Normally multi-stemmed and wide-crowned shrubs were conspicuous by their single spindly stems.

McDonald, P.M.; Abbott, C.S.

1994-01-01

269

Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of northwest Spain forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, E. E.

2003-01-01

270

Forest Features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students learn about different types of forests - temperate deciduous forests, temperate evergreen forests, and tropical rain forests. Students will concentrate on the tropical rain forest and learn about the Congo Trek made by the explorer Michael Fay through the African rain forest.

271

[The "top ten" of Finnish medicine].  

PubMed

In the early 1980s the Wellcome Institute was planning a biographical dictionary on the world's most eminent physicians. The quota reserved for Finland was ten names, and having been asked by Dr. Karin Johannisson, Uppsala, to participate in the project, I undertook the task of choosing them and providing a short biography of each. For this, I asked the advice of ten experts on the history of Finnish medicine, and a "top ten" list was then compiled. The list extended from Johan Haartman, "the father of Finnish medicine", till the Nobel Prize winner Ragnar Granit and the famous pediatrist Arvo Ylppo, who were still alive in the 1980s. The biographies were sent to the editor of the dictionary, but it seems that the work was never published. As I had saved all my correspondence about the matter, it seemed now, fifteen years afterwards, interesting to publish a short report of the project, including an account of how the "top ten" list had been achieved. PMID:11625413

Leikola, A

1998-01-01

272

Finnish security and European security policy  

SciTech Connect

In 1995 Finland joined the European Union (EU). This action culminated several years of a fundamental reorientation of Finnish security policy as Finland moved from the neutrality imposed on it by the Soviet Union to a policy with a priority on European integration through the European Union. Finland, in joining the EU, has retained its independent defense and security posture, even as it seeks to strengthen its standing abroad and gain added leverage, through the EU, for dealing with Russia. Finland`s odyssey indicates much about two fundamental issues in European security: coping with Russia`s crises, and the interrelationship between the EU and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as providers of security for small states in Europe. Furthermore, Finland`s proximity to Russia and the difficult history of Fenno-Russian relations have imposed on Finnish policymakers the need for penetrating and sober analysis of Finland`s and Europe`s security situation. Therefore, Finland`s evolution from an imposed neutrality to overt participation in European integration merits our careful scrutiny and attention.

Blank, S.J.

1996-09-27

273

New Threats to Forest Health Require Quick and Comprehensive Research Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic pest introductions are a global threat occurring at an unprecedented rate. Comprehensive research programs are required at the onset to prevent the spread of the invasive insects, pathogens or plants, and rehabilitate and restore native habitats and ecosystems. Unfortunately, much of the current research on invasives is piecemeal. Past experiences with exotic and native pests provide some valuable lessons

Fred Hain

2006-01-01

274

Maintaining wildlife habitat in southeastern Alaska: implications of new knowledge for forest management and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review results and implications from recent wildlife studies that followed from the 1997 Tongass Land Management Plan (TLMP) and identify information needs and directions for research, development, and application. Sustained population viability of wildlife species was identified as a major issue in the TLMP planning process. Several species were identified as management indicator species, and research was conducted to

Thomas A. Hanley; Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende

2005-01-01

275

Coram Experimental Forest: 50 years of research in a western larch ...  

Treesearch

... and seed development and dispersal; natural and artificial regeneration after ... Coram, designated a Biosphere Reserve in 1976, is part of an international ... to the conservation of nature and scientific research in the service of humans.

276

Declining trend of carbon in Finnish cropland soils in 1974-2009.  

PubMed

Soil organic matter not only affects soil properties and productivity but also has an essential role in global carbon (C) cycle. We studied changes in the topsoil C content of Finnish croplands using a dataset produced in nationwide soil monitoring. The monitoring network consisting of fields on both mineral and organic soils was established in 1974 and resampled in 1987, 1998, and 2009. Over the monitoring period from 1974 to 2009, cultivated soils showed a continuous decline in C concentration (g kg(-1) ). In organic soils, C concentration decreased at a mean rate of 0.2-0.3% yr(-1) relative to the existing C concentration. In mineral soils, the relative decrease was 0.4% yr(-1) corresponding to a C stock (kg m(-2) ) loss of 220 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) . The change in management practices in last decades toward increasing cultivation of annual crops has contributed to soil C losses noted in this study. The results, however, suggest that the C losses result partly from other processes affecting cultivated soils such as climatic change or the continuing long-term effect of forest clearance. We estimated that Finnish cropland soils store 161 Tg carbon nationwide in the topmost 15 cm of which 117 Tg is in mineral soils. C losses from mineral soils can therefore total up to 0.5 Tg yearly. PMID:23505137

Heikkinen, Jaakko; Ketoja, Elise; Nuutinen, Visa; Regina, Kristiina

2013-02-11

277

Psychiatric morbidity among Finnish prisoners with special reference to socio-demographic factors: results of the Health Survey of Finnish Prisoners (Wattu Project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is part of the Health Survey of Finnish Prisoners (Wattu Project). The project dealt with a sample of 1099 Finnish prisoners, of which 82% participated in the study. Because of the representativeness of the sample the results can be generalized to all Finnish prisoners. The methods used consisted of questionnaires, interviews, a clinical examination by prison physicians

Matti Joukamaa

1995-01-01

278

Predictors of Attrition in the Finnish Conscript Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes attrition in the Finnish conscript service and identifies variables that predict attrition and their relative strength as determined by various statistical models. Subjects were 2,003 conscripts, 211 of whom were separated before com...

G. L. Siebold M. Salo

2006-01-01

279

Measuring a Roller Coaster: Evidence on the Finnish Output Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output gap-which measures the deviation of actual output from its potential-is frequently used as an indicator of slack in an economy. This paper estimates the Finnish output gap using various empirical methods. It evaluates these methods against economic history and each other by a simulated out-of-sample forecasting exercise for Finnish CPI inflation. Only two gap measures, stemming from a

Andreas Billmeier

2004-01-01

280

Association of LOXL1 gene with Finnish exfoliation syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene associated with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) were investigated in the Finnish population. A case–control study of 59 sporadic patients with XFS, 82 with XFG, 71 with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 26 individuals without these disorders from the southern Finnish population, and a

Susanna Lemmelä; Eva Forsman; Päivi Onkamo; Hanna Nurmi; Hannele Laivuori; Tero Kivelä; Päivi Puska; Martin Heger; Aldur Eriksson; Henrik Forsius; Irma Järvelä

2009-01-01

281

Major complications of laparoscopy: a follow-up Finnish study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine recent figures on major laparoscopic complications in Finland.Methods: This was a nationwide record-linkage study from January 1995 through December 1996 including all Finnish hospitals performing gynecologic laparoscopies. Data files of the National Patient Insurance Association and the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register were used. Data were compared with previous results from 1990 to 1994.Results: Among 32,205 gynecologic laparoscopies,

Päivi Härkki-Siren; Jari Sjöberg; Tapio Kurki

1999-01-01

282

Polarised Multiangular Reflectance Measurements Using the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer  

PubMed Central

The design, operation, and properties of the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO) are presented. FIGIFIGO is a portable instrument for the measurement of surface Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) for samples with diameters of 10 – 50 cm. A set of polarising optics enable the measurement of linearly polarised BRF over the full solar spectrum (350 – 2,500 nm). FIGIFIGO is designed mainly for field operation using sunlight, but operation in a laboratory environment is also possible. The acquired BRF have an accuracy of 1 – 5% depending on wavelength, sample properties, and measurement conditions. The angles are registered at accuracies better than 2°. During 2004 – 2008, FIGIFIGO has been used in the measurement of over 150 samples, all around northern Europe. The samples concentrate mostly on boreal forest understorey, snow, urban surfaces, and reflectance calibration surfaces.

Suomalainen, Juha; Hakala, Teemu; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Puttonen, Eetu

2009-01-01

283

Winter sowings produce 1-0 sugar pine planting stock in the Sierra Nevada. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Seed source and sowing date effects on first-year seedling growth and Fusarium root and collar rot of sugar pine were analyzed in two consecutive nursery tests at the Pacific Southwest Research Station's Institute of Forest Genetics, near Placerville in the western Sierra Nevada. The experimental design in both tests consisted of four replications of a randomized complete block of split-split plots, with sowing date split for disease treatment and seed source. Seed sources were natural stands at low, middle, and high elevations on the western slope of the northern Sierra Nevada. Seeds were soaked 36 hours in aerated water at 25 deg (77 deg F), chilled 90 days at 1 deg C (34 deg F), and sown in fumigated soil in February, March, April, and May. Treatment plots were drenched with fungicides just before sowing in the first test, and were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum at time of sowing in the second test. Seedling emergence averaged 96 to 99 percent, regardless of sowing date.

Jenkinson, J.L.; McCain, A.H.

1993-09-01

284

Relating p-Band AIRSAR Backscatter to Forest Stand Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of research on forest ecosystems, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and collaborating research teams have conducted multi-season airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) experiments in three forest ecosystems including temperate pine forest (D...

Y. Wang J. M. Melack F. W. Davis E. S. Kasischke N. L. Christensen

1993-01-01

285

Mapping Forest Change Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts a virtual walk through a Virginia forest to examine the impact of a non-native, invasive insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid, on a population of eastern hemlocks. Field research is conducted using the same scientific methodologies and tools that Smithsonian scientists use to monitor forest biodiversity, including scatter graph comparisons and field observations.

286

nationwide study - USDA Forest Service  

Treesearch

Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research ... An e-mail survey was administered to the 537 Forest Service forest ... seen as important and was thought to be a priority, along with budget and safety.

287

Biomass and nutrient distributions in central Oregon second-growth ponderosa pine ecosystems. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the distributioin of biomass and nurtrients in second-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystems in central Oregon. Destructive sampling of aboveground and belowground tree biomass was carried out at six sites in the Deschutes National Forest; three of these sites also were intensively sampled for biomass and nutrient concentrations of the soil, forest floor, residue, and shrub components. Tree biomass equations were developed that related component biomass to diameter at breast height and total tree height.

Little, S.N.; Shainsky, L.J.

1995-03-01

288

Pathogenic bacteria in Finnish bulk tank milk.  

PubMed

While the quality of raw cow milk in Finland is known for its high hygienic standard, with the national average total bacterial count being below 10(4) CFU/mL annually, the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in Finnish raw milk is underreported. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes, thermophilic Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., stx-positive Escherichia coli (STEC), coagulase-positive staphylococci, Yersinia spp., and Bacillus cereus group in raw cow milk samples collected from bulk tanks at 183 Finnish farms. Additionally, the hygienic quality of the milk was studied by determining the total bacterial and E. coli counts. L. monocytogenes was detected in 5.5% of the milk samples, with concentrations varying from <1 to 30 CFU/mL. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. or Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. STEC with Shiga toxin-encoding stx2 was detected in 2.7% of the samples. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected in 7.7% of the samples; however, all isolates were negative for ail, suggesting that they were non-pathogenic. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were detected in 34.4% of the samples, with an average concentration of 25 CFU/mL in the positive samples. Members of the B. cereus group were detected in 20.8% of the samples, with an average concentration of 1 CFU/mL in the positive samples. No relationship was detected between E. coli or the total bacterial count and the presence of pathogenic bacteria, which suggests that pathogens can be present also in farms with excellent production hygiene. Although the concentration of pathogenic bacteria in fresh raw milk was mainly relatively low, it should be borne in mind that some of the pathogenic bacteria can survive and multiply at refrigeration temperatures and may cause a disease with a very low infectious dose. Thus, consumption of raw milk and related products poses a potential risk for food poisoning. PMID:23373473

Ruusunen, Marjo; Salonen, Marleena; Pulkkinen, Hanna; Huuskonen, Marianne; Hellström, Sanna; Revez, Joana; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Lindström, Miia

2013-02-01

289

Approaching Mass Media Education Through Communication Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This set of three papers is an account of the Finnish approach to mass media education and to the research orientation which instigated it. 'From Mass Media to Mass Consciousness; Current Thinking in Scandinavia' provides a research orientation, presents ...

Y. Littunen

1974-01-01

290

In situ surface temperature retrieval in a boreal forest under variable cloudiness conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy temperature retrieval was one of the purposes during the Solar Induced FLuorescence EXperiment (SIFLEX?2002) of the European Space Agency, carried out in a Finnish boreal forest. In this work, we describe the strategy used to determine this temperature from ground thermal infrared (TIR) data under skies with variable cloud cover. TIR radiance was measured by a CIMEL Electronique CE

R. Niclòs; V. Caselles; C. Coll; E. Valor; J. M. Sánchez

2005-01-01

291

The Finnish adoptive family study of schizophrenia.  

