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1

Iterative gradient technique for the design of least squares optimal FIR magnitude squared Nyquist filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, much attention has been given to the design of optimal finite impulse response (FIR) compaction filters. Such filters, which arise in the design of optimal signal-adapted orthonormal FIR filter banks, satisfy a magnitude squared Nyquist constraint in addition to the inherent FIR assumption. In this paper, we focus on the least squares optimal design of FIR filters whose magnitude

Andre Tkacenko; P. P. Vaidyanathan

2004-01-01

2

FIR Filter Design via Spectral Factorization and Convex Optimization 1 FIR Filter Design via Spectral Factorization  

E-print Network

is optimization variable fi are convex: for 0 1, fix + 1 ,y fix + 1 ,fiy examples: linear & convex quadratic 1000s variables, 10000s constraints feasible on PC FIR Filter Design via Spectral FactorizationFIR Filter Design via Spectral Factorization and Convex Optimization 1 FIR Filter Design via

3

System Verilog modelling of FIR filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper modelling of FIR filters by means of Verilog and SystemVerilog is presented. Hardware/software co-design approach for such systems is applied in the presented design. As a final technology for a FIR filters system implementation, a FPSLIC device is considered. Filters system demonstrates example methods of communication between FPGA and AVR microcontroller in a FPSLIC structure, i.e. the communication through SRAM memory, addressing lines, data bus, interrupts. It also demonstrates how to serve peripheral elements in FPSLIC device by means of DPI interface. FIR filters model contains also interface which implements a FPSLIC cache logic and gives opportunity to a dynamical reconfiguration of FPGA in a FPSLIC structure.

Pawlus, ?ukasz; Wegrzyn, Marek

2006-02-01

4

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF VARIABLE (PROGRAMMABLE) FIR FILTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many filtering applications there is a need for digital filters with variable frequency domain characteristics. This paper gives an overview of an effective design technique of variable filters presented in the literature. In this design technique, multidimensional polynomial functions of spectral parameters are used to approximate the coefficients of the variable FIR filter. The design technique consists of two

Djordje Babic

5

Simulation of Frequency Response Masking Approach for FIR Filter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the attention has to a large extent been paid to the problem of designing perfect reconstruction (PR) filter banks. However, filter banks are most often used in applications where small errors are inevitable and allowed. Imposing PR on a filter bank is then an unnecessarily severe restriction which may lead to a higher arithmetic complexity than is actually required

USMAN ALI; SHAHID A. KHAN

2004-01-01

6

Design and verification of an ALU-based universal FIR filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Traditionally, each time a new design for a finite impulse response (FIR) filter is required, a new algorithm has to be developed specially for the FIR filter. Furthermore, corresponding hardware architecture must be designed specially to meet the requirement of the FIR specifications. The purpose of this paper is to propose an arithmetic logic unit (ALU)-based universal FIR

Y. B. Liao; P. Li; A. W. Ruan; W. C. Li

2010-01-01

7

A receding horizon unbiased FIR filter for discrete-time state space models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns with a new linear finite impulse response (FIR) filter called the receding horizon unbiased FIR (RHUF) filter for the state estimation in discrete-time state space models. To obtain the RHUF filter, linearity, unbiasedness and FIR structure will be required beforehand in addition to a performance criteria of minimum variance. The RHUF filter is obtained by directly solving

Wook Hyun Kwon; Pyung Soo Kim; Soo Hee Han

2002-01-01

8

Corrigenda for "Enriching the Art of FIR Filter Design . . . "  

E-print Network

interleaved in this way, but at least the relevant information is there. · Page 97, right column, Matlab code the Art of FIR Filter Design via Convex Optimization", IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. Fortunately, most of these errors are fairly easy to spot, but some of them have the potential to be confusing

Davidson, Tim

9

The Dual Carrier ABSK System Based on a FIR Bandpass Filter  

PubMed Central

The special impacting filter (SIF) with IIR structure has been used to demodulate ABSK signals. The key points of SIF, including the resonance circuit's high Q value and the “slope-phase discrimination” character of the filter sideband, are demonstrated in the paper. The FIR narrow-band bandpass filtering system, which can also provide the impact-filtering effect, is proposed. A dual carrier system of ABSK signals is designed with the proposed FIR filter as its receiver. The simulation results show that the FIR filter can work well. Moreover, compared to the traditional SIF, the proposed FIR filter can not only achieve higher spectral efficiency, but also give better demodulation performance. PMID:24658625

Chen, Zhimin; Wu, Lenan; Wang, Jiwu

2014-01-01

10

A DESIGN FLOW FOR MULTIPLIERLESS LINEAR-PHASE FIR FILTERS: FROM SYSTEM SPECIFICATION TO VERILOG CODE  

E-print Network

A DESIGN FLOW FOR MULTIPLIERLESS LINEAR-PHASE FIR FILTERS: FROM SYSTEM SPECIFICATION TO VERILOG with variable filter order to reduce the number of adders further. In addition, several design techniques the filter order as a variable parameter. In general, if a filter gradually increases the ta

Hung, Shih-Hao

11

Efficient bit-level systolic array implementation of FIR and IIR digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bit-level systolic architectures based on an inner-product computation scheme for finite-impulse response (FIR) and infinite-impulse-response (IIR) digital are presented. The FIR filter structure is optimized in the sense that for a given clock rate, both the utilization efficiency and average throughput are maximized. The IIR filter structure has approximately the same utilization efficiency and throughput rate as previous related techniques

C.-L. Wang; C.-H. Wei; S.-H. Chen

1988-01-01

12

Computation Sharing Programmable FIR Filter for Low-Power and High-Performance Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a programmable digital finite- impulse response (FIR) filter for high-performance and low-power applications. The architecture is based on a computation sharing multiplier (CSHM) which specifically targets computation re-use in vector-scalar products and can be effectively used in the low- complexity programmable FIR filter design. Efficient circuit-level techniques, namely a new carry-select adder and conditional cap- ture flip-flop

Woopyo Jeong; Hamid Mahmoodi-Meimand; Yongtao Wang; Hunsoo Choo; Kaushik Roy

2004-01-01

13

Structured design of a 288-tap FIR filter by optimized partial product tree compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact 10-b, 288-tap finite impulse response (FIR) filter is designed by adopting structured architecture that employs an optimized partial product tree compression method. The new scheme is based on the addition of equally weighted partial products resulted from 288 multiplications of the filter coefficients and the inputs. The 288 multiplication and 287 addition operations are decomposed to add 1440

Jun Rim Choi; Lak Hyun Jang; Seong Wook Jung; Jin Ho Choi

1997-01-01

14

The synergy between complex channel-specific FIR filter and spatial filter for single-trial EEG classification.  

PubMed

The common spatial pattern analysis (CSP), a frequently utilized feature extraction method in brain-computer-interface applications, is believed to be time-invariant and sensitive to noises, mainly due to an inherent shortcoming of purely relying on spatial filtering. Therefore, temporal/spectral filtering which can be very effective to counteract the unfavorable influence of noises is usually used as a supplement. This work integrates the CSP spatial filters with complex channel-specific finite impulse response (FIR) filters in a natural and intuitive manner. Each hybrid spatial-FIR filter is of high-order, data-driven and is unique to its corresponding channel. They are derived by introducing multiple time delays and regularization into conventional CSP. The general framework of the method follows that of CSP but performs better, as proven in single-trial classification tasks like event-related potential detection and motor imagery. PMID:24204705

Yu, Ke; Wang, Yue; Shen, Kaiquan; Li, Xiaoping

2013-01-01

15

Noise and Outlier Removal from Jet Engine Health Signals Using Weighted FIR Median Hybrid Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of noise and outliers from measurement signals is a major problem in jet engine health monitoring. Typical measurement signals found in most jet engines include low rotor speed, high rotor speed, fuel flow and exhaust gas temperature. Deviations in these measurements from a baseline 'good' engine are often called measurement deltas and the health signals used for fault detection, isolation, trending and data mining. Linear filters such as the FIR moving average filter and IIR exponential average filter are used in the industry to remove noise and outliers from the jet engine measurement deltas. However, the use of linear filters can lead to loss of critical features in the signal that can contain information about maintenance and repair events that could be used by fault isolation algorithms to determine engine condition or by data mining algorithms to learn valuable patterns in the data. Non-linear filters such as the median and weighted median hybrid filters offer the opportunity to remove noise and gross outliers from signals while preserving features. In this study, a comparison of traditional linear filters popular in the jet engine industry is made with the median filter and the subfilter weighted FIR median hybrid (SWFMH) filter. Results using simulated data with implanted faults shows that the SWFMH filter results in a noise reduction of over 60 per cent compared to only 20 per cent for FIR filters and 30 per cent for IIR filters. Preprocessing jet engine health signals using the SWFMH filter would greatly improve the accuracy of diagnostic systems.

Ganguli, R.

2002-11-01

16

Comparative study of techniques to compute FIR filter weights in adaptive channel equalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the computation of FIR filter weights in adaptive channel equalization tasks in quasi stationary environments is considered. The problem is formulated as a system of equations. It can be solved via direct matrix inversion (DMI) or iteratively via the LMS or RLS algorithm. Thereby suitable criteria such as least squares (LS) or mean square error (MSE) are

Christian Vincent Sinn; Jiirgen Gotze

2003-01-01

17

Optimization of high speed pipelining in FPGA-based FIR filter design using genetic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares FPGA-based full pipelined multiplierless FIR filter design options. Comparison of Distributed Arithmetic (DA), Common Sub-Expression (CSE) sharing and n-dimensional Reduced Adder Graph (RAG-n) multiplierless filter design methods in term of size, speed, and A*T product are provided. Since DA designs are table-based and CSE/RAG-n designs are adder-based, FPGA synthesis design data are used for a realistic comparison. Superior results of a genetic algorithm based optimization of pipeline registers and non-output fundamental coefficients are shown. FIR filters (posted as open source by Kastner et al.) for filters in the length from 6 to 151 coefficients are used.

Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Botella, Guillermo; Romero, David E. T.; Kumm, Martin

2012-06-01

18

METEOR: a constraint-based FIR filter design program  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed to specify a filter only in terms of upper and lower limits on the response, find the shortest filter length which allows these constraints to be met, and then find a filter of that order which is farthest from the upper and lower constraint boundaries in a minimax sense. The simplex algorithm for linear programming is used

Kenneth Steiglitz; Thomas W. Parks; James F. Kaiser

1992-01-01

19

Comparison of optimal and local search methods for designing finite wordlength FIR digital filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a comparison between an optimal (branch-and-bound) algorithm and a suboptimal (local search) algorithm for the design of finite wordlength finite-impulse-response (FIR) digital filters. Experimental results are described for 11 examples of length 15 to 35. It is concluded that when computer resources are not available for the optimal method, it is still worth applying the local search method to the filter with rounded coefficients.

Kodek, D.; Steiglitz, K.

1981-01-01

20

Low-Complexity Design of Variable Bandedge Linear Phase FIR Filters With Sharp Transition Band  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a very low-complexity design of variable bandedge linear phase finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters with fixed sharp transition width. The idea is to first decompose the input signal into several channels in the frequency domain. The channel(s) involved with the transition band of the variable filter due to the variation of the bandedge is (are) shaped to produce the

Ya Jun Yu; Yong Ching Lim; Dong Shi

2009-01-01

21

Multidimensional causal, stable, perfect reconstruction filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following our earlier one-dimensional (1-D) work, we show that it is possible to have a large family of biorthogonal perfect reconstruction multidimensional (n-D) subband coding filter banks, which are causal and IIR both at the analysis and at the synthesis ends. While the need for perfect reconstruction IIR filter banks are more apparent for multidimensional signals than for 1-D signals,

Sankar Basu

2002-01-01

22

Fault-tolerant adaptive FIR filters using variable detection threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive filters are widely used in many digital signal processing applications, where tap weight of the filters are adjusted by stochastic gradient search methods. Block adaptive filtering techniques, such as block least mean square and block conjugate gradient algorithm, were developed to speed up the convergence as well as improve the tracking capability which are two important factors in designing real-time adaptive filter systems. Even though algorithm-based fault tolerance can be used as a low-cost high level fault-tolerant technique to protect the aforementioned systems from hardware failures with minimal hardware overhead, the issue of choosing a good detection threshold remains a challenging problem. First of all, the systems usually only have limited computational resources, i.e., concurrent error detection and correction is not feasible. Secondly, any prior knowledge of input data is very difficult to get in practical settings. We propose a checksum-based fault detection scheme using two-level variable detection thresholds that is dynamically dependent on the past syndromes. Simulations show that the proposed scheme reduces the possibility of false alarms and has a high degree of fault coverage in adaptive filter systems.

Lin, L. K.; Redinbo, G. R.

1994-10-01

23

Design Techniques for Uniform-DFT, Linear Phase Filter Banks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniform-DFT filter banks are an important class of filter banks and their theory is well known. One notable characteristic is their very efficient implementation when using polyphase filters and the FFT. Separately, linear phase filter banks, i.e. filter banks in which the analysis filters have a linear phase are also an important class of filter banks and desired in many applications. Unfortunately, it has been proved that one cannot design critically-sampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks and achieve perfect reconstruction. In this paper, we present a least-squares solution to this problem and in addition prove that oversampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks (which are also useful in many applications) can be constructed for perfect reconstruction. Design examples are included illustrate the methods.

Sun, Honglin; DeLeon, Phillip

1999-01-01

24

Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks  

SciTech Connect

The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

25

Recursive time-varying filter banks for subband image coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filter banks and wavelet decompositions that employ recursive filters have been considered previously and are recognized for their efficiency in partitioning the frequency spectrum. This paper presents an analysis of a new infinite impulse response (IIR) filter bank in which these computationally efficient filters may be changed adaptively in response to the input. The filter bank is presented and discussed in the context of finite-support signals with the intended application in subband image coding. In the absence of quantization errors, exact reconstruction can be achieved and by the proper choice of an adaptation scheme, it is shown that IIR time-varying filter banks can yield improvement over conventional ones.

Smith, Mark J. T.; Chung, Wilson C.

1992-01-01

26

Wavelets and multirate filter banks : theory, structure, design, and applications  

E-print Network

Wavelets and filter banks have revolutionized signal processing with their ability to process data at multiple temporal and spatial resolutions. Fundamentally, continuous-time wavelets are governed by discrete-time filter ...

Chen, Ying-Jui, 1972-

2004-01-01

27

Soil seed banks and plant community assembly following disturbance by fire and logging in interior Douglas-fir forests of south-central  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between soil seed banks and aboveground understory vegetation were examined in dry Douglas- fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Beissn.) Franco) forests near Kamloops, British Columbia, to compare the effects of different disturbance types (low and high severity fires and non-salvage logging), and to evaluate how seed banks contribute to post-disturbance vegetation establishment. Sites were selected to represent disturbances at 1, 5,

Kaeli E. Stark; Gary E. Bradfield

2006-01-01

28

Advantages and Disadvantages in the Use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Filter Infrared (FIR) Spectrometers for Monitoring Airborne Gases and Vapors of Industrial Hygiene Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important differences between Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and filter infrared (FIR) systems for air monitoring are explored, and the strengths and weaknesses of these technologies when applied to industrial hygiene problems are defined and illustrated with actual workplace air monitoring examples. The discussion of the differences in FTIR and FIR instrumentation is structured around the principal components of these

Steven P. Levine; Ying Li-Shi; Christopher R. Strang; Xiao Hong-Kui

1989-01-01

29

A specification language for the optimal design of exotic FIR filters with second-order cone programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application-tailored individual and joint FIR-filter designs of remarkable complexity are elegantly coded using our MATLAB toolbox Opt, a research tool providing a DSP-oriented modeling language for driving ultra-efficient off-the-shelf numerical solvers of (linear and) second-order cone programs. Opt data types symbolically capture affine or (nonnegative definite) quadratic dependencies on optimization variables, which gain numeric values only later, when optimized. On

J. O. Coleman; D. P. Scholnik; J. J. Brandriss

2002-01-01

30

Filter Bank Design for Speaker Diarization Based on Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech recognition systems usually need a feature extraction stage aiming at obtaining the best signal representation. In this article we propose to use genetic algorithms to design a feature extraction method adapted to the speaker diarization task. We present an adaptation of the common MFCC feature extractor which consists in designing a filter bank, with optimized bandwidths. Experiments are carried

C. Charbuillet; B. Gas; M. Chetouani; J. L. Zarader

2006-01-01

31

Sparse Filter Banks for Binary Subdivision Rice University  

E-print Network

Sparse Filter Banks for Binary Subdivision Schemes Joe Warren Rice University Abstract Multi for arbitrary nested spline spaces. Let \\Phi j (t) denote a set of compactly supported basis functions, also known as scaling functions. The span of these basis function is a spline space, V j , V j := Span(\\Phi j

Warren, Joe

32

Optimal and unbiased FIR filtering in discrete time state space with smoothing and predictive properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address p-shift finite impulse response optimal (OFIR) and unbiased (UFIR) algorithms for predictive filtering ( p > 0), filtering ( p = 0), and smoothing filtering ( p < 0) at a discrete point n over N neighboring points. The algorithms were designed for linear time-invariant state-space signal models with white Gaussian noise. The OFIR filter self-determines the initial mean square state function by solving the discrete algebraic Riccati equation. The UFIR one represented both in the batch and iterative Kalman-like forms does not require the noise covariances and initial errors. An example of applications is given for smoothing and predictive filtering of a two-state polynomial model. Based upon this example, we show that exact optimality is redundant when N ? 1 and still a nice suboptimal estimate can fairly be provided with a UFIR filter at a much lower cost.

Shmaliy, Yuriy S.; Ibarra-Manzano, Oscar

2012-12-01

33

Filter Bank Feature Combination (FBFC) approach for brain-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) algorithm constructs and selects subject-specific discriminative CSP features from a filter bank of spatial- temporal filters in a motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI). However, information from other types of features could be extracted and combined with CSP features to enhance the classification performance. Hence this paper proposes a Filter Bank Feature Combination (FBFC)

Zheng Yang Chin; Kai Keng Ang; Cuntai Guan; Chuanchu Wang; Haihong Zhang

2011-01-01

34

Analysis of Beaulieu Pulse Shaping Family Based FIR Filter for WCDMA  

E-print Network

The analysis and simulation of transmit and receive pulse shaping filter is an important aspect of digital wireless communication since it has a direct effect on error probabilities. Pulse shaping for wireless communication over time as well as frequency selective channels is the need of hour for 3G and 4G systems. The pulse shaping filter is a useful means to shape the signal spectrum and avoid interferences. Basically digital filters are used to modify the characteristics of signal in time and frequency domain and have been recognized as primary digital signal processing operations.

Kang, A S

2010-01-01

35

Design of linear-phase variable 2-D FIR filters using multidimensional array decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel multi-dimensional (M-D) array decomposition called matrix-array decomposition (MAD) is proposed for simplifying the difficult variable 2-D filter design problem as easier sub-problems that need constant 2-D filter designs and M-D polynomial approximations. Since the sub-problems are easier to solve than the original one, the MAD-based design approach is very efficient and straightforward.

Tian-Bo Deng

2002-01-01

36

Design of linear-phase variable 2-D FIR digital filters using matrix-array decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for designing linear-phase variable two-dimensional (2-D) digital filters is described, which is based on the matrix-array decomposition (MAD) of real-valued multidimensional (M-D) arrays. By using the MAD, the desired variable 2-D magnitude response can be decomposed into the real-valued frequency response specifications of the normal constant 2-D filters and the approximation specifications of M-D polynomials. Thus the

Tian-Bo Deng

2001-01-01

37

Optimised implementation of a matched filter bank for ultrawideband radios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology dates back to early 1980s and was originally employed in radar applications. Unlike any narrowband or broadband communication systems, an UWB system does not employ any radio frequency (RF) carrier for data transmission. Instead it uses very short period electrical pulses in the order of hundreds of pico-seconds to few nano-seconds, which justifies the availability of an ultra-high bandwidth. From a hardware implementation viewpoint, UWB system design presents many challenges such as synchronisation, power limitation and receiver design. However, the design of an UWB transceiver is less complex given the fact that the RF carrier is eliminated. In an UWB transceiver, most of the processing is performed in the digital baseband while the analog front end is responsible for amplification, filtering and quantisation. A bank of matched filters constitutes the major portion of digital baseband section in an UWB transceiver. This paper presents the design, optimisation and field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the matched filter bank as an attempt to minimise the overall circuit complexity, achieve higher data rates and low power consumption in UWB radios.

Muthuswamy, Sivanandan; Veljanovski, Ronny; Singh, Jugdutt

2005-02-01

38

Analysis of Interpolated FIR Filter for VoIP in Noisy Enviroment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of background noise degrades the quality of speech signal. The speech quality of the VoIP system can be improved by reducing the background noise, codec distortion and various network impairments such as packet loss, delay and jitter. The work in this paper proposes the Interpolated Finite Impulse Response filter (IFIR) based scheme for reduction of noise. The IFIR

Harjit Pal Singh; Sarabjeet Singh; R. K. Sarin; Jasvir Singh

2010-01-01

39

Results on principal component filter banks: Colored noise suppression and existence issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently made explicit the precise connec- tion between the optimization of orthonormal filter banks (FBs) and the principal component property: The principal component filter bank (PCFB) is optimal whenever the minimization objective is a concave function of the subband variances of the FB. This ex- plains PCFB optimality for compression, progressive transmission, and various hitherto unnoticed white-noise suppression

Sony Akkarakaran; P. P. Vaidyanathan

2001-01-01

40

INVESTIGATION OF HYBRID FILTER BANK BASED ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION OF HYBRID FILTER BANK BASED ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION A THESIS submitted by RAJESH that the thesis titled INVESTIGATION OF HYBRID FILTER BANK BASED ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION , submitted and high resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are re- quired in a variety of applications, like

Krishnapura, Nagendra

41

DMT bit rate maximization with optimal time domain equalizer filter bank architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multicarrier modulation system, a time domain equalizer (TEQ) traditionally shortens the transmission channel impulse response (CIR) to mitigate intersymbol interference (ISI). In this paper, we propose a data-rate optimal TEQ filter bank whose data rates at the equalizer output of this filter bank are significantly better than those of the Maximum Bit Rate and Minimum ISI methods and

Milos Milosevic; Lucio F. C. Pessoa; Brian L. Evans; Ross Baldick

2002-01-01

42

Using Filter Banks to Identify Phases for Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In earthquake early warning, it is important to rapidly distinguish between different types of arrivals. In order to generate a warning in time, only the first few seconds of data can be used. This can cause misidentifications that would not occur if the full record was available. For example, the S-wave of a teleseismic event could be mistaken for the P-wave of a local event. One way to discriminate between these types of events is to look at the frequency content, which will depend on both the magnitude and distance of the event. We propose to accomplish this by running the data through a filter bank made up of several different band-pass filters. We then take the ratio of the short term average to the long term average in each band to distinguish the arrival time from any background noise. By examining the relative and absolute amplitudes in each band, we can determine the type of arrival, whether it is a P or an S-wave and whether it is from a local, regional, or teleseismic event.

Maselli, F. D.; Heaton, T. H.

2012-12-01

43

Spatiotemporal Source Tuning Filter Bank for Multiclass EEG based Brain Computer Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCI) allow people to communicate by modulating features of their electroencephalogram (EEG). Spatiotemporal filtering has a vital role in multi-class, EEG based BCI. In this study, we used a novel combination of principle component analysis, independent component analysis and dipole source localization to design a spatiotemporal multiple source tuning (SPAMSORT) filter bank, each channel of which

Soumyadipta Acharya; Mohsen Mollazadeh; Kartikeya Murari; Nitish Thakor

2006-01-01

44

Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization  

E-print Network

Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Fingerprint image generation Evolutionary algorithm Image filters Input pressure a b s t r a c t Constructing a fingerprint database is important to evaluate the performance

Cho, Sung-Bae

45

Low noise optical multi-carrier generation using optical-FIR filter for ASE noise suppression in re-circulating frequency shifter loop.  

PubMed

In this paper, an improved multi-carrier generation scheme based on single-side-band recirculating frequency shifter with optical finite impulse response (FIR) filter for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise suppression is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The carrier-to-noise-ratio (CNR) instead of tone-to-noise-ratio (TNR) is introduced to more reasonably and exactly evaluate the signal-to-noise-ratio of a multi-carrier source with non-flat noise floor. We have experimentally attain the worst case CNR of 22.5dB and 19.1dB for generated 50 and 69 flat low noise carriers, which has shown significant improvement than the previous cited works based on recirculating frequency shifter. PMID:24718161

Lin, Jiachuan; Xi, Lixia; Li, Jianrui; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xia; Niazi, Shahab Ahmad

2014-04-01

46

Development of an optically switched high-temperature superconducting multichannel bandstop filter bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optically controlled bandstop filter bank has been developed using High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin films for the filter resonator elements and light-sensitive GaAs for switch control. In the non-illuminated (reject) state the maximum rejection for each filter was typically 60 dB, and the attenuation could be switched to less than 0.5 dB at 10 GHz in the illuminated (pass) state. The high Qs of HTS resonators enable three-section filters with superior shape factors to be realized. We report on the development, design and test of a five- channel filter bank divided into two bands. The filters were designed using a bidielectric `stripline' configuration to reduce unwanted resonator coupling and permit frequency setting by adjusting tuning screws above each resonator. The filter elements were rectangular hairpin- style resonators loaded with an interdigitated capacitor to form the switch topology. The HTS realization permits switch banks with a large number of channels to be constructed with low insertion loss. Such units could be used to protect receivers while maintaining a low noise figure. This architecture allows for low loss protection against multiple signals, superior to existing YIG bandstop filter technology.

Fenzi, Neal; Raihn, Kurt; Soares, E.; Mathaei, G.

1994-01-01

47

Multiresolution image representation using combined 2-D and 1-D directional filter banks.  

PubMed

In this paper, effective multiresolution image representations using a combination of 2-D filter bank (FB) and directional wavelet transform (WT) are presented. The proposed methods yield simple implementation and low computation costs compared to previous 1-D and 2-D FB combinations or adaptive directional WT methods. Furthermore, they are nonredundant transforms and realize quad-tree like multiresolution representations. In applications on nonlinear approximation, image coding, and denoising, the proposed filter banks show visual quality improvements and have higher PSNR than the conventional separable WT or the contourlet. PMID:19095538

Tanaka, Yuichi; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q

2009-02-01

48

Enhanced adaptive filter-bank-based automated pavement crack detection and segmentation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We incorporate, evaluate, and assess the feasibility of using filter banks in automated pavement distress systems from a system level. We integrate a novel filter-bank-based distress segmentation method, which, unlike previously researched methods, does not depend on highpass data. In addition, we incorporate the standard Said Pearlman set partitioning in hierarchical trees compression coder into the automated pavement distress system, which is a first in this area of research. A third contribution of the research is a statistical detection algorithm that assists in overall system performance. Preliminary testing using images provided by the Georgia Department of Transportation demonstrate the promise of the proposed method.

Lettsome, Clyde A.; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Kaul, Vivek

2012-10-01

49

First results from the FPGA/NIOS Adaptive FIR Filter Using Linear Prediction Implemented in the AERA Radio Stations to Reduce Narrow Band RFI for Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

The FPGA/NIOS FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP) to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI) has been installed in several radio stations in the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) experiment. AERA observes coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays to make a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio signals provide complementary information to that obtained from Auger surface detectors, which are predominantly sensitive to the particle content of an air shower at the surface. The radio signals from air showers are caused by the coherent emission due to geomagnetic and charge-excess processes. These emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 - 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. A FIR filter implemented in the FPGA logic segment of the front-end electronics of a radio sensor significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we present first results of the efficiency of the adaptive LP FIR filter, deployed in real AERA station on pampas, with a comparison to the currently used IIR notch filter with constant coefficients. The laboratory tests confirms the stability of the filter. Using constant LP coefficients the suppression efficiency remains the same for hours, which corresponds to more than $\\bf 10^{12}$ clock cycles. We compared in real conditions several variants of the LP FIR filter with various lengths and various coefficients widths (due to fixed-point representations in the FPGA logic) with the aim to minimize the power consumption for the radio station while keeping sufficient accuracy for noise reduction.

Zbigniew Szadkowski; D. G?as; C. Timmermans; T. Wijnen for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2014-06-03

50

Elaborate analysis and design of filter-bank-based sensing for wideband cognitive radios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful operation of a cognitive radio system strongly depends on its ability to sense the radio environment. With the use of spectrum sensing algorithms, the cognitive radio is required to detect co-existing licensed primary transmissions and to protect them from interference. This paper focuses on filter-bank-based sensing and provides a solid theoretical background for the design of these detectors. Optimum detectors based on the Neyman-Pearson theorem are developed for uniform discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and modified DFT filter banks with root-Nyquist filters. The proposed sensing framework does not require frequency alignment between the filter bank of the sensor and the primary signal. Each wideband primary channel is spanned and monitored by several sensor subchannels that analyse it in narrowband signals. Filter-bank-based sensing is proved to be robust and efficient under coloured noise. Moreover, the performance of the weighted energy detector as a sensing technique is evaluated. Finally, based on the Locally Most Powerful and the Generalized Likelihood Ratio test, real-world sensing algorithms that do not require a priori knowledge are proposed and tested.

Maliatsos, Konstantinos; Adamis, Athanasios; Kanatas, Athanasios G.

2014-12-01

51

On the application of optimal wavelet filter banks for ECG signal classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses ECG signal classification after parametrizing the ECG waveforms in the wavelet domain. Signal decomposition using perfect reconstruction quadrature mirror filter banks can provide a very parsimonious representation of ECG signals. In the current work, the filter parameters are adjusted by a numerical optimization algorithm in order to minimize a cost function associated to the filter cut-off sharpness. The goal consists of achieving a better compromise between frequency selectivity and time resolution at each decomposition level than standard orthogonal filter banks such as those of the Daubechies and Coiflet families. Our aim is to optimally decompose the signals in the wavelet domain so that they can be subsequently used as inputs for training to a neural network classifier.

Hadjiloucas, S.; Jannah, N.; Hwang, F.; Galvão, R. K. H.

2014-03-01

52

Minimum redundancy for ISI free FIR filterbank transceivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been great interest in the design of filterbank transceivers. Usually, with proper time domain equalization, the channel is modeled as an FIR filter. It is known that for FIR channels, the introduction of certain redundancy allows the receiver to cancel intersymbol interference (ISI) completely, and channel equalization is performed implicitly using FIR transceivers. This scheme allows us to

Yuan-Pei Lin; See-May Phoong

2002-01-01

53

Wave filter bank for high fidelity passive multirate haptic interaction with slowly updated virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a filter bank-like structure with a local model of interaction for improving the performance of passive multirate wave variable control of haptic interaction with a slowly updated virtual environment. In the proposed structure, the low frequency component of the outgoing wave at the user's side is sent to the slow virtual environment, and the high frequency component

Naser Yasrebi; Daniela Constantinescut

2012-01-01

54

Robust Servo-control for Underwater Robots using Banks of Visual Filters  

E-print Network

learners', which in our case are a set of computationally-inexpensive visual trackers. The final trackingRobust Servo-control for Underwater Robots using Banks of Visual Filters Junaed Sattar and Gregory, we investigate an approach based on the use of Boosting for robust visual tracking of color objects

55

DMT Bit Rate Maximization With Optimal Time Domain Equalizer Filter Bank Architecture  

E-print Network

DMT Bit Rate Maximization With Optimal Time Domain Equalizer Filter Bank Architecture Milos-tone (DMT) is a multicarrier modula- tion method in which the available bandwidth of a com- munication create nearly orthogonal subchannels. DMT has been standardized in [1, 2, 3, 4]. A similar multi- carrier

Evans, Brian L.

