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1

Low delay FIR filter banks: design and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this paper is the design of low and minimum delay, exact reconstruction analysis-synthesis systems based on filter banks. It presents a time domain approach to the problem of designing FIR filter banks with adjustable reconstruction delays. It is shown that using a time domain formulation for the analysis-synthesis systems, the system delay can be considered to be

Kambiz Nayebi; Thomas P. Barnwell; Mark J. T. Smith

1994-01-01

2

DESIGN OF BIORTHOGONAL MULTI-BAND FIR FILTER BANKS GIVEN SEVERAL OF THE ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Designing an N-band analysis/synthesis perfect recon- struction (PR) FIR filter bank (FB) given K of whether one can build an N-band biorthogonal ASS with 1 K DESIGN OF BIORTHOGONAL MULTI-BAND FIR FILTER BANKS GIVEN SEVERAL OF THE ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS

Regalia, Phillip A.

3

Theory and design of signal-adapted FIR paraunitary filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the design of signal-adapted FIR paraunitary filter banks, using energy compaction as the adaptation criterion. We present some important properties that globally optimal solutions to this optimization problem satisfy. In particular, we show that the optimal filters in the first channel of the filter bank are spectral factors of the solution to a linear semi-infinite programming (SIP) problem.

Pierre Moulin; M. Kivanc Mihcak

1998-01-01

4

On M-channel linear phase FIR filter banks and application in image compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the theory and structure of a large subclass of M-channel linear-phase perfect-reconstruction FIR filter banks-systems with analysis and synthesis filters of length Li=KiM+?, where ? is an arbitrary integer, 0⩽?filter banks (LPPRFBs). Next,

Trac Duy Tran; Truong Q. Nguyen

1997-01-01

5

On Channel Linear Phase FIR Filter Banks and Application in Image Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the theory and structure of a large subclass of -channel linear-phase perfect-reconstruction FIR filter banks—systems with analysis and synthesis filters of length , where is an arbitrary interger, , and is any positive interger. For this subclass of systems, we first investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of linear-phase perfect-reconstruction filter banks (LPPRFB's). Next, we develop

Trac Duy Tran; Truong Q. Nguyen

1995-01-01

6

Cosine-modulated FIR filter banks satisfying perfect reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors obtain a necessary and sufficient condition on the 2 M (M=number of channels) polyphase components of a linear-phase prototype filter of length N=2 mM (where m=an arbitrary positive integer), such that the polyphase component matrix of the modulated filter is lossless. The losslessness of the polyphase component matrix, in turn, is sufficient to ensure that the analysis\\/synthesis system

R. David Koilpillai; P. P. Vaidyanathan

1992-01-01

7

Interpolated narrowband lowpass FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes a class of digital filters, called interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) filters that can implement narrowband lowpass FIR filter designs with a significantly reduced computational workload relative to traditional FIR filters. Topics discussed include: optimum expansion factor choice, number of FIR filter taps estimation, IFIR filter performance modeling, passband ripple considerations, implementation, and filter design.

R. Lyons

2003-01-01

8

The time domain analysis and design of exactly reconstructing FIR analysis\\/synthesis filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-domain framework is introduced for the analysis and design of general M-band analysis\\/synthesis filter banks. The derivation results in a set of time-domain conditions for reconstruction which can be used in a filter design procedure. Preliminary investigations of this new approach have shown that the general and unrestricted nature of the framework allows for the design of many useful

Kambiz Nayebi; Thomas P. Barnwell; M. J. T. Smith

1990-01-01

9

Low-Order IIR Filter Bank Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantage of infinite-impulse response (IIR) filters over finite-impulse response (FIR) ones is that the former require a much lower order (much fewer multipliers and adders) to obtain the desired response specifications. However, in contrast with well-developed FIR filter bank design theory, there is no satisfactory methodology for IIR filter bank design. The well-known IIR filters are mostly derived by

Hoang Duong Tuan; T. T. Son; P. Apkarian; T. Q. Nguyen

2005-01-01

10

Design of optimal hybrid form FIR filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problem of designing the opti- mal hybrid form FIR filter subjected to a minimum cycle- time constraint. We formulate the problem as one of de- termining the optimal partitioning of the hybrid form FIR filter into subsections. Each subsection can be optimized independently using other methods. We then show how the problem can be solved efficientlyusing

Kei-yong Khoo; Zhan Yu; Alan N. Willson Jr.