PubMed Central

A nationwide Finnish sample of schizophrenic mothers' offspring given up for adoption has been compared blindly with matched controls; i.e., adopted-away offspring of non-schizophrenic biologic parents. The families have been investigated thoroughly by joint and individual interviews and psychological tests. In the 91 pairs where both the index and control families have already been investigated and rated, the total number of severe diagnoses (psychosis, borderline, character disorder) is 28.6 percent (26/91) in the index group and 16.5 percent (15/91) in the matched control group. Of the seven psychotic cases, six are offspring of schizophrenics and only one is a control offspring. However, no seriously disturbed offspring has been found in a healthy or mildly disturbed adoptive family, and those offspring who were psychotic and seriously disturbed were nearly all reared in disturbed adoptive families. This combination of findings supports the hypothesis that a possible genetic vulnerability has interacted with the adoptive rearing environment.

Tienari, P.; Sorri, A.; Lahti, I.; Naarala, M.; Wahlberg, K. E.; Ronkko, T.; Pohjola, J.; Moring, J.

1985-01-01

292

Finnish National Training Centre for Emergency Services.  

PubMed

This is a review of the facilities and programmes of the Finnish National Centre for Emergency Services in Kuopio, Finland. It includes the Emergency Services College that provides all of the training for emergency service workers in Finland and provides some services for the international community. There are needs for training by the medical community in Finland that relate both to skills and knowledge. Education and training focus on the demonstration of evidence-based competence. The facility includes a training ground for the provision of immediate emergency medical care, scene safety, extrication, industrial accidents, and water rescue. It is used for the training of paramedic students, nurses, medical students, firefighters, dispatch center staff, and officers. Computer-aided simulations are used to enhance the learning process. Plans are underway for adding tele-education and/or virtual-reality facilities. Close liaison is maintained with the University of Kuopio, Kuopio University Hospital, and with the Pohjois-Savo Polytechnic Institute. PMID:11183458

Kettunen, T A; Mattila, M A; Hänninen, O O

293

Houston's Regional Forest  

Treesearch

Source: Texas Forest Service Communication/Urban and Community Forestry ... to analyze the region's tree cover using field research and computer modeling. ... It provides detailed information on the structure, functions, and values of ...

294

Alternative targets and economic efficiency of selecting protected areas for biodiversity conservation in boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the relative merits of alternative forest biodiversity targets, which give different weights to species according\\u000a to their conservation status and abundance. A site selection framework is used for choosing the habitat-protection strategy\\u000a that maximizes biodiversity subject to an upper bound on funding with six alternative conservation goals. By using Finnish\\u000a data on old-growth forests, we found that alternative

Artti Juutinen; Mikko Mönkkönen

2007-01-01

295

Technical Barrier Effect of a Food Safety Measure - a Case of Finnish Salmonella Control Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, indirect costs of the Finnish Salmonella Control Program (FSCP) due to its trade effects are evaluated. FSCP is a part of Finnish biosecurity policies intended to shield Finnish food supply and consumption chain from salmonella outbreaks. The program may, by its very structure, also act as a technical trade barrier and thus hinder international trade. Traditional welfare

Jukka Peltola; Jyrki Niemi

296

Technical Barrier Effects of a Food Safety Measure – a Case of Finnish Salmonella Control Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, indirect costs of Finnish Salmonella Control Program (FSCP) due to its trade effects are evaluated. FSCP is a part of Finnish biosecurity policies intended to shield Finnish food supply and consumption chain from salmonella outbreaks. The program directly increases costs of importing by e.g. requiring costly certificates for imports. Additionally, it may cause anxiety to suppliers of

Jyrki S. Niemi; Jukka Peltola; Antti Simola

2008-01-01

297

Riding the Web 2.0 Wave: Candidates on YouTube in the 2007 Finnish National Elections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to expand the research on the adoption of social networking Web sites in electoral politics beyond the U.S. by exploring the use and impact of the YouTube video-sharing Web site in the 2007 Finnish national elections. Focusing on uploaded videos featuring candidates, the study shows that YouTube played a marginal role in the elections. Only 6% of

Tom Carlson; Kim Strandberg

2008-01-01

298

Students' and teachers' experiences of a problem-based learning method in health promotion in a Finnish polytechnic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective This study explored students' and their teachers' experiences of a problem-based learning method (PBL) and its manifestation in health promotion education.Design The study was based on a more extensive follow-up research project that investigated the teaching and learning of health promotion in two polytechnics of health care from 1997 to 2000.Settings A Finnish polytechnic of health care and nursing

Marita Poskiparta; Leena Liimatainen; Auli Sjögren

2003-01-01

299

Business vs. Cultural Frames of Reference in Group Decision Making: Interactions Among Austrian, Finnish, and Swedish Business Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evolved out of an ethnographic approach to teaching, learning, and researching the different ways that business and cultural frames of reference can affect decision making in groups consisting of Austrian, Finnish, and Swedish business students. The data is based on videotaped and audio taped recordings, post-exercise debriefings and discussions, and post-exercise written reflections on two decision-making exercises. The

Werner Auer-Rizzi; Michael Berry

2000-01-01

300

The effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system - What works, what doesn't, and what could be improved?  

SciTech Connect

The article summarises the results of a multidisciplinary research project on the effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system. It examines the main strengths and weaknesses of EIA as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool. The study concludes that EIA has achieved a meaningful role in the environmental policy toolbox in Finland and has clearly enhanced the possibilities for high-quality environmental decision making. The research cites the liaison authority system as a clear strength of the Finnish EIA system in its enabling a single regional authority to specialise in and gain wide experience on EIA issues. In examining potential weaknesses of the regime, the article concludes that the key constraint on EIA effectiveness is inadequacy of the action-forcing mechanisms at the decision-making phase. The primary means to improve the effectiveness of EIA would be to strengthen the legal provisions on development consents. On the whole, the research indicates that the EU and Finnish legislation and guidance on environmental impact assessment provide a good framework for effective utilisation of the instrument.

Poeloenen, Ismo, E-mail: Ismo.Polonen@uef.f [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Law, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Hokkanen, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.hokkanen@ely-keskus.f [Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for Central Finland, P.O. Box 250, FIN-40101 (Finland); Jalava, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.j.jalava@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

2011-03-15

301

Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA.

Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01

302

Health promotion in the Finnish shipping industry.  

PubMed

In autumn 1997 a pilot project was started in Finland to develop methods for promoting the health of sailors. Four Finnish shipping companies, (4 cargo ships and 2 passenger-cruise ferries), with altogether 730 sailors participated in the project. Special attention was paid to individuals with health problems and those who generally did not take care of their own health or fitness. Three-quarters of the respondents saw their health as good and one fifth as fair. Thirty-four persons responded that their working capacity was poor. 154 sailors were selected into further physical fitness evaluations. The main task of the project team was to activate sailors to take care of their own health and well-being. The health-promoting activities were directed especially at those persons who needed it. Information lectures concerning healthier eating habits and meals were given. Anti-smoking and anti-alcohol drinking information was given. On board one cruise ferry a project was started on how to react as early as possible to alcohol abuse among seafarers. Courses on shore for sailors were arranged to improve their physical fitness and to increase their resting benefit between working periods at sea. The intervention time was one year. Information about smoking and alcohol led to reduced alcohol consumption. The sailors had started to exercise more often both on board ship and on shore. Those who had increased their physical exercise during free time more often found their own health and working ability to have improved than those who had not changed their exercise habits. It appeared that health intervention projects are really needed especially by older sailors. The results also showed that positive effects could be achieved in the fitness of sailors. Better fitness was good for their health and also increased the work safety. PMID:11817841

Saarni, H; Laine, M; Niemi, L; Pentti, J

2001-01-01

303

Synonymity and Translated Finnish. A Corpus-based View of Contextuality of Synonymous Expressions and Lexical Features Specific to Translated Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is twofold: First, it examines how synonyms can be distinguished from each other by analysing their cotext, that is, their nearest linguistic environment. Secondly, the study focuses on untypical lexical patterning in translated language, which is hypothesised to be a translation universal. This research is a component of the project Translated Finnish and Translation

Jarmo Harri Jantunen

304

Highly stocked coniferous stands on the Olympic Peninsula: chemical composition and implications for harvest strategy. Forest Service research paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents an assessment of macronutrients and their distribution within highly stocked, stagnant stands of mixed conifers on the Quilcene Ranger District, Olympic National Forest, northwest Washington. These stands consisted of predominantly three species: western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzeisii), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata). Preliminary investigation suggests that the living crown contains a small portion of

S. N. Little; D. R. Waddell

1987-01-01

305

Application of merged 1-m and 4-m resolution satellite data to research and management in tropical forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Until very recently there have been no digital data from satellites for studying events that occur at scales of 10-1000 m 2 over large areas (100-100 000 ha). Many phenomena of interest to ecologists, such as impacts of selective logging on forest processes, occur over large extents but at local scales. Here we report results from a pilot

Jane M. Read; David B. Clark; Eduardo M. Venticinque; Marcelo P. Moreira

2003-01-01

306

Developing Inventory Projection Models Using Empirical Net Forest ...  

Treesearch

Source: USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Research Paper, FPL- RP-668, 2012. Station ID: RP-FPL-668 ... Given the parsimonious nature of the model and its simplicity, the developed net forest growth models can be very ...

307

The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores: American ...  

Treesearch

Title: The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores: American marten, ... by USDA Forest Service Research and the National Forest System assesses the ... at the stand and landscape scales if we are to develop reliable conservation ...

308

Changes in landscape patterns and associated forest succession on ...  

Treesearch

Title: Changes in landscape patterns and associated forest succession on the ... we conducted a qualitative and quantitative analysis of changes in forest cover ... Keywords: ecosystem management, ecosystem research, sustainable forests, ...

309

Variability within the 10-Year Pollen Rain of a Seasonal Neotropical Forest and Its Implications for Paleoenvironmental and Phenological Research  

PubMed Central

Tropical paleoecologists use a combination of mud-water interface and modern pollen rain samples (local samples of airborne pollen) to interpret compositional changes within fossil pollen records. Taxonomic similarities between the composition of modern assemblages and fossil samples are the basis of reconstructing paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. Surface sediment samples reflect a time-averaged accumulation of pollen spanning several years or more. Due to experimental constraints, modern pollen rain samples are generally collected over shorter timeframes (1–3 years) and are therefore less likely to capture the full range of natural variability in pollen rain composition and abundance. This potentially biases paleoenvironmental interpretations based on modern pollen rain transfer functions. To determine the degree to which short-term environmental change affects the composition of the aerial pollen flux of Neotropical forests, we sampled ten years of the seasonal pollen rain from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and compared it to climatic and environmental data over the same ten-year span. We establish that the pollen rain effectively captured the strong seasonality and stratification of pollen flow within the forest canopy and that individual taxa had variable sensitivity to seasonal and annual changes in environmental conditions, manifested as changes in pollen productivity. We conclude that modern pollen rain samples capture the reproductive response of moist tropical plants to short-term environmental change, but that consequently, pollen rain-based calibrations need to include longer sampling periods (?7 years) to reflect the full range of natural variability in the pollen output of a forest and simulate the time-averaging present in sediment samples. Our results also demonstrate that over the long-term, pollen traps placed in the forest understory are representative samples of the pollen output of both canopy and understory vegetation. Aerial pollen traps, therefore, also represent an underutilized means of monitoring the pollen productivity and reproductive behavior of moist tropical forests.

Haselhorst, Derek S.; Moreno, J. Enrique; Punyasena, Surangi W.

2013-01-01

310

Growth modelling and yield prediction for sustainable forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief synthesis of milestones in forest growth modelling helps to establish research topics for further model development in managed tropical forests. Forest growth models have become indispensable for forest management, but need further development to realize their full utility. Feedback from monitoring predictions versus realizations should provide the basis for continuing improvement, both in growth modelling and in forest

Jerome K Vanclay

2003-01-01

311

Disturbance regimes and community structures of a riparian and an adjacent terrace stand in the Kanumazawa Riparian Research Forest, northern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riparian forests and adjacent upland forests often exhibit differences in composition and diversity. This variation should be due in part to difference in site condition and in part to difference in disturbance regime. To understand relative roles of these differences, structure, composition and diversity were compared between a riparian forest and an adjacent terrace forest through analyzing topography-specific guild structure

Wajirou Suzuki; Katsuhiro Osumi; Takashi Masaki; Kazunori Takahashi; Hiromu Daimaru; Kazuhiko Hoshizaki

2002-01-01

312

The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerdà and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnica

Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

2013-04-01

313

Forest soils  

Treesearch

Description: Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests ... Keywords: RPA, assessment, inventory, forest statistics, area, volume, productivity, health, ... Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

314

Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.

Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.