56

Embedded video coding using invertible motion compensated 3-D subband\\/wavelet filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new embedded video coding system with local motion compensation. An invertible motion compensated 3-D subband filter bank is utilized for video analysis\\/synthesis. The efficient embedded image coding scheme EZBC is extended to 3-D coding of video subbands. The coded bitstream is rate scalable and fully embedded thus meeting the increasing need for fine granular

Shih-Ta Hsiang; John W. Woods

2001-01-01

57

LEARNING SPARSE FILTER BANK TRANSFORMS WITH CONVOLUTIONAL ICA Johannes Balle, Eero P. Simoncelli  

E-print Network

in the development of convolutional artificial neural networks used for image classification and recognition [8 [1], as a method to maximize information transmis- sion in a noiseless neural network [2LEARNING SPARSE FILTER BANK TRANSFORMS WITH CONVOLUTIONAL ICA Johannes Ball�e, Eero P. Simoncelli

Simoncelli, Eero

58

A Scalable FIR Filter Using 32-bit Floating-Point Complex Arithmetic on a Configurable Computing Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach for implementing a scalable high-performance digital filter using the WILDFORCE configurable computing platform. Although not designed specifically for signal processing, configurable computing platforms offer more flexibility for algorithms than application-specific hardware, which is often needed for instances when factors such as environment or product volume dictate alterations in computing. The added flexibility enables users to

Al Walters; Peter Athanas

1998-01-01

59

The generalized overlap-add and overlap-save methods using discrete sine and cosine transforms for FIR filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the generalized overlapped and overlap-save methods (GenOLA and GenOLS) using discrete sine and cosine transforms (DSTs and DCTs). Compared to the GenOLA and CenOLS using discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), the merit of the DST and DCT approach is that the filtering can be implemented by real-valued operations. It is shown that the computational complexity can be minimized when

Xiaoxia Zou; Shogo MURAMATSU; Hitoshi KIYA

1996-01-01

60

MMSE subchannel decision feedback equalization for filter bank based multicarrier systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present a per-subchannel nonlinear equalizer for a class of filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC) systems. We consider the class of exponentially modulated FBMCs with offset quadrature amplitude modulated (OQAM) input symbols. We design a fractionally spaced decision feedback equalizer (DFE) that minimizes the mean squared error (MMSE) and takes into account the inter-(sub)channel interference (ICI). The

Leonardo G. Baltar; Dirk S. Waldhauser; Josef A. Nossek

2009-01-01

61

Multiscale filter bank approach to camera-movement control in active vision systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active vision systems faced with the problem of searching for targets in natural scenes are finding space variant sensors increasingly important. A popular class of space variant sensors are those based on the structure of the primate retina: they have a small area near the optical axis of greatly increased resolution (the fovea) coupled with a gradual falloff in resolution as one moves towards the periphery. In such systems, a primary requirement is an efficient mechanism for targeting the optical axis to different points of interest in the visual world. In this paper, we describe a robust and efficient paradigm for achieving foveal targeting by making use of iconic scene descriptions comprised of the responses of a bank of steerable filters at multiple scales and orientations. The filter bank description is rotation and scale invariant, occlusion tolerant, and view-insensitive to a considerable extent. We describe procedures for robustly matching vectors of a previously foveated point to instances of the point in other possibly transformed images obtained after camera motion. In such situations, the multiscale structure of the filter bank lends itself naturally to an efficient targeting mechanism for the space variant sensor.

Rao, Rajesh P.; Ballard, Dana H.

1994-10-01

62

Real-Time Diagnosis of Faults Using a Bank of Kalman Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new robust method of automated real-time diagnosis of faults in an aircraft engine or a similar complex system involves the use of a bank of Kalman filters. In order to be highly reliable, a diagnostic system must be designed to account for the numerous failure conditions that an aircraft engine may encounter in operation. The method achieves this objective though the utilization of multiple Kalman filters, each of which is uniquely designed based on a specific failure hypothesis. A fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) system, developed based on this method, is able to isolate faults in sensors and actuators while detecting component faults (abrupt degradation in engine component performance). By affording a capability for real-time identification of minor faults before they grow into major ones, the method promises to enhance safety and reduce operating costs. The robustness of this method is further enhanced by incorporating information regarding the aging condition of an engine. In general, real-time fault diagnostic methods use the nominal performance of a "healthy" new engine as a reference condition in the diagnostic process. Such an approach does not account for gradual changes in performance associated with aging of an otherwise healthy engine. By incorporating information on gradual, aging-related changes, the new method makes it possible to retain at least some of the sensitivity and accuracy needed to detect incipient faults while preventing false alarms that could result from erroneous interpretation of symptoms of aging as symptoms of failures. The figure schematically depicts an FDI system according to the new method. The FDI system is integrated with an engine, from which it accepts two sets of input signals: sensor readings and actuator commands. Two main parts of the FDI system are a bank of Kalman filters and a subsystem that implements FDI decision rules. Each Kalman filter is designed to detect a specific sensor or actuator fault. When a sensor or actuator fault occurs, large estimation errors are generated by all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis. By monitoring the residual output of each filter, the specific fault that has occurred can be detected and isolated on the basis of the decision rules. A set of parameters that indicate the performance of the engine components is estimated by the "correct" Kalman filter for use in detecting component faults. To reduce the loss of diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in the face of aging, the FDI system accepts information from a steady-state-condition-monitoring system. This information is used to update the Kalman filters and a data bank of trim values representative of the current aging condition.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2006-01-01

63

Application of a Bank of Kalman Filters for Aircraft Engine Fault Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a bank of Kalman filters is applied to aircraft gas turbine engine sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation (FDI) in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, thereby isolating the specific fault. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The proposed FDI approach is applied to a nonlinear engine simulation at nominal and aged conditions, and the evaluation results for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions are given. The ability of the proposed approach to reliably detect and isolate sensor and actuator faults is demonstrated.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2003-01-01

64

Design of Optimal Quincunx Filter Banks for Image Dept. of Elec. and Comp. Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6, Canada  

E-print Network

typically desires filter banks to have perfect reconstruc- tion (PR), linear phase, high coding gain, good methods have been proposed. Variable transformation methods are commonly used for the design of 2D filter1 Design of Optimal Quincunx Filter Banks for Image Coding Yi Chen Dept. of Elec. and Comp

Adams, Michael D.

65

An optimization of the FPGA/NIOS adaptive FIR filter using linear prediction to reduce narrow band RFI for the next generation ground-based ultra-high energy cosmic-ray experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic part of an extensive air shower developing in the atmosphere provides significant information complementary to that obtained by water Cherenkov detectors which are predominantly sensitive to the muonic content of an air shower at ground. The emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 and 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. The Auger Engineering Radio Array currently suppresses the RFI by multiple time-to-frequency domain conversions using an FFT procedure as well as by a set of manually chosen IIR notch filters in the time-domain. An alternative approach developed in this paper is an adaptive FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP). The coefficients for the linear predictor are dynamically refreshed and calculated in the virtual NIOS processor. The radio detector is an autonomous system installed on the Argentinean pampas and supplied from a solar panel. Powerful calculation capacity inside the FPGA is a factor. Power consumption versus the degree of effectiveness of the calculation inside the FPGA is a figure of merit to be minimized. Results show that the RFI contamination can be significantly suppressed by the LP FIR filter for 64 or less stages.

Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Fraenkel, E. D.; Glas, Dariusz; Legumina, Remigiusz

2013-12-01

66

Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

67

Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

Sadr, R.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

1992-11-01

68

Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

Sadr, Ramin; Shah, Biren; Hinedi, Sami

1993-06-01

69

Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

Sadr, R.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

1992-01-01

70

Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

Sadr, Ramin; Shah, Biren; Hinedi, Sami

1993-01-01

71

IDENTIFICATION OF CPG ISLANDS USING A BANK OF IIR LOWPASS FILTERS Byung-Jun Yoon and P. P. Vaidyanathan  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION OF CPG ISLANDS USING A BANK OF IIR LOWPASS FILTERS Byung-Jun Yoon and P. P- gions or CpG islands, in a new biological sequence that has not been annotated yet. A region of particular interest is the CpG island, which is a region in a DNA sequence that is rich in the dinucleotide

Yoon, Byung-Jun

72

Removal of BaseLine Wander and Power-Line Interference from the ECG by an Efficient FIR Filter with a Reduced Number of Taps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear phase filtering is proposed for the removal of baseline wander and power-line frequency components in electrocardiograms. In order to reduce the large number of computations involved in the digital filtering that are necessary, the desired filter spectrum was defined periodically. Making use of the property that the spectrum period is 50 Hz, the spectrum can be realized with a

Alste van J. A; T. S. Schilder

1985-01-01

73

A filter bank system for scattered spectrum analysis in collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on JT-60  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In JT-60, a collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic system based on a pulsed CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 ?m, beam energy 15 J, pulse width 1 ?s) has been developed to measure ion temperature and velocity distribution of fast ions to demonstrate the feasibility of measurements of confined alpha particles. A high power pulsed CO2 laser and heterodyne receiver system using a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP) has been developed and installed in the diagnostic room. In order to resolve frequency distribution of pulsed scattered light (1 ?s), we developed a wideband filter bank system (0.4-4.5 GHz) for scattered spectrum analysis in JT-60 CTS diagnostic. The detector bandwidth and frequency resolution are both determined by the calculation results of expected scattered spectrum. In order to realize wideband multichannel detection, cascade connected seventh order simultaneous-Chebyshev (elliptic) bandpass filters were adopted. Signal to noise ratio based on the noise equivalent power of the QWIP receiver and laser pulse length are also evaluated.

Lee, S.; Kondoh, T.; Yonemoto, Y.; Miura, Y.

2000-12-01

74

A dual-polarized broadband planar antenna and channelizing filter bank for millimeter wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a broadband log-periodic antenna coupled to multiple cryogenic bolometers. This detector architecture, optimized here for astrophysical observations, simultaneously receives two linear polarizations with two octaves of bandwidth at millimeter wavelengths. The broad bandwidth signal received by the antenna is divided into sub-bands with integrated in-line frequency-selective filters. We demonstrate two such filter banks: a diplexer with two sub-bands and a log-periodic channelizer with seven contiguous sub-bands. These detectors have receiver efficiencies of 20%-40% and percent level polarization isolation. Superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers detect the power in each sub-band and polarization. We demonstrate circularly symmetric beam patterns, high polarization isolation, accurately positioned bands, and high optical efficiency. The pixel design is applicable to astronomical observations of intensity and polarization at millimeter through sub-millimeter wavelengths. As compared with an imaging array of pixels measuring only one band, simultaneous measurements of multiple bands in each pixel has the potential to result in a higher signal-to-noise measurement while also providing spectral information. This development facilitates compact systems with high mapping speeds for observations that require information in multiple frequency bands.

O'Brient, Roger; Ade, Peter; Arnold, Kam; Edwards, Jennifer; Engargiola, Greg; Holzapfel, William L.; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, Michael J.; Quealy, Erin; Rebeiz, Gabriel; Richards, Paul; Suzuki, Aritoki

2013-02-01

75

FPGA architectures for electronically scanned wide-band RF beams using 3-D FIR/IIR digital filters for rectangular array aperture receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time digital implementation of three-dimensional (3-D) infinite impulse response (IIR) beam filters are discussed. The 3-D IIR filter building blocks have filter coefficients, which are defined using algebraic closed-form expressions that are functions of desired beam personalities, such as the look-direction of the aperture, the bandwidth and sampling frequency of interest, inter antenna spacing, and 3dB beam size. Real-time steering of such 3-D beam filters are obtained by proposed calculation of filter coefficients. Application specific computing units for rapidly calculating the 3-D IIR filter coefficients at nanosecond speed potentially allows fast real-time tracking of low radar cross section (RCS) objects at close range. Proposed design consists of 3-D IIR beam filter with 4 4 antenna grid and the filter coefficient generation block in separate FPGAs. The hardware is designed and co-simulated using a Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T FPGA. The 3-D filter operates over 90 MHz and filter coefficient computing structure can operate at up to 145 MHz.

Wijayaratna, Sewwandi; Madanayake, Arjuna; Beall, Brandon D.; Bruton, Len T.

2014-05-01

76

Evaluation of an Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, an approach for in-flight fault detection and isolation (FDI) of aircraft engine sensors based on a bank of Kalman filters is developed. This approach utilizes multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific fault hypothesis. When the propulsion system experiences a fault, only one Kalman filter with the correct hypothesis is able to maintain the nominal estimation performance. Based on this knowledge, the isolation of faults is achieved. Since the propulsion system may experience component and actuator faults as well, a sensor FDI system must be robust in terms of avoiding misclassifications of any anomalies. The proposed approach utilizes a bank of (m+1) Kalman filters where m is the number of sensors being monitored. One Kalman filter is used for the detection of component and actuator faults while each of the other m filters detects a fault in a specific sensor. With this setup, the overall robustness of the sensor FDI system to anomalies is enhanced. Moreover, numerous component fault events can be accounted for by the FDI system. The sensor FDI system is applied to a commercial aircraft engine simulation, and its performance is evaluated at multiple power settings at a cruise operating point using various fault scenarios.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2004-01-01

77

Systematic design of transmitter and receiver architectures for flexible filter bank multi-carrier signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-carrier (MC) signaling is currently in the forefront of a myriad of systems, either wired or wireless, due to its high spectral efficiency, simple equalization, and robustness in front of multipath and narrowband interference sources. Despite its widespread deployment, the design of efficient architectures for MC systems becomes a challenging task when adopting filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation due to the inclusion of band-limited shaping pulses into the signal model. The reason to employ these pulses is the numerous improvements they offer in terms of performance, such as providing higher spectral confinement and no frequency overlap between adjacent subcarriers. These attributes lead to a reduced out-of-band power emission and a higher effective throughput. The latter is indeed possible by removing the need of cyclic prefix, which is in charge of preserving orthogonality among subcarriers in conventional MC systems. Nevertheless, the potential benefits of FBMC modulations are often obscured when it comes to an implementation point of view. In order to circumvent this limitation, the present paper provides a unified framework to describe all FBMC signals in which both signal design and implementation criteria are explicitly combined. In addition to this, we introduce the concept of flexible FBMC signals that, unlike their traditional MC counterparts, do not impose restrictions on the signal parameters (i.e., symbol rate, carrier spacing, or sampling frequency). Moreover, our framework also proposes a methodology that overcomes the implementation issues that characterize FBMC systems and allows us to derive simple, efficient, and time-invariant transmitter and receiver architectures.

Gutiérrez, Esteban; López-Salcedo, José A.; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

2014-12-01

78

Design of complex-valued variable FIR digital filters and its application to the realization of arbitrary sampling rate conversion for complex signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief studies the design of complex-valued variable digital filters (CVDFs) and their applications to the efficient arbitrary sample rate conversion for complex signals. The design of CVDFs using either the minimax or least-squares criteria is formulated as a convex optimization problem and solved using the second-order cone programming (SOCP). In addition, linear and convex quadratic inequality constraints can be

K. M. Tsui; S. C. Chan; K. W. Tse

2005-01-01

79

Digital filters for high performance audio delta-sigma analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-stage decimation filter is described which consists of comb filters and a single-stage finite impulse response (FIR) filter. A multi-rate comb filter structure is used to reduce the data path width. A multi-stage interpolation filter consists of a half-band filter and a short FIR filter. The short FIR filter is designed with a nonlinear phase to realize an overall

Kun Lin; Kan Zhao; Edmund Chui; Andrew Krone; Jim Nohrden

1996-01-01

80

RFI suppression in SAR based on filtering interpretation of SSA and fast implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has proven to be a powerful remote sensing instrument for underground and obscured object detection. However, SAR echoes are often contaminated by radio frequency interferences (RFI) from multiple broadcasting stations. Essentially, RFI suppression problem is one-dimensional stationary time series denoising problem. This article proposed a novel RFI suppression algorithm based on singular spectral analysis (SSA) from a linear invariant systems perspective. It can be seen that SSA algorithm has an equivalence relation with finite impulse response (FIR) filter banks. Besides, this article first introduce two approximated methods which can remarkably speed up spectral decomposition--Nyström method and Column-Sampling approximation--to obtain the coefficients of above SSA-FIR-filter. Simulation results and imaging results of measured data have proved the efficiency and validity of this algorithm.

Wang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Weidong; Qi, Xiangyang; Liu, Yue

2012-12-01

81

Efficient least squares FIR system identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

If finite impulse response (FIR) system identification is performed by minimizing the squared error between the measured system output and an estimate from an FIR system output, a set of least squares normal equations to be solved for the FIR system coefficients is obtained. If the assumed FIR system is of duration M samples, the usual solution for the M

1981-01-01

82

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d)  

E-print Network

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d) Location This established (fig. 139). Ecological subsection ­ High Cascades (M261Df). Target Element Red Fir (Abies magnifica) Distinctive Features Shasta Red Fir Forest: Taxonomically, the description of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica

Standiford, Richard B.

83

Preamble-based frequency-domain joint CFO and STO estimation for OQAM-based filter bank multicarrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filter bank multicarrier systems, similarly to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), are very sensitive to carrier frequency offset (CFO) and symbol timing offset (STO). In this paper, a low-complexity preamble-based joint CFO and STO technique is presented. It is based on a relatively long preamble in order to improve the CFO estimation performance as well as avoid interference coming from the data following this preamble. After CFO and STO correction, the preamble can be reused to estimate the channel. Unlike most current techniques, the CFO and STO estimation occurs in the frequency domain. This allows for a low-complexity estimation with respect to time-domain techniques and, as will be shown by simulations, provide even better performance in a reasonable range. The drawback however is that the estimation range is shorter. Specifically, for large STOs (and to a smaller extent large CFOs), the performance decreases below time-domain estimations. Two versions of the STO estimation technique will be presented, the second one being an approximation of the first one, making it less complex yet also less precise. The performance is assessed by means of computer simulations, testing for both large and small STOs, and compared with existing techniques.

Caekenberghe, Stijn Van; Bourdoux, André; der Perre, Liesbet Van; Louveaux, Jérôme

2014-12-01

84

Comparison between EEMD, wavelet and FIR denoising: influence on event detection in impedance cardiography.  

PubMed

During thoracic impedance signal acquisition, noise is inherently introduced and hence, denoising is required to allow for accurate event detection. This paper investigates the effectiveness of Ensemble Emperical Mode Decomposition to filter random noise. The performance of the EEMD method is compared with an optimal FIR filter and wavelet denoising. The IMF selection for signal reconstruction in the EEMD denoising method is optimized using a sequential search. Denoising performance was evaluated by the SNR and the accuracy in event detection after filtering. When all criteria are taken into account, wavelet seems to outperform both EEMD and FIR denoising. PMID:22254433

De Ridder, S; Neyt, X; Pattyn, N; Migeotte, P-F

2011-01-01

85

Multichannel Blind Deconvolution: Fir Matrix Algebra And Separation Of Multipath Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general tool for multichannel and multipath problems is given in FIR matrix algebra.With Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters (or polynomials) assuming the roleplayed by complex scalars in traditional matrix algebra, we adapt standard eigenvalueroutines, factorizations, decompositions, and matrix algorithms for use in multichannel\\/multipath problems. Using abstract algebra\\/group theoretic concepts, informationtheoretic principles, and the Bussgang property, methods of single channel...

Russell H. Lambert

1996-01-01

86

Research on digital filtering of the gap sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of noise were analyzed for the gap sensor in maglev train. A combination of FIR filter and predictive algorithm was designed for efficient noise reduction. Compared with the other window functions, Kaiser function was chosen for the FIR filter. This allows trade-off between transition bandwidth and stop-band attenuation by changing the shape parameter ?. A new predictive algorithm

Shujiang Fan; Jun Wu; Wensen Chang

2004-01-01

87

Douglas fir embryogenic tissue initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is expected to play an important role in the future of US forests by providing increased productivity,\\u000a sustainability, and uniformity. For broad scale implementation to occur, SE technology must work with a variety of genetically\\u000a diverse trees. Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco) is the dominant tree in the Pacific Northwest and has great economic and recreational

Gerald S. Pullman; Shannon Johnson; Kylie Bucalo

2009-01-01

88

Influence of pre-commercial thinning of balsam fir on defoliation by the balsam fir sawfly  

E-print Network

Influence of pre-commercial thinning of balsam fir on defoliation by the balsam fir sawfly Don P; accepted 18 November 2005 Abstract Pre-commercial thinning, whereby tree densities are reduced to diminish- commercially thinned and unthinned stands of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) that had been defoliated

89

Automatic detection system for buried explosive hazards in FL-LWIR based on soft feature extraction using a bank of Gabor energy filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a strong need to develop an automatic buried explosive hazards detection (EHD) system for purposes such as route clearance. In this article, we put forth a new automatic detection system, which consists of keypoint identification, feature extraction, classification and clustering. In particular, we focus on a new soft feature extraction process from forwardlooking long-wave infrared (FL-LWIR) imagery based on the use of an importance map derived from a bank of Gabor energy filters. Experiments are conducted using a variety of target types buried at varying depths at a U.S. Army test site. An uncooled LWIR camera is used and the collected data spans multiple lanes and times of day (due to diurnal temperature variation that occurs in IR). The preliminary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve-based performance presented herein is extremely encouraging for FL-EHD.

Price, Stanton R.; Anderson, Derek T.; Luke, Robert H.; Stone, Kevin; Keller, James M.

2013-06-01

90

Key to Arboreal Spiders of Douglas-Fir and True Fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The illustrated key for identifying spiders inhabitating true fir and Douglas-fir is based on extensive collections from throughout the three North American Pacific Coast States. Details of the age classes present at budburst and the season in which to ex...

A. R. Moldenke, B. L. Fichter, W. P. Stephen, C. E. Griswold

1987-01-01

91

New Estimation Filtering for Battery Management Systems of Lead-Acid Cells in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper proposes a new estimation filtering for battery management systems of lead-acid cells in hybrid electric vehicles. The well known finite impulse response (FIR) filter is adopted for the estimation filtering. The proposed method provides the filtered estimates for the output voltage as well as voltages across the bulk and surface capacitors. These filtered estimates have good inherent

Pyung-Soo Kim

2007-01-01

92

Temporal Stability and Dendroclimatology in Silver Fir and Red Spruce  

E-print Network

consisted of mixed red spruce, birch, and maple forests with some balsam fir, growing on acidic, primarilyTemporal Stability and Dendroclimatology in Silver Fir and Red Spruce By Kevin T. SMITH 1 K.T., CUFAR K. & LEVANIC T. 1999. Temporal stability and dendroclimatology in silver fir and red

Cufar, Katarina

93

A Scalar Resonant-Filter-Bank-Based Output-Voltage Control Method and a Scalar Minimum-Switching-Loss Discontinuous PWM Method for the Four-Leg-Inverter-Based Three-Phase Four-Wire Power Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all-scalar-control and pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) approach for the four-leg-inverter (FLI)-based three-phase transformerless four-wire power supply (PS) is proposed. The output voltage of each phase is controlled independently, and its controller is formed by a stationary-frame resonant-filter bank accompanied with proportional-control and output-capacitor current-based active-damping loops. The simple and easy to implement scalar-control method exhibits superior overall steady-state and dynamic performance

Eyyup Demirkutlu; Ahmet M. Hava

2009-01-01

94

A SYNCHRONIZED FIR/VUV LIGHT SOURCE AT JEFFERSON LAB  

SciTech Connect

We describe a dual free-electron laser (FEL) configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that allows simultaneous lasing at FIR/THz and UV wavelengths. The FIR/THz source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing nearly diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules. The FIR source would use the exhaust beam from a UVFEL. The coherent harmonics in the VUV from the UVFEL are out-coupled through a hole. The FIR source uses a shorter resonator with either hole or edge coupling to provide very high power FIR pulses. Simulations indicate excel-lent spectral brightness in the FIR region with over 100 W/cm-1 output.

Stephen Benson, David Douglas, George Neil, Michelle D. Shinn, Gwyn Williams

2012-07-01

95

Pacific Silver fir Current Figure S5a. Projected habitat of pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis Douglas ex J. Forbes). The left  

E-print Network

Pacific Silver fir ­ Current Figure S5a. Projected habitat of pacific silver fir (Abies-2006 Recent Average1961-1990 Climate Normal #12;Pacific Silver fir ­ 2020s Figure S5b. Projected habitat of pacific silver fir for the 2011­2040 normal period according to 18 climate

Hamann, Andreas

96

A self-orthogonalizing efficient block adaptive filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the development of a unique self-orthogonalizing block adaptive filter (SOBAF) algorithm that yields efficient finite impulse response (FIR) adaptive filter structures. Computationally, the SOBAF is shown to be superior to the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm. The consistent convergence performance which it provides lies between that of the LMS and the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm,

GANAPATI PANDA; BERNARD MULGREW; COLIN F. N. COWAN; PETER M. GRANT

1986-01-01

97

Multicriterion optimized QMF Bank design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank with multicriterion constraints such as minimal aliasing and\\/or minimal error coding is among the most important problems in filterbank design, for solving which linear algebra-based methods are still heuristic and do not always work, especially for large filter length. It is shown in this paper that this problem can be reduced either to convex

Hoang Duong Tuan; Le Hai Nam; Hoang Tuy; Truong Q. Nguyen

2003-01-01

98

Influence of pre-commercial thinning of balsam fir on defoliation by the balsam fir sawfly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-commercial thinning, whereby tree densities are reduced to diminish competition and maximize tree growth, is one of the most frequently used silvicultural practices in North America. We carried out field surveys in western Newfoundland and in eastern Nova Scotia, Canada, in pre-commercially thinned and unthinned stands of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) that had been defoliated by the balsam

Don P. Ostaff; Harald Piene; Dan T. Quiring; Gaétan Moreau; James C. G. Farrell; Taylor Scarr

2006-01-01

99

CHARACTERIZATION OF EASTERN U.S. SPRUCE-FIR SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

he spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. his chapter will describe the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, includ...

100

Effect of Fir Fluxes on Constraining Properties of YSOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YSOs in the early evolutionary stages are very embedded, and thus, they emit most of their energy at long wavelengths such as FIR and Submm. Therefore, the FIR observational data are very important to classify the accurate evolutionary stages of these embedded YSOs, and to constrain better their physical parameters in the dust continuum modeling. We selected 28 YSOs, which were detected in the AKARI FIS, from the Spitzer c2d legacy YSO catalogs to test the effect of the FIR fluxes in the classification of their evolutionary stages and in the constraining of the envelope properties, the internal luminosity, and the UV strength of the ISRF. According to our test, one can mis-classify the evolutionary stages of YSOs,especially the very embedded ones if the FIR fluxes are not included. In addition, the total amount of heating of YSOs can be underestimated without the FIR observational data.

Ha, Ji-Sung Ha; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Jeong, Woong-Seob

2010-12-01

101

A nearly optimal variable fractional delay filter with extracted Chebyshev window  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique for designing a nearly optimal (in the Chebyshev sense) FIR variable fractional delay filter is presented that offers rapid recalculation of the filter coefficients according to the varying fractional delay parameter. The idea of the technique lies in using a fixed window extracted from a strictly optimal linear-phase design and in updating the filter coefficients in a

Ewa Hermanowicz

1998-01-01

102

A direct approach to the design of QMF banks via frequency domain optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the design of quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks via frequency domain optimization. A direct approach is adopted that gives the necessary and sufficient condition for perfect reconstruction (PR). While analysis filter banks are designed to achieve frequency domain specifications required for subband coding, synthesis filter banks are designed to minimize the reconstruction error in frequency domain. The

Jian Huang; Guoxiang Gu

1998-01-01

103

Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

2009-09-01

104

An improved method for weighted least squares IIR filter design  

E-print Network

Cliffs, NJ: Prentice ? Hall, 1974. 3. M. Lang, I. W. Selesnick, and C. S. Burrus, "Constrained least-squares design of 2-D FIR filters, " IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 44, pp. 1234-1241, May 1996. 4. I. W. Selesnick, M. Lang, and C. S... Cliffs, NJ: Prentice ? Hall, 1974. 3. M. Lang, I. W. Selesnick, and C. S. Burrus, "Constrained least-squares design of 2-D FIR filters, " IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 44, pp. 1234-1241, May 1996. 4. I. W. Selesnick, M. Lang, and C. S...

Davila-Pazmino, Javier

2012-06-07

105

Filter Buffy Coats (FBC): A source of peripheral blood leukocytes recovered from leukocyte depletion filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In compliance with federal regulations, blood banks routinely use leukocyte depletion filters to eliminate contaminating leukocytes from blood products such as red blood cell and platelet concentrates. We developed and optimized conditions to elute leukocytes adsorbed to these filters; resulting in leukocyte suspensions which we termed Filter Buffy Coats (FBCs). These Filter Buffy Coats can replace standard buffy coats for

T. P. H. Meyer; I. Zehnter; B. Hofmann; J. Zaisserer; J. Burkhart; S. Rapp; F. Weinauer; J. Schmitz; W. E. Illert

2005-01-01

106

Multichannel recursive-least-square algorithms and fast-transversal-filter algorithms for active noise control and sound reproduction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much research on active noise control (ANC) systems and transaural sound reproduction (TSR) systems. In those fields, multichannel FIR adaptive filters are extensively used. For the learning of FIR adaptive filters, recursive-least-squares (RLS) algorithms are known to produce a faster convergence speed than stochastic gradient descent techniques, such as the basic least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm or even the

Martin Bouchard; Stephan Quednau

2000-01-01

107

NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

108

Western larch resistance to Douglas-fir beetle attack.  

E-print Network

??Live western larch, Larix occidentalis Nutt., a tree species resistant to the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, produces the monoterpene 3-carene in higher concentrations compared… (more)

Neal, Tiffany A.

2004-01-01

109

Madrone Duff and the Natural Regeneration of Douglas-fir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Excellent natural regeneration of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) often occurs under canopies of Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii), but the effects of madrone duff on regeneration are poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted in a thinned ...

D. Minore

1987-01-01

110

Iterative greedy algorithm for solving the FIR paraunitary approximation problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method for approximating a multi- input multi-output (MIMO) transfer function by a causal finite-im- pulse response (FIR) paraunitary (PU) system in a weighted least- squares sense is presented. Using a complete parameterization of FIR PU systems in terms of Householder-like building blocks, an iterative algorithm is proposed that is greedy in the sense that the observed

Andre Tkacenko; P. P. Vaidyanathan

2006-01-01

111

Industrial Signal Filter Base on Wavelet Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since some industrial signals have very low sampling rate, it is impossible to remove the noise from this kind of signal via traditional filter method. This work carefully introduced the wavelet transform de-noise method, including the practical filter bank way to perform the wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform. The programming work flows of doing signal filtering via wavelet transform

Yuwei Yu; Qingyin Jiang; Zhikai Cao

2009-01-01

112

Bank Mergers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News exaimnes the recent flurry of merger activities in the banking sector. The ten resources discussed provide the details of the recent three big banking mergers and the likely effects on efficiency, lending and consumers. On April 6, 1998, Citibank, the second largest bank in America, announced that it will be merging with Travelers Group, a large financial services firm, in a deal worth $80 billion -- the largest merger deal ever. Only a week later, BankAmerica announced it would merge with NationsBank to create the first coast-to-coast bank in America, in a deal worth $60 billion. The third deal took place on the same day, when First Chicago NBD and Banc One announced they will be merging in a deal valued at $30 billion.