2001-01-01

11

Low-order IIR filter bank design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantage of IIR filters over FIR ones is that the former require a much lower order to obtain the desired response specifications. However, the existing deterministic techniques for IIR filter bank design based on heuristic usually lead to too high order IIR filters and thus cannot be practically used. In this paper, we propose new method to solve the

H. D. Tuan; T. T. Son; T. Q. Nguyen

2003-01-01

12

System Verilog modelling of FIR filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper modelling of FIR filters by means of Verilog and SystemVerilog is presented. Hardware/software co-design approach for such systems is applied in the presented design. As a final technology for a FIR filters system implementation, a FPSLIC device is considered. Filters system demonstrates example methods of communication between FPGA and AVR microcontroller in a FPSLIC structure, i.e. the communication through SRAM memory, addressing lines, data bus, interrupts. It also demonstrates how to serve peripheral elements in FPSLIC device by means of DPI interface. FIR filters model contains also interface which implements a FPSLIC cache logic and gives opportunity to a dynamical reconfiguration of FPGA in a FPSLIC structure.

Pawlus, ?ukasz; Wegrzyn, Marek

2006-02-01

13

A new class of two-channel biorthogonal filter banks and wavelet bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a novel framework for a new class of two-channel biorthogonal filter banks. The framework covers two useful subclasses: i) causal stable IIR filter banks. ii) linear phase FIR filter banks. There exists a very efficient structurally perfect reconstruction implementation for such a class. Filter banks of high frequency selectivity can be achieved by using the proposed framework with low

See-May Phoong; Chai W. Kim; P. P. Vaidyanathan; Rashid Ansari

1995-01-01

14

New design of orthogonal filter banks using the Cayley transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a challenging task to design orthogonal filter banks, especially multidimensional (MD) ones. In the one-dimensional (1D) two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) filter bank case, several design methods exist. Among them, designs based on spectral factorizations (by Smith and Barnwell) and designs based on lattice factorizations (by Vaidynanathan and Hoang) are the most effective and widely used. The 1D two-channel infinite impulse response (IIR) filter banks and associated wavelets were considered by Herley and Vetterli. All of these design methods are based on spectral factorization. Since in multiple dimensions, there is no factorization theorem, traditional 1D design methods fail to generalize. Tensor products can be used to construct MD orthogonal filter banks from 1D orthogonal filter banks, yielding separable filter banks. In contrast to separable filter banks, nonseparable filter banks are designed directly, and result in more freedom and better frequency selectivity. In the FIR case, Kovacevic and Vetterli designed specific two-dimensional and three-dimensional nonseparable FIR orthogonal filter banks. In the IIR case, there are few design results (if any) for MD orthogonal IIR filter banks. To design orthogonal filter banks, we must design paraunitary matrices, which leads to solving sets of nonlinear equations. The Cayley transform establishes a one-to-one mapping between paraunitary matrices and para-skew-Hermitian matrices. In contrast to nonlinear equations, the para-skew-Hermitian condition amounts to linear constraints on the matrix entries which are much easier to solve. We present the complete characterization of both paraunitary FIR matrices and paraunitary IIR matrices in the Cayley domain. We also propose efficient design methods for MD orthogonal filter banks and corresponding methods to impose the vanishing-moment condition.

Zhou, Jianping; Do, Minh N.; Kovacevic, Jelena

2003-11-01

15

11.10 Filter Banks What Are Filter Banks?  

E-print Network

1/7 11.10 Filter Banks #12;2/7 What Are Filter Banks? Often need to slice up a "wideband" signal into various "subbands" Figure from Porat's Book #12;3/7 Filter Banks Application: Cell Phone Basestation FDMA Converter & ADC Filter Bank Demod Demod Demod Antenna ... ...User 1 User M ff2f1 1 GHz ... ... User 1

Fowler, Mark

16

Exact reconstruction analysis/synthesis filter banks with time-varying filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines some of the analysis/synthesis issues associated with FIR time-varying filter banks where the filter bank coefficients are allowed to change in response to the input signal. Several issues are identified as being important in order to realize performance gains from time-varying filter banks in image coding applications. These issues relate to the behavior of the filters as transition from one set of filter banks to another occurs. Lattice structure formulations for the time varying filter bank problem are introduced and discussed in terms of their properties and transition characteristics.