1996-05-01

315

DETERMINANTS OF LOCATION STRATEGIES OF FINNISH FIRMS IN ASIAN COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate how the ownership, location, internalization and strategic advantages have influenced the location strategies of the Finnish firms in ten South and Southeast Asian countries from 1980 to 2000. Despite the increased interest in FDIs, very few studies have been undertaken to empirically analyze the influential ownership, location and internalization (OLI) variables

Rizwan Tahir; Jorma Larimo

316

Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

Rissanen, Inkeri

2012-01-01

317

Occupational dermatitis and allergic respiratory diseases in Finnish metalworking machinists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To investigate the incidences and trends of occupational skin diseases (OSDs) and allergic respira- tory diseases (ARDs) in machinists working in the fabrication of metal products. Methods Data from the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases during 1992-2001 were analysed. Inci- dence rates for skin and respiratory diseases of machinists were calculated and compared to the total working population. The

Katri Suuronen; Kristiina Aalto-Korte; Ritva Piipari; Timo Tuomi; Riitta Jolanki

2007-01-01

318

Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

Rissanen, Inkeri

2012-01-01

319

Franchising as Entrepreneurial Activity: Finnish SME Policy Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study takes an entrepreneurship viewpoint to franchising. To create a conceptual background, past franchising literature was reviewed and prior studies considering franchising as entrepreneurial activity were analyzed. The current Finnish Entrepreneurship Policy Program was utilized to explore the domain of entrepreneurship and franchising. The question is, how franchising is linked to the aims of the Entrepreneurship Policy Program

Mika Tuunanen

320

Trust Management in the Finnish Ministries: Evaluation of Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our purpose was to find out to what extent civil servants—managers, specialists, and experts—in 13 Finnish ministries have confidence in their management systems. We defined trust as a kind of deep sentiment, more fundamental than mere acceptance, satisfaction or legitimacy. Trust and mistrust are strong motivators for cooperation and collaboration. They are logical outcomes of social interaction in terms of

Risto Harisalo; Jari Stenvall

2003-01-01

321

Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant

Tarja Nurmi; Jaakko Mursu; José L. Peñalvo; Henrik E. Poulsen; Sari Voutilainen

2010-01-01

322

Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied

Sari Autio; Katri Siimes; Pirkko Laitinen; Sari Rämö; Seija Oinonen; Liisa Eronen

2004-01-01

323

Molecular Epidemiology of Dengue Virus Strains from Finnish Travelers  

PubMed Central

We characterized 11 dengue virus (DENV) isolates obtained from Finnish travelers during 2000–2005 using monoclonal antibodies and phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of DENV isolated from travelers contributes to the global picture of strain distribution and circulation. The isolates included all serotypes, including a DENV-2 isolate from Ghana.

Uzcategui, Nathalie Y.; Siikamaki, Heli; Saarinen, Auli; Piiparinen, Heli; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

2008-01-01

324

Finnish Concepts of the Mass Media in 1965 and 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a survey conducted in 1975 were compared with the findings of three previous studies of Finnish public awareness of mass media to determine any changes or trends which might have occurred between the years 1967 and 1975. Data were reported ...

J. Haapasalo

1977-01-01

325

Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…

Jarlstrom, Maria

2000-01-01

326

Preconditions of Peat Harvesting in Finnish Central-Lapland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the study was to find out the effects of the differences in weather and geographical conditions on the preconditions of peat harvesting in the Finnish Central Lapland. The survey was done by conducting practical peat harvesting tests in three h...

E. Tapio V. Klemetti

1987-01-01

327

Semen quality among Danish and Finnish men attempting to conceive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess differences in semen quality between similar populations from Denmark and Finland. Design: Comparison of semen quality between 221 Finnish men (of whom 115 had no proven fertility) and 411 Danish men with no proven fertility in two follow-up studies among normal couples trying to conceive. Methods: In Finland male partners of couples without experienced infertility attempting to

Tina Kold Jensen; Matti Vierula; Niels Henrik; I Hjollund; Markku Saaranen; Thomas Scheike; Jyrki Suominen; Arto Keiski; Jorma Toppari; Niels E Skakkebæk

2000-01-01

328

The Prevalence of Stalking among Finnish University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the prevalence and nature of stalking among university students in Finland. The prevalence of stalking was analyzed in relation to stalking episodes, violent stalking victimization, the stalker-victim relationship, and stalking duration. A group of Finnish university students were contacted by e-mail and asked to…

Bjorklund, Katja; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

2010-01-01

329

Wise, Wiser, Teacher: What I Learned in Finnish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finns are proud of their uniformly high-quality schools. Unlike in the United States, where parents fret about getting their children into "good" and often private schools with restrictive enrollment, virtually all schools are public, and most Finnish parents send their children to the school closest to their home. Teaching is a desirable…

Quinn, Therese

2010-01-01

330

Stress symptoms, burnout and suicidal thoughts in Finnish physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress symptoms, burnout and suicidal thoughts in Finnish physicians were studied using a questionnaire. The questionnaire, containing 99 questions or groups of questions, was mailed to 3,496 physicians representative, as regards age, sex, specialization and employment, of all active physicians in Finland. Altogether, 2,671 physicians (76%) responded. Stress symptoms in male physicians were similar to those in male managers. In

M. Olkinuora; S. Asp; J. Juntunen; K. Kauttu; L. Strid; M. Äärimaa

1990-01-01

331

Critical Incidents in the Lives of Gifted Female Finnish Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated critical incidents in the professional and personal lives of 11 gifted Finnish female scientists. All made important life choices that promoted their talent and career development. The majority have also made some compromises related to their scientific interests and careers, as well as personal compromises. (Contains…

Tirri, Kirsi; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

2002-01-01

332

Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

Vainio, Annukka

2011-01-01

333

The efficiency of the Finnish Salmonella Control Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Finnish Salmonella Control Programme (FSCP) is to maintain the annual prevalence of Salmonella below 1% at the national level. The programme covers meat and egg production with all the serotypes of Salmonella, not only Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Based on the monitoring results as well as on the economic evaluation studies, the FSCP has achieved

Riitta Maijala; Jukka Ranta; Eija Seuna; Jukka Peltola

2005-01-01

334

Concepts of Language in a Finnish-English Bilingual Preschooler.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study investigated the emergence of language and language concepts in a bilingual child, a girl aged 16 months to 6 years, 7 months. Observations were made by the child's parents and relatives in the child's home where the mother spoke Finnish and the father English. The report summarizes developments in phonology, morphology, word-level…

Pickering, Michael

335

Organizational ethics in Finnish intensive care units: staff perceptions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe ethical problems that are influenced by organizational factors in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). The goal was to help nurses and administrators to analyse intensive care work, and to improve nurses' work motivation. Through these means the ultimate goal is to improve the quality of patient care. Data were collected in 35 hospital ICUs by means of the Ethics Environmental Questionnaire (EEQ). This gained access to the population of 1047 Finnish intensive care nurses. The response rate was 77% (n = 814). Data analysis was carried out using SAS-6 statistical software. The results provided scores for the 20 EEQ items. Reliability according to Cronbach's alpha was 0.87. The results revealed that organizational factors in Finnish ICUs have both positive and negative dimensions. Positively, nurses have the opportunity to discuss ethical problems in their work units, whereas, negatively, respondents noted that there is much concern about earning money. Nurses' work in Finnish hospital ICUs is ethically challenging; it is similar to that found in other countries and thereby supports international application of these findings. PMID:11944204

Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Suominen, Tarja; Mäkelä, Merja; McDaniel, Charlotte; Puukka, Pauli

2002-03-01

336

Online authority communication during an epidemic: A Finnish example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media are creating new challenges for authority communications during crises, such as a pandemic. This study examined Finnish citizens’ opinions about authorities as crisis managers during the swine flu epidemic of 2009–2010 and examined the success of authority intervention to online discussion forums. Through a content analysis carried out at the discussion forums, the study showed that though authorities

Päivi Tirkkonen; Vilma Luoma-aho

2011-01-01

337

Mechanical and chemical release in a 12-year-old ponderosa pine plantation. Forest Service research paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12-year-old ponderosa pine plantation on the Tahoe National Forest in northern California was mechanically treated with a Hydro-Ax in an attempt to increase the survival and growth of the planted seedlings. Other release methods were not feasible because the shrubs in the mixed-shrub community (greenleaf manzanita, mountain whitethorn, bittercherry, coffeberry) were too large (3 to 5 feet tall) and

G. O. Fiddler; P. M. McDonald

1997-01-01

338

Discriminant-function approach to ecological site classification in northern New England. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The report describes one approach to ecologically based classification of upland forest community types of the White and Green Mountain physiographic regions. The classification approach is based on an intensive statistical analysis of the relationship between the communities and soil-site factors. Discriminant functions useful in distinguishing between types based on soil-site factors most strongly correlated with their distribution over the landscape are presented.

Fincher, J.; Smith, M.L.

1994-01-01

339

Instar development of the douglas-fir tussock moth in relation to field temperatures. Forest Service research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instar development is recorded for the Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudot-sugata) for two different elevations in the Boise National Forest, Idaho, in 1991. The percentage of the population by instars is associated with accumulated degree-days after eclosion, which can be used to predict the proper timing for spray application. For all practical purposes, areas can be released for spraying when

R. C. Beckwith; D. G. Grimble; J. C. Weatherby

1993-01-01

340

Sustainable bioenergy production from Missouri's Ozark forests  

Treesearch

Author: Stelzer, Henry E.; Barnett, Chris; Bensen, Verel W. ... Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research ... can use forest thinning residues are electrical energy, thermal energy, and liquid bio-fuel.

341

Kelp Forest  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Kelp forests are often called the rainforest of the sea. They support wide varieties of marine life. Sea otters are both a sentinal and a keystone species for the health of kelp forests. Without sea otters, there is a shift in the ecosystem that can severly damage the kelp forests. USGS scientists s...

342

[Finnish National Board of Education Information Bulletin].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bulletin disseminates information concerning educational research and experimentation in Finland. The general principles of educational research are outlined. Attention focuses on achievement of effective cooperation between educational research and decision-making. The organization of research activities promoting educational planning in…

Finnish National Board of Education, Helsinki. Research and Development Bureau.

343

Forest Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial discusses the concept of forest succession, the stages of development which forest plants follow as they grow or re-grow following an event such as a forest fire or insect infestation. Topics include the role of pioneer species, the transition to longer-lived plants such as lodgepole pine, Douglas fir, and subalpine fir, and the transition to climax species such as cedars, hemlocks and spruce. There is also a discussion of the lifespan of climax forests and the wildlife species that inhabit the forest in each stage of succession. A quiz and glossary are provided.

344

Forest Encyclopedia Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly developed by the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station and Southern Regional Extension Forestry, this website has multiple online encyclopedias regarding the forests of the Southern United States, as well as one that covers the environmental threats facing all North American forests. This website is very user-friendly, both for visitors who are not natural resource professionals and those who are. For those visitors who are involved in the forest sciences, this website helpfully provides "scientific results, conclusions, and impacts with management needs and issues." On the left side of the page is a menu which allows the visitor to peruse the site through a thematic lens, or a global one. To view by theme, click on "Thematic" at the top of the menu. The themes visitors can click on include "So. Appalachian", "So. Pine Beetle", and "So. Fire Science". Under each theme are a multitude of clickable subthemes. For those visitors looking for a global view of the site, click on "Global" at the top of the menu. Topics include "Landscape", "Ecology", "Socio-Economics", and "Forest Health Protection". Forest scientists interested in contributing new scientific content to the Forest Encyclopedia Network can click on "Help" at the top of the website, which will take them to a link on the left side of the page entitled "Author Help".

345

Forest commons and local enforcement  

PubMed Central

This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

2008-01-01

346

Allometric biomass estimators for aspen-dominated ecosystems in the upper Great Lakes. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

The authors recently described the climate, geology, soils, and the biotic structure and dynamics of four contrasting ecosystems dominated by quaking and bigtooth aspen (Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata). Other papers describe how those ecosystems responded to perturbation. Common to most of those papers were biomass estimates for the tree and shrub layers. The authors derived the estimators from weight and dimensional analysis of a subsample of stems measured on sample plots. They found much variability among sites that could not be adequately explained by stand or soils data. These equations should be useful in estimating woody plant components of similar forests on upland soils in the Upper Great Lakes region.

Perala, D.A.; Alban, D.H.

1994-01-01

347

Research Papers, part of a Special Feature on Bird Conservation in the Boreal Forest: Is there a Case for Resilience? Forest Policy Scenario Analysis: Sensitivity of Songbird Community to Changes in Forest Cover Amount and Configuration Analyse de scénarios de politiques forestières : sensibilité de la communauté de passereaux aux changements dans la configuration et l'étendue du couvert forestier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration can be of significant consequence to wildlife populations. The response of wildlife to forest patterns is of concern to forest managers because it lies at the heart of such competing approaches to forest planning as aggregated vs. dispersed harvest block layouts. In this study, we developed a species assessment framework to

Robert S. Rempel; Jim Baker; Phil C. Elkie; Michael J. Gluck; Janet Jackson; Robert S. Kushneriuk; Tom Moore; Ajith H. Perera

348

Employees' Motivation for SPI: Case Study in a Small Finnish Software Company  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In small software companies the resources available for SPI are often limited. With limited resources, the motivation of the employees becomes one of the key factors for SPI. In this article, the motivational factors affecting a small company's SPI efforts are discussed. In the research, we carried out interviews and a survey in a small Finnish software company considering the motivation towards SPI. The results are presented here and compared with earlier motivation research. There were differences revealed while comparing the motivating factors of smaller companies to those of larger ones. In large companies the focus seems to be on the business related motivators and in small ones the motivators related to comfortability of work are emphasized. Motivation survey and the interviews proved to be useful tools in planning the future SPI strategy. A lot of valuable information was discovered for planning and implementing the next steps of SPI.