Ng, Thiam H.

113

Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation  

SciTech Connect

Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

Bertschinger, G.; Oosterbeek, J. W. [Institut fuer Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

2008-10-15

114

Design and simulation of a scatterometer processor using digital filtering techniques  

E-print Network

The Radar Scatterometer. Scope of this Report II. THE RYAN 13. 3 GHz DOPPLER RADAR SCATTEROMERER. 7 The Doppler Scatterometer. The Analog Processor The Digital Processor. III. DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN. Introduction The K-Transform. 13 19 24 24 26... Elliptic Filter. . 62 th IV-10 Comparison Between Bound of FFT Coefficient Error and Data V-1 V-2 V-3 Typical Impulse Response of an FIR Hilbert Transformer. Realization of 8, 4, and 2 Order Filters th th nd used to Implement FIR Hilbert Transformer...

Galka, Walter

2012-06-07

115

Goals Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals bank is one of a number of support services currently being developed by the Rhode Island Department of Education to help school districts begin implementing the Local Planning and Assessment Process. The bank was designed to mark out general areas, to describe what a goal looks like, and to present the reader with a multitude of…

Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Bureau of Technical Assistance.

116

Japanese Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

How did the Japanese achieve their unrivalled position in world banking? This book provides the first full account in English of the banking industry in Japan for the century following the opening of the country to the outside world in 1859. Professor Tamaki begins by considering the period of experimentation during the Meiji Restoration which resulted in the adoption of

Norio Tamaki

117

IR and FIR Spectroscopy of 13CH3I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the 13CH3I isotopomer of methyl iodide as a source of Far Infrared (FIR) laser radiation using the optical pumping technique. The molecule is pumped by using a pulsed waveguided CO2 laser, driven by a novel all solid state power supply that lases on the 10HP band as well as the regular bands. We discovered and assigned two new FIR laser emissions and we give further spectroscopic information about polarization and pump frequency offset for five already known lines.

de Michele, A.; Carelli, G.; Franchi, D.; Moretti, A.

2008-11-01

118

Block FIR Decision-Feedback Equalizers for Filterbank Precoded Transmissions with Blind Channel Estimation Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In block transmission systems, transmitter-induced redundancy using finite-impulse response (FIR) filterbanks can be used to suppress intersymbol interference and equalize FIR channels irrespective of channel zeros. At the receiver end, linear or decision-feedback (DF) FIR filterbanks can be applied to recover the transmitted data. Closed-form expressions are derived for the FIR linear or DF filterbank receivers corresponding to varying amounts

Anastasios Stamoulis; Georgios B. Giannakis; Anna Scaglione

2000-01-01

119

Author's personal copy Survival and growth of balsam fir seedlings and saplings under multiple  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Survival and growth of balsam fir seedlings and saplings under multiple Received in revised form 19 March 2012 Accepted 24 March 2012 Keywords: Balsam fir White tailed deer stages of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) on Anticosti island (Québec, Canada) under controlled densities

Laval, Université

120

GROWTH-TREND DECLINES OF SPRUCE AND FIR IN MID-APPALACHIAN SUBALPINE FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dendroecological analysis of 258 increment growth cores collected from red spruce, balsam fir, and Fraser fir in central West Virginia and western Virginia indicates marked declines in growth-trend during the past 20 years similar to that reported for spruce and fir in high-eleva...

121

Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir  

E-print Network

affects erodibility,1 infiltration,2 water reten- tion,3 and shear strength of soil.4 Organic matterOrganic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir and Redwood Forests Philip B. Durgin United.O. Box 245 Berkeley California 94701 Research Note PSW-346 October 1980 rganic matter influences physical

Standiford, Richard B.

122

Anomalous dispersion and the pumping of far infrared (FIR) lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the anomalous dispersion at the pump transition in molecular far-infrared lasers (FIR) can lead to sizable focusing and defocusing effects. Criteria for beam spreading and trapping are considered with CH2F as an example.

Lawandy, N. M.

1978-01-01

123

Pacific Silver Fir in the Coast Range of Southwestern Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abies anabilis occurs on the summit of prominent ridges and peaks ffom 1200 to 2800 ft eleva- tion atrd at the head of major drainages io rhe Crast Ringe oI Southwestern \\\\Fashington. Discussion The distribution of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis) in the Coast Range of southvrestern Washington is nor well known. Range maps fail to show rhe occurleoce of

Daniel L. Treat

124

Intensive Silviculture of Planted Douglas-fir Forests  

E-print Network

Measure/model impacts Adjust expectations Prompt salvagePrompt salvage Harvest Buffer Remove Bridge Trees Inoculum reduction Remove stumps Crop rotation Change species #12;Salvage #12;Stump Removal #12;Change STAIN ROOT DISEASE Douglas- fir Vector behavior Leptographium wagenerii NATIVE #12;#12;Insect vectors

125

Quantifying the FIR interaction enhancement in paired galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Catalog of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere, by Karachentsev (1972), was studied and a well-matched comparison sample taken from the Catalog of Isolated Galaxies, by Karachentseva (1973), in order to quantify the enhanced FIR emission properties of interacting galaxies.

Xu, Cong; Sulentic, Jack W.

1990-01-01

126

Tracking harmonic notch filter  

SciTech Connect

An electronic filter for automatically tracking and removing harmonically related interfering electrical signals such as power-line interference harmonics without attenuating other signals of interest even though the signals are frequency stable and/or near the interference signal frequencies. The filter comprises a very narrow band electronic commutated capacitor-bank comb-notch filter driven by a counter/decoder circuit which is in turn driven by a phase locked loop. The filter also comprises two narrow-band analog filters tuned to the two lowest harmonics of the interfering signal. The summed output of these two filters is applied to the input of the phase-locked loop. The phase-locked loop locks to the proper multiple of the interfering signal and drives the comb notch filter at a frequency which causes it to generate notches at unit multiples of the fundamental of the interference frequency. This action is continuous such that center frequencies of the notches are automatically adjusted to compensate for small variations in the interference frequency.

Eno, F.

1989-03-20

127

Quantification and comparison of terpene concentrations in various balsam fir growth forms and foliage ages, and a simulation of moose browsing on balsam fir trees at Isle Royale  

E-print Network

BALSAM FIR GROWTH FORMS AND FOLIAGE AGES, AND A SIMULATION OF MOOSE BROWSING ON BALSAM FIR TREES AT ISLE ROYALE A Thesis by MARY HELEN TERRA-BERNS Submitted to Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... BALSAM FIR GROWTH FORMS AND FOLIAGE AGES, AND A SIMULATION OF MOOSE BROWSING ON BALSAM FIR TREES AT ISLE ROYALE A Thesis by MARY HELEN TERRA-BERNS Submitted to Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Terra-Berns, Mary Helen

2012-06-07

128

Branch Banking, Bank Competition, and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often argued that branching stabilizes banking systems by facilitating diversification of bank portfolios; however, previous empirical research on the Great Depression offers mixed support for this view. Analyses using state-level data find that states allowing branch banking had lower failure rates, while those examining individual banks find that branch banks were more likely to fail. We argue that

Mark Carlson; Kris James Mitchener

2005-01-01

129

Branch Banking, Bank Competition, and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often argued that branching stabilizes banking systems by facilitating diversification of bank portfolios; however, previous empirical research on the Great Depression offers mixed support for this view. Using data on national banks from the 1920s and 1930s, we show that branch banking raises the level of competition and increases exit from the banking system. This consolidation strengthens the

Mark Carlson; Kris James Mitchener

2006-01-01

130

WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION  

SciTech Connect

The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-10

131

Variation in soil seed bank species composition of a dry coniferous forest: spatial scale and sampling considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the effects of disturbance on soil seed bank spatial structure, variation in seed bank species composition\\u000a was analyzed at two spatial scales in mature (undisturbed) and recently disturbed stands of Interior Douglas-fir forest in\\u000a south-central British Columbia. Coarse-scale analysis among stands 10–100 km apart using Multi-Response Permutation Procedures\\u000a showed that individual mature stands were mainly characterized by

Kaeli E. Stark; André Arsenault; Gary E. Bradfield

2008-01-01

132

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 49, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2001 3015 Extended Fast Fixed-Order RLS Adaptive Filters  

E-print Network

to model long impulse responses. Index Terms--Fixed-order filter, Laguerre network, or- thonormal model of the usual FIR implementations. First, the use of orthonormal models to describe the dynam- ical behavior motivations in using IIR basis functions for adaptive filtering is the fact that it requires fewer parameters

Sayed, Ali

133

Lumber recovery and deterioration of beetle-killed douglas-fir and grand fir in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Forest Service general technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time since death over a 4-year period on the amount of usable product volume and value, and to determine the species of fungi associated with wood deterioration in the stems of Douglas-fir and grand fir trees killed by bark beetles in northeastern Oregon.

D. L. Parry; G. M. Filip; S. A. Willits; C. G. Parks

1996-01-01

134

Infection of Douglas-fir by Leptographium wageneri  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three related experiments, root systems of 2-year-old Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were dip-inoculated with a viscous blend of Leptographium wagenerivar. pseudotsugae Harrington and Cobb spores and hyphal fragments and planted in a sterile potting medium. Infection frequency and points of entry were evaluated for dormant seedlings and seedlings that had been active for 4 and 8

Paul F. Hessburg; Everett M. Hansen

2000-01-01

135

Misteriosa Bank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This SeaWiFS view shows the Misteriosa Bank between Cuba and the Yucatan peninsula. The Cayman islands are visible in the center of the image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

136

Development of super-broadband interferometer in FIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing the super broad band interferometer by applying the Fourier Transform Spectrometer(FTS) to aperture synthesis system in mm and sub-mm bands. We have constructed a compact system based on the Martin and Puplett type Fourier Transform spectrometer (MP-FT). We call this equipment Multi-Fourier Transform interferometer (MuFT). The band width of the system can be extended as large as one wants contrary to the severely limited band width of the usual interferometer due to the speed of the AD converter. The direct detectors, e.g. bolometer, SIS video detector, can be used as the focal plane detectors. This type of detectors have a great advantage in FIR band since they are free from the quantum limit of the noise which limits the sensitivity of the heterodyne detectors used in the usual interferometers. Further, the direct detectors are able to make a large format array contrary to the heterodyne detectors for which construction of a large format array is practically difficult. These three characteristics make one be possible to develop high sensitive super broad band FIR interferometer with wide field of view. In the laboratory experiments, we have succeeded in measuring the spectroscopically resolved 2D image of the source in 150GHz-900GHz band. The future application of this technique to the observations from the space could open new interesting possibilities in FIR astronomy.

Ohta, Izumi S.; Hattori, Makoto; Matsuo, Hiroshi

2004-10-01

137

Bank Terminals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

1978-01-01

138

Disk filter  

DOEpatents

An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1986-01-01

139

Disk filter  

DOEpatents

An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09

140

Flat microwave photonic filter based on hybrid of two filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new microwave photonic filter (MPF) hybrid of two filters that can realize both multiple taps and a flat bandpass or bandstop response is presented. Based on the phase character of a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), a two taps finite impulse response (FIR) filter is obtained as the first part. The second part is obtained by taking full advantage of the wavelength selectivity of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the gain of a erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Combining the two filters, the flat bandpass or bandstop response is realized by changing the coupler's factor k, the reflectivity of FBG1 R1 or the gain of the EDF g. Optimizing the system parameters, a flat bandpass response with amplitude depth of more than 45 dB is obtained at k = 0.5, R1 = 0.33, g = 10, and a flat bandstop response is also obtained at k = 0.4, R1 = 0.5, g = 2. In addition, the free-spectral range (FSR) can be controlled by changing the length of the EDF and the length difference between two MZMs. The method is proved feasible by some experiments. Such a method offers realistic solutions to support future radio-frequency (RF) optical communication systems.

Qi, Chunhui; Pei, Li; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Gao, Song

2010-05-01

141

Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

2009-01-01

142

General Banking Conditions 2009 General Banking Conditions  

E-print Network

or to the integrity of the financial system. 3 Activities and objectives The Customer provides information to the Bank activities. The Bank may give goods, docu- ments of title, securities or financial instruments that belongGeneral Banking Conditions 2009 r #12;#12;1 General Banking Conditions (Version 2009

Franssen, Michael

143

Central banking, free banking, and financial crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Summary View In the Keynesian view, the central bank is a part of an extramarket remedy to a market malady. Investment markets are inherently unstable; government control of the economy's money supply is an important element in macroeconomic stabilization policy. The case against central banking—and for free banking—reverses the characterization of both remedy and malady. Free banking is a

Roger W. Garrison

1996-01-01

144

Predicting postfire Douglas-fir beetle attacks and tree mortality in the northern Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were monitored for 4 years following three wildfires. Logis- tic regression analyses were used to develop models predicting the probability of attack by Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroc- tonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, 1905) and the probability of Douglas-fir mortality within 4 years following fire. Percent crown volume scorched (crown scorch), cambium injury, diameter at breast height (DBH), and

Sharon Hood; Barbara Bentz

2007-01-01

145

Characteristics of foliar chemistry in a commerical spruce-fir stand of northern New England, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly foliage samples were evaluated for elemental composition from red spruce and balsam fir trees in a commercial, low\\u000a elevation spruce-fir stand at Howland, Maine during the 1987 growing season. Balsam fir showed consistently higher concentrations\\u000a in A1 and to a lesser extent N, Ca, Mg, and Fe when compared to red spruce. Red spruce exhibited consistently higher Mn and

I. J. Fernandez; G. B. Lawrence; K. J. Richards

1990-01-01

146

Comparison of narrowband adaptive filter technologies for GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrowband interference can seriously degrade the performance of GPS systems. Several techniques exist for reducing this interference, including adaptive transversal filters, overlapped FFTs, and filter banks. All these techniques attempt to filter out the interference before the GPS receiver performs correlation. This paper compares these three interference suppression techniques for application to GPS. Likely VLSI-based designs with various levels of

Robert Rifkin; John J. Vaccaro

2000-01-01

147

User's guide to the douglas-fir beetle impact model. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Douglas-fir beetle occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir. At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precendent conditions for epidemics of Douglas-fir beetle. An impact model has been developed to simulate tree mortality during such epidemics. The model has been linked to the Stand Prognosis Model (Forest Vegetation Simulator). This is a guide for using the model.

Marsden, M.A.; Eav, B.B.; Thompson, M.K.

1994-09-01

148

A Comprehensive Strategy for Value-Driven Utilisation of Douglas-fir Small Diameter Roundwood  

E-print Network

----------------------------------------------------------------------------25 Marketing Strategy and ObjectivesA Comprehensive Strategy for Value-Driven Utilisation of Douglas-fir Small Diameter Roundwood-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 MARKETING PLAN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20

149

Overstory/understory relationships in old growth Grand fir habitat types of northeast Oregon  

E-print Network

allotments. Stands in two of the Douglas fir ecotypes (Psudotsuga menziesii/Carex geyeri and Pseudotsuga mens/exit/Symphoricarpos a/bus) were dominated by Douglas fir and also had a relatively large number of ponderosa pine present. Stands of the third... allotments. Stands in two of the Douglas fir ecotypes (Psudotsuga menziesii/Carex geyeri and Pseudotsuga mens/exit/Symphoricarpos a/bus) were dominated by Douglas fir and also had a relatively large number of ponderosa pine present. Stands of the third...

Schreder, Peter Todd

2012-06-07

150

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

1993-01-01

151

Contour detection based on Gabor filter and directional DoG filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contour detector with directional surround suppression, motivated by biological principles, is proposed in this paper. A bank of Gabor filters are used to simulate receptive filed for edge detection. The directional DoG filter is used to simulate the biological surround suppression mechanism. The resulting operator has strong response to the texture boundary, isolated edge and object contour. We use

Lu Min; Zheng Ling Xiang

2007-01-01

152

Flood induced infiltration affecting a bank filtrate well at the River Enns, Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bank filtration employs a natural filtration process of surface water on its flow path from the river to the well. The development of a stable filter layer is of major importance to the quality of the delivered water. Flooding is expected to destabilise the riverbed, to reduce the filter efficiency of the bank and therefore to endanger the operation of

Bernhard Wett; Hannes Jarosch; Kurt Ingerle

2002-01-01

153

Bioinformatics Activity Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is designed for educators hoping to teach students about the world of biotechnology and bioinformatics, and the lesson plans here are top-notch. The lessons span a variety of topics, including applied mathematics, DNA, and genetics. Visitors can scroll through six sections, including Organisms and Evolution or Proteins and Proteomics. Visitors can scroll through each area, keeping in mind that each activity is categorized by grade level, subject area, and type. For those looking for specific areas, they will find a set of activity filters that can be used to easily identify specific resources. Some of the activity offerings here include "Genetic Disorder Research," "What is Cloning?," and "DNA Detectives: Extract your Own DNA." Finally, visitors can visit In The News to learn more about ongoing activities at the Bioinformatics Activities Bank.

2013-04-30

154

Biological Filters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

Klemetson, S. L.

1978-01-01

155

Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

2014-05-01

156

Metallic Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filtration technology originated in a mid 1960's NASA study. The results were distributed to the filter industry, an HR Textron responded, using the study as a departure for the development of 421 Filter Media. The HR system is composed of ultrafine steel fibers metallurgically bonded and compressed so that the pore structure is locked in place. The filters are used to filter polyesters, plastics, to remove hydrocarbon streams, etc. Several major companies use the product in chemical applications, pollution control, etc.

1985-01-01

157

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

1987-01-01

158

Frequency transformations for linear-phase variable-cutoff digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first- and second-order forms of a transformation for implementing a variable-cutoff linear-phase FIR filter are investigated. In the first-order case, correct constraints have been placed on the variable parameterA_0; it is pointed out that the cutoff frequency increases, while the cutoff slope decreases, monotonically with increasingA_v; A_0 = 0corresponds to the prototype filter. The second-order transformation is shown to

S. D. Roy; S. Ahuja

1979-01-01

159

Changes in endogenous cytokinins during flowering induction in Douglas fir: effect of exogenous applications  

E-print Network

Changes in endogenous cytokinins during flowering induction in Douglas fir: effect of exogenous promotion in conifers was analyzed in relation to the level of gibberellins (Pharis et al., 1987). However to the study of an effect of this compound on flowering. Materials and Methods ;'" uai bods oí Douglas fir

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

160

REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF BALSAM FIR (ABIES BALSAMEA), WHITE SPRUCE (PICEA GLAUCA), AND BLACK SPRUCE  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF BALSAM FIR (ABIES BALSAMEA), WHITE SPRUCE (PICEA GLAUCA), AND BLACK; coniferous forest; ecotone; mixedwood forest; Picea glauca; Picea mariana. The northern limit of a species coniferous species (balsam fir [Abies balsamea], white spruce [Picea glauca] and black spruce [P. mariana

Asselin, Hugo

161

Chemistry of throughfall under douglas fir and Rocky Mountain juniper. [Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca; Juniperus scopulorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and nitrate were measured in throughfall under isolated douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) trees in northern Utah for 39 storms in 1970 and 1971. Concentrations were 3-16 times greater under the trees than in the open. Throughfall under douglas fir invariably had higher concentrations than that

G. E. Hart; D. R. Parent

1974-01-01

162

The effects of multiple stresses on Fraser fir physiology in Great Smoky Mountains  

E-print Network

11/2/2011 1 The effects of multiple stresses on Fraser fir physiology in Great Smoky Mountains GRSM contains 74% of ~90 000 acres of GRSM contains 74% of 90,000 acres of remaining spruce-fir forests to maturity Lifespan: 180-200 years #12;11/2/2011 2 Individual Stresses Balsam Wooly Adelgid Causes

Gray, Matthew

163

A Matrix Growth Model of Natural Spruce-Balsam Fir Forest in New Brunswick, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A density-dependent matrix model was developed for spruce-balsam fir natural forest stands in New Brunswick, Canada. It predicted the number and basal area of trees for 5 species groups (spruce, balsam fir, other softwood, soft hardwood and hard hardwood) and 10 diameter classes. Upgrowth, ingrowth and mortality models were established with explanatory variables representing tree size, stand density and stand

Xiangdong Lei; Changhui Peng; Yuanchang Lu; Xiaopeng Zhang

2006-01-01

164

Valuing high altitude spruce-fir forest improvements: importance of forest condition and recreation activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

High altitude spruce fir forests are typical around the world and are often subjected to multiple forms of recreational use. In this paper, we use household and recreation group data for a spruce fir forest high in the Appalachian Mountains of the U. S. to evaluate the benefits from forest protection (i. e., from improving the forest condition). Our benefits

Dylan H. Jenkins; Jay Sullivan; Gregory S. Amacher; Niki S. Nicholas; Dixie W. Reaves

2002-01-01

165

Model identification of time-delay nonlinear system with FIR neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FIR neural network model and its temporal backpropagation algorithm are introduced in this paper. Due to its time-delay dynamic characteristics, it is fit well to be applied to model identification of the time-delay nonlinear system. Model identification has been completed successfully on actual datasets of 6 stands tandem hot mill with FIR neural network, and the results show its

Li-Feng Wang; Zheng-Xi Li

2003-01-01

166

Spatial changes in forest floor and foliar chemistry of spruce-fir forests across New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., high elevation spruce-fir forests receive greater amounts of nitrogen deposition relative to low elevation areas. At high elevations the cycling of nitrogen is naturally low due to slower decomposition and low biological N demand. The combination of these factors make spruce-fir ecosystems potentially responsive to changes in N inputs.

S. G. McNulty; J. D. Aber; R. D. Boone

1991-01-01

167

Upper Air Climatology of Amsterdam FIR, using ERA-Interim 1989-2008  

E-print Network

Upper Air Climatology of Amsterdam FIR, using ERA-Interim 1989-2008 Part 1 Dirk Wolters and Geert-air climatology below 150 hPa (Flight level 430) for the Flight Information Region of the Netherlands (Amsterdam FIR). Climatology of the planetary boundary layer below 850 hPa will (in more detail) be presented

Haak, Hein

168

Upper Air Climatology of Amsterdam FIR, using ERA-Interim 1989-2008  

E-print Network

Upper Air Climatology of Amsterdam FIR, using ERA-Interim 1989-2008 Part 2 Geert Groen and Dirk Wolters De Bilt 2011| WR 2011-02, part 2/2 1 #12;Abstract This report presents upper-air climatology of the Netherlands (EHAM-FIR). The climatology is produced under the program Kennis-voor-Klimaat- project Climatology

Haak, Hein

169

Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center) [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center; Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)) [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA)) [Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA)

1990-05-01

170

High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues  

SciTech Connect

New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong [Centre for Laser, Atomic and Molecular Studies (CLAMS), University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B. [Canadian Light Source, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 101 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada)

2010-02-03

171

[Decomposition interaction of mixed litter between Chinese fir and various accompanying plant species].  

PubMed

Studies on the decomposition of mixed litter between Chinese fir and 8 accompanying plant species showed that the decomposition of Chinese fir litter was promoted to different degrees by 8 mixed plant species, in which Angiopteris fokiensis had the greatest effect, while Schima superba had certain promotion first, but then, weak inhibition. The order of promotion was Angiopteris fokiensis > Maesa japonica > Ficus simplicissima > Woodwardia japonica > Boehmeria nivea > Castanopsis fargesii > Castanopsis fissa > Dicranopteris dicotoma. Chinese fir litter had a certain inhibition to litter decomposition of Schima superba and Castanopsis fissa, and certain promotion to litter decomposition of Castanopsis fargesii, but the interactions were not significant. There existed an interaction between Chinese fir and some plant species in the course of mixed decomposition. Therefore, rational protection and restoration of understory plant was important to fasten nutrient cycling of Chinese fir plantation ecosystem and to maintain soil fertility. PMID:11758404

Lin, K; Hong, W; Yu, X; Huang, B

2001-06-01

172

FIR filter optimization using bit-edge equalization in high-speed backplane data transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique bit-edge equalization (BEE) method for mitigating intersymbol interference (ISI) in high-speed backplane applications is presented. Using a least-mean-square (LMS) adaptive algorithm as a receiver (RX) error convergence engine, the proposed BEE method aims to optimize the bit-edge amplitudes by equalizing only the edges of data bits with an adjustment of the sampling points where the error information is

Lei Zhang; Tadeusz Kwasniewski

2009-01-01

173

An Efficient Arithmetic Sum-of-Product (SOP) based Multiplication Approach for FIR Filters and DFT  

E-print Network

them. We use the Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) representation for the coefficients ci to minimize the number of partial products in each of the N trapezoids. CSD is a radix-2 number system in which a bit can take a value from the set {1..., among all the radix-2 number systems, the CSD representation results in the mini- mum number of non-zero bits for any number. To illustrate the advantage associated with CSD representation, consider a coefficient with a value of 61. If its binary...

Kumar, Rajeev

2013-04-24

174

A 600-MHz median-type digital filter on GaAs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single-chip GaAs implementation of an FIR-median hybrid filter is presented. The very high-speed digital filter combines linear averaging structures to a median selector. The filter operates on 5-b samples with ECL-compatible I/O interfaces. The 1500-transistor LSI device with 3.6-sq mm chip size was processed with a 1.0-micron GaAs depletion-mode (D-mode) MESFET process. The filter demonstrates 600-MHz sample rate when operated in test mode utilizing special built-in feedback.

Vainjo, Olli; Sundaram, Mani; Long, Stephen I.; Neuvo, Yrjo

1992-01-01

175

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking  

E-print Network

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking Job Code 0203 � Level 6 CIBC is a leading and services to 11 million individual, small business, commercial, corporate and institutional clients Group of Companies please visit CIBC.com. Job Overview The Commercial Banking Associate Program provides

Northern British Columbia, University of

176

Is bank supervision central to central banking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several central banks have lost their bank supervisory responsibilities, in part because it has not been shown that supervisory authority improves the conduct of monetary policy. This paper finds that confidential bank supervisory information could help the Board staff more accurately forecast important macroeconomic variables and is used by FOMC members to guide monetary policy. These findings suggest that

Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

1999-01-01

177

Global Systems for Mobile Position Tracking Using Kalman and Lainiotis Filters  

PubMed Central

We present two time invariant models for Global Systems for Mobile (GSM) position tracking, which describe the movement in x-axis and y-axis simultaneously or separately. We present the time invariant filters as well as the steady state filters: the classical Kalman filter and Lainiotis Filter and the Join Kalman Lainiotis Filter, which consists of the parallel usage of the two classical filters. Various implementations are proposed and compared with respect to their behavior and to their computational burden: all time invariant and steady state filters have the same behavior using both proposed models but have different computational burden. Finally, we propose a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) implementation of the Steady State Kalman, and Lainiotis filters, which does not require previous estimations but requires a well-defined set of previous measurements. PMID:24883349

Assimakis, Nicholas

2014-01-01

178

Commercial Bank and Bank Holding Company Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Report of Condition and Income database, provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, contains financial data for all banks regulated by the Federal Reserve System, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Comptroller of the Currency. Merger Data contains information on all "bank acquisitions and mergers since 1985." The Merger Data is available in either ASCII or SAS format. Quarterly Call Report Data contains "income and balance sheet items for all the banks" from the first quarter of 1989. The data are on an individual bank basis and are downloadable in zipped SAS transport data file format.

179

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Monroeville, PA); Dilmore, William J. (Murrysville, PA)

1992-01-01

180

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

1992-09-01

181

Investment Banks Goldman Sachs  

E-print Network

Financial Corporation PNC Bank Wachovia Asset Management Firms Acadian Asset Management Alliance CapitalInvestment Banks Goldman Sachs Merrill Lynch Morgan Stanley UBS Bear Stearns JP Morgan Chase Brown Brothers Harriman Fidelity HSBC Money Center Banking Bank of America CIBC Citigroup Mellon

Aronov, Boris

182

Central bank Financial Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have

J. Ramon Martinez-Resano

2004-01-01

183

International banking facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Reserve Board permitted banking offices located in the United States to establish International Banking Facilities (IBFs) beginning in December 1981. The purpose was to allow these banking offices to conduct a deposit and loan business with foreign residents, including foreign banks, without being subject to reserve requirements or to the interest rate ceilings then in effect. IBFs are

Henry S. Terrell

1988-01-01

184

Tree Biomass Estimation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Based on Bayesian Method  

PubMed Central

Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) is the most important conifer species for timber production with huge distribution area in southern China. Accurate estimation of biomass is required for accounting and monitoring Chinese forest carbon stocking. In the study, allometric equation was used to analyze tree biomass of Chinese fir. The common methods for estimating allometric model have taken the classical approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability. However, many different biotic and abiotic factors introduce variability in Chinese fir biomass model, suggesting that parameters of biomass model are better represented by probability distributions rather than fixed values as classical method. To deal with the problem, Bayesian method was used for estimating Chinese fir biomass model. In the Bayesian framework, two priors were introduced: non-informative priors and informative priors. For informative priors, 32 biomass equations of Chinese fir were collected from published literature in the paper. The parameter distributions from published literature were regarded as prior distributions in Bayesian model for estimating Chinese fir biomass. Therefore, the Bayesian method with informative priors was better than non-informative priors and classical method, which provides a reasonable method for estimating Chinese fir biomass. PMID:24278198

Zhang, Jianguo

2013-01-01

185

UV and FIR selected star-forming galaxies at z=0: differences and overlaps  

E-print Network

We study two samples of local galaxies, one is UV (GALEX) selected and the other FIR (IRAS) selected, to address the question whether UV and FIR surveys see the two sides ('bright' and 'dark') of the star formation of the same population of galaxies or two different populations of star forming galaxies. No significant difference between the L$_{tot}$ ($=L_{60}+L_{FUV}$) luminosity functions of the UV and FIR samples is found. Also, after the correction for the `Malmquist bias' (bias for flux limited samples), the FIR-to-UV ratio v.s. L$_{tot}$ relations of the two samples are consistent with each other. In the range of $9 \\la \\log(L_{tot}/L_\\sun) \\la 12$, both can be approximated by a simple linear relation of $\\log (L_{60}/L_{FUV})=\\log(L_{tot}/L_\\sun)-9.66$. These are consistent with the hypothesis that the two samples represent the same population of star forming galaxies, and their well documented differences in L$_{tot}$ and in FIR-to-UV ratio are due only to the selection effect. A comparison between the UV luminosity functions shows marginal evidence for a population of faint UV galaxies missing in the FIR selected sample. The contribution from these 'FIR-quiet' galaxies to the overall UV population is insignificant, given that the K-band luminosity functions (i.e. the stellar mass functions) of the two samples do not show any significant difference.

C. Kevin Xu; Veronique Buat; Jorge Iglesias-Páramo; Tsutomu T. Takeuchi; Tom A. Barlow; Luciana Bianchi; Jose Donas; Karl Forster; Timothy M. Heckman; Patrick N. Jelinsky; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Roger F. Malina; D. Christopher Martin; Bruno Milliard; Patrick Morrissey; R. Michael Rich; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovich; Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Todd Small; Alex S. Szalay; Barry Y. Welsh; Ted K. Wyder; Sukyoung Yi

2006-04-04

186

Localisation and mobility of trace metal in silver fir needles.  