Arrowood, J. L., Jr.; Smith, M. J. T.

1993-01-01

17

FIR Filter of DS-CDMA UWB Modem Transmitter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents low-complexity digital pulse shaping filter structures of a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) ultra wide-band (UWB) modem transmitter with a ternary spreading code. The proposed finite impulse response (FIR) filter structures using a look-up table (LUT) have the effect of saving the amount of memory by about 50% to 80% in comparison to the conventional FIR filter structures, and consequently are suitable for a high-speed parallel data process.

Kang, Kyu-Min; Cho, Sang-In; Won, Hui-Chul; Choi, Sang-Sung

18

Digital FIR Filtering Options for CARMA Digitizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design possibilities are examined for the implementation of narrowband CARMA spectral- line modes using digital filtering techniques. The model designs are based on an analog pre- filter followed by one or more stages of digital filtering and decimation that narrow and shape the input analog bandpass to create the desired observing window. The pre-filter is the same one used to

Kevin P. Rauch

19

HIGH THROUGHPUT FIR FILTER DESIGN FOR LOW POWER SOC APPLICATIONS A. T. Erdogan and T. Arslan  

E-print Network

environment and presents results with a number of FIR filter example benchmarks under different design. Implementation of FIR filters could be either sequential or parallel. The sequential approach aims to minimise, a parallel implementation aims to maximise the sample rate of an FIR filter by performing all or some

Arslan, Tughrul

20

FIR filter optimization for video processing on FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional finite impulse response (FIR) filters are an important component in many image and video processing systems. The processing of complex video applications in real time requires high computational power, which can be provided using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) due to their inherent parallelism. The most resource-intensive components in computing FIR filters are the multiplications of the folding operation. This work proposes two optimization techniques for high-speed implementations of the required multiplications with the least possible number of FPGA components. Both methods use integer linear programming formulations which can be optimally solved by standard solvers. In the first method, a formulation for the pipelined multiple constant multiplication problem is presented. In the second method, also multiplication structures based on look-up tables are taken into account. Due to the low coefficient word size in video processing filters of typically 8 to 12 bits, an optimal solution is found for most of the filters in the benchmark used. A complexity reduction of 8.5% for a Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGA could be achieved compared to state-of-the-art heuristics.

Kumm, Martin; Fanghänel, Diana; Möller, Konrad; Zipf, Peter; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

2013-12-01

21

Symmetric Orthogonal Complex-Valued Filter Bank Design by Semidefinite Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new design method for complex-valued two-channel FIR filter banks with both orthogonality and symmetry properties is developed. Based on a novel linear matrix inequality (LMI) characterization of trigonometric curves, the optimal design of the perfect reconstruction filter bank is reformulated as a semi-definite programme. The dimension of the resulting semi-definite programme is further reduced by exploiting the strong convex

H. H. Kha; H. D. Tuan; B. Vo; T. Q. Nguyen

2006-01-01

22

Symmetric Orthogonal Complex-Valued Filter Bank Design by Semidefinite Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—A new design method for complex-valued two- channel finite impulse response (FIR) filter banks with both orthogonality and symmetry properties is developed. Based on a novel linear matrix inequality (LMI) characterization of trigono- metric curves, the optimal design of perfect-reconstruction filter banks is cast into a semidefinite programming (SDP) problem. The dimension of the resulting SDP problem is further reduced

Ha Hoang Kha; Hoang Duong Tuan; Ba-ngu Vo; Truong Q. Nguyen

2007-01-01

23

A fault tolerant oriented CMOS systolic implementation of a FIR filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of a FIR digital filter chip based on a systolic array is described. Using the intrinsic regularity of such linear array, the filter can be made fault tolerant with limited additional hardware.

Aranci, G. L.; Binda, C. A.; Clerici, U.; Comignaghi, E.