Valtanen, Anu; Sihvonen, Hanna-Miina

349

World's forests  

SciTech Connect

An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)

Sedjo, R.A.; Clawson, M.

1982-10-01

350

Airborne chemicals and forest health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in

James N. Woodman; Ellis B. Cowling

1987-01-01

351

Standard errors in forest area  

Treesearch

The discussion shifts to the particular problem of forest area - at which time the theory ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, ... of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station: 5-10. top, Disclaimers | FOIA | Privacy Policy | Quality of Information | Print This Page.

352

Fog Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the redwood forests of coastal California, the soupy white fog that often blankets the trees is as distinctive and memorable as the trees themselves. But according to a recent study, the fog does more than just sit there and look pretty. It may provide essential resources for the entire forest.This Science Update investigates the remarkably important role that fog plays in nurturing forest growth.

Science Update;

2001-04-30

353

Life-Lines of Finnish People Aged 83-87  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the characteristics of the life-lines drawn by older Finnish men and women. The study was part of the Evergreen Project, Finland. Seventy-eight persons aged 83-87 participated in an interview, in which they were asked to draw a life-line. The life-line was drawn on a standardized sheet as a continuous line which showed the…

Takkinen, Sanna; Sutama, Timo

2004-01-01

354

School nurses as health counsellors in Finnish ENHPS schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes how school nurses estimated their goal attainment in view of the contents and methods of health counselling and their roles and possibilities as health promoters in the school community. Data were collected from the school nurses (n=31) of the Finnish European Network of Health-Promoting schools, using a semi-structured questionnaire specifically developed for the study. The response rate was 77

Kerttu Tossavainen; Hannele Turunen; Sirkka Jakonen; Minna Tupala; Harri Vertio

2004-01-01

355

Subjective Well-Being in Finnish Adolescents Experiencing Family Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the relationship between adolescent subjective well-being and experiences of family violence reported by a sample of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents living in one Finnish municipality (N = 1,393). Survey results found that experiences of family violence were common. The logistic regression model showed that experiences of violence were associated with adolescents’ feeling of inner disequilibrium and markedly

Sari Lepistö; Katja Joronen; Päivi Åstedt-Kurki; Tiina Luukkaala; Eija Paavilainen

2012-01-01

356

Prevalence of primary fibromyalgia in the Finnish population  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To obtain descriptive epidemiological data on fibromyalgia and its components in a representative sample of the Finnish population. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of 8000 Finns aged 30 or more invited for screening and a main examination for musculoskeletal disorders and other major disorders. SETTING--A mobile clinic. POPULATION--7217 subjects who attended the screening phase; 3434 subjects positive on screening who attended the

M Mäkelä; M Heliövaara

1991-01-01

357

Opinion comparison concerning future information technology in Finnish community pharmacies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the opinions of community pharmacy owners, managers and personnel concerning the key features of the future information\\u000a technology system needed in Finnish community pharmacies. Setting The study was targeted to the pharmacists working in community pharmacies as managers (owners and staff pharmacists with\\u000a M.Sc. degree) or personnel responsible for dispensing and patient counselling (pharmacists with B.Sc. degree).

Anna Marietta Westerling; Jaana Tuulikki Hynninen; Veikko Ewald Haikala; Marja S. Airaksinen

2010-01-01

358

The complexity of safety in wilderness guiding in Finnish Lapland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how safety is understood and practised by wilderness guides leading nature excursions with international customers in Finnish Lapland. Commercial nature tourism services in Lapland are not considered adventure-oriented since risk-taking is not an integral part of the guided services. The study shows that even though perceived as low-risk activities, risks are present in a significant part of

Outi Rantala; Jarno Valkonen

2011-01-01

359

Eastern Finnish families on the borderland of historical family forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the discussion of the Eastern European family and forms of patriarchalism as an ideological base for families. Changes in the patriarchal families in Eastern Finland will be examined as a process from the pre-Christian period until the 19th century. Eastern Finnish families were situated on the classical European\\/non-European family forms border area. By comparing families of

Kirsi Warpula

2002-01-01

360

Association of LOXL1 gene with Finnish exfoliation syndrome patients.  

PubMed

In this study, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene associated with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) were investigated in the Finnish population. A case-control study of 59 sporadic patients with XFS, 82 with XFG, 71 with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 26 individuals without these disorders from the southern Finnish population, and a family study of an extended family with 28 patients with XFS or XFG and 92 unaffected relatives from Kökar islands, Southwestern Finnish archipelago, were conducted. Anonymous blood donors (n=404) were studied as population-based controls. Three SNPs, rs1048661 (R141L), rs3825942 (G153D) and rs2165241, of the LOXL1 gene were genotyped by PCR sequencing. Association and linkage analyses were carried out. In both case-control and family materials, significant association for allele G of rs1048661 (P=2.65 x 10(-5); P=0.0007), allele G of rs3825942 (P=2.24 x 10(-8); P=0.49) and allele T of rs2165241 (P=2.62 x 10(-13); P<0.0001) was found in XFS/XFG. However, linkage was not observed for LOXL1 risk alleles. The corresponding three-locus haplotype GGT increased the risk of XFS/ XFG nearly 15-fold relative to low-risk haplotype GAC (odds ratio (OR): 14.9, P=1.6 x 10(-16)). In conclusion, the earlier reported polymorphisms of the LOXL1 gene showed significant association also in the Finnish population. PMID:19343041

Lemmelä, Susanna; Forsman, Eva; Onkamo, Päivi; Nurmi, Hanna; Laivuori, Hannele; Kivelä, Tero; Puska, Päivi; Heger, Martin; Eriksson, Aldur; Forsius, Henrik; Järvelä, Irma

2009-04-03

361

Development of a mixed shrub-tanoak-douglas-fir community in a treated and untreated condition. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

On a medium site in northern California, a tanoak-mixed shrub community was given several treatments (manual release two and three times, a combination chainsaw and cut surface herbicide treatment, two foliar herbicides, and a tank mix of the two herbicides) to study its development in both a natural (control) and treated condition. The herbicides were 2,4-D, Garlon 3A, and Garlon 4, each applied two times. Survival of planted Douglas-fir seedlings was recorded for 11 years and growth was quantified for 9 years after the last treatment application. In addition to Douglas-fir, data are presented individually for the two most abundant species (tanoak and snowbrush), for greenleaf manzanita, and for the hardwood tree and shrubs combined. The treatment response data, cost information, and plant community relationships provides the forest land manager with knowledge on how to attain some specific plant communities in the future, and their developmental potentials.

McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.

1996-08-01

362

Forest Reestablishment on National Forests in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the National Forests within California it is proposed to reestablish coniferous forest stands on certain commercial forest lands presently occupied by brush and also to reforest commercial forest lands following timber harvesting or wildlife. Brush on ...

1973-01-01

363

Tropical forests and atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical forests play a major role in determining the current atmospheric concentration of CO2, as both sources of CO2 following deforestation and sinks of CO2 probably resulting from CO2 stimulation of forest photosynthesis. Recently, researchers have tried to quantify this role. The results suggest that both the carbon sources and sinks in tropical forests are significantly greater than previously thought.

Yadvinder Malhi; John Grace

2000-01-01

364

AESTHETIC AND BIOLOGICAL PERCEPTIONS OF SUCCESSIONAL FOREST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five Alberta Communities were chosen to represent five separate community types—agricultural, oil extraction, two forestry and urban professional. Each participant in the research was exposed to a reasoned argument supporting either forest harvest or forest preservation. Afterwards, each participant inspected 8 large numbered colour prints showing forest landscapes in different stages of development. Ratings were made on two scales. One

THOMAS M. NELSON; MICHAEL J. STRONG; THOMAS JOHNSON

2006-01-01

365

Measuring motor skills in Finnish children with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

This investigation examined differences in motor skill development between Finnish children (12 boys, 8 girls) with mild intellectual disability and typically developing Finnish children between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Ulrich's Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) assessed the performances of 20 children with intellectual disability and an age- and sex-matched sample of 20 children without disabilities. Videotaped performances were assessed by the authors who were very familiar with the TGMD-2. The group with intellectual disability performed at a statistically significantly lower level on the Gross Motor Quotient, Locomotor, and Object Control subtests of TGMD-2, compared to the group without intellectual disability. The delay was equivalent to 3 to 4 years behind the Finnish normative group in gross motor development. In five out of 12 subtests, the group with intellectual disability achieved 0% mastery. Given low gross motor skills, children with intellectual disability require additional fundamental motor skill training in their active school or free time. PMID:23829155

Rintala, Pauli; Loovis, E Michael

2013-02-01

366

Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of fatalities, timing of collisions and characteristics of persons killed in train-pedestrian collisions on Finnish railways during 2005-2009. In addition, the Finnish results were compared with those collected in Sweden. The Finnish data were combined from five different sources. The results showed that 311 pedestrians were killed in train-pedestrian collisions, including 264 suicides, 35 accidents and 12 unclassified events. For each event type, most of the victims were male. Most suicide victims were in the 20-29 year age group and on average younger than people who chose some other form of suicide. About half of all victims were intoxicated by alcohol, medicines and/or drugs. Both suicides and accidents occurred most often at the end of the week but no specific peak for time of year was found. Suicides occurred most frequently from afternoon to night and accidents during the rush hours. Most train-pedestrian fatalities happened in densely populated areas. In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health. PMID:22269485

Silla, Anne; Luoma, Juha

2011-12-26

367

[On forest ecosystem health and its evaluation].  

PubMed

Definition and connotation of forest ecosystem health were introduced, and existing ideas and methods of health evaluation were analyzed in this paper. Furthermore, forest ecosystem health was discussed from the aspects of the management objective approach, ecosystem approach, and integration approach. Widespread application of ecological indicators is the main means of evaluation on forest ecosystem health at present, and some material forest health evaluation methods, especially EMAP and FHM, were introduced and summarized to impel the relative researches in China. PMID:12181907

Chen, Gao; Dai, Limin; Fan, Zhuhua; Wang, Qingli

2002-05-01

368

Western forests, fire risk, and climate change. - USDA Forest Service  

Treesearch

Advanced computer models are producing the first national-scale ... Research results were produced by scientists from the USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest ... working with others from Oregon State University and from around the world.

369

Mechanical and chemical release in a 12-year-old ponderosa pine plantation. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A 12-year-old ponderosa pine plantation on the Tahoe National Forest in northern California was mechanically treated with a Hydro-Ax in an attempt to increase the survival and growth of the planted seedlings. Other release methods were not feasible because the shrubs in the mixed-shrub community (greenleaf manzanita, mountain whitethorn, bittercherry, coffeberry) were too large (3 to 5 feet tall) and well developed. Additional treatments were a chemical treatment, in which 2,4-D was applied to a portion of the study site that had been treated with the Hydro-Ax 1 year previously, and control. Eleven growing seasons after treatment (1993), average pine crown cover was statistically higher in the mechanical treatment (Hydro-Ax alone) than in the control. This was the only significant enhancement of pine growth by the Hydro-Ax alone. Mean pine diameter and height did not differ statistically from the control after 11 years. In contrast, the Hydro-Ax plus herbicide (chemical) treatment statistically increased pine crown cover, height, and diameter over the Hydro-Ax alone and the control. Mean crown cover was 104 percent greater in the treated trees than for pines in the control, height was 45 percent greater, and diameter was 47 percent greater. Relative costs were $225 per acre for the Hydro-Ax alone (mechanical) and $273 per acre for the Hydro-Ax + herbicide (chemical). Altogether, the most cost-effective treatment was Hydro-Ax + herbicide (chemical).

Fiddler, G.O.; McDonald, P.M.

1997-04-01

370

Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations-2011  

Treesearch

The Joint Meeting of the Southern Forest Nursery Association and ... mine reclamation research and implementation, American chestnut restoration, and soil ... marketing strategies, nursery techniques and products, restoration strategies, ...