PubMed

Trace metals (TM: Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) as well as Al, Mn, and Fe content was measured in needles of a remote silver fir stand in the south of France. TM localisation and behaviour in needles was evaluated by measuring total and internal content of needles of different ages. Measured concentrations fell within background values. Al, Fe, Co, and Pb were trapped in wax following atmospheric particulate deposition. Contrasting accumulation and migration behaviours of the different elements studied were observed. The wax contained less than 10% Mn, Al, Ni, Co, and Zn and 15-45% Fe, Cu, and Cd in the young needles. Lead was mostly located in the wax (50-80%), and this proportion decreased with needle age. Only the internal content of Pb and Fe increased significantly with needle age. Finally, due to atmospheric deposition accumulation, higher input fluxes of Fe, Cu, Cd, and Pb can be expected in forest soil. PMID:22221667

Gandois, L; Probst, A

2012-04-01

187

An FIR cooled grating spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a liquid-He-cooled spectrometer being developed for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) to study FIR lines originating in the interstellar medium are discussed. Currently, the spectrometer contains six Ge:Ga photoconductor detectors mounted in integrating cavities and cooled to about 3 K; the collimator focal plane has space for 39 such detectors. The instrument achieves a maximum resolving power of 6000 by means of a 45-cm long echelle grating and is optically capable of operating in the spectral range 25-300 microns. A laboratory spectrum of water vapor, an atmospheric water absorption feature measured from the KAO with Mars as a source, and the forbidden O(2+) emission from W51-IRS1 are shown.

Erickson, E. F.; Haas, M. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Simpson, J. P.; Augason, G. C.; Houck, J. R.; Harwit, M. O.; Rank, D. M.

1985-01-01

188

ISO observations of spirals: modelling the FIR emission  

E-print Network

ISO observations at 200 micron have modified our view of the dust component in spiral galaxies. For a sample of seven resolved spirals we have retrieved a mean temperature of 20K, about 10K lower than previous estimates based on IRAS data at shorter wavelengths. Because of the steep dependence of far-infrared emission on the dust temperature, the dust masses inferred from ISO fluxes are a factor of 10 higher than those derived from IRAS data only, leading to gas-to-dust ratios close to the value observed in the Galaxy. The scale-length of the 200 micron emission is larger than for the IRAS 100 micron emission, with colder dust at larger distances from the galactic centre, as expected if the interstellar radiation field is the main source of dust heating. The 200 micron scale-length is also larger than the optical, for all the galaxies in the sample. This suggests that the dust distribution is more extended than that of the stars.A model of the dust heating is needed to derive the parameters of the dust distribution from the FIR emission. Therefore, we have adapted an existing radiative transfer code to deal with dust emission. Simulated maps of the temperature distribution within the dust disk and of the dust emission at any wavelength can be produced. The stellar spectral energy distribution is derived from observations in the ultraviolet, optical and near infrared. The parameters of the dust distribution (scale-lengths and optical depth) are chosen to reproduce the observed characteristics of the FIR emission, i.e. the shape of the spectrum, the flux and the spatial distribution. We describe the application of the model to one of the galaxies in the sample, NGC 6946.

Simone Bianchi; Paul B. Alton; Jonathan I. Davies

1999-10-01

189

Water Filter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective. Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

190

Central Banking Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Central Banks of the World is a pointers page to central banks and central bank information for over 45 countries, as well as multilateral financial institutions, research and training establishments, and conference information. To show how little is generally known about the history of central banking in the United States, this site includes an email message sent to the webmaster of the First Bank of the United States, promoting a certain software company's web interactivity applications. Of course, since the First Bank of the United States was closed in 1811, its web site is primarily historical. The Central Banks site lists over 30 Internet directories and pointers pages that list the First Bank of the United States as a functioning financial institution. To help remedy this situation, the site includes a pointer to a brief history of banking in the US.

1996-01-01

191

Compact Micromachined Bandpass Filters for Infrared Planetary Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal instrument strawman payload of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter on the Europa Jupiter Science Mission will map out thermal anomalies, the structure, and atmospheric conditions of Europa and Jupiter within the 7-100 micron spectral range. One key requirement for the payload is that the mass cannot exceed 3.7 kg. Consequently, a new generation of light-weight miniaturized spectrometers needs to be developed. On the path toward developing these spectrometers is development of ancillary miniaturized spectroscopic components. In this paper, we present a strategy for making radiation hard and low mass FIR band pass metal mesh filters. Our strategy involves using MEMS-based fabrication techniques, which will permit the quasi-optical filter structures to be made with micron-scale precision. This will enable us to achieve tight control over both the pass band of the filter and the micromachined silicon support structure architecture, which will facilitate integration of the filters for a variety of applications.

Brown, Ari D.; Aslam, Shahid; Chervenak, James A.; Huang, Wei-Chung; Merrell, Willie; Quijada, Manuel

2011-01-01

192

Influence of recent bark beetle outbreak on fire severity and postfire tree regeneration in montane Douglas-fir forests.  

PubMed

Understanding how disturbances interact to shape ecosystems is a key challenge in ecology. In forests of western North America, the degree to which recent bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fires may be linked (e.g., outbreak severity affects fire severity) and/ or whether these two disturbances produce compound effects on postfire succession is of widespread interest. These interactions remain unresolved, largely because field data from actual wildfires following beetle outbreaks are lacking. We studied the 2008 Gunbarrel Fire, which burned 27 200 ha in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests that experienced a bark beetle outbreak 4-13 years prefire ("gray stage," after trees have died and needles have dropped), to determine whether outbreak severity influenced subsequent fire severity and postfire tree regeneration. In 85 sample plots we recorded prefire stand structure and outbreak severity; multiple measures of canopy and forest-floor fire severity; and postfire tree seedling density. Prefire outbreak severity was not related to any measure of fire severity except for mean bole scorch, which declined slightly with increasing outbreak severity. Instead, fire severity varied with topography and burning conditions (proxy for weather at time of fire). Postfire Douglas-fir regeneration was low, with tree seedlings absent in 65% of plots. Tree seedlings were abundant in plots of low fire severity that also had experienced low outbreak severity (mean = 1690 seedlings/ha), suggesting a dual filter on tree regeneration. Although bark beetles and fire collectively reduced live basal area to < 5% and increased snag density to > 2000% of pre-outbreak levels, the lack of relationship between beetle outbreak and fire severity suggests that these disturbances were not linked. Nonetheless, effects on postfire tree regeneration suggest compound disturbance interactions that contribute to the structural heterogeneity characteristic of mid/lower montane forests. PMID:24400499

Harvey, Brian J; Donato, Daniel C; Romme, William H; Turner, Monica G

2013-11-01

193

The Lost Research of Early Northeastern Spruce-Fir Experimental A Tale of Lost Opportunities  

E-print Network

spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) with vary- ing forests or northern coniferous forests. They are typ- ically dominated by red spruce (Picea rubens), black

194

Douglas-Fir in Northern California: Effects of Shade on Germination, Survival, and Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of four light intensities on germination, survival, and early growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were studied on south-facing cutblocks in northwestern California. Tested were four shade intensities: 0, 25, 50, and 75 percent. On seeded...

R. O. Strothmann

1972-01-01

195

Multimodel Kalman filtering for adaptive nonuniformity correction in infrared sensors  

E-print Network

Multimodel Kalman filtering for adaptive nonuniformity correction in infrared sensors Jorge E parameters of infrared focal-plane ar- rays that is robust with respect to changes and uncertainties in scene and sensor characteristics. The proposed algorithm is based on using a bank of Kalman filters in parallel

Hayat, Majeed M.

196

Character prototyping in document images using Gabor filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present a particular application of Gabor filtering for machine-printed document image understanding. To do so, we assume that the text can be seen as texture, characters being the smallest texture elements, and we verify this hypothesis by a series of experiments over different sets of character images. We first apply a bank of 24 Gabor filters

Bénédicte Allier; Hubert Emptoz

2003-01-01

197

Iris Recognition Based on Multichannel Gabor Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for personal identification based on iris recognition is presented in this paper. The body of this paper details the steps of iris recognition, including image preprocessing, feature extraction and classifier design. The proposed algorithm uses a bank of Gabor filters to capture both local and global iris characteristics to form a fixed length feature vector. Iris matching

Li Ma; Yunhong Wang; Tieniu Tan

198

Iris Recognition Using Circular Symmetric Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new method for personal identification based on iris recognition. The method consists of three major components: image preprocessing, feature extraction and classifier design. A bank of circular symmetric filters is used to capture local iris characteristics to form a fixed length feature vector. In iris matching, an efficient approach called nearest feature line (NFL) is used.

Li Ma; Yunhong Wang; Tieniu Tan

2002-01-01

199

Iris Recognition Based on Multichannel Gabor Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Anew approach for personal identification based on iris recognition is presented in this paper. The body of this paper details the steps of iris recognition, including image preprocessing, feature extraction and classifier design. The proposed algorithm uses a bank ,of Gabor filters to capture ,both ,local and ,global iris characteristics to form a fixed length feature vector. Iris matching

L. Ma; Y. Wang; T. Tan

2002-01-01

200

Time-varying FIR decision feedback equalization of doubly-selective channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a minimum mean-square error (MMSE) time-varying (TV) finite impulse response (FIR) decision feedback equalizer (DFE) for doubly-selective (time- and frequency-selective) channels. We use the basis expansion model (BEM) to approximate the doubly-selective channel and to design the TV FIR DFE. This allows us to turn a large design problem into an equivalent small design problem, containing only the

Imad Barhumi; Geert Leus; Marc Moonen

2003-01-01

201

Application of Balsam Fir Sawfly Nucleopolyhedrovirus against its Natural Host Neodiprion abietis (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Corresponding author. Abstract - Fifty-hectare blocks of balsam fir forest, in western Newfoundland Canada, were treated with 1 - 3 x 109 occlusion bodies\\/hectare of Neodiprion abietis nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeabNPV) in 2.5 L 20% aqueous molasses using Cessna 188 'Ag Truck' airplanes equipped with Micronaire AU 4000 rotary atomizers. In the weeks following application, there was higher balsam fir sawfly

Christina S. CAMPBELL; Dan T. QUIRING

202

Dendroecological study of a subalpine fir ( Abies fargesii ) forest in the Qinling Mountains, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendroecological techniques were used to investigate the stand dynamics and the disturbance history of the subalpine fir forest\\u000a in the Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi Province, China. The results indicated that 68% of the fir trees experienced 1–2 release\\u000a events for a total of 10–29 (an average of 15.8) years, and 1–2 suppression events for a total of 10–27 (an average

Haishan Dang; Mingxi Jiang; Yanjun Zhang; Gaodi Dang; Quanfa Zhang

2009-01-01

203

Dendroecological study of a subalpine fir ( Abies fargesii ) forest in the Qinling Mountains, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendroecological techniques were used to investigate the stand dynamics and the disturbance history of the subalpine fir forest\\u000a in the Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi Province, China. The results indicated that 68% of the fir trees experienced 1–2 release\\u000a events for a total of 10–29 (an average of 15.8) years, and 1–2 suppression events for a total of 10–27 (an average

Haishan Dang; Mingxi Jiang; Yanjun Zhang; Gaodi Dang; Quanfa Zhang

204

Molecular basis of FIR-mediated c-myc transcriptional control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The far upstream element (FUSE) regulatory system promotes a peak in the concentration of c-Myc during cell cycle. First, the FBP transcriptional activator binds to the FUSE DNA element upstream of the c-myc promoter. Then, FBP recruits its specific repressor (FIR), which acts as an on\\/off transcriptional switch. Here we describe the molecular basis of FIR recruitment, showing that the

Cyprian D Cukier; David Hollingworth; Stephen R Martin; Geoff Kelly; Irene Díaz-Moreno; Andres Ramos

2010-01-01

205

Hybrid Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with filtering of a hybrid model with a number of linear systems coupled by a hidden switching process.\\u000a The most probable trajectory approach is used to derive a finite-dimensional recursive filter. Such scheme is applied to nonlinear\\u000a systems using a piecewise-linear approximation method. Numerical examples are provided and computational experiments are reported.

Q. Zhang

206

An analysis of the FIR/RADIO continuum correlation in the small Magellanic cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local correlation between far-infrared (FIR) emission and radio-continuum (RC) emission for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is investigated over scales from 3 kpc to 0.01 kpc. Here, we report good FIR/RC correlation down to ˜15 pc. The reciprocal slope of the FIR/RC emission correlation (RC/FIR) in the SMC is shown to be greatest in the most active star forming regions with a power law slope of ˜1.14 indicating that the RC emission increases faster than the FIR emission. The slope of the other regions and the SMC are much flatter and in the range of 0.63-0.85. The slopes tend to follow the thermal fractions of the regions which range from 0.5 to 0.95. The thermal fraction of the RC emission alone can provide the expected FIR/RC correlation. The results are consistent with a common source for ultraviolet (UV) photons heating dust and Cosmic Ray electrons (CRe-s) diffusing away from the star forming regions. Since the CRe-s appear to escape the SMC so readily, the results here may not provide support for coupling between the local gas density and the magnetic field intensity.

Leverenz, Howard; Filipovi?, Miroslav D.

2013-01-01

207

Information content for cloud ice microphysics in the FIR radiance spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-infrared (MIR) radiance measurements in the atmospheric window (8 - 12 ?m) have demonstrated sensitivity to ice particle microphysics, due to the spectral variation of the index of refraction of ice within the spectral range. The far infrared radiance (FIR) spectrum (17 - 50 ?m) also contains a region of spectrally varying index of refraction. The longer wavelengths imply a smaller scattering size parameter, which in turn gives the ice particles different scattering properties in the FIR relative to the MIR. Generally, the FIR shows larger single scatter albedos and weaker forward scattering. Although the atmosphere has high opacity in the FIR due to the rotational absorption band of water vapor, high altitude ice clouds would be observable in the upwelling radiance spectrum even in moist tropical atmospheres. Thus, the FIR spectrum could be used for cloud property retrieval from satellite sensors. Using a modeling study, we investigate the information content for ice microphysical retrievals to characterize how extending a high spectral resolution measurement from the MIR into the FIR could improve ice microphysics retrievals. The results show which regions in state space are better constrained with the far infrared information, and shows the advantage of a combined far-infrared and mid-infrared measurement for ice microphysical retrievals from satellites.

Merrelli, Aronne; Turner, David D.

2013-05-01

208

FIR polarimetry diagnostic for the C-Mod tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-chord polarimeter on Alcator C-Mod will make measurements of the poloidal magnetic field and plasma fluctuations. The beams from two frequency-offset, 200 mW, FIR lasers operating at 117.73 ?m are combined to produce collinear, counter-rotating, circularly polarized beams. The beams are divided into three chords which are directed into the plasma at one toroidal location. Corner cube retro-reflectors mounted on the inside wall return the beam for a double pass. The mixing product of the two beams is detected both before (reference) and after (signal) the plasma using polarization sensitive detectors that produce a beat signal at ~ 4 MHz. During the plasma discharge, the phase delay of the signal mixer, which depends on the Faraday effect, is evaluated with respect to the reference and produces line-integrated information on the poloidal magnetic field. Measurements on C-Mod require the phase error to be at the 0.1 degree level, and great care in the design of optical mounts, polarizers, beam-splitters, focusing optics, and acoustic and magnetic shielding was required. Development of new planar diode Schottky detectors was necessary to provide high sensitivity for a diagnostic that will eventually have at least six chords. Absorption of the FIR laser light by water vapor requires that the entire beam path be purged with dry air. Six retro-reflectors on the inner wall arranged in an ITER-like configuration provide poloidally viewing chords from near the mid-plane to well into the plasma scrape off layer. A pneumatically controlled shutter protects the in-vessel optics during boronizations and during limited discharges that might accelerate damage to the retro-reflector surfaces. Tests indicate there is no measurable signal contamination from the toroidal magnetic field due to the Cotton-Mouton effect. Polarization sensitivity of the wire mesh beamsplitters necessitated system calibration. Good agreement to EFIT reconstructions has been observed along with plasma fluctuations up to 400 kHz.

Irby, J. H.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Marmar, E. S.; Xu, P.

2012-02-01

209

Essays on informal banking  

E-print Network

This thesis is a collection of three theoretical essays that examine the role of time-inconsistent preferences in informal banking. The first two chapters focus on specific banking institutions, while the third studies ...

Basu, Karna

2006-01-01

210

Reforming Agricultural Development Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of agricultural development banking discussed in this paper has a history to it. For a hundred years or more, until the middle of the 20th century, a small number of agricultural banks existed outside of Europe. During that period, 15.5% of the banks in the AgriBank-Stat inventory, were established.1 Some seem to have led an inconspicuous life, like

Thorsten Giehler; Hans Dieter Seibel; Stefan Karduck

2005-01-01

211

Snow Bank Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Local professors teamed up with a fourth-grade teacher to show students the similarities and differences between sedimentary rock layers and snow banks. Students observed and drew snow banks and explored the effects of melting and salting on the snow banks.

Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

212

Banking on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

Internet Research, 1996

1996-01-01

213

A multi-channel filtering approach to texture segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multichannel filtering techniques are presented for obtaining both region- and edge-based segmentations of textured images. The channels are represented by a bank of even-symmetric Gabor filters that nearly uniformly covers the spatial-frequency domain. Feature images are obtained by subjecting each (selected) filtered image to a nonlinear transformation and computing a measure of energy around each pixel. Region-based segmentations are obtained

Farshid Farrokhnia; A. K. Jain

1991-01-01

214

A 25–75MHz RF MEMS Tunable Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a state-of-the-art discrete RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) tunable filter designed for 25-75-MHz operation. This paper also presents an enhanced model of the RF MEMS switch, which is used for accurate prediction of the tunable filter response. The two-pole lumped-element filter is based on digital capacitor banks with on-chip metal-contact RF MEMS switches and lumped inductors, and results

Kamran Entesari; Khaled Obeidat; Andrew R. Brown; Gabriel M. Rebeiz

2007-01-01

215

Gabor Filter-Based Fingerprint Anti-spoofing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Gabor filter-based method to detect spoof fingerprint attacks in fingerprint biometric systems. It is\\u000a based on the observation that, real and spoof fingerprints exhibit different textural characteristics. Textural measures based\\u000a on Gabor energy and co-occurrence texture features are used to characterize fingerprint texture. Fingerprint image is filtered\\u000a using a bank of four Gabor filters, and then a

Shankar Bhausaheb Nikam; Suneeta Agarwal

2008-01-01

216

High power pulsed FIR laser lines from CD3OH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FIR laser emissions from CD3OH using a pulsed TEA CO2 laser as optical pump are reported. The pump, which is similar to that described by Nicholson and Lipton (1977), has a tunable single-mode capability, being coarse-tuned by a grating reflector to most of the medium to high gain lines of the CO2 laser and fine-tuned by an intracavity etalon. The original solid germanium etalon described by Nicholson and Lipton is replaced by a design using a 4-cm air gap and a pair of germanium etalon plates that have antireflection coatings on the outside and are uncoated on the inside. A fused silica spacer makes temperature stabilization unnecessary. By angling the etalon, the laser may be tuned to nearly + or - 2GHz off the CO2 line center. Significantly large outputs are observed at 70.6 microns (10 P20 pump), 69.9 microns (10 R22), 42.3 microns (10 R6), and 105.3 microns and 41.7 microns (10 R8).

Ahmed, H.; Nicholson, J. P.

1983-02-01

217

Nitrogen leaching from Douglas-fir forests after urea fertilization.  

PubMed

Leaching of nitrogen (N) after forest fertilization has the potential to pollute ground and surface water. The purpose of this study was to quantify N leaching through the primary rooting zone of N-limited Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forests the year after fertilization (224 kg N ha(-1) as urea) and to calculate changes in the N pools of the overstory trees, understory vegetation, and soil. At six sites on production forests in the Hood Canal watershed, Washington, tension lysimeters and estimates of the soil water flux were used to quantify the mobilization and leaching of NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, and dissolved organic nitrogen below the observed rooting depth. Soil and vegetation samples were collected before fertilization and 1 and 6 mo after fertilization. In the year after fertilization, the total leaching beyond the primary rooting zone in excess of control plots was 4.2 kg N ha(-1) (p = 0.03), which was equal to 2% of the total N applied. The peak NO(3)-N concentration that leached beyond the rooting zone of fertilized plots was 0.2 mg NO(3)-N L(-1). Six months after fertilization, 26% of the applied N was accounted for in the overstory, and 27% was accounted for in the O+A horizon of the soil. The results of this study indicate that forest fertilization can lead to small N leaching fluxes out of the primary rooting zone during the first year after urea application. PMID:18689739

Flint, Cynthia M; Harrison, Rob B; Strahm, Brian D; Adams, A B

2008-01-01

218

Self-thinning dynamics in a balsam fir ( Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) insect-mediated boreal forest chronosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-thinning dynamics were examined in a natural, 120-year, insect-mediated balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) chronosequence in the humid boreal forests of western Newfoundland. The well-developed chronosequence representing the classic stages of stand development provided a unique opportunity to quantify balsam fir self-thinning dynamics and to independently test a first approximation stand density management diagram developed for mixed balsam fir-black

John W. McCarthy; Gordon Weetman

2007-01-01

219

Litterfall and fine root biomass contribution to nutrient dynamics in second- and old-growth Douglas-fir ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litterfall and fine root production were measured for three years as part of a carbon balance study of three forest stands\\u000a in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. A young second-growth Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] stand, a second-growth Douglas-fir with red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) stand, and an old-growth (?550 years) Douglas-fir stand were monitored for inputs of carbon

Jeffrey M. Klopatek

2007-01-01

220

World Bank Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank group consists of IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development); IDA (International Development Agency); IFC (International Finance Corporation); MIGA (Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency); and ICSID (International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes). Visitors to the site will find information on the goals and activities of these agencies. Press releases, project reports and speeches by World Bank officials are also available at the site. The highlight of the site is the publications section which contains various online versions of World Bank periodicals such as World Bank News, Environment Matters, Finance & Development (discussed in the March 21, 1997 Scout Report) and Private Sector Notes, among others.

221

Estimating cumulative defoliation of balsam fir from hemlock looper and balsam fir sawfly using aerial defoliation survey in western Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guen.)) and balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis (Harris)) undergo periodic outbreaks in eastern Canada and cause significant growth and mortality losses to forests. Tree growth and mortality are closely related to cumulative defoliation estimates, which integrate annual defoliation over multiple years. Our objective was to determine a method to estimate cumulative defoliation of balsam

Javed Iqbal; David A. MacLean

2010-01-01

222

12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS LIABILITIES... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The...

2012-01-01

223

12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS LIABILITIES... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The...

2013-01-01

224

12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.  

... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS LIABILITIES... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The...

2014-01-01

225

Air filter  

SciTech Connect

An air filter is described that has a counter rotating drum, i.e., the rotation of the drum is opposite the tangential intake of air. The intake air has about 1 lb of rock wool fibers per 107 cu. ft. of air sometimes at about 100% relative humidity. The fibers are doffed from the drum by suction nozzle which are adjacent to the drum at the bottom of the filter housing. The drum screen is cleaned by periodically jetting hot dry air at 120 psig through the screen into the suction nozzles.

Jackson, R.E.; Sparks, J.E.

1981-03-03

226

Release of terpenes from fir wood during its long-term use and in thermal treatment.  

PubMed

Building structures made from fir wood are often attacked by wood-destroying insects for which the terpenes it contains serve as attractants. One of the possibilities for extending the lifetime of structures is to use older wood with a lower content of terpenes and/or thermally modified wood. The study evaluated the levels of terpenes in naturally aged fir wood (108, 146, 279, 287 and 390 years) and their decrease by thermal treatment (the temperature of 60 °C and 120 °C, treatment duration of 10 h). Terpenes were extracted from wood samples by hexane and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicate that recent fir wood contained approximately 60 times more terpenes than the oldest wood (186:3.1 mg/kg). The thermal wood treatment speeded up the release of terpenes. The temperature of 60 °C caused a loss in terpenes in the recent fir wood by 62%, the temperature of 120 °C even by >99%. After the treatment at the temperature of 60 °C the recent fir wood had approximately the same quantity of terpenes as non-thermally treated 108 year old wood, i.e., approximately 60-70 mg/kg. After the thermal treatment at the temperature of 120 °C the quantity of terpenes dropped in the recent as well as the old fir wood to minimum quantities (0.7-1.1 mg/kg). The thermal treatment can thus be used as a suitable method for the protection of fir wood from wood-destroying insects. PMID:22910123

Ka?ík, František; Ve?ková, Veronika; Šmíra, Pavel; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Ka?íková, Danica; Reinprecht, Ladislav

2012-01-01

227

Bahrain's offshore banking center  

SciTech Connect

The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

1983-01-01

228

Bank Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank Information Center (BIC) is a nonprofit, independent, non-governmental organization that "provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)." The organization's Website contains information about BIC's ongoing activities and offers useful publications and toolkits for those interested in and involved with MDBs. The Toolkits for Activists section includes fact sheets that explain the inner workings of the World Bank, covering topics such as basic information about the World Bank, the Country Assistance Strategy, World Bank policy framework, and information on World Bank's lending. Each fact sheet is available in both .pdf and HTML formats. The publications section offers a variety of resources including papers, case studies, and meeting reports, many of which are available online. Also provided are links to other monitoring organizations around the world and several online forums. An information services page will be added soon.

229

Drug Filtering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math meets health science activity, learners observe a model of exponential decay, and how kidneys filter blood. Learners will calculate the amount of a drug in the body over a period of time. Then, they will make and analyze the graphical representation of this exponential function. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Iles, Lawrence F.

2010-01-01

230

Canopy light transmittance in Douglas-fir--western hemlock stands.  

PubMed

We measured vertical and horizontal variation in canopy transmittance of photosynthetically active radiation in five Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco-Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. (Douglas-fir-western hemlock) stands in the central Cascades of southern Washington to determine how stand structure and age affect the forest light environment. The shape of the mean transmittance profile was related to stand height, but height of mean maximum transmittance was progressively lower than maximum tree height in older stands. The vertical rate of attenuation declined with stand age in both the overstory and understory. A classification of vertical light zones based on the mean and variance of transmittance showed a progressive widening of the bright (low variance and high mean) and transition (high variance and rapid vertical change) zones in older stands, whereas the dim zone (low variance and mean) narrowed. The zone of maximum canopy surface area in height profiles, estimated by inversion of transmittance profiles, changed from relatively high in the canopy in most young stands ("top-heavy") to lower in the canopy in older stands ("bottom-heavy"). In the understory, all stands had similar mean transmittances, but the spatial scale of variation increased with stand age and increasing crown size. The angular distribution of openness was similar in all stands, though the older stands were less open at all angles than the younger stands. Understory openness was generally unrelated to transmittance in the canopy above. Whole-canopy leaf area indices, estimated using three methods of inverting light measurements, showed little correspondence across methods. The observed patterns in light environment are consistent with structural changes occurring during stand development, particularly the diversification of crowns, the creation of openings of various sizes and the elaboration of the outer canopy surface. The ensemble of measurements has potential use in distinguishing forests of differing ages that have similar stature. PMID:11830411

Parker, Geoffrey G; Davis, Melinda M; Chapotin, Saharah Moon

2002-02-01

231

A SNP resource for Douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation  

PubMed Central

Background Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauca) are native to North America, the coastal variety is also widely planted for timber production in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Our main goal was to develop a SNP resource large enough to facilitate genomic selection in Douglas-fir breeding programs. To accomplish this, we developed a 454-based reference transcriptome for coastal Douglas-fir, annotated and evaluated the quality of the reference, identified putative SNPs, and then validated a sample of those SNPs using the Illumina Infinium genotyping platform. Results We assembled a reference transcriptome consisting of 25,002 isogroups (unique gene models) and 102,623 singletons from 2.76 million 454 and Sanger cDNA sequences from coastal Douglas-fir. We identified 278,979 unique SNPs by mapping the 454 and Sanger sequences to the reference, and by mapping four datasets of Illumina cDNA sequences from multiple seed sources, genotypes, and tissues. The Illumina datasets represented coastal Douglas-fir (64.00 and 13.41 million reads), interior Douglas-fir (80.45 million reads), and a Yakima population similar to interior Douglas-fir (8.99 million reads). We assayed 8067 SNPs on 260 trees using an Illumina Infinium SNP genotyping array. Of these SNPs, 5847 (72.5%) were called successfully and were polymorphic. Conclusions Based on our validation efficiency, our SNP database may contain as many as ~200,000 true SNPs, and as many as ~69,000 SNPs that could be genotyped at ~20,000 gene loci using an Infinium II array—more SNPs than are needed to use genomic selection in tree breeding programs. Ultimately, these genomic resources will enhance Douglas-fir breeding and allow us to better understand landscape-scale patterns of genetic variation and potential responses to climate change. PMID:23445355

2013-01-01

232

Tropospheric water vapor retrieval from a nadir THz/FIR sounder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents clear-sky simulations to study water vapor (H2O) retrieval from a nadir sounder operating in the TeraHertz (THz) and Far-Infrared (FIR) spectral domains (100-500 cm-1). The THz/FIR retrieval is compared with retrieval from the mid-InfraRed (IR) 7?m H2O band (1200-2000 cm-1). The THz/FIR observations are more sensitive in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere than the IR measurements. On the other hand, the IR sounder has better performance in the lower troposphere. The retrieval error due to uncertainties on the temperature profile are of the same order of magnitude in the THz/FIR and IR bands. No significant retrieval errors from contaminating species have been found. The calculations for several atmospheric scenarios show that retrieval performances are not only dependent on the H2O abundance but also on the temperature gradient. Hence, sensitivity in the UT/LS layer, with a low temperature gradient, is poor. The combination of FIR and IR merges the advantages of both bands, and allows to slightly decorrelate temperature and H2O VMR.

Baron, Philippe; Mendrok, Jana; Dupuy, Eric; Kasai, Yasuko

2008-12-01

233

[Genetic variability of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) inferred from AFLP markers].  

PubMed

Genetic variability of AFLP markers was studied in 20 populations of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica (Pinaceae) and in two populations of Far-Eastern Manchurian fir A. nephrolepis and Sakhalin fir A. sachalinensis each. Four pairs of selective primers were used. In total, 168 samples from three fir species were genotyped for 117 polymorphic loci. According to the AMOVA results, the variability proportion characterizing the differences between three Abies species was several times higher (F(CT) = 0.53) than that accounting for among-population differences within the species (F(SC) = 0.125). Differentiation of the A. sibirica populations based on AFLP markers exceeded 14% (F(ST) = 0.141). Significant correlation between the genetic distances calculated from the AFLP data and the geographic distances between populations was found. The results of AFLP variability analysis supported and supplemented the conclusions inferred previously from allozyme and cpSSR data: several genetically similar geographic groups of Siberian fir were identified. These groups differ both in allele frequencies and in the levels of genetic variation. PMID:21516799

Semerikova, S A; Semerikov, V L

2011-02-01

234

World Bank challenge.  