24

Wavelets and filter banks: theory and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wavelet transform is compared with the more classical short-time Fourier transform approach to signal analysis. Then the relations between wavelets, filter banks, and multiresolution signal processing are explored. A brief review is given of perfect reconstruction filter banks, which can be used both for computing the discrete wavelet transform, and for deriving continuous wavelet bases, provided that the filters

Martin Vetterli; Cormac Herley

1992-01-01

25

A theory of multirate filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multirate filter banks produce multiple output signals by filtering and subsampling a single input signal, or conversely, generate a single output by upsampling and interpolating multiple inputs. Two of their main applications are subband coders for speech processing and transmultiplexers for telecommunications. Below, we derive a theoretical framework for the analysis, synthesis, and computational complexity of multirate filter banks. The

MARTIN VETTERLI

1987-01-01

26

The Dual Carrier ABSK System Based on a FIR Bandpass Filter  

PubMed Central

The special impacting filter (SIF) with IIR structure has been used to demodulate ABSK signals. The key points of SIF, including the resonance circuit's high Q value and the “slope-phase discrimination” character of the filter sideband, are demonstrated in the paper. The FIR narrow-band bandpass filtering system, which can also provide the impact-filtering effect, is proposed. A dual carrier system of ABSK signals is designed with the proposed FIR filter as its receiver. The simulation results show that the FIR filter can work well. Moreover, compared to the traditional SIF, the proposed FIR filter can not only achieve higher spectral efficiency, but also give better demodulation performance. PMID:24658625

Chen, Zhimin; Wu, Lenan; Wang, Jiwu

2014-01-01

27

Boundary implications for frequency response of interval FIR and IIR filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that vertex implication results in parameter space apply to interval trigonometric polynomials. Subsequently, it is shown that the frequency responses of both interval FIR and IIR filters are bounded by the frequency responses of certain extreme filters. The results apply directly in the evaluation of properties of designed filters, especially because it is more realistic to bound the filter coefficients from above and below instead of determining those with infinite precision because of finite arithmetic effects. Illustrative examples are provided to show how the extreme filters might be easily derived in any specific interval FIR or IIR filter design problem.

Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

1991-01-01

28

Texture Classification: Are Filter Banks Necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We question the role that large scale filter banks have tra- ditionally played in texture classification. It is demon- strated that textures can be classified using the joint distri- bution of intensity values over extremely compact neigh- bourhoods (starting from as small as 3 ×3 pixels square), and that this outperforms classification using filter banks with large support. We develop

Manik Varma; Andrew Zisserman

2003-01-01

29

An Efficient Arithmetic Sum-of-Product (SOP) based Multiplication Approach for FIR Filters and DFT  

E-print Network

Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters are extensively used in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Image Processing. As a result, there is a strong motivation to come up with area- and delay-efficient hardware...

Kumar, Rajeev

2013-04-24

30

Demonstration of using digital FIR filter and matched filter to increase data rate in visible light communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using digital-filters in time domain are demonstrated to enhance the modulation-speed of 1 MHz bandwidth white LED communication. Digital FIR filter and matched filtering are used to reduce the inter-symbol-interference (ISI). Hence, 20-Mbps is achieved by using 4-ASK modulation.

Liu, Yu-Feng; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Huang, Po-Yen; Liu, Yang

2013-01-01

31

A reconfigurable FIR filter embedded in a 9b successive approximation ADC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reconfigurable FIR filter and 9b SAR ADC combination in 0.13 mum CMOS is presented. The filter does not require additional analog circuitry, but is implemented by using the SAR capacitor array with a modified tracking and sampling scheme. The prototype filter-ADC can be digitally configured as a 4-tap filter, as one of two different 12-tap filters, or without any

Joshua Kang; David T. Lin; Li Li; M. P. Flynn

2008-01-01

32

Analytic design of optimal FIR narrow-band filters using Zolotarev polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytic method for designing narrow-band FIR filters using Zolotarev polynomials, which are extensions of Chebyshev polynomials, is proposed. These filters are optimal in the Chebyshev sense. Bandpass and bandstop narrow-band filters, as well as low-pass and high-pass filters, can be designed by this method. The design procedure and related formulas are presented. Design examples are included to show the properties of these filters.

Chen, Xiangkun; Parks, Thomas W.

1986-11-01

33

Efficient signal conditioning by a FIR filter for analog signal transmission over long lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Belle II SVD readout chain the analog signals will be transmitted over long lines. This leads to signal distortion, caused by the frequency dependent transfer function of the cable and also by reflections, which occur whenever the line impedance changes. One possibility to compensate these effects is a dedicated filter at the receiver end. This paper describes the approach to realize the required filter as a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. We further show how such a filter can be implemented in the firmware of an FPGA and the required FIR coeffients can directly be calculated from the output signal of the APV25 front-end chip.