371

Current Perspectives on Western Boreal Forest Life: Ethnographic and Ethnohistoric Research in Late Prehistoric and Historic Archaeology - A Preface  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 1987 Society for American Archaeology Meetings in Toronto, several scholars gathered to present their most recent research using ethnographic and ethnohistoric information to study late prehistoric and historic Athabaskan archaeology in the western subarctic interior. An important subsidiary goal of the session was to promote information exchange between Canadian and US. researchers. The papers from this symposium make

WENDY H. ARUNDALE; DONALD W. CLARK

1989-01-01

372

Durational Correlates of Quantity in Swedish, Finnish and Estonian: Cross-Language Evidence for a Theory of Adaptive Dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio recordings of lively conversational speech produced by 3 Swedish, 4 Finnish and 3 Estonian speakers were analyzed for durational correlates of quantity distinctions. The data suggest that duration contrasts are maintained more consistently by Finnish and Estonian than by Swedish speakers. This is attributed to the unusually complex structure of the Finnish and Estonian quantity systems, and to the

Olle Engstrand; Diana Krull

1994-01-01

373

Quality Assurance and Evaluation (QAE) in Finnish Compulsory Schooling: A National Model or Just Unintended Effects of Radical Decentralisation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article traces quality assurance and evaluation (QAE) developments in Finnish compulsory schooling. The central question is this: Is there a Finnish model of QAE? We conclude that it may be a rhetorical overstatement to speak about a specific Finnish 'Model' of QAE in a strong sense. However, neither is it valid to conclude that what happens…

Simola, Hannu; Rinne, Risto; Varjo, Janne; Pitkanen, Hannele; Kauko, Jaakko

2009-01-01

374

Risk-Taking Abilities for Everyone? Finnish Entrepreneurship Education and the Enterprising Selves Imagined by Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the spread of the neo-liberal educational policy in Finnish schools by considering entrepreneurship education. We examined the kinds of gendered and classed enterprising selves that were narrated in the Finnish writing competition "Good Enterprise!" written by pupils in the 9th grade of comprehensive school. In their…

Komulainen, Katri; Korhonen, Maija; Raty, Hannu

2009-01-01

375

Innovation Patterns in KIBS Organizations: A Case Study of Finnish Technical Engineering Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innovation patterns in Finnish engineering consultancies are analyzed in terms of service innovation types. The utilized typology of service innovations includes four dimensions: new service concepts, new client interfaces, organizational innovations and technological options. The empirical findings indicate that innovations in Finnish engineering consultancies mainly occur as client-led innovations and innovations through services. Typical examples of innovations are related

Ville Ojanen; Pekka Salmi; Marko Torkkeli

2007-01-01

376

Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

2004-01-01

377

Politics of Externalization in Reflexive Times: Reinventing Japanese Education Reform Discourses through "Finnish PISA Success"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on a critical theoretical paradigm and critically engaging with the externalization thesis that Gita Steiner-Khamsi and Jurgen Schriewer have developed, this article examines the politics of "Finnish education" in the ongoing Japanese education reform debate. More specifically, it examines the various discursive uses of "Finnish education…

Takayama, Keita

2010-01-01

378

Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent…

Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

2012-01-01

379

Finnish Students' School Engagement Profiles in the Light of PISA 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to examine Finnish students' school engagement profiles in the light of the data collected in the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) in 2003. Even though Finnish students' cognitive achievement has proved excellent in various international assessments, their school engagement has not been flattering. The article first defines the concept of school engagement and

Pirjo Linnakylä; Antero Malin

2008-01-01

380

Calibration of the broadband radiometers of the Finnish solar ultraviolet monitoring network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present solar ultraviolet (UV) monitoring network of the Finnish Meteorological Institute consists of seven sites equipped with erythemally-weighted broadband radiometers. Two of the sites are also equipped with a Brewer spectroradiometer. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety is responsible for testing and calibration of the broadband radiometers. An Optronic 742 spectroradiometer is used as a reference instrument,

K. Leszczynski; K. Jokela; R. Visuri; L. Ylianttila

1995-01-01

381

Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The…

Siemsen, Hayo

2011-01-01

382

The Negotiation Process toward the New Salary System in the Finnish University Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001 the Finnish government decided that the state sector should develop a new salary system that would take more fully into account the actual outcomes and demands of particular posts. Subsequently, in June 2006, an agreement on a new salary system for the Finnish university sector was reached between the negotiating parties, the employers and…

Kekale, Jouni

2008-01-01

383

Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of Kalevala  

Microsoft Academic Search

By introducing mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic of Kalevala, the author introduces ego stages for healing metaphors. The metaphors are illustrated by examples in both Finnish and English. The author shares the inspiration for her personal and transpersonal journey. A distance of more than a decade from her own culture was required, before the healing imagery of Kalevala

Sirkku M. Sky Hiltunen

2001-01-01

384

Gulliver's Travels into Finnish: Translations of Swift's Social Critique 1876-1932  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies Jonathan Swift's satire Gulliver's Travels (1726) and its Finnish translations published between 1876 and 1932. The paper examines how the social critique carried by allusions in the source text was dealt with in the Finnish translations. It compares the translators' strategies and assesses their impact on the meanings and functions of the allusions. Connections are sought between

Michael Jääskeläinen

2007-01-01

385

Portraying Intelligence: Children's Drawings of Intelligent Men and Women in Finnish and Russian Karelia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children's representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11-12 years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men…

Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Paajanen, Tuuli; Markkanen, Mia; Skorokhodova, Nina; Kolesnikov, Vadim

2012-01-01

386

Aspects of Market Entry of the Finnish Food Industry into the German and Dutch Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liberalization of European trade has placed the Finnish food industry into a new situation of internationalization. This study examines the experience gained by Finnish food exporters in the German and Dutch markets in regard to barriers to entry, properties of goods and marketing personnel, mode of organizing the export, and factors contributing to success or failure. Contrary to the

Petri Ollila

1995-01-01

387

Finnish University Technology Transfer in a Whirl of Changes - a Brief Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finnish university technology transfer is currently caught in the turbulences of major changes in the national innovation system. Three virtually simultaneous changes are of special importance. The first is the massive on-going renewal of the Universities Act governing the Finnish higher education system in its entirety. It was originally initiated to provide universities with more financial and operational flexibility and

Antti-Jussi Tahvanainen

2009-01-01

388

Towards increasing business orientation: Finnish management accountants in a changing cultural context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key elements of this study consist of management accounting, communication cultures and people pursuing management accounting in companies. Based on our evidence, we argue that management accounting practice in Finland is tied to the national culture surrounding it, i.e. Finnishness and that the Finnish management accounting culture is currently in a significant transition. The most prominent sign of such

Markus Granlund; Kari Lukka

1998-01-01

389

Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

2010-01-01

390

The Use of Address Pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the use and choice of address pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish students in various situations. The study is based on a questionnaire on address usage distributed to university students in the city of Vaasa in Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate potential differences between the use of T and V in Finnish

Nyblom, Heidi

2006-01-01

391

Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

2010-01-01

392

Wind Dynamics and Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will set up a model forest using plastic bottles to observe changes caused by differences in wind speed and forest density. An extension to the activity will allow students to explore the concept of evapotranspiration. From this activity students will understand that living organisms in an ecosystem can have profound effects upon the local atmosphere, changes in vegetation can have profound effects upon wind speed, and models are useful to researchers in understanding the shaping of ecosystems. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

393

Colville study: Wood utilization for ecosystem management. Preliminary results of study of product potential from small-diameter stands. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

The Colville Study was developed in 1994 to identify and evaluate a series of management options for achieving ecosystem objectives in dense stands of small diameter trees while also producing wood products. The Colville National Forest selected the Rocky II Timber Sale as an example of this type of stand that needed management to achieve the following goals: (1) create late successional forest structure, (2) decrease forest health risk from fire, insects, and disease, (3) improve wildlife habitat by providing large green trees and snags, and (4) improve stand aesthetics by decreasing stand density. The Colville Study was divided into four technical focus areas: Silviculture and Ecology, Forest Operations, Timber Conversion, and Economics.

Willits, S.; Barbour, R.J.; Tesch, S.; Ryland, D.; McNeel, J.

1996-12-01

394

Climate change and politics of forests: a comparative study of the chilean and swedish forest sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at understanding emerging connections among climate change, forest sectors and politics of forests in Chile and Sweden, two countries with large and important forest resources. The relevance of making such connections emerges, among other things, from an increasing body of research pointing out the conflicting objectives and goals concerning production originating in, and based on, the use

Cristián Alarcón Ferrari

2009-01-01

395

Kelp Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from Jean Michel Cousteau: Ocean Adventures, describes the unique, interdependent characteristics of an underwater kelp forest ecosystem and explores the delicate balance of life between sea otters, urchins, and the kelp plant.

Kqed

2009-04-16

396

EDISON: Research Programme on Electric Distribution Automation 1993-97. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report comprises a summary of the results of the five year research program EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The research program (1993-1997) was conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, d...

M. Lehtonen

1998-01-01

397

JYT - Publicly financed nuclear waste management research programme. Annual Report 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nuclear waste management research in Finland is funded both by the state and the utilities (represented in cooperation by the Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies). A coordinated research programme (JYT) comprising the publicly fina...

S. Vuori

1993-01-01

398

JYT - Publicly financed nuclear waste management research programme. Annual report 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nuclear waste management research in Finland is funded both by the state and the utilities (represented in cooperation by the Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies). A coordinated research programme (JYT) comprising the publicly fina...

S. Vuori

1992-01-01

399

JYT - Publicly financed nuclear waste management research programme. Annual report 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nuclear waste management research in Finland is funded both by the state and the utilities (represented in cooperation by the Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies). A coordinated research programme (JYT) comprising the publicly fina...

S. Vuori

1991-01-01

400

Tropical Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tropical forests are one of the most prominent terrestrial biomes on earth, estimated to have originally covered 1.4 billion\\u000a ha (Reid 1992). Tropical forests generally occur in frost-free regions between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, in areas of relatively\\u000a high precipitation. Holdridge’s life zones system (Holdridge 1967), which is a commonly used vegetation classification protocol, distinguishes numerous kinds of

Rodolfo Dirzo

401

Content of lipids in finnish peat mires  

SciTech Connect

Peat is a potential raw material for chemical products. Peat extracts, bitumens, obtained from peat with neutral organic solvents, and, in particular, their wax fractions have been of interest with regard to their substituting for other natural waxes. Yields and characteristics of peat extracts have been studied by numerous researchers and acid and saponification values, molecular weights and elements analyses have been determined since the 1930s. New analytical methods have recently been introduced and made it possible to determine the amount and detailed composition of the lipid components of peat extracts by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. The aim of this study was to determine the yield and lipid composition of extracts from peat samples collected from different mires in Finland.

Fagernaes, L.; Ekman, R.

1985-01-01

402

Curriculum Reform in Finnish Pharmacy Education  

PubMed Central

Objective To improve pharmacy education through integrating theory and practice, coherent constructively aligned course entities, and enhanced deep-level learning. Design The reform was conducted collaboratively with faculty and staff members, students, and stakeholders in pharmacy. The curriculum, syllabus, and teaching methods were assessed through evaluations and research, conducting core content analyses, and measuring the workload of pharmacy education courses. The new curriculum, launched in August 2005, consists of 6 strands, comprised of different courses which run through the entire program. Assessment Three years after the introduction of the reformed curriculum, the results of the reform are being evaluated. Ongoing assessments of teaching and learning will reveal how the education at the faculty level has developed since the reform. These assessment procedures are an integral part of the faculty's quality assurance program. Conclusion The integration of practical training and theoretical studies was improved with personal study plans introduced to enhance students’ learning.

Hakkarainen, Katja; Kuosa, Tiina; Airaksinen, Marja; Hirvonen, Jouni; Holm, Yvonne

2009-01-01

403

Sustainable Forest Management in Tropical Rain Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In planning of sustainable forest management, economic, environmental and social demands often conflict. Forest management in Southeast Asian tropical dipterocarp forests has been particularly biased towards maximizing immediate economic return from extensive logging. Overexploitation and other forms of uncontrolled land use within these forests have led to the situation where the remaining natural forests, most of them in Indonesia, will

Jussi Kuusipalo; Jyrki Kangas; Lauri Vesa

1997-01-01

404

Crossett Experimental Forest-72 Years of Science Delivery in the Silviculture of Southern Pines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The network of experimental forests and ranges within the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture has unique attributes for research, demonstration, and technology transfer. Public forest lands experience a slower rate of ownership change than priv...

J. M. Guldin

2010-01-01

405

History of Palaeozoic Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Muenster's Palaeobotanical Research Group provides this site with links to Web sources dealing with Paleozoic forests. One educational highlight of the site is the regularly updated introductory text, "History of Palaeozoic Forests," by Hans Kerp, Head of the Palaeobotanical Research Group at Muenster. Available in both English and German, this text features information on the earliest land plants, Carboniferous swamps, and the first flowering plants, among other things. Here, readers will find overviews of biostratigraphic issues such as the existence of the Palaeophytic-Mesophytic boundary. The figures are comprised of Stratigraphic columns, illustrated landscape reconstructions, and paleogeographic maps. Other sections of the site include research, publications, news, and links to palaeobotany-related museums, societies, and courses.