PubMed

Founded in 1945 to meet the needs of post-war European reconstruction, the World Bank was formerly know as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. While Bank principals increasingly recognize the relationship between population growth and economic development, social investments in family planning have traditionally been less important than conventional Bank activities. Bank staff are generally maladroit in relating to demographic issues and favor carefully designed infrastructure projects over Third World social projects. Dr. Thomas Merrick has recently been appointed Senior Population Adviser to the World Bank. In this position, Dr. Merrick must accomplish the formidable task of convincing skeptical Bank economists that population is directly relevant to their work. He plans to argue the importance of population activities on a country- and issue-specific basis and stress population and family planning policies' bearing on capital formation, health, education, environment, job creation, urban development, and other Bank sectors. Dr. Merrick will also have to build up the number and competence of the World Bank's demographic staff. After having accomplished these internal tasks, the new Senior Population Adviser may also need to address the World Bank's tendency to work with recipient officials who give only low priority to borrowing for family planning. PMID:12344705

Carty, W P

1992-01-01

235

17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR FILTERS ARE VISIBLE TO THE SIDES OF THE DOORS. THE BUILDING WAS DIVIDED INTO ZONES BY AIRLOCK DOORS AND AIR FILTERS. AIR PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS WERE MAINTAINED IN THE ZONES, SUCH THAT AIRFLOW WAS PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION. (9/24/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

236

Far infrared filters for the Galileo-Jupiter and other missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in the development of FIR multilayer interference filters for the net flux radiometer and photopolarizing radiometer to be carried on board the Galileo mission to Jupiter is reported. The multilayer interference technique has been extended to the region above 40 microns by the use of PbTe\\/II-VI materials in hard-coated combination, with the thickest layers composed of CdSe QWOT at

J. S. Seeley; R. Hunneman; A. Whatley

1981-01-01

237

BROWSE IN SPRUCE-FIR FORESTS * Newton et al.BROWSE IN SPRUCE-FIR FORESTS * Newton et al. Minn.Agric.Exp.Stn.Tech. Bull.297. For.Ser.  

E-print Network

BROWSE IN SPRUCE-FIR FORESTS * Newton et al.BROWSE IN SPRUCE-FIR FORESTS * Newton et al. Minn. Vegetationproblemsandsolutions- northeast.South.Weed Sci. Soc.38:315-326. , ANDM. NEWTON. 1980. Aerial applications of triclopyr:315-326. , ANDM. NEWTON. 1980. Aerial applications of triclopyr

Beier, Paul

238

Banking Scope and Financial Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the implications of financial system design for financial innovation. We begin with assumptions about the investment opportunities of firms, their observable attributes, and the roles of commercial banks, investment banks, and the financial market. We examine the borrower's choice between bank and financial market funding, the commercial bank's choice of monitoring capacity, and the investment bank's choice of

Arnoud W A Boot; Anjan V Thakor

1997-01-01

239

Cooperative Banks and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative banks are an important, and growing, part of many financial systems. This paper empirically analyzes the role of cooperative banks in financial stability. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, we find that cooperative banks are more stable than commercial banks. This finding is due to the lower volatility of the cooperative banks' returns, which more than offsets their

Martin Cihák; Heiko Hesse

2007-01-01

240

Bank for International Settlements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), a creation of the Hague Conference of 1930, is "a[n international] central banking institution" whose aim is "to promote the co-operation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations." Its web site provides a detailed profile of BIS, along with its basic texts and charters. However, the power of the site is its publication section, a small but growing list of full text publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), highlighted by the quarterly International Banking and Financial Market Developments, a "commentary on recent developments in international banking, securities and global derivatives markets based on partial information available for the [most recent quarter] and on more detailed banking data for [the previous quarter]." The site also contains BIS Review, "a collection of important articles and speeches by senior central bankers."

1997-01-01

241

Water Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

1982-01-01

242

Plasmonic filters.  

SciTech Connect

Metal films perforated with subwavelength hole arrays have been show to demonstrate an effect known as Extraordinary Transmission (EOT). In EOT devices, optical transmission passbands arise that can have up to 90% transmission and a bandwidth that is only a few percent of the designed center wavelength. By placing a tunable dielectric in proximity to the EOT mesh, one can tune the center frequency of the passband. We have demonstrated over 1 micron of passive tuning in structures designed for an 11 micron center wavelength. If a suitable midwave (3-5 micron) tunable dielectric (perhaps BaTiO{sub 3}) were integrated with an EOT mesh designed for midwave operation, it is possible that a fast, voltage tunable, low temperature filter solution could be demonstrated with a several hundred nanometer passband. Such an element could, for example, replace certain components in a filter wheel solution.

Passmore, Brandon Scott; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

2009-09-01

243

Sun angle, view angle, and background effects on spectral response of simulated balsam fir canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment is described that examines the effects of solar zenith angle and background reflectance on the composite scene reflectance of small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) arranged in different densities. In this study, the shape, density, and, consequently, the needle area index and phytomass of the canopies, as well as the background reflectance, were controlled. The effects of sun angle, view angle, and background reflectance on the multispectral response of small balsam fir trees were significant. Regression models relating spectral vegetation indices (i.e., normalized difference (ND) and greenness (GR) to phytomass) showed very poor relationships for balsam fir canopies with a grass background. However, strong linear relationships were found for ND and GR with phytomass for a background that simulated the reflectance of snow. Changing solar zenith angle significantly affected the models relating ND to phytomass for the snow background, but was not significant in the model relating GR to phytomass for the snow background

Ranson, K. J.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

1986-01-01

244

Bank Director Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created for directors of financial companies, Bank Director Magazine is a quarterly publication that examines issues of importance to bank directors. The online publication includes the complete table of contents, as well as a selection of articles from the current issue. The site also features a directory of names, addresses, and phone numbers of M&A investment banking and law firms, consulting firms, and technology and retail delivery companies.

245

Agricultural Development Bank Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB\\/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local

Hans Dieter Seibel

2001-01-01

246

Banking: shop and compare.  

PubMed

There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors. PMID:25108982

O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

2014-01-01

247

Drug Filtering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Illuminations looks at exponential decay. The example of how kidneys filter blood is used. The material asks students to determine the amount of a drug that remains in the body over a period of time. Students will predict behavior by an exponential decay model and graph an exponential set of data. The lesson is appropriate for grades 9-12 and should require 1 class period to complete.

2010-12-06

248

Eyeglass Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

1987-01-01

249

Far-infrared Line Deficits in Galaxies with Extreme L_{FIR}/M_{H_{2}} Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report initial results from the far-infrared fine structure line observations of a sample of 44 local starbursts, Seyfert galaxies, and infrared luminous galaxies obtained with the PACS spectrometer on board Herschel. We show that the ratio between the far-infrared luminosity and the molecular gas mass, {L_{FIR}/{M_{H_{2}}, is a much better proxy for the relative brightness of the far-infrared lines than LFIR alone. Galaxies with high {L_{FIR}/{M_{{H_{2}} ratios tend to have weaker fine structure lines relative to their far-infrared continuum than galaxies with {L_{FIR}/{M_{H_{2}}? 80 {L_{?}} {M_{?}}^{-1}. A deficit of the [C II] 158 ?m line relative to L FIR was previously found with the Infrared Space Observatory, but now we show for the first time that this is a general aspect of all far-infrared fine structure lines, regardless of their origin in the ionized or neutral phase of the interstellar medium. The {L_{FIR}/{M_{H_{2}} value where these line deficits start to manifest is similar to the limit that separates between the two modes of star formation recently found in galaxies on the basis of studies of their gas-star formation relations. Our finding that the properties of the interstellar medium are also significantly different in these regimes provides independent support for the different star-forming relations in normal disk galaxies and major merger systems. We use the spectral synthesis code Cloudy to model the emission of the lines. The expected increase of the ionization parameter with {L_{FIR}/{M_{H_{2}} can simultaneously explain the line deficits in the [C II], [N II], and [O I] lines. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Graciá-Carpio, J.; Sturm, E.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Fischer, J.; Contursi, A.; Poglitsch, A.; Genzel, R.; González-Alfonso, E.; Sternberg, A.; Verma, A.; Christopher, N.; Davies, R.; Feuchtgruber, H.; de Jong, J. A.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.

2011-02-01

250

A novel approach to speckle noise filtering based on Artificial Bee Colony algorithm: an ultrasound image application.  

PubMed

In this study a novel approach based on 2D FIR filters is presented for denoising digital images. In this approach the filter coefficients of 2D FIR filters were optimized using the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. To obtain the best filter design, the filter coefficients were tested with different numbers (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, 11×11) and connection types (cascade and parallel) during optimization. First, the speckle noise with variances of 1, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.2 respectively was added to the synthetic test image. Later, these noisy images were denoised with both the proposed approach and other well-known filter types such as Gaussian, mean and average filters. For image quality determination metrics such as mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were used. Even in the case of noise having maximum variance (the most noisy), the proposed approach performed better than other filtering methods did on the noisy test images. In addition to test images, speckle noise with a variance of 1 was added to a fetal ultrasound image, and this noisy image was denoised with very high PSNR and SNR values. The performance of the proposed approach was also tested on several clinical ultrasound images such as those obtained from ovarian, abdomen and liver tissues. The results of this study showed that the 2D FIR filters designed based on ABC optimization can eliminate speckle noise quite well on noise added test images and intrinsically noisy ultrasound images. PMID:23806680

Latifo?lu, Fatma

2013-09-01

251

FDIC Banking Review, October 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC's monthly publication Banking Review includes the article "Financially Distressed Banks: How Effective Are Enforcement Actions in the Supervision Process?" which looks at some effects of bank examinations.

252

Dust filter apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Dust filter equipment includes a fibrous mat filter (37) having a low fibre density and a low loft so that when water is fed onto the filter it saturates the filter throughout its thickness and flows freely down the filter to form an effectively continuous body of water having a thickness virtually equal to the thickness of the mat filter.

James, G.C.

1981-03-03

253

High release rate 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one dispensers prevent Douglas-fir beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation of live Douglas-fir.  

PubMed

The Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), antiaggregation pheromone, 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH), has been used by natural resource managers and landowners to protect high-value, high-risk trees from Douglas-fir beetle infestation throughout the western United States since 2000. Labor is a major portion of the cost of MCH treatments. MCH is applied by walking through treatment areas and stapling the formulated pheromone in bubble capsules to trees and other objects on a regular grid pattern. Reducing the number of MCH release points and increasing the distance between them could significantly reduce labor costs, particularly in areas with steep terrain or large volumes of woody debris that could impede the movement of applicators. This study compared the standard MCH application method with a method releasing MCH at a 3 times higher rate and placed at three times fewer release points per unit area. Treatments were applied to 2-ha plots simulating an operational application. Aggregation pheromone-baited traps were placed at plot centers to ensure that dispersing adult beetles would be present on all plots. Both MCH treatments were equally effective at preventing the infestation of live Douglas-fir, Pseudotsugae menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, trees (> or = 30 cm diameter at breast height). These results confirm that MCH formulated to release at three times the current standard rate and placed at 3 times fewer points per unit area can effectively prevent the infestation of live Douglas-fir. The new treatment will significantly reduce the labor cost of MCH applications making them feasible for areas that may have previously been marginal economically. PMID:19133463

Ross, D W; Wallin, K F

2008-12-01

254

effects of cattle grazing on birds in interior douglas-fir forests of british columbia 1JEM--VoluME 12, NuMbEr 3  

E-print Network

effects of cattle grazing on birds in interior douglas-fir forests of british columbia 1JEM. Newbury, and D.J. Green. 2011. Effects of Cattle Grazing on Birds in Interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga Effects of Cattle Grazing on Birds in Interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Forests of British

255

75 FR 69444 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...both of Victor, Iowa; Corydon State Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of...

2010-11-12

256

75 FR 67731 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...both of Victor, Iowa; Corydon State Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of...

2010-11-03

257

12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1003 Section 7.1003 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1003 Money...bank funds: (1) From the lending bank or its operating...

2010-01-01

258

An Introduction to PALM: Filtering Filter methods  

E-print Network

of continuity: ui xi = 0 Equations for scalar variables: t = - (ui) xi ´ The filtering process provides the non-linear + ujui + uiuj ´ Non-linear term is entirely written as a function of filtered and sub-filter scales (ui to evaluate the terms directly from the filtered variables « uiuj cannot be calculated directly, requires

Raasch, Siegfried

259

COUNTERPOINT Data Bank — \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final few sentences of the paper by Drs Israeli and Altholz, proposing an international practitioner data bank, suggest that they have in mind a wider concept for its content than malpractice information. Nevertheless the paper and its title are supportive of the national practitioner data bank, which was established in the United States of America in 1990, to gather

B. T. COLLOPY

1997-01-01

260

Overflowing the Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will teach students about levees and how they are designed to hold a river in its bank. They will construct a model of a river bank and explore how levees can cause water levels to back up into smaller streams and tributaries, causing floods.

261

Carbon Cycling in Balsam Fir Ecosystems Following Forestry Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are using the eddy covariance method to monitor carbon cycling following forestry practices in Abies balsamea (L.) Mill forests. The impact of forestry practices depends on the extent and duration of lost photosynthetic uptake and on the quantity of additional ecosystem respiration due to the decomposition of logging residues. A 33 year-old forest was thinned in 2005, reducing density from 2300 to 1500 trees per hectare, leaf area index from 6.5 to 4.7, and biomass from 46.6 to 36.4 Mg C ha-1. Gross primary production (GPP) in the year after thinning decreased to 11.3 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in comparison to 15.9 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in the year before thinning. GPP was higher in subsequent years because LAI was recovering from disturbance and environmental conditions were more favourable for photosynthesis than in 2004. Interannual variation in the effects of environmental conditions on photosynthesis was apparent when comparing monthly distribution of GPP among years. For example, high GPP in 2007 could be ascribed to greater precipitation in July and August than in other years. Thinning reduced ecosystem respiration (ER) from 11.0 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in 2004 to 8.3 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in 2006. We estimate that most of the readily decomposable logging residues were oxidized in the three years following thinning. Clearcutting released a dense layer of A. balsamea advanced regeneration and stimulated abundant regeneration of Prunus pensylvanica (L.f.) on disturbed ground. GPP increased rapidly as a result, reaching 7.1 Mg C ha- 1 y-1 in the fourth year. ER at the clearcut site was 7 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in the first year, two thirds of that in the undisturbed, 33 year-old forest. ER increased to 8.3 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in the next three years as the more readily decomposable of the 95 Mg C ha-1 of logging residues was oxidized. The clearcut became a smaller source of C in each year, decreasing from 5.8 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in the year after harvest to 1.2 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in 2008. We predict that the clearcut site will become a net sink for carbon approximately six years after harvesting. Our preliminary conclusion is that balsam fir ecosystems recover photosynthetic uptake relatively quickly after disturbance by a variety of means and that this response offsets additional ecosystem respiration due to decomposition of logging residues. Results such as these are essential for increasing our understanding of ecosystem processes so that models can be developed to predict the impact of altered climate regimes on the carbon dynamics of forests under management.

Lavigne, M. B.; Foster, R. J.; Goodine, G. K.

2009-05-01

262

EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

263

MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

264

The FIR/Radio correlation of high redshift galaxies in the HDF-N  

E-print Network

The correlation between the far-infrared (FIR) and radio emission is well established for nearby star forming galaxies. Many applications, in particular the radio-to-submm spectral index redshift indicator, tacitly assume that the relation holds well beyond our local neighbourhood, to systems located at cosmological distances. In order to test this assumption I have constructed a sample of 20 HDF-N galaxies, all with measured spectroscopic redshifts, and all detected by both ISO and the WSRT at 15 micron and 1.4 GHz respectively. The galaxies span a wide range of redshift with a median value of z ~ 0.7. The ISO 15 micron data were k-corrected and extrapolated to the FIR (60 and 100 micron) by assuming a starburst (M82) spectral energy distribution (SED) for the entire sample. An initial analysis of the data suggests that the correlation between the FIR and the radio emission continues to apply at high redshift with no obvious indication that it fails to apply beyond z ~ 1.3. The sample is ``contaminated'' by at least 1 distant (z=4.4), radio-loud AGN, VLA J123642+621331. This source has recently been detected by the first deep field VLBI observations of the HDF-N and is clearly identified as an outlier in the FIR/radio correlation.

M. A. Garrett

2002-02-06

265

On Time-Varying FIR Decision Feedback Equalization of Doubly Selective Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider decision feedback equalization of doubly selective channels modeled via basis expansion models (BEM). Recently there has been some interest in designing time-variant serial FIR (finite impulse response) decision feedback equalizers (DFE) using complex exponential (CE-) BEMs for equalizers in addition to using CE-BEM for modeling the channel itself. In this paper we show that an alternative formulation of

Liying Song; Jitendra K. Tugnait

2008-01-01

266

SAPWOOD MOISTURE IN DOUGLAS-FIR BOLES AND SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Large conifers, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. Menziesii), purportedly draw on water stored in their boles during periods of summer drought. The relation of seasonal changes in soil moisture to sapwood water content was evaluated in four forest st...

267

BOLE WATER CONTENT SHOWS LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATION IN CENTURY-OLD DOUGLAS-FIR TREES  

EPA Science Inventory

Purportedly, large Douglas-fir trees in the American Pacific Northwest use water stored in bole tissues to ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought, the water content of bole tissues being drawn down over the summer months and replenished during the winter. Continuous mo...

268

Branch surface area and its vertical distribution in coastal Douglas-fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood area index (WAI; total surface area of branches and bole per unit of land area) is an important yet often neglected forest structural attribute. Branchwood surface area, in particular, has significant implications for many ecophysiological processes including total respiration and interception of radiation and rainfall. Branch surface area was estimated at the branch-, tree-, and stand-level for 33 Douglas-fir

Aaron R. Weiskittel; Douglas A. Maguire

2006-01-01

269

Vapor Phase Acetylation of Southern Pine, Douglas-Fir, and Aspen Wood Flakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern pine, Douglas-fir, and aspen wood flakes were acetylated with acetic anhydride vapor and compared with flakes acetylated with liquid acetic anhydride diluted with xylene. The rate of acetylation was much lower for the vapor than for the liquid phase reaction. Acetylation weight percent gains above 20 were achieved by both methods. Flakeboards made from both types of flakes absorbed

Roger M. Rowell

1986-01-01

270

Population size and diversity of Frankia in soils of Ceanothus velutinus and Douglas-fir stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of host plants on Frankia populations was investigated using soils from Ceanothus velutinus (Dougl.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands. Population sizes of Ceanothus-infective Frankia in the soils were measured using plant bioassays with C. velutinus, C. sanguineus (Pursh), and C. integerrimus (H. & A.) as trap plants. The Frankia population in soil from the C. velutinus

Soon-Chun Jeong; David D. Myrold

2001-01-01

271

Development of an Index of Balsam Fir Vigor by Foliar Spectral Reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential to measure indices of forest vigor from foliar spectral reflectance was assessed in a range of balsam fir conditions achieved through stand manipulations. In order of increasing vigor, treatments consisted of root pruning, control, thinning, and thinning in combination with fertilization. Concentrations of chlorophyll and nitrogen increased significantly from the low to high vigor plots, and shoot lengths

Joan E. Luther; Allan L. Carroll

1999-01-01

272

Balsam fir self-thinning relationship and its constancy among different ecological regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constancy of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) self-thinning relationship has been investigated among four study areas located in different ecological regions of Quebec's humid boreal forest. These four study areas contained respectively 348, 252, 146, and 55 observations (plots ? measures) sampled over a period of up to 40 years. A self-thinning fitting method was developed to position

Eric Bégin; Jean Bégin; Louis Bélanger; Louis-Paul Rivest; Stéphane Tremblay

2001-01-01

273

Factors influencing windthrow in balsam fir forests: from landscape studies to individual tree studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Windthrow hazard depends upon the interaction of numerous factors whose relative importance has yet to be assessed in the specific context of Eastern Canadian boreal forests. This paper presents results from three studies looking at their relative importance at different scales in the context of balsam fir stands. First, factors involved in a catastrophic windthrow are examined in order to

Jean-Claude Ruel

2000-01-01

274

Modeling insecticide protection versus forest management approaches to reducing balsam fir sawfly and hemlock looper damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decision support system (DSS) for improved management decision making and to reduce impacts of forest insect outbreaks was developed and implemented for two defoliators, hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria Guen.) and balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Harris), in District 15, a 336,805ha forest managed by Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Ltd. in western Newfoundland, Canada. Over the past 15years,

Javed Iqbal; Chris R. Hennigar; David A. MacLean

275

Stand-level prediction of balsam fir mortality in relation to spruce budworm defoliation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stand production and sustained yield calculations are largely affected by tree mortality, which can be caused by many factors such as competition, insect damage, or climatic events. In the eastern Canadian boreal forest, spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) defoliation can produce varying levels of mortality in balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) stands. This mortality was estimated for the entire

David Pothier; Daniel Mailly

2006-01-01

276

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF PRESCRIBED FIRE IN GRAND FIR-WHITE PINE-WESTERN HEMLOCK  

E-print Network

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF PRESCRIBED FIRE IN GRAND FIR-WHITE PINE-WESTERN HEMLOCK SLASH FUELS Elizabeth our knowledge about fue effects and our skills in prescribing and meeting objectives through, using aplanar intersect method (Brown 1974). On asubsetof18 units, consumption oflargewoody materialwas

Fried, Jeremy S.

277

Northern Flying Squirrel Mycophagy and Truffle Production in Fir Forests in  

E-print Network

Northern Flying Squirrel Mycophagy and Truffle Production in Fir Forests in Northeastern California of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), a mycophagous (consuming fungi) small mammal, or compared 1990 and 1994. In the first study, we found that abundance of northern flying squirrels

Standiford, Richard B.

278

Canopy microclimate and arboreal lichen loading in subalpine spruce-fir forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair lichen communities in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) - subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests of the northern Cariboo Mountains (British Columbia) show distinct vertical zonation. Alectoria sarmentosa reaches peak abundance in the lower canopy (over 35 kg\\/ha) whereas Bryoria spp. lichens reach peak abundance in the upper canopy (over 250 kg\\/ha). These distribution patterns are accentuated by stand structure with

Jocelyn Campbell; Darwyn S. Coxson

2001-01-01

279

Tree planting pattern effects on forage production in a Douglas-fir agroforest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource sharing among agroforestry system components, as expressed by spatial patterns along interfaces between components, is a crucial factor in both understanding present systems and in designing new agroforestry applications. A study of the spatial pattern of forage production surrounding 9–10 year old Douglas-fir trees in a agrosilvopastoral plantation near Corvallis, Oregon, was conducted during 1988 and 1989. Transects of

S. H. Sharrow

1991-01-01

280

Influences of paper birch competition on growth of understory white spruce and subalpine fir following spacing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five years after spacing a young, 11 m tall paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) stand, we examine rela- tionships between growth of understory white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.), and level of birch retention. Our objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of selected measures of competition for estimating the effects of the residual birch

Philip G. Comeau; Jian R. Wang; Tony Letchford

2003-01-01

281

On the Nature of the Deeply Embedded Protostar OMC-2 FIR 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 ?m, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 ?m. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 ?m, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L ?, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L ?. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L ?. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L ?, while the luminosity of the colder (~20 K) extended core could be around 100 L ?, with a mass of about 27 M ?. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L ?. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

Furlan, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Osorio, M.; Stutz, A. M.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Stanke, T.; Manoj, P.; Adams, J. D.; Tobin, J. J.

2014-05-01

282

Net primary production of Chinese fir plantation ecosystems and its relationship to climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article focuses on the relationship between the net primary production (NPP) of Chinese fir and the climate. Spatial-temporal NPP pattern in the potential distribution area of Chinese fir from 2000 to 2010 was characterized utilizing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. The results showed that the production of Chinese fir was higher in southern and eastern regions than in northern and western areas, which was consistent with the spatial pattern of temperature and precipitation. The relationship between NPP of Chinese fir and climate variables was analyzed comprehensively on three scales: regional scale, zonal gradients and pixel scale. On the regional scale, precipitation showed higher correlation coefficients with NPP than did temperature. When scaling to pixels, the spatial variability pattern indicated that temperature was more important in central and eastern regions, while precipitation was crucial in the northern part. Negative correlations between NPP and precipitation and temperature were found in the southern region. The zonal analysis revealed that the impact of precipitation on the production was more complicated than that of temperature. When compared to natural forests, plantations appear to be more sensitive to the mode of precipitation, which indicates their higher vulnerability under climate change which could potentially lead to increasing variability in rainfall. Temporally, NPP values decreased despite of increasing temperatures, and more in plantations than among other vegetation types, which draws attention to carbon sequestration potential by plantations under current climate change.

Wang, L.; Duan, B.; Zhang, Y.; Berninger, F.

2014-04-01

283

Aluminum in Soil Solutions from a Subalpine Spruce-Fir Forest at Whiteface Mountain, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct or indirect Al toxicity has been suggested as a principal factor in forest tree declines. We monitored ambient soil solutions in undis- turbed and experimentally manipulated soils from a fir (Abies balsa. mea (L.) Mill.)-spruce forest on Whiteface Mountain, NY, in order to characterize soil solution Al concentrations over a range of acid anion loadings. Under both natural and

E. K. Miller; T. G. Huntington; A. H. Johnson; A. J. Friedland

1992-01-01

284

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Marketing Strategy for Small Diameter Douglas Fir  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Marketing Strategy the current status of the subject matter of a project/report". #12;"Marketing Strategy for Small Diameter Columbia April 9, 2003 #12;ii ABSTRACT "Marketing Strategy for Small Diameter Douglas Fir" In the forest

285

Evaluation of some markers of vigor in seedlings of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)  

E-print Network

Evaluation of some markers of vigor in seedlings of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb is an impor- tant aspect of forest regeneration in the Pacific Northwestern United States. When a plantation content of roots (Puttonen, 1986), the osmotic concentration of xylem sap and biochemical markers

Boyer, Edmond

286

Partial and clearcut harvesting of dry Douglas-fir forests: Implications for small mammal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests offer a wide range of timber and non-timber values, which may benefit from a balanced timber harvest by variable retention systems with conservation of biodiversity. A major component of biodiversity are forest floor small mammal communities whose abundance and diversity serve as ecological indicators of significant change in forest structure and function from harvesting activities.

Walt Klenner; Thomas P. Sullivan

2009-01-01

287

Seasonality and Abundance of Truffles from Oak Woodlands to Red Fir Forests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Truffles are an important food source for many small mammals in forest ecosystems; however, we know little about the seasonality, abundance, or diversity of the truffle community in the Sierra Nevada. This study examined how truffle abundance and diversity varied between oak woodland, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed-conifer, and red fir (Abies magnifica) forests. Species richness (number of species) and

Malcolm P. North

288

Northern Flying Squirrel Mycophagy and Truffle Production in Fir Forests in Northeastern California1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we summarize the results of four studies in which we either examined the feeding habits of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), a mycophagous (consuming fungi) small mammal, or compared the abundance of truffles (sporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi) among different types of fir (Abies) forest. The studies were conducted within the Lassen National Forest in northeastern

Jeffrey R. Waters; Kevin S. McKelvey; Cynthia J. Zabel; Daniel Luoma

2000-01-01

289

Chemical and mineral composition of ectomycorrhizosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies  

E-print Network

Chemical and mineral composition of ectomycorrhizosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa, Canada V2N 4Z9, e-mail: arocenaj@unbc.ca; and 2Department of Soil Science, University of British Columbia., Glowa, K. R., Massicotte, H. B. and Lavkulich, L. 1999. Chemical and mineral composition of ectomycorrhi

Massicotte, Hugues

290

POSTSORTING OF HEM-FIR: A MILL STUDY MICHAEL R. MILOTA  

E-print Network

PROCESSES POSTSORTING OF HEM-FIR: A MILL STUDY MICHAEL R. MILOTA QINGLIN Wu ABSTRACT In some, 20th Annual Meeting. School of Forestry, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, Oreg. pp. 18-21. s Bassett, K.H. 1973. A look at redry. In: Proc. West- ern Dry Kiln Clubs, 24th Annual Meeting. School of Forestry

291

Molecular identification of individual oak and fir trees from maternal tissues of their fruits or seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of DNA markers to purely maternal tissues has been scarcely addressed in trees. We have focused on non-parenchymatic maternal tissues of the fruits and seeds of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and investigated whether they can be used for a direct molecular identification of the mother trees. Total DNA with sufficient quantity

Birgit Ziegenhagen; Sascha Liepelt; Vivian Kuhlenkamp; Matthias Fladung

2003-01-01

292

Corticolous bryophytes in managed Douglas-fir forests: habitat differentiation and responses to thinning and fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticolous bryophytes, that is, mosses and liverworts that inhabit tree trunks, represent an important compo - nent of plant diversity in temperate ecosystems, but little is known of their ecology in managed forests. In this study, we quantified community composition and habitat differentiation of corticolous bryophytes in Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantations subjected to experimental thinning and fertilization

Sean C. Thomas; Denise A. Liguori; Charles B. Halpern

2001-01-01

293

ORIGINAL PAPER Phylogeographic analysis of the fir species in southern China  

E-print Network

(cpDNA) is paternally inherited, and the genetic variations in the two make them particularly useful- typed populations further provide basic frames for genetic delimitation and effective conservation of these endangered species in the future. Keywords Fir species . mtDNA . cpDNA . Phylogeography. Genetic admixture 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

MECHANO-SORPTIVE DEFORMATION OF DOUGLAS-FIR SPECIMENS UNDER TANGENTIAL TENSILE STRESS  

E-print Network

of stress: 0.276,0.552,0.827, and 1.24 YPa. The results conlirmcd that a lark .WS deformation occurs duringMECHANO-SORPTIVE DEFORMATION OF DOUGLAS-FIR SPECIMENS UNDER TANGENTIAL TENSILE STRESS DURING-freeipecimens, the MS strain was shorn to be oronortional to aoolied stress. and the material oarameters describing

295

Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests on the eastern slope of the Cascade Mountains in Washington state, USA.

J. A. Hoff; N. B. Klopfenstein; G. I. McDonald; J. R. Tonn; M.-S. Kim; P. J. Zambino; P. F. Hessburg; J. D. Rogers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

2004-01-01

296

MEMORIES OF NATURAL DISTURBANCES IN PONDEROSA PINE DOUGLAS-FIR AGE STRUCTURE, SOUTHWESTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA  

E-print Network

BRITISH COLUMBIA by Carmen Monica Wong B.Sc., McGill University, 1995 RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED-fir Age Structure, Southwestern British Columbia PROJECT: 255 SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE and British Columbia south of 520N, disturbance regimes have been characterized as mixed

297

Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

2013-01-01

298

Net primary production of Chinese fir plantation ecosystems and its relationship to climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article investigates the relationship between net primary production (NPP) of Chinese fir, temperature and precipitation. The spatial-temporal NPP pattern in the potential distribution area of Chinese fir from 2000-2010 was estimated utilizing a MODIS MOD17 product in a geographic information system (GIS) environment. The results showed that the highest NPP value of Chinese fir is in the Fujian province in the eastern part of the study region. The relationship between NPP of Chinese fir and climate variables was analyzed spatially and temporally. On the regional scale, precipitation showed higher correlation coefficients with NPP than did temperature. The spatial variability pattern indicated that temperature was more important in central and eastern regions (e.g. Hunan and Fujian province), while precipitation was crucial in the northern part (e.g. Anhui province). Zonal analysis revealed that the impact of precipitation on the production was more complicate than that of temperature; larger amount of precipitation is not always corresponding with greater NPP value. When compared to natural forests, plantations appear to be more sensitive to the variability of precipitation, which indicates their higher vulnerability under climate change. Temporally, NPP values decreased despite of increasing temperatures, and the decrease was larger in plantations than among other vegetation types.