Irmler, C.; Friedl, M.; Hoorne, J. v.; Steininger, H.

2012-01-01

34

Strain contouring with Gabor filters: filter bank design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel fringe processing method is proposed to segment whole-field strain distributions from interferometric deformation patterns by use of Gabor filters. This novel strategy is specifically proposed for strain measurement with a Gabor filter used as a set of wavelets. To increase computational speed as well as for selection of contour intervals, judicious design of the filter bank, based on

Wang Jun; Anand Asundi

2002-01-01

35

Gain scaling for multirate filter banks  

SciTech Connect

Eliminating two trivial degrees of freedom corresponding to the lowpass DC response and the highpass Nyquist response in a two-channel multirate filter bank seems simple enough. Nonetheless, the ISO/IEC JPEG 2000 image coding standard manages to make this mundane task look totally mysterious. We reveal the true meaning behind JPEG 2000's arcane specifications for filter bank normalization and point out how the seemingly trivial matter of gain scaling leads to highly nontrivial issues concerning uniqueness of lifting factorizations.

Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

36

Optimization of Cosine Modulated Filter Bank for Narrowband RFI  

E-print Network

Optimization of Cosine Modulated Filter Bank for Narrowband RFI Yingsi Liang Department perfect- reconstruction (PR) filter bank that is tailored to mitigate the effects of narrowband radio frequency interfer- ence (RFI). The conventionally used optimization criterion for bandpass filtering

Rajan, Dinesh

37

Real-time design of FIR filters by feedback neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Hopfield (1986) type neural network for the design of 1-D FIR filters is proposed. Given the frequency or amplitude response, the all-analog network computes the filter coefficients in real time. The network is simulated with HSPICE and examples are included to show that this is an efficient way of solving the approximation problem compared to the standard techniques for

D. Bhattacharya; A. Antoniou

1996-01-01

38

Strain contouring with Gabor filters: filter bank design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel fringe processing method is proposed to segment whole-field strain distributions from interferometric deformation patterns by use of Gabor filters. This novel strategy is specifically proposed for strain measurement with a Gabor filter used as a set of wavelets. To increase computational speed as well as for selection of contour intervals, judicious design of the filter bank, based on the fringe pattern and the requirements of the user, is crucial in this methodology. A filter design strategy is developed and, based on the proposed filter design scheme, properly designed filter banks are generated and applied for strain contouring in low-strain and strain concentration regions. This scheme allows one to measure engineering strains within regions of interest and hence provides the design engineer great flexibility of monitoring, testing, or analysis.

Jun, Wang; Asundi, Anand

2002-12-01

39

Feedback Error Learning control for underactuated acrobat robot with Radial Basis Function based FIR filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new feedback error learning (FEL) scheme with the application of radial basis function network (RBFN) based finite impulse response (FIR) filter to control underactuated systems. This method provides a stable feedback controller which is systematically derived from sequential backstepping control procedure. Besides, it also formulates a simple approach for FEL feedforward controller structure by employing the

Norsinnira Zainul Azlan; Hiroshi Yamaura

2009-01-01

40

Efficient and Accurate Optimal Linear Phase FIR Filter Design Using Opposition-Based Harmony Search Algorithm  

PubMed Central

In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems. PMID:23844390

Saha, S. K.; Dutta, R.; Choudhury, R.; Kar, R.; Mandal, D.; Ghoshal, S. P.

2013-01-01

41

A novel neural network-based approach for designing 2-D FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel 2-D FIR filter design approach based on neural network optimization (NNO) technique is proposed in the present letter. To demonstrate the feasibility of the NNO design approach, a Tank-Hopfield neural network (THNN) model is chosen and the relation between the MSE (mean square error) criterion and the Lyapunov energy function is also established. The implementation of the approach

Hui Zhao; Juebang Yu

1997-01-01

42

Separable FIR Filtering in FPGA and GPU Implementations: Energy, Performance, and Accuracy Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital video processing requires significant hardware resources to achieve acceptable performance. Digital video processing based on dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR) allows the designers to control resources based on energy, performance, and accuracy considerations. In this paper, we present a dynamically reconfigurable implementation of a 2D FIR filter where the number of coefficients and coefficients values can be varied to control