406

Southern Idaho`s forest land outside national forests, 1991. Forest Service resource bulletin  

SciTech Connect

The report presents 59 summary tables of forest statistics for land in southern Idaho outside National Forests. The tables show forest land area, tree numbers, wood volume and growth, and tree mortality organized by ownership, stand, and tree classification variables. These stimates are derived from summarization of 292 field plots and over 100,000 photo points using a two-phase sample design. Of the 292 field plots, 91 were remeasurements of plots established in 1981. The sampling was done in 1991 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit located in Ogden, UT. Besides presenting detailed tables, the report briefly explains key FIA terminology, overviews the table formats, highlights some results, and discusses inventory design and data reliability.

Chojnacky, D.C.

1995-05-01

407

Correlation analysis of tree growth, climate, and acid deposition in the Lake States. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

The report describes research designed to detect subtle regional tree growth trends related to sulfate (SO{sub 4}) deposition in the Lake States. Correlation methods were used to analyze climatic and SO{sub 4} deposition. Effects of SO{sub 4} deposition are greater on climatically stressed trees, especially pine species on dry sites, than on unstressed trees. Jack pine growth shows the strongest correlation to both climate and acid deposition.

Holdaway, M.R.

1990-01-01

408

Drugs and driving: the Finnish perspective.  

PubMed

Drugs can cause behavioural impairment of the driver's ability to operate safely That impairment of driving ability can be documented, and biological fluids can be tested for drugs. Most countries have legislation that covers driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs. Some countries have introduced zero-tolerance laws (per se laws), which prohibit the operation of a motor vehicle while an illicit drug or its metabolite is present in the body, whether or not impairment is manifested. There is growing interest in using saliva (oral fluid) in preliminary roadside testing. Legislation in the state of Victoria, Australia, already allows the use of oral fluid for evidentiary testing in the case of cannabis and methamphetamine. Nevertheless, blood testing will probably remain the most common form of evidentiary testing. It has been estimated that the prevalence of illicit drug use among the general driving population in Europe is in the range of 1-5 per cent, while the prevalence of licit drugs, such as benzodiazepines, affecting driving performance is higher: 5-10 per cent. Epidemiological research is often carried out on offenders and drivers involved in collisions. Among drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs, there is a high percentage of licit and/or illicit drug use, as the statistics for Finland in the present article show. The drugs of most concern are amphetamine and amphetamine-type substances, cocaine, cannabis, opiates and benzodiazepines and other sedative-hypnotics. The handling of drugs and driving cases are presented, and a summary of areas for further study are provided. PMID:21338023

Lillsunde, P; Gunnar, T

2005-01-01

409

North Dakota's Forests, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing la...

2005-01-01

410

Tropical forests and the changing earth system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a

Simon L. Lewis

2005-01-01

411

Approaches to Ecologically Based Forest Management on Private ...  

Treesearch

Research & Development ... However, any effort to assure sustainability and health of American forests can be ... This publication is aimed at natural resource professionals who prepare forest management plans for private landowners.

412

Comparing evaluations of forest health based on aerial surveys and ...  

Treesearch

During recent decades, aerially conducted sketch-maps of forest damage and ... the monitoring of oak forest health and integrate these independent datasets, the ... Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of ...

413

Effects of forest practices on peak flows and consequent channel ...  

Treesearch

Author: Grant, Gordon E.; Lewis, Sarah L.; Swanson, Frederick J.; Cissel, ... Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research ... Description: This is a state-of-the-science synthesis of the effects of forest ...

414

Growth and demography of Pinaleno high elevation forests  

Treesearch

Title: Growth and demography of Pinaleno high elevation forests ... Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research; School of Natural Resources and the Environment. 21 p. ... spatial structure, and tree population dynamics in high elevation forests of the ...

415

Tropical forest conservation and development: A bibliography. Manual No. 1  

SciTech Connect

Contents: forest resources; deforestation; conservation and sustainable development; indigenous peoples; management, policy, and planning; trade and industrial development; nontimber forest products; research, education, and training; history; bibliographies and general works; author index.

Albrecht, J.

1993-01-01

416

Emissions tradeoffs associated with cofiring forest biomass with coal ...  

Treesearch

Rocky Mountain Research Station ... Description: Cofiring forest biomass residues with coal to generate electricity is ... Calculations for net system emissions include five emissions sources: coal mining, power plant processes, forest biomass ...

417

The Finnish Disease Heritage Database (FinDis) Update-A Database for the Genes Mutated in the Finnish Disease Heritage Brought to the Next-Generation Sequencing Era.  

PubMed

The Finnish Disease Heritage Database (FinDis) (http://findis.org) was originally published in 2004 as a centralized information resource for rare monogenic diseases enriched in the Finnish population. The FinDis database originally contained 405 causative variants for 30 diseases. At the time, the FinDis database was a comprehensive collection of data, but since 1994, a large amount of new information has emerged, making the necessity to update the database evident. We collected information and updated the database to contain genes and causative variants for 35 diseases, including six more genes and more than 1,400 additional disease-causing variants. Information for causative variants for each gene is collected under the LOVD 3.0 platform, enabling easy updating. The FinDis portal provides a centralized resource and user interface to link information on each disease and gene with variant data in the LOVD 3.0 platform. The software written to achieve this has been open-sourced and made available on GitHub (http://github.com/findis-db), allowing biomedical institutions in other countries to present their national data in a similar way, and to both contribute to, and benefit from, standardized variation data. The updated FinDis portal provides a unique resource to assist patient diagnosis, research, and the development of new cures. PMID:23904198

Polvi, Anne; Linturi, Henna; Varilo, Teppo; Anttonen, Anna-Kaisa; Byrne, Myles; Fokkema, Ivo F A C; Almusa, Henrikki; Metzidis, Anthony; Avela, Kristiina; Aula, Pertti; Kestilä, Marjo; Muilu, Juha

2013-09-13

418

Caterpillars of Eastern Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has made available this biological resource on caterpillars. "Caterpillars of Eastern Forests," by David L. Wagner and others, is a field guide on the eastern region's most frequently encountered species. The guide includes "species descriptions, life cycle and morphology information, and tips on photographing, rearing, collecting, and preserving specimens." The resource may be downloaded as .zip files or read online.

419

Methods and practices used in incident analysis in the Finnish nuclear power industry.  

PubMed

According to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act it is licensee's responsibility to ensure safe use of nuclear energy. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is the regulatory body responsible for the state supervision of the safe use of nuclear power in Finland. One essential prerequisite for the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants is that lessons are learned from the operational experience. It is utility's prime responsibility to assess the operational events and implement appropriate corrective actions. STUK controls licensees' operational experience feedback arrangements and implementation as part of its inspection activities. In addition to this in Finland, the regulatory body performs its own assessment of the operational experience. Review and investigation of operational events is a part of the regulatory oversight of operational safety. Review of operational events is done by STUK basically at three different levels. First step is to perform a general review of all operational events, transients and reactor scram reports, which the licensees submit for information to STUK. The second level activities are related to the clarification of events at site and entering of events' specific data into the event register database of STUK. This is done for events which meet the set criteria for the operator to submit a special report to STUK for approval. Safety significance of operational events is determined using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques. Risk significance of events and the number of safety significant events are followed by STUK indicators. The final step in operational event assessment performed by STUK is to assign STUK's own investigation team for events deemed to have special importance, especially when the licensee's organisation has not operated as planned. STUK launches its own detail investigation once a year on average. An analysis and evaluation of event investigation methods applied at STUK, and at the two Finnish nuclear power plant operators Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) was carried out by the Technical Research Centre (VTT) on request of STUK at the end of 1990s. The study aimed at providing a broad overview and suggestions for improvement of the whole organisational framework to support event investigation practices at the regulatory body and at the utilities. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the adequacy and reliability of event investigation analysis methods and practices in the Finnish nuclear power industry and based on the results to further develop them. The results and suggestions of the research are reviewed in the paper and the corrective actions implemented in event investigation and operating experience procedures both at STUK and at utilities are discussed as well. STUK has developed its own procedure for the risk-informed analysis of nuclear power plant events. The PSA based event analysis method is used to assess the safety significance and importance measures associated with the unavailability of components and systems subject to Technical Specifications. The insights from recently performed PSA based analyses are also briefly discussed in the paper. PMID:15231350

Suksi, Seija

2004-07-26

420

Validation Studies of the Finnish Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ) and Finnish Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Standardized Questionnaires of Walking & Bicycling Database: Introduction PAQ Walking & Bicycling Items Reference List PAQ Validation Studies References Summary Tables Search

421

210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 ?Sv per year, respectively. PMID:21035236

Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

2010-10-28

422

Ethical issues among Finnish occupational physicians and nurses.  

PubMed

A postal survey was conducted among 200 Finnish occupational physicians and nurses on their ethical values and problems. Both groups considered 'expertise' and 'confidentiality' as the most important core values of occupational health services (OHS) corresponding with newly published national ethical guidelines for occupational physicians and nurses in Finland. Nearly all respondents had encountered ethically problematic situations in their work, but ethical problems with gene testing in the near future were not considered likely to occur. Only 41% of the nurses and 36% of the physicians had received some training in the ethics of OHS, and 76% of all respondents never used available ethical guidelines. According to the results, even if ethics play a vital role in OHS, the ability to critically evaluate one's own performance seems quite limited. This creates a need for further training and more practicable national guidelines. PMID:10024733

Martimo, K P; Antti-Poika, M; Leino, T; Rossi, K

1998-09-01

423

Subjective well-being in Finnish adolescents experiencing family violence.  

PubMed

This article describes the relationship between adolescent subjective well-being and experiences of family violence reported by a sample of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents living in one Finnish municipality (N = 1,393). Survey results found that experiences of family violence were common. The logistic regression model showed that experiences of violence were associated with adolescents' feeling of inner disequilibrium and markedly strong relationships with friends. In additional, adolescents who experienced family violence rated their health as poorer than adolescents from nonviolent homes. They also surprisingly reported being satisfied with their life and did not necessarily identify their need for help. Although adolescents are resilient and have some resources to cope with violence, nurses and other professionals should attend more carefully to adolescents' reports of health and behavioral problems and assess for the presence of family violence and school bullying. PMID:22274937

Lepistö, Sari; Joronen, Katja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi; Luukkaala, Tiina; Paavilainen, Eija

2012-01-24

424

Forests & Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This newsletter discusses the disappearance of the world's forests and the resulting environmental problems of erosion and flooding; loss of genetic diversity; climatic changes such as less rainfall, and intensifying of the greenhouse effect; and displacement and destruction of indigenous cultures. The articles, lessons, and activities are…

Gage, Susan

1989-01-01

425

Kelp Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High school level and higher description with pictures of kelp forests and their associated fauna. In addition to pictures of large and small kelps, site includes photos of urchins, otters, and starfish. Topics covered include succession, zonation, predation, and predator-defense. The kelp life cycle is briefly discussed.

426

Biotechnology touches the forest  

SciTech Connect

Both the United States and New Zealand are doing research in forest biotechnology and much of the interest is in speedy propagation from seed to mature tree. A number of propagation techniques are discussed, such as tissue culture, the culture of tissue from mature trees and somatic embryo genesis. Much of the tissue culture work has been done on radiata pine. Field testing results are considered. The aims and the advantages of forest biotechnology are discussed under the following headings. 1) Disease resistance: research is being carried out on a loblolly pine which would be resistant to fusiform rust. 2) Animal feed: some trees have been discovered to have lower lignin content and similar cellulose and hemicellulose to alfalfa. 3) Specialty chemicals: terpenes, in the tree resin, could be turned into hormones, drugs and other chemicals: the genetic system for the overall biosynthesis of terpenes has been studied. 4) Herbicide resistance. The resistance to glyphosate in poplars is being studied. In conclusion, further research into forest species, using molecular biology is considered essential.

Powledge, J.M.

1984-09-01

427

Protected forests in Europe approaches-harmonising the definitions for international comparison and forest policy making.  