Wang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Berninger, F.; Duan, B.

2014-10-01

299

EFFECTS OF CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND MORTALITY IN DOUGLAS FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Little is known about the effects of global climate change on the production and mortality of fine roots. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir fine ( 2 mm in diameter) roots. The study was conducted in sun-lit cont...

300

De Bilt, 2011 | Scientific report; WR 2011-02, Upper air climatology of Amsterdam FIR,  

E-print Network

De Bilt, 2011 | Scientific report; WR 2011-02, part 2/2 Upper air climatology of Amsterdam FIR, using ERA-Interim 1989-2008 part 2 Geert Groen and Dirk Wolters #12;#12;Upper air climatology This report presents upper-air climatology for the lower troposphere (below 850 hPa or 1.5 km

Stoffelen, Ad

301

De Bilt, 2011 | Scientific report; WR 2011-02, Upper air climatology of Amsterdam FIR,  

E-print Network

De Bilt, 2011 | Scientific report; WR 2011-02, part 1/2 Upper air climatology of Amsterdam FIR, using ERA-Interim 1989-2008 part 1 Dirk Wolters and Geert Groen #12;#12;Upper air climatology This report, part 1, presents upper-air climatology below 150 hPa (Flight level 430) for the Flight

Stoffelen, Ad

302

Multiclass pattern recognition using adaptive correlation filters with complex constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient method for reliable multiclass pattern recognition using a bank of adaptive correlation filters is proposed. The method can recognize and classify multiple targets from an input scene by using both the intensity and phase distributions of the output complex correlation plane. The adaptive filters are synthesized with the help of an iterative algorithm based on synthetic discriminant functions with complex constraints. The algorithm optimizes the discrimination capability of the adaptive filters and determines the minimum number of filters in a bank to guarantee a desired classification efficiency. As a result, the computational complexity of the proposed system is low. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed approach in cluttered and noisy scenes are discussed and compared with those obtained through existing methods in terms of recognition performance, classification efficiency, and computational complexity.

Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Campos-Trujillo, Oliver G.; Kober, Vitaly; Aguilar-Gonzalez, Pablo M.

2012-03-01

303

Filtering Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site related to water filtration is from the US Environmental Agency entitled EPA Environmental Education: Water Filtration (1 ). The two-page document explains the need for water filtration and the steps water treatment plants take to purify water. To further understand the process, a demonstration project is provided that illustrates these purification steps, which include coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The second site is an interesting Flash animation called Filtration: How Does it Work (2 ) provided by Canada's Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. Visitors will learn various types of filtration procedures and systems and the materials that are used such as carbon and sand. Next, from the National Science Foundation is a learning activity called Get Out the Gunk (3 ). Using just a few simple items from around the house, kids will be able to answer questions like "Does a filter work better with a lot of water rushing through, or a small trickle?" and "Does it make the water cleaner if you pour it through a filter twice?" The fourth Web site, Rapid Sand Filtration (4 ), is provided by Dottie Schmitt and Christie Shinault of Virginia Tech. The authors describe the process, which involves the flow of water through a bed of granular media, normally following settling basins in conventional water treatment trains to remove any particulate matter left over after flocculation and settling. Along with its thorough description, readers can view illustrations and photographs that further explain the process. The Vegetative Buffer Strips for Improved Surface Water Quality (5) Web site is provided by the Iowa State University Extension office. The document explains what vegetative buffer strips are, how they filter contaminants and sediment from surface water, how effective they are, and more. The sixth offering is a file called Infiltration Basins and Trenches (6) that is offered by the University of Wisconsin Extension. These structures are intended to collect water, have it infiltrate into the ground, and have it purified along the way. This document explains how effective they are at removing pollutants, how to install them, design guidelines, maintenance, and more. Next, from a site called Wilderness Survial.net is the Water Filtration Devices (7) page. Visitors read how to make a filtering system out of cloth, sand, crushed rock, charcoal, or a hollow log, although as is stated, the water still has to be purified. The last site, from the US Geological Survey, is called A Visit to a Wastewater-Treatment Plant: Primary Treatment of Wastewater (8). Although geared towards children, the site does a good job of explaining what happens at each stage of the treatment process and how pollutants are removed to help keep water clean. Everything from screening, pumping, aerating, sludge and scum removal, killing bacteria, and what is done with wastewater residuals is covered.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

304

RADIO IMAGING OF THE NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 REGION: A HYPERCOMPACT H II REGION CANDIDATE IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

The NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 region was observed in the 6.9 mm continuum with an angular resolution of about 1.5 arcsec. The 6.9 mm continuum map shows four compact sources, FIR 5w, 5e, 6c, and 6n, as well as an extended structure of the ionization front associated with the optical nebulosity. FIR 6c has a source size of about 0.4 arcsec or 150 AU. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of FIR 6c is peculiar: rising steeply around 6.9 mm and flat around 1 mm. The possibility of a hypercompact H II region is explored. If the millimeter flux of FIR 6c comes from hot ionized gas heated by a single object at the center, the central object may be a B1 star of about 5800 solar luminosities and about 13 solar masses. The 6.9 mm continuum of FIR 6n may be a mixture of free-free emission and dust continuum emission. Archival data show that both FIR 6n and 6c exhibit water maser activity, suggesting the existence of shocked gas around them. The 6.9 mm continuum emission from FIR 5w has a size of about 1.8 arcsec or 760 AU. The SEDs suggest that the 6.9 mm emission of FIR 5w and 5e comes from dust, and the masses of the dense molecular gas are about 0.6 and 0.5 solar masses, respectively.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-10

305

Radio Imaging of the NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 Region: A Hypercompact H II Region Candidate in Orion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 region was observed in the 6.9 mm continuum with an angular resolution of about 1.5 arcsec. The 6.9 mm continuum map shows four compact sources, FIR 5w, 5e, 6c, and 6n, as well as an extended structure of the ionization front associated with the optical nebulosity. FIR 6c has a source size of about 0.4 arcsec or 150 AU. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of FIR 6c is peculiar: rising steeply around 6.9 mm and flat around 1 mm. The possibility of a hypercompact H II region is explored. If the millimeter flux of FIR 6c comes from hot ionized gas heated by a single object at the center, the central object may be a B1 star of about 5800 solar luminosities and about 13 solar masses. The 6.9 mm continuum of FIR 6n may be a mixture of free-free emission and dust continuum emission. Archival data show that both FIR 6n and 6c exhibit water maser activity, suggesting the existence of shocked gas around them. The 6.9 mm continuum emission from FIR 5w has a size of about 1.8 arcsec or 760 AU. The SEDs suggest that the 6.9 mm emission of FIR 5w and 5e comes from dust, and the masses of the dense molecular gas are about 0.6 and 0.5 solar masses, respectively.

Choi, Minho; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Kang, Miju

2012-03-01

306

Core 4: Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Image Bank supplements the coursework for Core 4: The Shaping of the Modern World, an introductory course offered by the History Department of Brooklyn College. The Image Bank indexes numerous historical images spanning from the Scientific Revolution to the present. The images are divided into eight major topic indexes: Ancien Regime and Critics; Age of Revolutions; Industry and Society; Liberalism and Nationalism; Varieties of Imperialism; The World Turned Upside Down; Fascism, Depression & WWII; and, The World Since 1945. Indexes for major topics contain clustered subtopics, allowing users to locate relevant images quickly. This Image Bank presents students and educators with a valuable, visual method for understanding Modern Western History.

307

World Bank Experts Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with reporters and editors in mind, the World Bank Experts Guide provides World Bank experts that are available to comment on to the media on a wide variety of topics. The list of experts may be viewed by name of expert or by subject. Each expert is given his or her own Webpage, which includes a short biography, expertise, and languages spoken, along with a photograph and related links. For ease of use, several "hot topics" are highlighted including AIDS/HIV and debt relief. This site gives an awe-inspiring look at the variety of experts working for the World Bank.

308

Can Relationship Banking Survive Competition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How will banks evolve as competition increases from other banks and from the capital market? Will banks become more like capital market underwriters and offer passive transaction loans or return to their roots as relationship lending experts? These are the questions we address. Our key result is that as interbank competition increases, banks make \\

Arnoud W. A. Boot; Anjan V. Thakor

2000-01-01

309

Banks as Catalysts for Industrialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a new theory of the role of banks as catalysts for industrialization. In their influential analysis of continental European industrialization, Gerschenkron and Schumpeter argued that banks promoted the creation of new industries. We formalize this role of banks by introducing financial intermediaries into a “big push” model. We show that banks may act as catalysts for industrialization provided

Marco Da Rin; Thomas Hellmann

2002-01-01

310

Mile High Wetland Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site listed here is provided by an environmental consulting firm that works with commercial and private landowners to establish Wetland Banks. An innovative concept (and growing reality) that has received mixed reviews from scientists, Wetland Banking attempts to combine the goals of developers (i.e., to develop a certain area) and wetland conservationists (i.e., to maintain/ restore areas of intact wetlands). If misused, this approach could work against wetland conservation; if properly instated, however, Wetland Banking might offer an alternative to the currently poor success rate of wetland mitigation projects. This resource by Mile High Wetlands Group, LLC, offers background information on Wetland banking, with an emphasis on the Group's local area (Colorado).

311

Protein Data Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Protein Data Bank is the international depository for the results of structural studies of biological macromolecules. At present, some 1200 biological macromolecules are reported to have been crystallized, of which approximately 350 have structures de...

E. E. Abola, F. C. Bernstein, T. F. Koetzle

1984-01-01

312

Statistics on Banking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC Statistics on Banking is a "quarterly publication that provides aggregate financial and structure information on FDIC-insured institutions, with summary totals by state and charter type." The latest figures for third quarter 1997 are now available.

313

Fall Math Idea Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math idea bank includes autumn themed hands-on activities focused on the topics of leaves, spiders, and pumpkins. Also included in this resource are links to online activities and websites for research.

Petti, Wendy

2014-01-01

314

12 CFR 996.2 - Bank employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank employees. 996.2 Section 996.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES AUTHORITY FOR BANK ASSISTANCE OF THE RESOLUTION...

2011-01-01

315

12 CFR 996.2 - Bank employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank employees. 996.2 Section 996.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES AUTHORITY FOR BANK ASSISTANCE OF THE RESOLUTION...

2010-01-01

316

Banking Data and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article on free banking data and research, created by Ruth Kobylecky Humphrey for the American Library Association, includes an index of annotations on a wide range of federal and association Websites that offer financial information and help for their members. The index is broken into several sections including Federal Agencies, The Federal Reserve System, International Banking, and the Secondary Market. Within each section, the entries are arranged in alphabetical order and carefully annotated.

Humphrey, Ruth K.

317

Far infrared filters for the Galileo-Jupiter and other missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of FIR multilayer interference filters for the net flux radiometer and photopolarizing radiometer to be carried on board the Galileo mission to Jupiter is reported. The multilayer interference technique has been extended to the region above 40 microns by the use of PbTe/II-VI materials in hard-coated combination, with the thickest layers composed of CdSe QWOT at 74 microns and PbTe QWOT. Improvements have also been obtained in filters below 20 microns on the basis of the Chebyshev stack design. A composite filter cutting on steeply at 40 microns has been designed which employs a thin crystal quartz substrate, shorter wavelength absorption in ZnS and As2S3 thin films, and supplementary multilayer interference. Finally, absorptive filters have been developed based on II-VI compounds in multilayer combination with KRS-5 (or 6) on a KRS-5 (or 6) substrate

Seeley, J. S.; Hunneman, R.; Whatley, A.

1981-01-01

318

The balancing act of template bank construction: inspiral waveform template banks for gravitational-wave detectors and optimizations at fixed computational cost  

E-print Network

Gravitational-wave searches for signals from inspiralling compact binaries have relied on matched filtering banks of waveforms (called template banks) to try to extract the signal waveforms from the detector data. These template banks have been constructed using four main considerations, the region of parameter space of interest, the sensitivity of the detector, the matched filtering bandwidth, and the sensitivity one is willing to lose due to the granularity of template placement, the latter of which is governed by the minimal match. In this work we describe how the choice of the lower frequency cutoff, the lower end of the matched filter frequency band, can be optimized for detection. We also show how the minimal match can be optimally chosen in the case of limited computational resources. These techniques are applied to searches for binary neutron star signals that have been previously performed when analyzing Initial LIGO and Virgo data and will be performed analyzing Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo data...

Keppel, Drew

2013-01-01

319

Conjugate linear filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of optimum filtering for complex valued random processes are presented. Ordinary linear filters are complemented with conjugate linear filters. It is found that the incorporation of conjugate linear filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of two in matched filter receivers. For optimum least squares filtering the inclusion of conjugate processing reduces mean-square error by a factor as great

W. Brown; R. Crane

1969-01-01

320

Filtering through combination of positive filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear filters characterized by a state-variable realization given by matrices with nonnegative entries (called positive filters) are heavily restricted in their achievable performance. Nevertheless, such filters are the only choice when dealing with the charged coupled device MOS technology of charge routing networks (CRN's), since nonnegativity is a consequence of the underlying physical mechanism. In order to exploit the

Luca Benvenuti; Lorenzo Farina; Brian D. O. Anderson

1999-01-01

321

Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.  

PubMed

Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

2014-01-01

322

Synchrotron FT-FIR spectroscopy of nitro-derivatives vapors: New spectroscopic signatures of explosive taggants and degradation products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first successful rovibrational study of gas phase mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene in the TeraHertz/Far-Infrared (THz/FIR) spectral domain. Using the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier Transform spectrometer connected to multipass cells, the low-energy vibrational cross-sections of the different isomers of mononitrotoluene have been measured and compared to calculated spectra with the density functional theory including the anharmonic contribution. The active FIR modes of 2,4 and 2,6 dinitrotoluene have been assigned to the vibrational bands measured by Fourier Transform FIR spectroscopy of the gas-phase molecular cloud produced in an evaporating/recondensating system. This study highlights the selectivity of gas phase THz/FIR spectroscopy allowing an unambiguous recognition and discrimination of nitro-aromatic compounds used as explosive taggants.

Cuisset, Arnaud; Gruet, Sébastien; Pirali, Olivier; Chamaillé, Thierry; Mouret, Gaël

2014-11-01

323

Synchrotron FT-FIR spectroscopy of nitro-derivatives vapors: new spectroscopic signatures of explosive taggants and degradation products.  

PubMed

We report on the first successful rovibrational study of gas phase mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene in the TeraHertz/Far-Infrared (THz/FIR) spectral domain. Using the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier Transform spectrometer connected to multipass cells, the low-energy vibrational cross-sections of the different isomers of mononitrotoluene have been measured and compared to calculated spectra with the density functional theory including the anharmonic contribution. The active FIR modes of 2,4 and 2,6 dinitrotoluene have been assigned to the vibrational bands measured by Fourier Transform FIR spectroscopy of the gas-phase molecular cloud produced in an evaporating/recondensating system. This study highlights the selectivity of gas phase THz/FIR spectroscopy allowing an unambiguous recognition and discrimination of nitro-aromatic compounds used as explosive taggants. PMID:24975521

Cuisset, Arnaud; Gruet, Sébastien; Pirali, Olivier; Chamaillé, Thierry; Mouret, Gaël

2014-11-11

324

A Landsat Thematic Mapper investigation of the geobotanical relationships in the northern spruce-fir forest, Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation, in the northern spruce-fir forest at Mt. Moosilauke, NH, indicates that Landsat TM data can be used to distinguish between and map major vegetation zones. Principal components analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the TM data; and in this simpler spectral space, it is easier to visualize the discrimination between major vegetation zones: the northern hardwoods zone, spruce-fir zone, fir zone, and alpine tundra zone. The moisture stress index highlights areas of heavy forest damage (fir waves), but does not correlate with low levels of damage in the mixed, background forest at Mt. Moosilauke. Care must be taken to avoid confusion between high-elevation climatically-stressed vegetation (normal krummholz forest) and damaged lower elevation forests, both of which have similar TM5/TM4 ratio values.

Torcoletti, Paul J.; Birnie, Richard W.

1988-01-01

325

Lead in vegetation, forest floor material, and soils of the spruce-fir zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

SciTech Connect

Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Europe. As expected, lead concentrations increased with increasing age of spruce and fir foliage, and with increasing degree of decomposition of litter. Fir bole wood was higher in lead than spruce bole wood, but both species were far below acutely phytotoxic levels. Although the results of this study indicated no immediate cause for concern, periodic monitoring of lead and other metals in the spruce-fir zone should be continued to provide early detection of significant changes. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Bogle, M.A.; Turner, R.R.

1983-01-01

326

13C AND 15N IN MICROARTHROPODS REVEAL LITTLE RESPONSE OF DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under global change requires experiments maintaining natural interactions among soil structure, soil communities, nutrient availability, and plant growth. In model Douglas-fir ecosystems maintained for five growing seaso...

327

Optimization of the LMS Subband, Adaptive Filter System Phillip L. De Len  

E-print Network

University Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-8001 ABSTRACT filters, g0, ,gM-1 . The computational benefit of this technique results from the fact that the subband is equivalently and efficiently implemented with the polyphase uniform DFT filter bank

De Leon, Phillip

328

Multi-frequency aluminum nitride micro-filters for advanced RF communications.  

SciTech Connect

An AlN MEMS resonator technology has been developed, enabling massively parallel filter arrays on a single chip. Low-loss filter banks covering the 10 MHz--10-GHz frequency range have been demonstrated, as has monolithic integration with inductors and CMOS circuitry. The high level of integration enables miniature multi-bandm spectrally aware, and cognitive radios.

Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Stevens, James E.; Olsson, Roy H., III; Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Tuck, Melanie R.

2010-03-01

329

Comparison of texture features based on Gabor filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texture features that are based on the local power spectrum obtained by a bank of Gabor filters are compared. The features differ in the type of nonlinear post-processing which is ap- plied to the local power spectrum. The following features are con- sidered: Gabor energy, complex moments, and grating cell oper- ator features. The capability of the corresponding operators to

Simona E. Grigorescu; Nicolai Petkov; Peter Kruizinga

2002-01-01

330

A closed-form solution to blind MIMO FIR channel equalization for wireless communication systems based on autocorrelation matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autocorrelation matching method is a second order statistics-based blind MIMO FIR channel equalization technique designed for wireless communication systems using multiple receiving antennas. This paper presents a closed-form solution to the optimal zero-forcing equalizer for the autocorrelation matching method. It can recover a transmitted signal with maximum SNR from an unknown MIMO FIR channel based on the autocorrelation coefficients

Hui Luo; Ruey-Wen Liu

2003-01-01

331

Response of Douglas-fir leaf area index and litterfall dynamics to Swiss needle cast in north coastal Oregon, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of variation in leaf area index (LAI; m2 of projected leaf area per m2 of ground area) and its seasonal dynamics are not well known in managed Douglas-fir stands, despite the importance of leaf\\u000a area in forecasting forest growth, particularly in stands impacted by insects or disease. The influence of Swiss needle cast\\u000a (SNC) on coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii

Aaron R. Weiskittel; Douglas A. Maguire

2007-01-01

332

Genetic diversity and seed production in Santa Lucia fir ( Abies bracteata ),a relict of the Miocene Broadleaved Evergreen Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata), is a unique fir, the sole member of the subgenus Pseudotorreya. It is a relict of the Miocene broadleaved evergreen sclerophyll forest, and is now restricted to a highly fragmented range\\u000a in the Santa Lucia Mountains of central coastal California. Expected heterozygosity for 30 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems,\\u000a averaged over six populations that

F. Thomas Ledig; Paul D. Hodgskiss; David R. Johnson

2006-01-01

333

Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to determine whether charcoal derived from the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir\\u000a ecosystem may influence soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha, a perennial grass that thrives after fire. In our first experiment, we incubated forest soils with a factorial combination\\u000a of Douglas-fir wood charcoal generated at 350°C and extracts of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi with and without

Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

2007-01-01

334

Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas fir ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experi- ments to determine whether charcoal derived from the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir ecosystem may influence soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha ,a perennial grass that thrives after fire. In our first experi- ment, we incubated forest soils with a factorial combination of Douglas-fir wood charcoal generated at 350°C and extracts of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi with

Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

2007-01-01

335

Nitrogen mineralization in high elevation forests of the Appalachians. I. Regional patterns in southern spruce-fir forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual and seasonal rates of net nitrogen mineralization were determined for 19 sites in the spruce-fir forests of the Southern\\u000a Appalachian Mountains. These sites included high and low elevation stands of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir.) on east and west exposures on Whitetop Mountain, Virginia; Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina; and Clingman's Dome\\u000a in

Russell H. Strader; Dan Binkley; Carol G. Wells

1989-01-01

336

Interspecific competition and herbicide injury influence 10-year responses of coastal Douglas-fir and associated vegetation to release treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of competing vegetation and planted Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) were studied for 10 years after six herbicide and manual release treatments in the Washington and Oregon Coast Ranges. Research objectives were to quantify regional, long-term responses of vegetation to various levels of competition, light and soil water availability, and intensity versus importance of factors influencing Douglas-fir

Timothy B. Harrington; Robert G. Wagner; Steven R. Radosevich; John D. Walstad

1995-01-01

337

Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir – western hemlock forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest. With the use of Hawksworth six-class dwarf mistletoe rating system, infection status was assessed for 3516 hemlock and true firs ?5 cm diameter

David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun

2005-01-01

338

The effects inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells by far-infrared radiation (FIR) are controlled by the basal expression level of heat shock protein (HSP) 70A  

PubMed Central

We developed a tissue culture incubator that can continuously irradiate cells with far-infrared radiation (FIR) of wavelengths between 4 and 20 ?m with a peak of 7–12 ?m, and found that FIR caused different inhibiting effects to five human cancer cell lines, namely A431 (vulva), HSC3 (tongue), Sa3 (gingiva), A549 (lung), and MCF7 (breast). Then, in order to make clear the control system for the effect of FIR, the gene expression concerned to the inhibition effect by FIR were analyzed. In consequence, basal expression level of HSP70A mRNA was higher in A431 and MCF7 cells than in the FIR-sensitive HSC3, Sa3, and A549 cells. Also, the over expression of HSP70 inhibited FIR-induced growth arrest in HSC3 cells, and an HSP70 siRNA inhibited the proliferation of A431 cells by irradiation with FIR. These results indicate that the effect of a body temperature range of FIR suppressing the proliferation of some cancer cells is controlled by the basal expression level of heat shock protein (HSP) 70A. This finding suggested that FIR should be very effective medical treatment for some cancer cells which have a low level of HSP70. Still more, if the level of HSP70 in any cancer of a patient was measured, the effect of medical treatment by FIR can be foreseen for the cancer. PMID:17968683

Ishibashi, Jun; Ishikawa, Tatsuo; Hosokawa, Hiroyoshi; Sumida, Kaori; Nagayama, Masaru; Kitamura, Seiichiro

2007-01-01

339

[Lichens on branches of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb) as indicators of atmospheric pollution in forests].  

PubMed

The abundance distribution of different ecological groups of lichens depending on bark pH has been studied on 1- to 24-year shoots of Siberian fir in the mountains of southern Siberia. Along with acidophytic lichens commonly found on the Siberian fir (Usnea sp., Bryoria sp., etc.), its young shoots are also colonized by nitrophytic species (Physcia tenella, Melanelia exasperatula, etc.), which is evidence for the increasing pH of shoot bark. The proportion of thalli of nitrophytic lichen species shows a significant positive correlation with the pH of the upper (dusted) bark layer and is greater in the Eastern Sayan (at bark pH averaging 5.4) than in the Western Sayan (pH 4.7). The trends revealed in this study may be used for indication of pollution and ecological monitoring of forest ecosystems. PMID:18771033

Otniukova, T N; Sekretenko, O P

2008-01-01

340

High-intensity coherent FIR radiation from sub-picosecond electron bunches  

SciTech Connect

A facility to generate high-intensity, ultra-short pulses of broad-band far-infrared radiation has been assembled and tested at Stanford. The device uses sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches to generate coherent radiation through transition or synchrotron radiation in the far-infrared (FIR) regime between millimeter waves and wavelengths of about 100 {mu}m and less. Experimental results show a peak radiation power of greater than 0.33 MW within a micro-bunch and an average FIR radiation power of 4 mW. The average bunch length of 2856 micro-bunches within a 1 {mu}sec macro-pulse is estimated to be about 480 sec. Simulations experimental setup and results will be discussed.

Kung, P.H.; Lihn, Hung-chi; Wiedemann, H.; Bocek, D.

1994-01-01

341

Stand density index applied to timber and goshawk habitat objectives in Douglas-fir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silvicultural guidelines are presented for the management of intermountain Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands for sawtimber production and goshawk ( Accipiter gentilis) nesting habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains. Data from 14 goshawk nest stands in Douglas-fir forests on the Targhee National Forest in Idaho (Patla 1991) were used to characterize the range of stand conditions considered suitable for goshawk nesting. A density management regime is presented using Reineke's stand density index that includes a technical rotation designed to produce sawlogs with a single commercial thinning. On average timber-growing sites, stands reach goshawk habitat suitability when site height is 25 m at age 75 and provide 65 years of goshawk nesting habitat until the final harvest at age 140. Approximately 1320 m3/ha are harvested over the rotation. On higher-quality sites, rotation length declines from 140 to 85 years, of which roughly 35 years are suitable for goshawk nesting.

Lilieholm, Robert J.; Kessler, Winifred B.; Merrill, Karren

1993-11-01

342

A hybrid model for intensively managed Douglas-fir plantations in the Pacific Northwest, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in traditional forest growth models have been achieved by linking growth predictions to key ecophysiological\\u000a processes in a hybrid approach that combines the strengths of both empirical and process-based models. A hybrid model was\\u000a constructed for intensively managed Douglas-fir plantations in the Pacific Northwest, USA, by embedding components representing\\u000a fundamental physiological processes and detailed tree allometrics into an

Aaron R. Weiskittel; Douglas A. Maguire; Robert A. Monserud; Gregory P. Johnson

2010-01-01

343

Female parthenogenetic apomixis and androsporogenesis in Douglas-fir embryonal initials in an artificial sporangium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of female parthenogenetic apomixis and androsporogenesis of Douglas-fir embryonal initials was studied using an experimental\\u000a culture system in which changes in growth condition can mediate changes in cell identity and outcomes. This culture system\\u000a constitutes an artificial sporangium in which myriad culture conditions can be simulated and should be applicable for research\\u000a on a variety of gymnosperms. In this

Don J. Durzan

344

Ethanol and ambrosia beetles in Douglas fir logs with and without branches  

Microsoft Academic Search

November-felled Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) logs with and without branches were left lying on the forest floor through August. In May, as the logs were being colonized by ambrosia beetles,Trypodendron lineatum (Oliv.) andGnathotrichus retusus (LeConte), the ethanol, acetaldehyde, and water concentrations in the delimbed logs were significantly higher than in the branched logs. Since both log types received

Rick G. Kelsey

1994-01-01

345

Ethanol and Ambrosia Beetles in Douglas Fir Logs Exposed or Protected from Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logs from the base of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees cut in October 1993 were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) wet logs—cut from the fallen tree and left exposed to rain, (2) dry logs—cut from the fallen tree, placed on blocks, and protected from rain under a plastic tent, and (3) crown logs—left attached to the

Rick G. Kelsey; Gladwin Joseph

1999-01-01

346

Breeding Bird Response to Riparian Buffer Width in Managed Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relative importance of riparian vs. upland habitats to breeding birds by comparing species abundance, richness, and similarity of bird communities in managed Douglas-fir forests in western Washington State, USA. We also examined whether forested buffer strips along second- and third-order streams effectively maintain the pre-logging riparian breeding bird community by comparing species abundance, richness, and turnover among

Scott F. Pearson; David A. Manuwal

2001-01-01

347

Recent changes in the montane spruce-fir forests of the northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive study of the montane spruce-fir forests of the northeastern United States has been underway since 1980. Crown-vigor assessments, tree-ring studies, and resurveys of plots established in the 1960's have revealed a deterioration of the red spruce populations at high elevations in New England and New York. Forested sites surveyed in the 1960's and 1980's have shown decreases in density

Andrew J. Friedland

1989-01-01

348

Evaluation of transpiration in a Douglas-fir stand by means of sap flow measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transpiration of a Douglas-fir (Pseudorsuga menziesii (Mirb.) France) stand was evaluated by sap flow measurements during a 4-month period. Between-tree variation in sap flow depended on crown class. On a sunny day, total transpiration was 1.6, 8.0 and 22.0 liters day-' for suppressed, codomi- nant and dominant trees, respectively. Transpiration estimated by sap How fell below potential evapotranspiration when available

A. GRANIER

1987-01-01

349

Snag dynamics in post-harvest landscapes of western Newfoundland balsam fir-dominated boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined changes in standing dead tree (snag) density and biomass with time following harvest across a chronosequence of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) dominated boreal forests in western Newfoundland, Canada. Current snag management practices in Newfoundland recommend a minimum of 10snags\\/ha on the post-harvest landscape. Snags declined significantly in the first two decades of the chronosequence. The rapid rate of

Caryn Y. Smith; Martin T. Moroni; Ian G. Warkentin

2009-01-01

350

Spruce budworm growth, development and food utilization on young and old balsam fir trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory rearing of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, in conjunction with field rearing, gravimetric analyses, a transfer experiment, and foliage chemical analyses at six dates during the period of budworm feeding activity indicated that the age of balsam fir, Abies balsamea, trees (70-year-old mature trees or 30-year-old juvenile trees) affected tree suitability for the spruce budworm via the chemical profile of

É. Bauce; M. Crépin; N. Carisey

1994-01-01

351

Monoterpene hydrocarbon contents of the resin from seeds of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using gas-chromatographic methods, the variability of the contents of monoterpene hydrocarbons (a-pinene, ß-pinene, ?3carene and limonene) in the resin of silver fir seeds (Abies alba Mill.) was studied. Resin cavities were characterized according to their position on the seed surface. It was estabilished that the terpene content of the resin of cavities localized on the abaxialadaxial surfaces of the seed

J. ?ermák

1987-01-01

352

Shoot multiplication from mature trees of Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ) and sugar pine ( Pinus lambertiana )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opening of apical and axillary buds of mature Douglas-fir and sugar pine trees was obtained on a newly formulated basal medium (DCR) without growth regulators. Elongation of buds was observed on 1\\/2 strength DCR with 0.3% activated charcoal (DCR-1). In sugar pine, multiple shoots were obtained when explants on DCR with 0.5 mg\\/1 BAP for 5–6 weeks were transferred to

P. K. Gupta; D. J. Durzan

1985-01-01

353

Microclimatic and soil moisture responses to gap formation in coastal Douglas-fir forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of gap formation on solar radiation, soil and air temperature, and soil moisture were studied in mature coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. Measurements were taken over a 6-year period in closed- canopy areas and recently created gaps in four stands of mature (90-140 years) and old-growth (>400 years) Douglas- fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forest in

Andrew N. Gray; Thomas A. Spies; Mark J. Easter

2002-01-01

354

Soil acidification effects on fine root growth of Douglas-fir on sandy soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ammonium sulphate deposited in forest ecosystems in the Netherlands as a result of air pollution currently exceeds 80 kg N ha -1<\\/SUP>yr -1<\\/SUP>locally. To study the influence of this air pollution on fine root density and its dynamics, fine root growth was monitored for three years in two young mature stands of Douglas-fir on sandy soils in the central

A. F. M. Olsthoorn

1998-01-01

355

Influence of ultrasounds on some mechanical properties of fir wood (Abies alba Mill). Microscopic sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was found that as a result of ultrasonic treatment fir wood (Abies alba Mill) shows the effects of homogenization, and the modulus of elasticity for static flexure drops on an average by 50% for 45 min of treatment. The drop is more pronounced for test pieces with 8 to 12 annual rings. Study of microscopic sections disclosed that early wood with one annual ring undergoes the most powerful effect.

Parpala, V.; Pastirnac, A.; Paraschiv, N.

1974-01-01

356

Development of Douglas-fir seedling root architecture in response to localized nutrient supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three months following sowing, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were trans- planted into pots with controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) applied at rates of 0, 8, 16, and 24 g\\/2200 cm3 soil as a sin- gle uniform layer beneath the root system. Seedlings were destructively harvested periodically, and roots were divided into vertical segments above (S1), within (S2), and below (S3)

Douglass F. Jacobs; Robin Rose; Diane L. Haase

2003-01-01

357

Internal element cycles of an old-growth Douglas-fir ecosystem in western Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on primary production, decomposition, hydrology, and element cycling was intergrated in annual budgets of accumulation and flux among components of a mature Douglas-fir forest ecosystem. Annual N input in precipitation and dust was 2.0 kg\\/ha, and an estimated 2.8 kg\\/ha were fixed by cyanophycophilous lichens in the canopy. Annual N loss to groundwater was 1.5 kg\\/ha. Microparticulate litterfall provided

P. Sollins; C. C. Grier; F. M. McCorison; K. Jr. Cromack; R. Fogel; R. L. Fedriksen

1980-01-01

358

Phylogeography of SW Mediterranean firs: Different European origins for the North African Abies species.  

PubMed

The current distribution of Western Mediterranean Abies species is a result of complex geodynamic processes and climatic oscillations that occurred in the past. Abies sect. Piceaster offers a good study model to explore how geo-climatic oscillations might have influenced its expansion and diversification on both sides of the W Mediterranean basin. We investigated the genetic variation within and among nine populations from five Abies species by molecular markers with high and low mutation rates and contrasting inheritance (AFLP and cpSSR). Analyses revealed the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar as an effective barrier against gene flow between the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo) and North African (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) firs. The A. pinsapo populations in Spain and likewise those of the A. marocana - A. tazaotana population complex were not differentiated, and no evidence was found to distinguish A. tazaotana at the species level. Diversification of Abies across North Africa could occur by way of at least two vicariant events from Europe, in the west, giving rise to the A. marocana - A. tazaotana complex, and in the east, giving A. numidica. Secondary contacts among species from Abies sect. Piceaster (A. pinsapo and A. numidica), and with A. alba (Abies sect. Abies) are also indicated. However, there is a closer relationship between the Algerian fir (A. numidica) and the North Mediterranean widespread A. alba, than with the Moroccan firs (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) or the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo). We also discuss the distribution range of these taxa in its paleogeological and paleoclimatic context, and propose that part of the modern geography of the South-Western Mediterranean firs might be traced back to the Tertiary. PMID:24971738

Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; García-Castaño, Juan L; Ortiz, María A; Vela, Errol; Talavera, Salvador

2014-10-01

359

CONTROLLING DECAY FUNGI IN DOUGLAS-FIR HEARTWOOD WITH PELLETIZED SODIUM N-METHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small block test was used in assessing whether pelletized sodium n-methyldithiocarbamate (NaMDC) would decompose and produce methylisothiocyanate (MITC) and thereby eliminate Antrodia car- bonic~ colonies from Douglas-fir heartwood. Also evaluated were the effects of wood moisture content, dosage, incubation period, pH level, and presence of copper sulfate on percentage of kill of the fungus and amount of MITC in

C. M. Sexton; J. J. Morrell; M. A. Newbill

1990-01-01

360

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [89] MAY 2010 inite impulse response (FIR) filters have played a central role in dig-  

E-print Network

. Of particular note are METEOR [10] and the peak-constrained least-squares (PCLS) approach [11], [12]. METEOR is the design of a low-pass fil- ter that minimizes the stop-band energy subject to a bound on the stop, and effective algorithms for solving them have been available for some time. Around the time that METEOR IEEE

Davidson, Tim

361

“A MATLAB based optimum multiband FIR filters design program following the original idea of the Remez multiple exchange algorithm”  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly optimized translation of the core discrete Remez part of the Parks-McClellan (PM) algorithm from its orig- inal FORTRAN code to its MATLAB counterpart has recently been proposed by the authors. The optimization was achieved by first figuring out that the search for the \\

Muhammad Ahsan; Tapio Saramaki

2011-01-01

362

Projected Changes in Climatic Suitability for Douglas Fir and Spruce Forests in British Columbia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of projected climate change on spruce and Douglas fir forests in British Columbia was assessed using bioclimatic envelope models. Present and future climatic suitability was modelled for Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), hybrid spruce (Picea engelmannii xglauca), and white spruce (Picea glauca). Bioclimatic envelope models use historical climate data to define the climatic envelopes that control a species' spatial distribution. In this study, a correlative modeling technique based on principal component analysis was employed to determine climatic suitability at a resolution of 600 meters throughout British Columbia. The models were developed using elevation-adjusted interpolated records of the 1961-1990 climate normals. Future suitability was modeled using climate data from five different projections derived from four GCMs under three emissions scenarios. Predicted suitability maps were produced for 30-year time-slices centerd on 2020, 2050, and 2080. The results were compared across the province to quantify the variability between projections and to assess the range of predicted suitability distributions. As expected, all projections indicate a rapid shift in suitability for both spruce and Douglas fir to higher elevations and latitudes than their current range. However, significant differences exist between the projections with regard to the pace, extent and fine-scale details of these changes.

Flower, A.; Murdock, T. Q.; Campbell, K.

2008-12-01

363

Douglas-fir plantations in Europe: a retrospective test of assisted migration to address climate change.  

PubMed

We evaluate genetic test plantations of North American Douglas-fir provenances in Europe to quantify how tree populations respond when subjected to climate regime shifts, and we examined whether bioclimate envelope models developed for North America to guide assisted migration under climate change can retrospectively predict the success of these provenance transfers to Europe. The meta-analysis is based on long-term growth data of 2800 provenances transferred to 120 European test sites. The model was generally well suited to predict the best performing provenances along north-south gradients in Western Europe, but failed to predict superior performance of coastal North American populations under continental climate conditions in Eastern Europe. However, model projections appear appropriate when considering additional information regarding adaptation of Douglas-fir provenances to withstand frost and drought, even though the model partially fails in a validation against growth traits alone. We conclude by applying the partially validated model to climate change scenarios for Europe, demonstrating that climate trends observed over the last three decades warrant changes to current use of Douglas-fir provenances in plantation forestry throughout Western and Central Europe. PMID:24737595

Isaac-Renton, Miriam G; Roberts, David R; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich

2014-08-01

364

The effect of FIR emission from SDSS galaxies on the SFD Galactic extinction map  

E-print Network

We compare the most successful and widely used map of Galactic dust extinction, provided by Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis (1998; hereafter SFD), to the galaxy number counts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric/spectroscopic DR4 sample. We divide the SDSS survey area into 69 disjoint subregions according to the dust extinction provided by SFD and compare the surface number density of galaxies in each subregion. As expected, the galaxy surface number density decreases with increasing extinction but only for SFD extinction values above about 0.1 to 0.2 magnitudes (depending on the band). At lower values of the SFD extinction, we find that the sky surface density of galaxies increases with increasing extinction, precisely the opposite of the effect expected from Galactic dust. We suggest that the far infrared (FIR) brightness of the sky in regions of true low dust extinction is significantly ``contaminated'' by the FIR emission from background galaxies. We show that such an explanation is both qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the available data. Based on this interpretation we conclude that systematic errors in the SFD extinction map due to extragalactic FIR emission are quite small, of order hundredths of a magnitude, but nevertheless statistically detectable. (Abridged)

Kazuhiro Yahata; Atsunori Yonehara; Yasushi Suto; Edwin L. Turner; Tom Broadhurst; Douglas P. Finkbeiner

2006-07-06

365

Northern Flying Squirrel Mycophagy and Truffle Production in Fir Forests in Northeastern California 1  

E-print Network

In this paper we summarize the results of four studies in which we either examined the feeding habits of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), a mycophagous (consuming fungi) small mammal, or compared the abundance of truffles (sporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi) among different types of fir (Abies) forest. The studies were conducted within the Lassen National Forest in northeastern California between 1990 and 1994. In the first study, we found that abundance of northern flying squirrels was significantly less in old-growth fir stands that had been shelterwood-logged 6 to 7 years previously than in nearby, unlogged old-growth and mature fir stands. Truffles were common in the diet of flying squirrels, truffle frequency was low in the shelterwood-logged stands compared to the unlogged old-growth and mature stands, and abundance of flying squirrels was correlated with truffle frequency across the 12 stands in which we estimated both. In the second study, we found no significant effects on total truffle frequency and biomass of truffles from commercial thinning or broadcast burning that had occurred about 10 years previously, but there were significant effects of thinning on frequencies of individual truffle genera. In the

Jeffrey R. Waters; Kevin S. Mckelvey; Cynthia J. Zabel; Daniel Luoma

366

Filter bank algorithms for piecewise linear prewavelets on arbitrary triangulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies algorithms for decomposition, reconstruction, and approximation based on piecewise linear prewavelets on bounded triangulations of arbitrary topology. Our key mathematical result is showing that the Schur complement of the associated two scale matrix is symmetric, positive definite, and well conditioned. Numerical examples suggest that thresholding based on prewavelets yields a smaller approximation error than when based on the simple [`]Faber' decomposition scheme.

Floater, Michael S.; Quak, Ewald G.; Reimers, Martin

2000-07-01

367

Handheld Acoustic Filter Bank for Musical Control Tamara Smyth  

E-print Network

that change the tube's resonance when covered. Each tube is equipped with both a microphone recording piecewise combination thereof. If a player is to change the pitch on such an instrument, some mechanism to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted

Smyth, Tamara

368

Handheld Acoustic Filter Bank for Musical Control Tamara Smyth  

E-print Network

that change the tube's resonance when covered. Each tube is equipped with both a microphone recording combination thereof. If a player is to change the pitch on such an instrument, some mechanism to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted

Smyth, Tamara

369

DMT systems, DWMT systems and digital filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicarrier modulation system called discrete multitone (DMT) was chosen by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as a working standard for asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) signaling. The DMT system uses the inverse and forward discrete Fourier transform (DFT) for modulation and demodulation. An alternative to the classic DMT system is to substitute a discrete wavelet transform in place

M. A. Tzannes; M. C. Tzannes; J. G. Proakis; P. N. Heller

1994-01-01

370

Motion filter vector quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion-compensated prediction of video is formulated as a novel vector quantization scheme called motion filter vector quantiza- tion (MFVQ). In MFVQ, the motion vector and the pixel-intensity interpolation filter are combined into a motion filter and the en- tire filter is vector quantized. A codebook design algorithm is proposed for designing unit gain and entropy constrained MFVQ codebooks. The algorithm

Dariusz Blasiak; Wai-yip Chan

2002-01-01

371

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOEpatents

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1986-01-01

372

Hepa filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

373

HEPA filter dissolution process  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1992-12-31

374

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOEpatents

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09

375

HEPA filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1994-02-22

376

12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF...

2010-01-01

377

12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF...

2011-01-01

378

World Bank: China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has a number of marvelous country profile websites, and their site dedicated to China is top-notch. It's not just a simple demographic overview of this dynamic country; it is a series of meditations on the state of their economy, political culture, urban development, and other affairs. First-time users will want to look at the "Country-At-A-Glance" section at the top of the homepage to get a thumbnail sketch of the country's current state of affairs. Over on the left-hand side of the page, visitors can look over the "Projects & Programs" area, which talks about the Bank's activities in the country, which include energy efficiency projects and sustainable biodiversity conservation works. Moving on, the "What's New" area features opinion pieces from World Bank officials, press releases, and information about lending policies. Users are also invited to sign up for their RSS feed and email updates here.

379

World Bank: News & Broadcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From logistics to international development, the World Bank's News & Broadcast website is worth bookmarking, particularly for public policy types, international affairs scholars, and anyone with a penchant for global matters. The homepage presents a news area, complete with icons which indicate whether there is video or audio associated with each item. Not only is it a good way to learn about the World Bank's activities, it is another way to stay on top of economic development strategies, political unrest, and foreign investment patterns. Visitors to the site can search all of the media available here, look over the World Bank's YouTube channel, and sign up for their RSS feed. Those persons looking for specific types of information can find a number of categories, including "Speeches", and "Issue Briefs".

380

Adaptive clutter rejection filters for airborne Doppler weather radar applied to the detection of low altitude windshear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimum adaptive clutter rejection filter for use with airborne Doppler weather radar is presented. The radar system is being designed to operate at low-altitudes for the detection of windshear in an airport terminal area where ground clutter returns may mask the weather return. The coefficients of the adaptive clutter rejection filter are obtained using a complex form of a square root normalized recursive least squares lattice estimation algorithm which models the clutter return data as an autoregressive process. The normalized lattice structure implementation of the adaptive modeling process for determining the filter coefficients assures that the resulting coefficients will yield a stable filter and offers possible fixed point implementation. A 10th order FIR clutter rejection filter indexed by geographical location is designed through autoregressive modeling of simulated clutter data. Filtered data, containing simulated dry microburst and clutter return, are analyzed using pulse-pair estimation techniques. To measure the ability of the clutter rejection filters to remove the clutter, results are compared to pulse-pair estimates of windspeed within a simulated dry microburst without clutter. In the filter evaluation process, post-filtered pulse-pair width estimates and power levels are also used to measure the effectiveness of the filters. The results support the use of an adaptive clutter rejection filter for reducing the clutter induced bias in pulse-pair estimates of windspeed.

Keel, Byron M.

1989-01-01

381

Competition and choice: banks and savings banks in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how Spanish savings banks have come to compete directly with commercial banks. It also looks at how regulatory changes and corporate strategies have affected the nature of competition between the two types of bank in Spain. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – There is a re-examination of the existing bibliography as a basis prior

J. Carles Maixé-Altés

2010-01-01

382

Foreign Bank Presence, Domestic Bank Performance and Financial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the relationship between foreign bank presence and the performance of the domestic banking sector and takes into account the role of the level of development of the financial sector of the recipient country. We use data of 982 banks in 48 countries for 1990-96. We find support for the hypothesis that financial development does matter. In particular,

Niels Hermes; Robert Lensink

2004-01-01

383

The perception of banks' mergers and acquisitions by bank employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banking sector is consolidating at an accelerating pace. Almost all banking institutions feel obliged to become larger and more powerful. One out of four mergers and acquisitions in Greece took place in the banking sector, which was also known to have been the field of great enterprise transactions. Many economic and\\/or financial reasons have, so far, been proposed in

John Mylonakis

2006-01-01

384

MANAGING DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY — INTERNET BANKING VENTURES FOR TRADITIONAL BANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the perception of the nature of technological change for Internet Banking by proposing and testing a model of the strategic management of online banking by traditional banks. Specifically, this empirical study uses a stratified sample of the FDIC database to address how perception of the technology and the environmental context (knowledge of cause-effect relations and crystallized outcome

STEPHEN K. CALLAWAY; ROBERT D. HAMILTON

2008-01-01

385

High-angular resolution observations towards OMC-2 FIR 4: Dissecting an intermediate-mass protocluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Intermediate-mass stars are an important ingredient of our Galaxy and a key to understanding how high- and low-mass stars form in clusters. One of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters is OMC-2 FIR 4, which is located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of the few where the complete 500-2000 GHz spectrum has been observed with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board the Herschel satellite, and unbiased spectral surveys at 0.8, 1, 2, and 3 mm have been obtained with the JCMT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. Aims: We aim to disentangle the core multiplicity, to investigate the morphology of this region in order to study the formation of a low- and intermediate-mass protostar cluster, and to aid in interpretation of the single-dish line profiles already in our hands. Methods: We used the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to image OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 2-mm continuum emission, as well as in DCO+(2-1), DCN(2-1), C34S(3-2), and several CH3OH lines. In addition, we analysed observations of the NH3(1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion transitions that used the Very Large Array of the NRAO. The resulting maps have an angular resolution that allows us to resolve structures of 5?, which is equivalent to ~2000 AU. Results: Our observations reveal three spatially resolved sources within OMC-2 FIR 4, of one or several solar masses each, with hints of further unresolved substructure within them. Two of these sources have elongated shapes and are associated with dust continuum emission peaks, thus likely containing at least one molecular core each. One of them also displays radio continuum emission, which may be attributed to a young B3-B4 star that dominates the overall luminosity output of the region. The third identified source displays a DCO+(2-1) emission peak and weak dust continuum emission. Its higher abundance of DCO+ relative to the other two regions suggests a lower temperature, hence its possible association with either a younger low-mass protostar or a starless core. It may alternatively be part of the colder envelope of OMC-2 FIR 4. Conclusions: Our interferometric observations show the complexity of the intermediate-mass protocluster OMC-2 FIR 4, where multiple cores, chemical differentiation, and an ionised region all coexist within an area of only 10 000 AU. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by the INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

López-Sepulcre, A.; Taquet, V.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dominik, C.; Kama, M.; Caux, E.; Fontani, F.; Fuente, A.; Ho, P. T. P.; Neri, R.; Shimajiri, Y.

2013-08-01

386

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

387

Duke Data Bank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA computerized image processing techniques are an integral part of a cardiovascular data bank at Duke University Medical Center. Developed by Dr. C. F. Starmer and colleagues at Duke, the data bank documents the Center's clinical experience with more than 4,000 heart patients as an aid to diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Data is stored in a computerized system that allows a physician to summon detailed records of former patients whose medical profiles are similar to those of a new patient. A video display (photo) and printed report shows prognostic information for the new patient based on similar past experience.

1979-01-01

388

MolBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MolBank, an interesting resource for chemists, "is an electronic journal where very short notes of searchable experimental data records for individual molecules are published." Affiliated with the magazine Molecules and Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), MolBank is particularly interested in unconventional, experimental data such as starting materials and synthetic intermediates. Adhering to a single page, single structure format, the up-to-date, refereed papers are searchable by substructure or chemical and physical characteristics. Submission guidelines are also available at the site.

2007-06-07

389

GenBank.  

PubMed

The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 56,000,000 nucleotides in 45,000 entries. The input stream of data coming into the database has largely been shifted to direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media. The data have been installed in a relational database management system and are made available in this form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service. PMID:2041806

Burks, C; Cassidy, M; Cinkosky, M J; Cumella, K E; Gilna, P; Hayden, J E; Keen, G M; Kelley, T A; Kelly, M; Kristofferson, D

1991-04-25

390

profile: The Wold bank | 1 february 2013  

E-print Network

in the form of loans and grants, the bank also provides macroeconomic and financial analysis and adviceprofile: The Wold bank | 1 february 2013 About the World Bank as of 2012, the World bank. The World bank lending arms providing global health funding to governments are the International Bank

Klein, Ophir

391

Frankia and nodulation of red alder and snowbrush grown on soils from Douglas-fir forests in the H.J. Andrews experimental forest of Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined colonization of Frankia on actinorhizal red alder (Alnus rubra) and snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus) in soils from three stands located at the H.J. Andrews experimental forest in the western Cascade Range of Oregon: an 8-year-old clear-cut planted with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), a young 20-year-old Douglas-fir plantation with an understory of snowbrush, and an old-growth Douglas-fir forest.Ten soil samples

N. S. Rojas; C. Y. Li; D. A. Perry; L. M. Ganio

2001-01-01

392

An Introduction to PALM: Filtering Filter methods  

E-print Network

for scalar variables: t = - (ui) xi ´ The filtering process yields non-linear terms, e.g. ujui, ´ In order for these equations to be usable the non-linear terms (e.g., ujui) have to be expressed as a function of the filtered quantities (e.g., ui) and of sub-filter scales (ui) (decomposing the non-linear terms) #12;4 (10) Decomposing

Raasch, Siegfried

393

Social reporting by islamic banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last thirty years have witnessed the appearance and rapid expansion of Islamic banking both inside and outside the Islamic world. Islamic banks provide financial products that do not violate Sharia, the Islamic law of human conduct. The Islamic principles upon which the banks claim to operate give an important role to social issues. Applying these principles, we develop a

Bassam Maali; Peter Casson; Christopher Napier

2006-01-01

394

Do Banks Provide Financial Slack?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the decision to choose bank debt rather than public securities in a firm's marginal financing choice. Using a sample of 500 firms over the 1980 to 1993 time period, we find that firms are relatively more likely to choose bank loans when variables that measure asymmetric information problems are elevated. The sensitivity of the likelihood of choosing bank

Charles J. Hadlock; Christopher M. James

2002-01-01

395

Banking Competition and European Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess how banking competition will be affected by the process of deregulation and integration in European financial markets, drawing on the lessons of recent research in finance, banking and industrial organization. Our central thesis contends that the main effect of integration will be to change the focus of banks' strategic behaviour from collusion and regulatory capture to competition. Nevertheless,

Xavier Vives

1990-01-01

396

78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...directly competitive with call center services'' and that PNC Bank has advertised for a ``Project Manager for PNC Bank at Tata Consultancy Services'' in India. The request also states that the ``other facilities within the United States'' to...

2013-02-22

397

Nitrogen fixation by scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius L.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) planted under precommercially thinned Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco).  

E-print Network

??Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius L.) and snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Dougi ) were planted under precommercially thinned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga iuenziesil Mirb… (more)

Helgerson, O. T.

1981-01-01

398

The relationship of Douglas-fir dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) to environmental and stand conditions and plant communities in the southern Oregon Cascades.  

E-print Network

??This study examined the relationships between the frequency of occurrence and severity of Douglas-fir dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii Engelmann), environmental and stand conditions, and plant… (more)

Marshall, Katrina

1995-01-01

399

HPCwire Job Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HPCwire Job Bank has become the matchmaker site of choice for bringing together the best talent and the leading employers in HPC commercial computing, research, academia, and the entire ecosystem of suppliers and users of HPC systems and technology, representing career opportunities in hardware, software, middleware, sales, marketing, consulting, design, development, engineering, research, testing, customer support and production.

400

National Curve Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Curve Bank displays representations of two- and three-dimensional curves. Geometrical, algebraic, and historical aspects of curves are included. Educators and students have access to animations, interactions, java applets, Mathematica code, and more. Users may submit curves. Materials are reveiwed and selected by faculty at Cal State Los Angeles.

2009-03-01

401

How Banks Create Money.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching module explains how the U.S. banking system uses excess reserves to create money in the form of new deposits for borrowers. The module is part of a computer-animated series of four-to-five-minute modules illustrating standard concepts in high school economics. Although the module is designed to accompany the video program, it may be…

Beale, Lyndi

402

Needs Assessment Statements Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This needs assessment statements bank has been prepared as a resource for school districts that are engaged in the Local Planning and Assessment Process. Its purpose is to provide local educators with a variety of statements that can be used directly or with modification in preparing a needs assessment survey. Under each of eight broad goal…

Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Bureau of Technical Assistance.

403

Optimal Bank Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports estimates of the long-run costs and benefits of banks funding more of their assets with loss-absorbing capital, or equity. Measuring those costs requires careful consideration of a wide range of issues about how shifts in funding affect required rates of return and on how costs are influenced by the tax system; it also requires a clear distinction

Gilberto Marcheggiano; David K Miles; Jing Yang

2011-01-01

404

Money with Bank Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We allow banks to choose between two networks in a simple version of the Cavalcanti and Wallace (1999) model of inside money. Members of a network have access to credit but must redeem banknotes issued by other members in random meetings. We find equilibria in which members of a particular network issue more valuable notes, but face the same ex-ante

Ricardo de Oliveira Cavalcanti; Henrique Dezemone Forno

2004-01-01

405

Banking & Financial Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for high school business teachers, outlines the plan for a course in which students gain hands-on experience in operating a bank in which students actually deposit money. The document begins with a brief course description, rationale, and list of 11 course objectives. Presented next is background information about…

Warren, Brenda; Sorrell, Lisa

406

Snow Bank Detectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

407

Blood Bank Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially, blood banks are facilities which procure, store, process, and dispense blood. To operate effectively in the face of both random supply and random demand, sizable buffer stocks of blood are maintained. The resulting inventory control problem is an extremely complex one for several reasons: (1) both supply and demand are random; (2) approximately 50 percent of all bloods demanded,

John B. Jennings

1973-01-01

408

Human milk banking.  

PubMed

Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

409

National Trade Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

410

Janus Serum Bank  

Cancer.gov

The Janus Serum bank was established in order to collect and store blood samples from presumably healthy individuals for future use in cancer research. The intention was to obtain information on factors important in the pathogenesis and etiology of cancer by examining blood samples obtained during the preclinical stage or latent period before the tumor has developed.

411

Rigid porous filter  

DOEpatents

The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

Chiang, Ta-Kuan (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Dennis, Richard A. (Morgantown, WV)

2000-01-01

412

Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, whereafter the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant.

Miley, Harry S. (219 Rockwood Dr., Richland, WA 99352); Thompson, Robert C. (5313 Phoebe La., West Richland, WA 99352); Hubbard, Charles W. (1900 Stevens, Apt. 526, Richland, WA 99352); Perkins, Richard W. (1413 Sunset, Richland, WA 99352)

1997-01-01

413

Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, where after the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant. 5 figs.

Miley, H.S.; Thompson, R.C.; Hubbard, C.W.; Perkins, R.W.

1997-03-25

414

Cordierite silicon nitride filters  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. (Acurex Environmental Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. (Aerotherm Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. (GTE Products Corp., Towanda, PA (United States))

1992-02-01

415

12 CFR 225.121 - Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding...of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding...Federal Banking law applicable to State member banks is concerned, the...

2010-01-01

416

Filtering reprecipitated slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher ...

M. F. Morrissey

1992-01-01

417

In Defense of Filtering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents responses to 10 common arguments against the use of Internet filters in libraries. Highlights include keyword blocking; selection of materials; liability of libraries using filters; users' judgments; Constitutional issues, including First Amendment rights; and censorship. (LRW)

Burt, David

1997-01-01

418

Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests  

SciTech Connect

The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stone, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wimmer, R. [Austrian Agricultural Univ., Vienna (Austria); Joslin, J.D.

1995-02-01

419

Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters  

SciTech Connect

The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate bypassing a broken or leaking candle while having a low enough pressure drop to allow the candle to be backpulse-regenerated. Forward-flow pressure drop should increase by no more than 20% because of incorporation of the fail-safe filter.

Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

2002-09-18

420

Earth Water Filter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designing a filter that turns black, salty, muck into drinkable water is a tall order. In this video segment, ZOOM cast members take cues from what they know about natural sediment filters, use similar materials to create their own water filters, and evaluate which combinations of materials make the fastest, most efficient filters. The segment is four minutes fifty-four seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

421

Survey of digital filtering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three part survey is made of the state-of-the-art in digital filtering. Part one presents background material including sampled data transformations and the discrete Fourier transform. Part two, digital filter theory, gives an in-depth coverage of filter categories, transfer function synthesis, quantization and other nonlinear errors, filter structures and computer aided design. Part three presents hardware mechanization techniques. Implementations by general purpose, mini-, and special-purpose computers are presented.

Nagle, H. T., Jr.

1972-01-01

422

Submm/FIR astronomy in Antarctica: Potential for a large telescope facility  

E-print Network

Preliminary site testing datasets suggest that Dome C in Antarctica is one of the best sites on Earth for astronomical observations in the 200 to 500 micron regime, i.e. for far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre (submm) astronomy. We present an overview of potential science cases that could be addressed with a large telescope facility at Dome C. This paper also includes a presentation of the current knowledge about the site characterics in terms of atmospheric transmission, stability, sky noise and polar constraints on telescopes. Current and future site testing campaigns are finally described.

Vincent Minier; V. Minier; L. Olmi; P. -O. Lagage; L. Spinoglio; G. A. Durand; E. Daddi; D. Galilei; H. Gallee; C. Kramer; D. Marrone; E. Pantin; L. Sabbatini; N. Schneider; N. Tothill; L. Valenziano; C. Veyssiere

2008-05-16

423

Infrared-Cut Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infrared-cut filter for TV and video cameras was calculated and fabricated. The filter contains 29 alternating SiO2 and TiO2 layers. A real filter has a transmittance of 90% in the 400-650 nm range and 1% in the 700-1000 nm range.

Leonid Berezhinsky; Kwang-Ho Kwon; Byung-Sun Park

2001-01-01

424

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

425

Electronically tuneable light filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an electronically tuneable light filter. The filter can separate a very narrow band of light in an electronically controlled manner. The separated band of light is focused as an image. The filter can work as a very fast shutter too. A speed of that shutter can reach 1 microsecond or better. The term 'light' is understood herein

Kazimierz S. Holubowicz

1990-01-01

426

HEPA filter encapsulation  

DOEpatents

A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

Gates-Anderson, Dianne D. (Union City, CA); Kidd, Scott D. (Brentwood, CA); Bowers, John S. (Manteca, CA); Attebery, Ronald W. (San Lorenzo, CA)

2003-01-01

427

Practical Active Capacitor Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus is described that filters an electrical signal. The filtering uses a capacitor multiplier circuit where the capacitor multiplier circuit uses at least one amplifier circuit and at least one capacitor. A filtered electrical signal results from a direct connection from an output of the at least one amplifier circuit.

Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

428

PhysioBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PhsyioBank is an impressive archive of digital recordings of physiologic signals and related data for use by the biomedical research community. The website is maintained by the National Institute of Biomedical Imagining and Bioengineering and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and new material is being added on a regular basis. Currently, the site includes biomedical signals and reports from healthy subjects and patients with a range of conditions, including congestive heart failure, epilepsy, gait disorders, and sleep apnea. First-time visitors would do well to take the interactive tour and then use the Getting Started section for locating resources. Also, visitors should make sure to look at the PhysioBank Archives. Here they will find a complete listing of all the currently available databases, organized according to the types of signals and annotations contained in each database. Finally, visitors can send queries about the site and its database via a contact form on the site's homepage.

429

World Bank Integrity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the World Bank Group, the Integrity Vice Presidency "independently investigates allegations of corruption and fraud." On their homepage, much of the material is covered within three primary sections: "Fighting Fraud & Corruption", "Investigating Staff Misconduct", and "Allegations". In the "Fighting Fraud & Corruption" area, visitors can learn about completed investigations and learn about the outcomes, which in many cases include sanctions and debarments. Moving on, the "Investigating Staff Misconduct" area includes information about recent investigations into partner organizations who have worked with the World Bank in the past and alleged abuses regarding travel fraud, abuse of authority, and corruption within infrastructure projects. Visitors may also wish to scroll down on the homepage to look over their annual report and check out news updates.

430

GenBank.  