PubMed

Comparison of forest protection between regions in Europe is extremely difficult, because there is such wide variation of strategies, procedures and constraints; the way forests have been used historically and their present closeness to nature also varies, and furthermore so does the definition of what constitutes a forest. For the European Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) in 2003, forest protection has been harmonised into three categories for the sake of comparison: protection to safeguard biodiversity, protection of landscape and specific natural features, and protective forest functions. There is no single, uniform and universal model and no internationally agreed target with respect to the percentage of forests which should be protected. What is more important than a fixed percentage level of forested area (e.g. 5 or 10%) is that the protection network should be biogeographically and ecologically representative and accordingly distributed on a regional basis. Long-term practical experience and research have proved that conservation of different species of organisms can be assured by appropriate silvicultural management of multifunctional production forests. Consequently, the focus of debate in Europe appears to shift more and more from total protection in segregated areas to 'precision protection' and to combining protection and timber production in the holistic, integrated concept of modern management of forest areas.Advances in regional ecological planning and the growing adoption of naturalistic forest management practices have slowed the decline of the biological diversity in the multifunctional production forests. However, this fact is not yet widely and sufficiently acknowledged and appreciated. There is consequently a political and scientific need for continued study of the effects of naturalistic silvicultural management on the biodiversity of forests. Information from such research is crucially needed before new and additional protection networks and schemes are set up on a large-scale. Protection by voluntary contracts between parties is a workable model concept for European forestry based on private forest ownership. In small private forests, patches of forest worth protecting are often small and located within production forests. Forest certification can contribute to the efforts of maintaining biodiversity in multifunctional production forests and offers an instrument of independently monitoring and verifying that forests are managed according to the agreed criteria. Forest certification is not an alternative or a means of increasing forest protection, because as a voluntary process it cannot guarantee the permanence of protected areas or deal with issues of finance and compensation. PMID:12659801

Parviainen, Jari; Frank, Georg

2003-01-01

428

Monitoring of radionuclides in the vicinities of Finnish nuclear power plants in 1991-1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surveillance of radioactive substances around Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 1991-1992 according to regular monitoring programmes, in which about 1000 samples were analyzed annually from terrestrial and aquatic environments of the two power pla...

T. K. Ikaeheimonen S. Klemola E. Ilus K. L. Sjoeblom

1995-01-01

429

Monitoring of radionuclides in the environs of Finnish nuclear power plants in 1989-1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surveillance of radioactive substances around Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 1989-1990 according to the regular monitoring programmes. About 1000 samples were analysed annually from both terrestrial and aquatic environments. The dominant artifi...

E. Ilus K. L. Sjoeblom S. Klemola H. Arvela

1992-01-01

430

Diet and risk of colorectal cancer in a cohort of Finnish men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Based on previous epidemiological studies, high fat and meat consumption may increase and fiber, calcium, and vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. We sought to address these hypotheses in a male Finnish cohort.

Pirjo Pietinen; Nea Malila; Mikko Virtanen; Terryl J. Hartman; Joseph A. Tangrea; Demetrius Albanes; Jarmo Virtamo

1999-01-01

431

ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF LAND COVER SPATIAL RESOLUTION ON FOREST FRAGMENTATION MODELING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at the University of Connecticut's Center for Landuse Education and Research (CLEAR) have been utilizing a raster based image convolution forest fragmentation model developed by Riitters et al. (2000) to assess the impact of landscape change on forest resources in the State of Connecticut. The model calculates Pf (forest proportion) and Pff (forest connectivity or adjacency) values based on

James D. Hurd; Daniel L. Civco

2008-01-01

432

Building Partnerships to Evaluate Wood Utilization Options for Improving Forest Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural practices used on national forests are changing as a re- sult of the shift to ecosystem management. As a result, the species mix, size, quality, and quantity of woody material that may be removed are changing. In a combined, multidisciplinary effort, Forest Service research units at the Forest Products Laboratory, Pacific Northwest and Southern Research Stations, North- eastern Forest

Kenneth Skog; David GreenY; R. James Barbour; John Baumgras; Alexander Clark

433

Tropical forests and atmospheric carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Tropical forests play a major role in determining the current atmospheric concentration of CO2, as both sources of CO2 following deforestation and sinks of CO2 probably resulting from CO2 stimulation of forest photosynthesis. Recently, researchers have tried to quantify this role. The results suggest that both the carbon sources and sinks in tropical forests are significantly greater than previously thought. PMID:10884705

Malhi; Grace

2000-08-01

434

A Student Guide to Tropical Forest Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This student guide provides an introduction to the types and value of tropical forests, deforestation, the practice of forestry, forestry research, and tropical forestry. The guide shows how modern practices can help stem the tide of forest destruction while continuing to provide valuable products for people. Examples of sustainable forestry are cited, which could be used as models for protecting and managing tropical forests worldwide.

435

Ecology and Management of Forest Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an emphasis on ecology as the key word in landscape ecology and landscape as the context, we discuss the importance of\\u000a ecological theory as the basis for the study of forest landscapes. We identify and discuss the core components and challenges\\u000a in current forest landscape ecological research with an emphasis on how they relate to forest management. Among these

Jiquan Chen; Kimberley D. Brosofske; Raffaele Lafortezza

436

Job strain and symptoms of angina pectoris among British and Finnish middle-aged employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:High job strain has been linked with cardiovascular outcomes. This study aimed to examine whether job strain is associated with angina pectoris symptoms among British and Finnish non-manual employees.Methods:Postal questionnaire survey data among 40–60-year-old employees of the British Whitehall II Study (n = 4551, 27% women) and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (n = 7605, 83% women) cohort were analysed.

T Lallukka; T Chandola; H Hemingway; M Marmot; E Lahelma; O Rahkonen

2009-01-01

437

Coffee consumption and the risk of heart failure in Finnish men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo evaluate the association of coffee consumption with the risk of heart failure (HF) in the Finnish population.DesignProspective population-based cohort study.SettingThis study, which is a part of FINRISK study, was carried out in Finland.SubjectsStudy cohorts included 59 490 Finnish participants aged 25–74 years who were free of HF at baseline.Main outcome measuresHF (2020 men and 1807 women) during a mean

Yujie Wang; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Pekka Jousilahti; Riitta Antikainen; Markku Mähönen; Satu Männistö; Peter T Katzmarzyk; Gang Hu

2010-01-01

438

Portraying intelligence: children’s drawings of intelligent men and women in Finnish and Russian Karelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sets out to examine Finnish and Russian children’s representations of intellectual competence as contextualised in the hierarchies of abilities, age and gender. Finnish and Russian pupils, aged 11–12?years, were asked to draw pictures of an intelligent person and an ordinary person. It was found that gender appearance of intelligent men and women was less heterosexual than that of

Hannu Räty; Katri Komulainen; Tuuli Paajanen; Mia Markkanen; Nina Skorokhodova; Vadim Kolesnikov

2012-01-01

439

Testicular cancer, occupation and exposure to chemical agents among Finnish men in 1971–1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To find associations between testicular cancer, occupation and chemical exposure.Methods: A cohort of all economically active Finnish men born between 1906 and 1945 was followed-up for 19.7 million person-years during 1971–1995. Incident cases of testicular cancer (n=387) were identified in a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. The Census occupations in 1970 were converted to chemical exposures with

Johannes Guo; Eero Pukkala; Pentti Kyyrönen; Marja-Liisa Lindbohm; Pirjo Heikkilä; Timo Kauppinen

2005-01-01

440

Child-Rearing Values of Estonian and Finnish Mothers and Fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the child-rearing values of mothers and fathers of 4 to 6-year-old children in Estonia and Finland. All samples assign the most value to characteristics related to benevolence, self-direction, and being trustworthy. Valuing smartness and politeness is specific to the Estonian culture, and valuing hedonism is specific to the Finnish culture. Compared with Estonian parents, Finnish parents tend

Tiia Tulviste; Maaret Ahtonen

2007-01-01

441

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea  

SciTech Connect

Marine organisms are known to adsorb and accumulate PAH's from water. Mussels due to their widespread distribution in coastal waters have been studied in many laboratory and field experiments for their responses to PAH exposures. The occurrence of PAH's has been studied also in fish. This report presents preliminary data for the PAH content in blue mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Mussel and fish samples were collected from the Finnish Archipelago Sea during 1978-1979.

Not Available

1986-09-01

442

PET studies on the memory processing of word pairs in bilingual Finnish–English subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the fundamental question whether verbal memory processing in two unrelated languages is mediated by a common neural system or by distinct cortical areas. Ten right-handed, male Finnish–English adult late bilinguals who had acquired the second language after the age of 10 were scanned whilst either encoding\\/retrieving word pairs in their mother tongue (Finnish) or in a foreign

U Halsband; B. J Krause; H Sipilä; M Teräs; A Laihinen

2002-01-01

443

Prescription drugs during pregnancy and lactation--a Finnish register-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine the use of prescription drugs in Finnish women before and during pregnancy and lactation.Methods. A register-based study linking four nation-wide registers in Finland: the Maternal Grants Register, the Drug Prescription Register, and the Special Refund Register (all maintained by the Social Insurance Institution in Finland; KELA), and the Finnish Population Register. The study included all women applying

Heli Malm; Jaana Martikainen; Timo Klaukka; Pertti J. Neuvonen

2003-01-01

444

Risk?taking abilities for everyone? Finnish entrepreneurship education and the enterprising selves imagined by pupils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the spread of the neo?liberal educational policy in Finnish schools by considering entrepreneurship education. We examined the kinds of gendered and classed enterprising selves that were narrated in the Finnish writing competition Good Enterprise! written by pupils in the 9th grade of comprehensive school. In their narratives of enterprising selves, the pupils constructed the middle?class version of

Katri Komulainen; Maija Korhonen; Hannu Räty

2009-01-01

445

The effect of chiropractic care on jet lag of finnish junior elite athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effect of chiro-practic care on jet lag in Finnish junior elite athletes.Subjects: Fifteen Finnish junior elite athletes.Methods: Through use of a table of random numbers, each athlete was assigned by sex to one of 3 groups: chiropractic adjustment,sham adjustment, or control. As needed,the chiropractic adjustment group athletes (n = 5) were adjusted on a daily basis

William F. Straub; Michael P. Spino; Medhat M. Alattar; Bruce Pfleger; John W. Downes; Marco A. Belizaire; Olli J. Heinonen; Tommi Vasankari

2001-01-01

446

Recordings and occurrence of geomagnetically induced currents in the Finnish natural gas pipeline network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project implemented to study the effects of space weather on the Finnish natural gas pipeline was started in August 1998. The aims of the project were (1) to derive a model for calculating geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) and pipe-to-soil (P\\/S) voltages in the Finnish natural gas pipeline, (2) to perform measurements of GIC and P\\/S voltages in the pipeline

Antti Pulkkinen; Ari Viljanen; Kari Pajunpää; Risto Pirjola

2001-01-01

447

Studies of biodegradability of certain oils in forest soil as determined by the respirometric BOD OxiTop method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of the respirometric BOD OxiTop method for biodegradation studies of different oils in soil was assessed. Different forestry chain oils and wood-preservative oils were used as model substances. Experiments were carried out on different types of Finnish forest soils. The results of these experiments are in good agreement with our earlier results of oil-biodegradation experiments in water. The

Pekka Vähäoja; Katri Roppola; Ilkka Välimäki; Toivo Kuokkanen

2005-01-01

448

Aspartylglycosaminuria in the Finnish population: Identification of two point mutations in the heavy chain of glycoasparaginase  

SciTech Connect

Aspartylglycosaminuria is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of glycoasparaginase and occurs with higher frequency among Finns than other populations. The authors have purified human glycoasparaginase and determined about 90% of the main acid sequence of its light subunit and {gt}70% of that of its heavy subunit by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. Additional sequence data were obtained from the cloning and subsequent nucleotide analysis of a cDNA corresponding to the normal human glycoasparaginase gene. The enzyme is encoded by a single mRNA as a single polypeptide that is posttranslationally processed to generate the subunits and is glycosylated. They demonstrate that the Finnish patients' mRNA sequence differed from the normal sequence by two single-base changes six nucleotides apart from one another in the heavy chain of glycoasparaginase. The first change resulted in the replacement of arginine by glutamine (R161Q), whereas the second change resulted in a cysteine to serine substitution (C163S). Both mutations resulted in novel restriction endonuclease sites and were present in all eight Finnish aspartylglycosaminuria patients originating from different pedigrees, but they were absent from Finnish and non-Finnish controls and a non-Finnish case of aspartylglycosaminuria. These results indicate molecular homogeneity in aspartylglycosaminuria alleles in the Finnish population.

Mononen, I. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA (United States) Kuopio Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)); Heisterkamp, N.; Williams, J.C.; Groffen, J. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Kaartinen, V. (Kuopio Univ. Central Hospital (Finland) Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)); Yates, J.R. III; Griffin, P.R.; Hood, L.E. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States))

1991-04-01

449

Energia, etiikka ja politiikka: tutkimuksen arviointia. (Energy, ethics and politics: an evaluation of current research).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to examine and assess Finnish energy policies, and to evaluate current social scientific research related to energy policies, from a philosophical and ethical viewpoint. The method of applied philosophical ethics is briefly in...

H. Rossilahdi

1989-01-01

450

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Influence of volcanic history on groundwater patterns on the west slope of ... Changes in Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook) following ... Cadenasso, Mary L.; Pickett, Steward T.A.; Grove, Morgan J. 2006, --.