PubMed

The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 85,000,000 nucleotides in 67,000 entries from a total of 3,000 organisms. The input stream of data coming into the database is primarily as direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media, with little or no data being keyboarded from the printed page by the databank staff. The data are maintained in a relational database management system and are made available in flatfile form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. The data are also distributed in relational form through satellite copies at a number of institutions in the U.S. and elsewhere. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service. PMID:1598235

Burks, C; Cinkosky, M J; Fischer, W M; Gilna, P; Hayden, J E; Keen, G M; Kelly, M; Kristofferson, D; Lawrence, J

1992-05-11

431

World Bank: Globalization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The word globalization is thrown around with reckless abandon by numerous parties these days, and as a result, the very notion of such a force is somewhat elusive. While this website from the World Bank may not end all of the fierce academic and pragmatic debates that rage on about globalization, it does offers some perspective from this organization on this wide-ranging phenomenon. The site itself contains audio and video selections, issue briefs, a data and statistics section, and an area dedicated to current research on the subject underway by the World Bank. The issue briefs are definitely worth a look as they address such questions as What is Globalization? and Does More International Trade Openness Increase World Poverty? The selection of videos is also quite nice, particularly a recent talk by Michael Moore (the former director-general of the World Trade Organization) entitled Globalization & Development: Its Implications & Institutions.

432

Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon douglas-fir plantation. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying the authors established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various portions of the remaining six plots were sprayed. Herbicide reduced number and size of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), increased number and size of planted Douglas-fir, damaged terminal shoots of Douglas-fir resulting in more abnormal boles and branching, and increased number of volunteer conifers. Fifteen of the eighteen plots were thinned, in the subsequent 6 years, thinned plots that had received full release at age 4 averaged 9 percent more volume growth (all species) than plots not released.

Miller, R.E.; Obermeyer, E.L.

1996-03-01

433

Modeling the anomaly of surface number densities of galaxies on the Galactic extinction map due to their FIR emission contamination  

E-print Network

The most widely used Galactic extinction map (Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis 1998, SFD) is constructed assuming that the observed FIR fluxes entirely come from the Galactic dust. According to the earlier suggestion by Yahata et al. (2007), we consider how far-infrared (FIR) emission of galaxies affects the SFD map. We first compute the surface number density of SDSS DR7 galaxies as a function of the $r$-band extinction, $A_{r,\\rm SFD}$. We confirm that the surface densities of those galaxies positively correlate with $A_{r,\\rm SFD}$ for $A_{r,\\rm SFD}<0.1$, as first discovered by Yahata et al. (2007) for SDSS DR4 galaxies. Next we construct an analytic model to compute the surface density of galaxies taking account of the contamination of their FIR emission. We adopt a log-normal probability distribution for the ratio of $100\\mu {\\rm m}$ and $r$-band luminosities of each galaxy, $y \\equiv (\

Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Taruya, Atsushi; Kayo, Issha; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Yahata, Kazuhiro

2014-01-01

434

Virtual blood bank.  

PubMed

Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

Wong, Kit Fai

2011-01-01

435

World Bank: Anticorruption [pdf[  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its many different guises, corruption around the world tends to affect the poor, who are often the most reliant on the provision of public services, and are also least likely to be able to pay the extra costs associated with bribery and fraud. The World Bank has identified corruption as "the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development," and thusly has set up this anticorruption website to serve as an online resource for policy-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other interested parties. On the site, the World Bank lays out its strategy for combating corruption, which includes increasing political accountability, strengthening civil society participation, and improving public sector management. The site also contains a number of helpful resources, such as toolkits for assessing government performance in this area, and information and reports on various regional and country-based approaches to dealing with corruption. The site is rounded out by a calendar of events and key strategy documents, such as "Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance, A World Bank Strategy."

436

Virtual blood bank  

PubMed Central

Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

Wong, Kit Fai

2011-01-01

437

Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.  

PubMed

The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them. PMID:23130743

Aznar Lucea, Justo

2012-01-01

438

The effects of culture on banking strategy : a study of three banks in three countries  

E-print Network

Every company pursues a different strategy, and banks are no different. In the banking industry, each bank performs its business based on its own business strategies. Japanese banks have different strategies, but in terms ...

Kuroiwa, Seiichi

2006-01-01

439

MANUSCRIPT 1 Bayesian Filtering: From Kalman Filters to  

E-print Network

of Bayesian filtering as well as its rich leaves in the literature. Stochastic filtering theory is briefly filtering are also explored. Index Terms-- Stochastic filtering, Bayesian filtering, Bayesian inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 II-D Nonlinear Stochastic Filtering Is an Ill-posed Inverse Problem

Chisci, Luigi

440

Regenerative particulate filter development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development, design, and fabrication of a prototype filter regeneration unit for regenerating clean fluid particle filter elements by using a backflush/jet impingement technique are reported. Development tests were also conducted on a vortex particle separator designed for use in zero gravity environment. A maintainable filter was designed, fabricated and tested that allows filter element replacement without any leakage or spillage of system fluid. Also described are spacecraft fluid system design and filter maintenance techniques with respect to inflight maintenance for the space shuttle and space station.

Descamp, V. A.; Boex, M. W.; Hussey, M. W.; Larson, T. P.

1972-01-01

441

The dieback of fir Abies alba Mill. and changes in the Pino-Quercetum stands in the Ojców National Park (Southern Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ojców National Park, 22 km NNW of Cracow (Kraków), is subjected to the influence of very strong air pollution. Coniferous trees, especially the silver fir Abies alba and the Scots pine Pinus sylvestric suffer seriously under these conditions. The individual tolerance of fir to the stress factors proved to be very differenciated and only to a small degree connected

Anna Medwecka-Korna?; Stefan Gawrofiski

1990-01-01

442

Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO2 assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir  

EPA Science Inventory

Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a fungal disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that has recently become prevalent in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. We used growth measurements and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in tree-rings of Douglas-fir and a non-susceptible...

443

The spiral galaxy M 33 mapped in the FIR by ISOPHOT. A spatially resolved study of the warm and cold dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sc galaxy M 33 has been mapped with ISOPHOT in the far-infrared, at 60, 100, and 170 mu m. The spatial resolution of these FIR maps allows the separation of spiral arms and interarm regions and the isolation of a large number of star-forming regions. The spectral energy distribution in the FIR indicates a superposition of two components, a

H. Hippelein; M. Haas; R. J. Tuffs; D. Lemke; M. Stickel; U. Klaas; H. J. Völk

2003-01-01

444

Alteration of Cell-Wall Water Content and Elasticity in Douglas-Fir during Periods of Water Deficit 1  

PubMed Central

Three populations of seedlings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) were subjected to recurrent drought cycles. Pressure-volume curves were developed to derive the osmotic and pressure potentials as functions of the symplastic water over a wide range of relative water content. The drought cycles induced large reversible changes in the relative water content of the apoplasm and in the bulk modulus of elasticity. These responses have not been reported previously in any species of higher plant. Our data suggest that turgor regulation in Douglas-fir is mediated by structural and biochemical factors associated with the cell wall, rather than by osmotic adjustment. PMID:16665260

Joly, Robert J.; Zaerr, Joe B.

1987-01-01

445

BANK LEVERAGE, FINANCIAL FRAGILITY AND PRUDENTIAL REGULATION  

E-print Network

Stability Forum and Committee on the Global Financial System Joint Working Group (2009)). This excess of the autumn of 2008, in particular for the major European banks and for US investment banks. The increase and the crisis, the top 50 major global banks, of the US investment banks and European universal banks, had

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

446

Banking antitrust: are the assumptions still valid?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In bank antitrust analyses, banking regulators rely on certain assumptions about products and services of banks, the markets in which they operate, competitors within those markets, and the effects of mergers or acquisitions on those markets. During the 1990s, financial innovation and changes in banking regulations changed the landscape in which banks compete. Consequently, the assumptions behind antitrust analyses have

R. Alton Gilbert; Adam M. Zaretsky

2003-01-01

447

Human Milk Banking in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 30 milk banks existed in the early 1980s in the United States, whereas seven banks currently exist in the United States and one in Canada. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in human milk banks as evidenced by the number of institutions in various stages of developing new human milk banks. During 2003, North American milk banks

Kim Updegrove

2005-01-01

448

Ceramic fiber filter technology  

SciTech Connect

Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

1996-06-01

449

A method for reconstructing the development of the sapwood area of balsam fir.  

PubMed

Leaf area is commonly estimated as a function of sapwood area. However, because sapwood changes to heartwood over time, it has not previously been possible to reconstruct either the sapwood area or the leaf area of older trees into the past. In this study, we report a method for reconstructing the development of the sapwood area of dominant and codominant balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). The technique is based on establishing a species-specific relationship between the number of annual growth rings in the sapwood area and tree age. Because the number of annual growth rings in the sapwood of balsam fir at a given age was found to be independent of site quality and stand density, the number of rings in sapwood (NRS) can be predicted from the age of a tree thus: NRS = 14.818 (1 - e(-0.031 age)), unweighted R(2) = 0.80, and NRS = 2.490 (1 - e(-0.038 age)), unweighted R(2) = 0.64, for measurements at breast height and at the base of the live crown, respectively. These nonlinear asymptotic regression models based only on age, were not improved by adding other tree variables such as diameter at breast height, diameter at the base of the live crown, total tree height or percent live crown. PMID:14972939

Coyea, M R; Margolis, H A; Gagnon, R R

1990-09-01

450

Boron and magnesium fertilization of a coastal Douglas-fir plantation  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the role of boron and magnesium nutrition in the occurrence of severe growth distortion symptoms in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) in the Skwawka River valley of south coastal British Columbia. Four fertilizer treatments including boron, magnesium, boron plus magnesium, and a control, were applied in conjunction with planting on a site believed to be deficient in these nutrients. After 5 growing seasons, only treatments containing boron (B and B+Mg) showed improved height growth over the control trees. The incidence of leader dieback, swollen leading shoots, and foliage distortion was significantly related to treatment with virtually no occurrence in plots treated with boron. Seedling uptake of applied boron was high, with foliar concentrations of 45 ppm found after the second growth season. Foliar B levels declined to 13-15 ppm after 5 growing seasons. No significant increase in foliar magnesium levels was detected for either of the magnesium treatments. The reduction in the incidence of leader dieback and shoot and foliar symptoms in seedlings treated with B indicate that these symptoms were the result of boron deficiencies. This is the first study to verify boron deficiency in coastal Douglas-fir through fertilizer trials.

Green, R.N. (British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Burnaby (Canada)); Carter, R.E. (Fletcher Challenge Canada Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada))

1993-04-01

451

Chemical analysis of volatile oils from West Himalayan Pindrow Fir Abies pindrow.  

PubMed

The essential oil composition of needle and stem oils of Abies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle, commonly known as Pindrow or West Himalayan Fir, were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-six constituents, accounting for 96.0% of needle and 83.5% of stem oil composition, were identified. The oils were characterized by a high content of monoterpenoids (68.9%-79.9%), mainly comprised by limonene (21.0%-34.4%), camphene (0.5%-19.9%), alpha-pinene (13.8%-16.8%), myrcene (6.7%-8.3%) and beta-pinene (6.5%-8.6%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons were predominant in both oils, but the quantitative and qualitative composition of the volatile constituents was specific for each part of the tree; and considerable variations in their terpenoid production pattern were also noticed. Results were compared with earlier reported fir species from different geographic regions. PMID:25233604

Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S

2014-08-01

452

Phenomenological Modeling of the FIR-Radio Correlation within Nearby Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present an analysis of the far-infrared (FIR)-radio correlation within a group of nearby star-forming galaxy disks observed as part of the {\\it Spitzer} Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). In our study we critically test a phenomenological model for the FIR-radio correlation which describes the radio image as a smeared version of the infrared image. The physical basis for this model is that cosmic-ray electrons (CR electrons) will diffuse significant distances from their originating sources before decaying by synchrotron emission. We find that this description generally works well, improving the correlation between the radio and infrared images of our four sample galaxies by an average factor of $\\sim$1.6. We also find that the best-fit smearing kernels seem to show a dependence on the ongoing star formation activity within each disk. Galaxies having lower star formation activity (NGC 2403 and NGC 3031) are best-fit using larger smearing kernels than galaxies with more active star-forming disks (NGC 5194 and NGC 6946). We attribute this trend to be due to a recent deficit of CR electron injection into the interstellar medium of galaxies with lower star formation activity throughout their disks.

E. J. Murphy; G. Helou; L. Armus; R. Braun; J. D. P. Kenney; the SINGS team

2006-03-15

453

An Initial Look at the FIR-Radio Correlation within M51a using Spitzer  

E-print Network

We present an initial look at the FIR-radio correlation within the star-forming disk of M51a using {\\it Spitzer} MIPS imaging, observed as part of the {\\it Spitzer} Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), and WSRT radio continuum data. At an estimated distance of 8.2 Mpc, we are able to probe the variations in the 70$\\micron$/22cm ratios across the disk of M51a at a linearly projected scale of 0.75 kpc. We measure a dispersion of 0.191 dex, comparable to the measured dispersion of the global FIR-radio correlation. Such little scatter in the IR/radio ratios across the disk suggests that we have yet to probe physical scales small enough to observe a breakdown in the correlation. We also find that the global 70$\\micron$/22cm ratio of M51a is 25% larger than the median value of the disk, suggesting that the brighter disk regions drive the globally measured ratio.

Eric J. Murphy; Lee Armus; George Helou; Robert Braun; the SINGS team

2005-03-04

454

Real-time multiclass object recognition system based on adaptive correlation filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time system for multiclass object recognition is proposed. The system is able to identify and correctly classify several moving targets from an input scene by using a bank of adaptive correlation filters with complex constraints implemented on a graphics processing unit. The bank of filters is synthesized with the help of an iterative algorithm based on complex synthetic discriminant functions. At each iteration, the algorithm optimizes the discrimination capability of each filter in the bank by using all available information about the known patterns to be recognized and unwanted patterns to be rejected such as false objects or a background. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed system in real and synthetic scenes are presented and discussed in terms of pattern recognition performance and real-time operation speed.

Contreras, Viridiana; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Ramirez-Arias, Francisco J.; Picos, Kenia

2012-10-01

455

Bank Competition and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the traditional “competition-fragility” view, more bank competition erodes market power, decreases profit margins, and\\u000a results in reduced franchise value that encourages bank risk taking. Under the alternative “competition-stability” view, more\\u000a market power in the loan market may result in higher bank risk as the higher interest rates charged to loan customers make\\u000a it harder to repay loans, and exacerbate

Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Rima Turk-Ariss

2009-01-01

456

78 FR 53146 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...acquire voting shares of The Bank of Delmarva, Seaford, Delaware. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (Colette A. Fried...Liam Foster Hodgson, Beaver Island, Michigan; all as members...voting shares of Charlevoix State Bank, both in Charlevoix,...

2013-08-28

457

75 FR 39259 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...views in writing to the Reserve Bank indicated for that notice or...2010. A. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Kenneth Binning...Limited, Tortola, British Virgin Islands, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of Oceanic Bank Holdings, Inc., and...

2010-07-08

458

76 FR 11781 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...voting shares of North Alabama Bank, both of Hazel Green, Alabama...voting shares of Northside Bank, both of Adairsville, Georgia...Michael Hull Erdman, Merritt Island, Florida; to retain voting shares of Sunrise Bank, Cocoa Beach, Florida....

2011-03-03

459

76 FR 72705 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Minnesota, and Jenny Lynn Verner, Victoria, Minnesota, Zachary Miller Zacek...Minnwest Bank, M.V., Redwood Falls, Minnesota; Minnwest Bank South...Minnesota, and Minnwest Bank Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Board of...

2011-11-25

460

78 FR 11647 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...voting shares of Cornerstone Bank, both in Mt. Laurel, New Jersey. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (Chapelle Davis...Bruce T. and Sheba Lucas; Universal Finance & Investments LLC...voting shares of First Home Bank, both in Seminole,...

2013-02-19

461

Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

462

UConn Behavioral Gene Bank The UConn Behavioral Gene Bank  

E-print Network

illness? Mental illnesses include disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety affected by these disorders as well. What is a Gene Bank? Information and tissue samples such as blood to establish a Gene Bank to support research to find causes of illnesses or behavioral disorders. Participation

Oliver, Douglas L.

463

12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...regarded as a bankers' bank is specified in paragraph...the Act and the bankers' bank exemption. Second...of total liabilities (or net worth if the institution does...regarded as a bankers' bank and will be required...

2010-01-01

464

Filtering separators having filter cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to filtering separators of the kind having a housing which is subdivided by a partition, provided with parallel rows of holes or slots, into a dust-laden gas space for receiving filter elements positioned in parallel rows and being impinged upon by dust-laden gas from the outside towards the inside, and a clean gas space. In addition, the housing is provided with a chamber for cleansing the filter element surfaces of a row by counterflow action while covering at the same time the partition holes or slots leading to the adjacent rows of filter elements. The chamber is arranged for the supply of compressed air to at least one injector arranged to feed compressed air and secondary air to the row of filter elements to be cleansed. The chamber is also reciprocatingly displaceable along the partition in periodic and intermittent manner. According to the invention, a surface of the chamber facing towards the partition covers at least two of the rows of holes or slots of the partition, and the chamber is closed upon itself with respect to the clean gas space, and is connected to a compressed air reservoir via a distributor pipe and a control valve. At least one of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements in flow communication therewith are in flow communication with the discharge side of at least one injector acted upon with compressed air. At least one other row of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements is in flow communication with the suction side of the injector.

Margraf, A.

1984-08-28

465

Vertical structure of extreme currents in the Faroe-Bank Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme currents are studied with the aim of understanding their vertical and spatial structures in the Faroe-Bank Channel. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler time series recorded in 3 deployments in this channel were investigated. To understand the main features of extreme events, the measurements were separated into their components through filtering and tidal analysis before applying the extreme value theory to

C. Carollo; I. Astin; J. Graff

2005-01-01

466

Bearing-only target tracking using a bank of MAP estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear estimation problems, such as bearing- only tracking, are often addressed using linearized estimators, e.g., the extended Kalman filter (EKF). These estimators gen- erally suffer from linearization errors as well as the inability to track multimodal probability density functions (pdfs). In this paper, we propose a bank of batch maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimators as a general estimation framework that

Guoquan P. Huang; Ke X. Zhou; Nikolas Trawny; Stergios I. Roumeliotis

2011-01-01

467

Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

Holzmiller, Tara

2008-12-01

468

Generic Kalman Filter Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on the basis of the aforementioned templates. The GKF software can be used to develop many different types of unfactorized Kalman filters. A developer can choose to implement either a linearized or an extended Kalman filter algorithm, without having to modify the GKF software. Control dynamics can be taken into account or neglected in the filter-dynamics model. Filter programs developed by use of the GKF software can be made to propagate equations of motion for linear or nonlinear dynamical systems that are deterministic or stochastic. In addition, filter programs can be made to operate in user-selectable "covariance analysis" and "propagation-only" modes that are useful in design and development stages.

Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

2005-01-01

469

Hybrid Filter Membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of dust particles on the filter surface and to facilitate dust removal with pulse or back airflow.

Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

2012-01-01

470

ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ALTER THE ECOSYSTEM C EXCHANGE IN A YOUNG DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (EC) [ambient CO2 (AC) + 190 ppm] and elevated temperature (ET) [ambient temperature (AT) + 3.6 °C] on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of seedling Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mesocosms. As the study utilized seedlings in reconstruc...

471

Survived herbaceous plant species on compacted skid road in a fir ( Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) forest – A note  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the plant species of herbaceous cover on a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a pure fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) plantation forest. Previous studies have shown that ground based skidding damages soils, and degrades the ecosystem because it limits the recovery and growth of plant cover. However, some plant species can recover

Ender Makineci; Beyza Sat Gungor; Murat Demir

2008-01-01

472

Ethanol synthesis and aerobic respiration in the laboratory by leader segments of Douglas-fir seedlings from winter and spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem segments from terminal leaders of Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, seedlings were sampled in mid-December when cambial cells were dormant. The residual, debudded leaders were resampled again in early May when the cambium was metabolically active. May stems had higher constitu- tive ethanol concentrations than December stems. This was not the result of cambial hypoxia generated by rapid spring

Gladwin Joseph; Rick G. Kelsey

2004-01-01

473

Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir ( Abies fraseri ), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic tree species found only in refugial mountain-top forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Very few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of this species in its nat­ ural environment. We measured and compared photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations of ,understory gerrninant seedlings «3 cm height), older seedlings (>3 years old

Keith Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith

2009-01-01

474

Nitrogen deposition, distribution and cycling in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in the Adirondacks, New York, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen inputs, fluxes, internal generation and consumption, and outputs were monitored in a subalpine spruce-fir forest at approximately 1000-m elevation on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks of New York, USA. Nitrogen in precipitation, cloudwater and dry deposition was collected on an event basis and quantified as an input. Throughfall, stemflow, litterfall and soil water were measured to determine fluxes within

Andrew J. Friedland; Eric K. Miller; John J. Battles; James F. Thorne

1991-01-01

475

Inter-tree and intra-tree variations in ring width and wood density components in balsam fir ( Abies balsamea )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantified and compared intra-tree and inter-tree variations in ring width and wood density components in balsam fir ( Abies balsamea) grown in Quebec, Canada. In addition, the study examined correlations between ring width and wood density components at different stem positions from the stump level to the stem top. Ring width and wood density components of individual rings

S. Koga; S. Y. Zhang

2004-01-01

476

Training and capacity building in central and eastern Europe through the EuroFIR and CEE networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacity building in food and nutrition aims to enhance knowledge and support infrastructural development in this field. International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) was established on the basis of the recommendations of an international group convened under the auspices of the United Nations University (UNU). The European Food Information Resource Network (EuroFIR, Network of Excellence) aims to develop and

Mirjana Pavlovic; Cornelia M. Witthöft; Peter Hollman; Paul J. M. Hulshof; Maria Glibetic; Janka Porubska; Fré Pepping; Arne Oshaug

2009-01-01

477

EFFECTS OF DIVALENT METAL CHLORIDES ON RESPIRATION AND EXTRACTABLE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OF DOUGLAS-FIR NEEDLE LITTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The rates of CO2 evolution from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) needle litter, following application of divalent metal (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu) chlorides at rates of 10, 100, and 1,000 microgram/g and Ca chloride at 7, 68, and 683 microgram/g were monitored at 2- t...

478

ENRICHMENT OF CADMIUM-MEDIATED ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA IN A DOUGLAS-FIR 'PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII' LITTER MICROCOSM  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of Douglas-fir needle microcosms was amended with cadmium, acid, a combination of both, or neither. After 2 weeks of incubation, bacterial colony counts were made of litter homogenates inoculated onto agar media containing an antibiotic (streptomycin, chloromycetin, ampicil...

479

Native root xylem embolism and stomatal closure in stands of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine: mitigation by hydraulic redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic redistribution (HR), the passive movement of water via roots from moist to drier portions of the soil, occurs in many ecosystems, influencing both plant and ecosystem-water use. We examined the effects of HR on root hydraulic functioning during drought in young and old-growth Douglas-fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws) trees

J.-C. Domec; J. M. Warren; F. C. Meinzer; J. R. Brooks; R. Coulombe

2004-01-01

480

The Formation & Evolution of Galaxies Making Up the CIRB : FIR/Submm Extragalactic Surveys From Dome C  

E-print Network

The science case for FIR/Submm surveys of the extragalactic sky to be carried from Dome C are reviewed. The main questions concerning the formation and evolution of galaxies making up the CIRB are outlined and opportunities to exploit Dome C unique observing conditions through single-dish observations are discussed.

Mattia Vaccari; Alberto Franceschini

2008-09-25

481

REGIONAL VARIATION IN GROWTH RESPONSE OF COASTAL DOUGLAS-FIR TO NITROGEN FERTILIZER IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

EPA Science Inventory

Hypothesis-testing for differences in growth responses among physiographic strata, thinning levels, and fertilizer dosage levels resulted in a set of empirical models for predicting volume increment response of even-aged coastal Douglas-fir to nitrogen fertilizer. bsolute and per...

482

Evaluation of Trenching & Fertilization at Planting for Enhancing Douglas-fir Seedling Growth on a Dry Salal-Dominated Sites.  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Trenching & Fertilization at Planting for Enhancing Douglas- fir Seedling Growth Forest Region Two trials established near Nanaimo, B.C. (CWHxm1) evaluated fertilization at planting (FAP and combined on the drier and more nutrient poor (2 / B) of the two sites. Fertilized seedlings mortality

483

EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON SOIL C AND N IN A DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

We conducted a 4-year study on the effects of elevated CO2 and elevated air temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing under controlled climate and exposure conditions in outdoor sun-lit mesocosms. 1+1 seedlings were planted in mesocosms in Corvallis, OR in the spring of 1993 i...

484

EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON SOIL C AND N: RESULTS OF A DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

We conducted a 4-year study on the effects of elevated CO2 and elevated air temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing under controlled exposure conditions in outdoor sun-lit mesocosms. 1+1 seedlings were planted in mesocosms in Corvallis, OR in the spring of 1993 in a reconstr...

485

MORPHOGENESIS OF DOUGLAS-FIR BUDS IN ALTERED AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE BUT NOT AT ELEVATED CO21  

EPA Science Inventory

Global climatic change as expressed by increased CO2 and temperature has the potential for dramatic effects on trees. To determine what its effects may be on Pacific Northwest forests, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings were grown in sun-lit controlled environment cham...

486

FOLIAR LEACHING AND ROOT UPTAKE OF CA, MG, AND K IN RELATION TO ACID FOG EFFECTS ON DOUGLAS-FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact of acid fog on foliar leaching and root uptake of Ca, Mg, and K by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings was examined. n a factorial experiment, 1-year old seedlings were grown in solution culture at two levels of nutrient availability (low and moderate) and ex...

487

Economic Efficiency of Texas Country Banks.  

E-print Network

banks, and 3) from capital, surplus, and undivided profits of the itself. But since bankers usually borrow from other banks only in t gencies and since a large portion of the bank's own funds are invest1 the bank building, deposits are the chief... banks, and 3) from capital, surplus, and undivided profits of the itself. But since bankers usually borrow from other banks only in t gencies and since a large portion of the bank's own funds are invest1 the bank building, deposits are the chief...

Lee, Virgil P. (Virgil Porter)

1932-01-01

488

Bank erosion in cold regions  

SciTech Connect

River and lake bank erosion is caused by multiple processes and influenced by many conditions that interact in complex ways. Their importance will vary spatially and temporally due in large part to regional and seasonal differences in climate, hydrology and soils. In cold areas, these normally complex interactions are further complicated because the same process or condition may cause erosion at one time and prevent erosion at another. Bank sediments when frozen may be more resistant to erosion than when unfrozen. However, during the process of freezing, soil structure can be disrupted and sediment pore water can be drawn to the freezing zone within the soil; ice formation may make bank sediment more susceptible to erosion during spring thaw. Ice that has been forced onto and piled upon a shore by wind or thermal expansion can cause considerable localized damage and yet can also protect shores against winter waves and nearshore currents. Ice push can form sediment ramparts that protect the toe of a bank. Spray from winds and waves can freeze to banks, covering them with a protective layer of ice. When river or lake water levels are high enough, however, ice can erode banks by shoving, gouging and disrupting bank sediment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the importance of cold regions factors in determining the erodibility and erosion of bank sediments. Ongoing investigations to improve methods of erosion prediction in cold climates will also be detailed.

Gatto, L.W. (Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States). Geological Sciences Branch)

1993-03-01

489

Tumour Banking: The Spanish Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can

M. M. Morente; E. de Alava; P. L. Fernandez

2007-01-01

490

The Central Bank in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade the issue of the optimal degree of central bank independence has been at the center of attention of academics and policymakers in many countries. The direction of institutional reform has almost universally been toward making central banks more independent from political pressure. The motivation of this move is linked to an increased emphasis on price stability

Alberto Alesina; Alberto Carrasquilla; RobertoSteiner

2000-01-01

491

Linear phase compressive filter  

DOEpatents

A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

492

Linear phase compressive filter  

DOEpatents

A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1995-06-06

493

Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

2009-01-01

494

Electronically tuneable light filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an electronically tuneable light filter. The filter can separate a very narrow band of light in an electronically controlled manner. The separated band of light is focused as an image. The filter can work as a very fast shutter too. A speed of that shutter can reach 1 microsecond or better. The term 'light' is understood herein as the visible and infrared regions of electromagnetic radiation. The paper also explains the physics of the filter and shows mathematical analysis of image generation.

Holubowicz, Kazimierz S.

1990-10-01

495

The detection of FIR emission from high-redshift star-forming galaxies in the ECDF-S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the Large Apex Bolometer Camera Survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South to investigate rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) emission from typical star-forming systems (Lyman-break galaxies, LBGs, and Lyman ? emitters, LAEs) at redshift 3, 4, 4.5 and 5 (922, 68, 46 and 20 sources, respectively). We initially concentrate on LBGs at z ˜ 3 and select three sub-samples on stellar mass (rest-frame optical brightest, M* > 1010.25 M?), extinction-corrected star formation (assuming ?UV = -2 and applying a dust attenuation correction, SFRtot > 6.7 M? yr-1) and rest-frame UV magnitude (representing a typical Lyman-break selection with R < 24.43). We produce composite 870 ?m images of the typical source in our sub-samples, obtaining ˜4? detections (0.61, 0.35 and 0.37 mJy, respectively) and suggesting a correlation between FIR luminosity and stellar mass. We apply a similar procedure to our full samples at z ˜ 3, 4, 4.5 and 5 and do not obtain detections - a result that is consistent with a simple scaling between FIR luminosity and stellar mass. In order to constrain the FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of these systems, we explore their emission at multiple wavelengths spanning the peak of dust emission at z ˜ 3 using the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) observations of the field. We obtain detections at multiple wavelengths of both our stellar mass and UV-magnitude-selected samples, and find a best-fitting SED with dust temperatures in the ˜33-41 K range. We calculate FIR luminosity, obscured star formation rates (SFRs) and dust masses and find that a significant fraction of star formation in these systems is obscured. Interestingly, our sample selected on extinction-corrected SFR does not display the large FIR fluxes predicted from its red UV spectral slope. This suggests that the method of assuming an intrinsic UV slope and correcting for dust attenuation may be invalid for this sample - and that these are not in fact the most actively star-forming systems. All of our z ˜ 3 samples fall on the `main sequence' of star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 3 and our detected sub-samples are likely to represent the high obscuration end of the LBGs population at their epoch. We compare the FIR properties of our sub-samples with various other galaxy populations, finding that our stellar mass selected sample shows some similar FIR characteristics to Submillimeter Galaxies (SMGs) at the same epoch and therefore potentially represents the low FIR luminosity end of the high-redshift FIR luminosity function.

Davies, L. J. M.; Bremer, M. N.; Stanway, E. R.; Lehnert, M. D.

2013-08-01

496

World Bank Annual Report 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Fiscal year 1999 (FY99) was a year of continued -- and formidable -- challenges," begins the World Bank Annual Report 1999. It goes on to list the financial crises in Brazil, Asia, and Russia and the natural disasters that struck the Caribbean, Asia, and Central America. And through it all, the World Bank was there. This report charts global economic progress and explains the World Bank's involvement in many aspects of the world economy. Broken into smaller reports, World Bank's annual report looks at the surprising rise of poverty, the issues surrounding Y2K and banking assistance, and the progress in anti-corruption efforts, among other issues. Also included are letters from the chairman, highlights, and summaries of improved projects.

Bank., World

497

12 CFR 989.4 - Requirement for voluntary bank disclosure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for voluntary bank disclosure. 989.4 Section 989.4 Banks and Banking...STATEMENTS OF THE BANKS § 989.4 Requirement for voluntary bank disclosure. Any financial statements...

2010-01-01

498

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

2013-01-01

499

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

2011-01-01

500

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank...

2012-01-01