451

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Cole, David N.; Hall, Troy E. 2010, -- ... Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus), Stoleson, Scott H.; Sadoti, Giancarlo, 2010, -- ... Curtis H.; Huang, Chengquan; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Stewart, Susan I.; Radeloff, Volker C. 2010, --.

452

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Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Cartron, Jean-Luc E.; Ramakka, James M.; ... Field testing of the experimental wood preservative N'N-naphtaloylhydroxylamine ... Kus, Barbara E.; Marshall, Robert M.; Pohl, Molly M.; Sferra, Susan J.; Sogge, ...

453

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Application of a dual unscented Kalman filter for simultaneous state and parameter ... Applying species-energy theory to conservation: A case study for North ... A Qualitative Simulation Framework in Smalltalk Based on Fuzzy Arithmetic, Olson, ...

454

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Jul 1, 2013... Conner, Richard N.; Collins, Christopher S.; Saenz, Daniel; Trees, Toni; ... Thill, Ronald E.; Perry, Roger W.; Koerth, Nancy E.; Tappe, Philip A.; Peitz, ... Planting in Southern Indiana, Weigel, Dale R.; Dey, Daniel C. 2004, -- ...

455

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... Dey, Daniel C.; Royo, Alejandro A.; Brose, Patrick H.; Hutchinson, Todd F.; ... Keena, Melody A.; Côté, Marie-José; Grinberg, Phyllis S.; Wallner, William E. NRS ... in cell culture, Slavicek, James M.; Hayes-Plazolles, Nancy; Kelly, Mary Ellen.

456

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Characterizing polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate reactions with wood. ... Yelle, Daniel J.; Jakes, Joseph E.; Ralph, John; Frihart, Charles R. 2010, -- ... Youngblood, Andrew; Metlen, Kerry L.; Knapp, Eric E.; Outcalt, Kenneth W.; ...

457

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A stochastic population model for Lepidium papilliferum (Brassicaceae), a rare desert ephemeral with a persistent seed bank, Meyer, Susan E.; ... of sexes in the biological control agent Mecinus janthinus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Schat, ...

458

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Satellite-based peatland mapping: potential of the MODIS sensor. ... A stochastic population model for Lepidium papilliferum (Brassicaceae), a rare desert ephemeral with a persistent seed bank, Meyer, Susan E.; ... Releasing biocontrol agents: Risk assessment and overdue reform, Peterson, Bob; Sing, Sharlene, 2007, --.

459

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Sep 21, 2012 ... A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System for Automatic Hardwood Feature ... Logs Using Automated Interpretation of CT Images, Schmoldt, Daniel L.; Zhu, ... The Market for U.S. Hardwoods in the United Kingdom: Market ...

460

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Decision Criteria for German Hardwood Lumber Buyers: Market Needs and Purchase ... A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System for Automatic Hardwood Feature ... Evaluation of Hardwood Logs Using Automated Interpretation of CT Images ...

461

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Impact of z-direction fiber orientation on performance of commercial and ... Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of oxalic ... Ostryopsis davidiana seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi facilitate ...

462

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... using DNA from fecal pellets, Brinkman, Todd J.; Person, David K.; Schwartz, Michael K.; ... Soil Effects Mediate Interaction of Dogwood Anthracnose and Acidic ... structure and productivity in a longleaf pine wiregrass ecosystem, Brockway, ...

463

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... Cummings, Linda Scott; Hall, Stephen; Goodman-Elgar, Melissa; Boreham, Julie ... Bailey, John D.; Baker, William L.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Brown, Peter M.; ... Lamansky, James A.; Keeley, Ernest R.; Young, Michael K.; Meyer, Kevin A.

464

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Gene cloning and heterologous expression of pyranose 2-oxidase from the brown-rot ... Richard; Cummings, Linda Scott; Hall, Stephen; Goodman-Elgar, ... Rieman, Bruce E.; Dunham, Jason B.; Young, Michael K.; Peterson, ...

465

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Sep 21, 2012... Richard; Cummings, Linda Scott; Hall, Stephen; Goodman-Elgar, ... Rieman, Bruce; Spruell, Paul; Stockwell, Craig; Utter, Fred; Young, William, 2003, -- ... Ramirez, Jorge A.; Hobbins, Michael T.; Brown, Thomas C. 2005, --.

466

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... Justin G.A.; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L. ; Herms, ... 2010, Nutritional and defensive chemistry of three North American ash ... preserve black ash for native American basketry, Poland, Therese M.; Crook, ...

467

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2010, Comparing metabolomic profiles of Asian and North American ash ... and survey for EAB-resistance in native North American species, Mason, Mary E.; ... G.A.; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L.; Herms,  ...

468

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Dietary overview of Hemidactylus turcicus with possible implications of food partitioning, Saenz, Daniel, 1996, -- ... Selection of RAPD markers for investigation of genetic population structure in fusiform rust fungus ... Working safely in summertime heat, Rummer, Robert B. 1997, -- ... Last Modified: September 21, 2012.

469

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Insert Modifications Improve Access to Artificial Red-Cockaded Woodpecker ... In- situ characterization of wildland fire behavior, Butler, Bret; Jimenez, D.; ... Instrumented impact testing of kenaf fiber reinforced polypropylene ...

470

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Jul 1, 2013 ... Gene cloning and heterologous expression of pyranose 2-oxidase from ... and saw-textured western redcedar bevel siding, Williams, R. Sam; Feist, ... Regina rigida (glossy crayfish snake), Steen, David A.; Stiles, James A.; ...

471

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Sep 21, 2012... Scott T.; Giulliano, William W.; Harper, Craig A; Igo, William K.; Kirkpatrick, Roy ... Dickson, James G.; Conner, Richard N.; Williamson, J. Howard, 1993, -- ... Gene cloning and heterologous expression of pyranose 2-oxidase ...

472

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James, J. J.; Drenovsky, R. E.; Monaco, T. A.; Rinella, M. J., RMRS ... William E.; Swannack, Todd M.; Koralewski, Tomasz E.; Miller, James H.; Taylor, John W. SRS ... better soil, fewer invasive plants, Harrington, Timoth B.; Kirkland, John, PNW.

473

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2011, Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) Anoplophora gabripennis: advancements in .... 2008, Evaluation of vacuum technology to kill larvae of the Asian longhorned ... 2008, Native natural enemies of native woodborers: potential as biological ...

474

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Accretion, partitioning and sequestration of calcium and aluminum in red spruce foliage: implications for tree health, Borer, Catherine H.; Schaberg, Paul G.; ... Iowa, U.S., communities benefit from a tree-planting program: ...

475

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Wood, trees and nanotechnology, Beecher, James F. 2007, --2 ... Investigating the use of small-diameter softwood as guardrail posts (dynamic test results) ... Wildfire risk and housing prices: a case study from Colorado ...

476

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Sep 21, 2012... Bonnot, Thomas W.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Rumble, Mark A. 2009, -- ... Northern Rockies, USA, Morgan, Penelope; Heyerdahl, Emily K.; Gibson, Carly E. 2008, -- ... NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX 2002/03): ...

477

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Jul 1, 2013 ... Ecological restoration experiments (1992-2007) at the G. A. Pearson ... W. Wallace; Fule, Peter Z.; Hart, Stephen C.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Mast, Joy ... Morgan, Todd A.; Brandt, Jason P.; Baldridge, John D.; Loeffler, Dan R. 2011, --.

478

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Exploring environmental and economic trade-offs associated with aggregate ... Inferring landscape effects on gene flow: A new model selection ... the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale, Phosphoria Formation, Wooley Valley, ...

479

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A method for ensemble wildland fire simulation, Finney, Mark A.; Grenfell, ... Modeling containment of large wildfires using generalized linear mixed-model analysis ... Trout use of woody debris and habitat in Wine Spring Creek, North Carolina ...

480

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Jul 1, 2013 ... Design considerations for large woody debris placement in stream enhancement projects. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Lemly, A. Dennis; Dolloff, ... The South's forestland - on the hot seat to provide more, Sheffield, Raymond M.; Dickson, James G. 1998, --.

481

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Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western ... Seeding and Planting Pines, Willard, Ralph E.; Schmollinger, L. Max, 1989, -NC- ... Seedling growth and heavy metal accumulation of candidate woody species for ...

482

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Science.gov - We Participate ... Detecting defects in conifers with ground penetrating radar: applications and challenges, Butnor, J.R>; ... with scanning lidar using alternative functions for establishing the atmospheric heterogeneity locations ...

483

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Sandberg, D.V.; Peterson, Janice, 1984, -- ... San Gil, Inigo; Sheldon, Wade; Schmidt, Tom; Servilla, Mark; Aguilar, Raul; ... Schaberg, Paul G.; Hennon, Paul E .; D, Amore, David V.; Hawley, Gary J. ... First county records of red crossbill in the pineywoods region of eastern Texas, Schaefer, Richard R. 1998, --.

484

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Barn Owl (Tyto alba), Cartron, Jean-Luc E.; Cox, Steven W. 2010, -- ... Bruce; Young, Michael; Fausch, Kurt; Dunham, Jason; Peterson, Douglas, 2010, -- ... Owen, Sheldon F.; Menzel, Michael A.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark; Menzel, Jennifer ... Behavioural responses of wheat stem sawflies to wheat volatiles, Piesik, D.; ...

485

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1989, Thinning decreases mortality and increases growth of Ponderosa pine in ... 1989, Borax Stump Treatment for Control of Annosus Root Disease in the Eastside ... evidence of interspecific horizontal genetic transfer and of human- mediated, ... and simple Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system for ...

486

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Experimental and numerical modeling of shrub crown fire initiation, Tachajapong, ... Wolverine gene flow across a narrow climatic niche, Schwartz, Michael K.; ... Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the electrochemical ...

487

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Modified technique for processing multiangle lidar data measured in clear and moderately polluted atmospheres, Kovalev, ... Influence of bedrock geology on water chemistry of slope wetlands and headwater streams in the ... after bark beetle infestation and harvesting in Colorado lodgepole pine stands ...

488

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... pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Colorado, U.S.A ... on water chemistry of slope wetlands and headwater streams in the southern ... Proceedings of the second US-USSR symposium: air pollution effects on ...

489

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2003, Sampling seasons for exotic woodboring insects: how long is long enough ? ... 2003, Development of SCAR Markers for the DNA-Based Detection of the Asian ... 2004, Biological Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis and Associated Toxins  ...

490

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2006, Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides for Control of ... 2005, Noncontact ultrasound detection of exotic insects in wood packing .... 2003, Sampling seasons for exotic woodboring insects: how long is long enough ?

491

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Does tree harvesting in streamside management zones adversely affect stream turbidity? ... Spatial and temporal variation in invertebrate consumer diets in ... fiber polypropylene composites at different operating temperatures ...

492

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Jul 1, 2013 ... From lifting to planting: Root dip treatments affect survival of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) ... I, Properties of temperature development, Li, Xian-jun; Lu, Ke-yang; Lin, ... Fungi in the diets of northern flying squirrels and lodgepole ...

493

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Prey handling and diet of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ... Does the availability of artificial cavities affect cavity excavation rates in ... Part I, tissue response to elevated temperatures, Dickinson, Matthew B. 2003, -NE- ...

494

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Sep 21, 2012 ... Does the availability of artificial cavities affect cavity excavation rates in ... Prey handling and diet of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and ... relation to water temperatures in tributaries of the Mattole River, California ...

495

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Sep 21, 2012 ... 2, Nano-indentation, Jakes, J.E.; Yelle, D.Y.; Beecher, J.F.; Frihart, C.R.; ... Morey, S.; Holmes, R.; Molina, R.; Turley, M.C.; Huff, M.H.; Laurence, J.A., 2006, -- ... Buehlmann, Urs; Wiedenbeck, Janice K.; Kline, E. Earl, 1999, --.

496

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Inhibitory effect of essential oils on decay fungi and mold growth on wood, Yang, Vina ... Globalization and world trade, Ince, Peter J.; Buongiorno, Joseph, 2007, -- ... Field evaluation of timber preservation treatments for highway applications ...

497

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2005, The world species of Balcha Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae), .... 2007, Attraction of emerald ash borer to trap trees: can Meja or Manuka oil ... 2007, Field attraction of emerald ash borer to antennally and behaviorally ...

498

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

1989, History of Heterobasidion annosum in Western United States, Smith Jr., ... and Epidemiology of Heterobasidion annosum, Otrosina, William J.; Cobb Jr., ... Fiddler, Gary O.; Fiddler, Troy A.; Hart, Dennis R.; McDonald, Philip M. PSW.

499

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Use of NMR spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging for ... Transverse elasticity of cellulose nanocrystals via atomic force microscopy, Wagner, Ryan; Raman, ... Listing of Publications in the Treesearch Database (number pubs on- line).

500

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

Comparative analysis of spectral unmixing and neural networks for estimating ... of cellulose nanocrystals via atomic force microscopy, Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; ... Listing of Publications in the Treesearch Database (number pubs on- line).