Daniel Llamocca; Cesar Carranza; Marios Pattichis

2011-01-01

43

Mathematical Modeling and Analysis Extended Filter Bank  

E-print Network

Mathematical Modeling and Analysis Extended Filter Bank Options for the JPEG2000 Image Coding of these improvements, the Part 1 baseline [1], and Part 2 extensions [2] of the JPEG2000 stan- dard have recently been. The JPEG2000 standard [5] replaces the DCT with a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) [4] ap- plied

Kurien, Susan

44

The implementation of a digital filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the VLSI implementation methodology for real-time digital signal processing, particularly for a digital filter bank design, is presented in this paper. The emphasis is placed on exploiting multilevel parallelisms in the computation algorithm and implementation conditions. Some of the parallel processing techniques for maximum efficiency based on VLSI multiprocessor implementation are discussed. A special purpose systolic array

Haiyan Lin

1985-01-01

45

METEOR: a constraint-based FIR filter design program  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed to specify a filter only in terms of upper and lower limits on the response, find the shortest filter length which allows these constraints to be met, and then find a filter of that order which is farthest from the upper and lower constraint boundaries in a minimax sense. The simplex algorithm for linear programming is used

Kenneth Steiglitz; Thomas W. Parks; James F. Kaiser

1992-01-01

46

A Low Power Linear Phase Digital FIR Filter for Wearable ECG Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a low power linear phase digital FIR filter which is a part of an ECG-on-Chip. The ECG-on-Chip can be embedded into clothing to acquire the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and send a warning message to a mobile phone or PDA if an abnormal ECG is detected. The proposed new filter structure significantly reduces the arithmetic operations

Yong Lian; Jianghong Yu

2005-01-01

47

A Low Power Linear Phase Digital FIR Filter for Wearable ECG Devices.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a low power linear phase digital FIR filter which is a part of an ECG-on-Chip. The ECG-on-Chip can be embedded into clothing to acquire the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and send a warning message to a mobile phone or PDA if an abnormal ECG is detected. The proposed new filter structure significantly reduces the arithmetic operations for each sample which in turn lowers the power consumption. The filter is developed based on the interpolated finite impulse filter technique and is very attractive for a low cost and low power VLSI implementation. PMID:17281980

Lian, Yong; Yu, Jianghong

2005-01-01

48

A filter family designed for use in quadrature mirror filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a family of filters that have been designed for Quadrature Mirror Filter (QMF) Banks. These filters provide a significant improvement over conventional optimal equiripple and window designs when used in QMF banks. The performance criterion for these filters differ from those usually used for filter design in a way which makes the usual filter design techniques difficult

J. D. Johnston

1980-01-01

49

Optimal Design of CSD Coefficient FIR Filters Subject to Number of Nonzero Digits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a hardware implementation of FIR(Finite Impulse Response) digital filters, it is desired to reduce a total number of nonzero digits used for a representation of filter coefficients. In general, a design problem of FIR filters with CSD(Canonic Signed Digit) representation, which is efficient one for the reduction of numbers of multiplier units, is often considered as one of the 0-1 combinational problems. In such the problem, some difficult constraints make us prevent to linearize the problem. Although many kinds of heuristic approaches have been applied to solve the problem, the solution obtained by such a manner could not guarantee its optimality. In this paper, we attempt to formulate the design problem as the 0-1 mixed integer linear programming problem and solve it by using the branch and bound technique, which is a powerful method for solving integer programming problem. Several design examples are shown to present an efficient performance of the proposed method.

Ozaki, Yuichi; Suyama, Kenji

50

Recursive time-varying filter banks for subband image coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filter banks and wavelet decompositions that employ recursive filters have been considered previously and are recognized for their efficiency in partitioning the frequency spectrum. This paper presents an analysis of a new infinite impulse response (IIR) filter bank in which these computationally efficient filters may be changed adaptively in response to the input. The filter bank is presented and discussed in the context of finite-support signals with the intended application in subband image coding. In the absence of quantization errors, exact reconstruction can be achieved and by the proper choice of an adaptation scheme, it is shown that IIR time-varying filter banks can yield improvement over conventional ones.

Smith, Mark J. T.; Chung, Wilson C.

1992-01-01

51

Embedded FIR filter design for real-time refocusing using a standard plenoptic video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and low-cost embedded hardware architecture for real-time refocusing based on a standard plenoptic camera is presented in this study. The proposed layout design synthesizes refocusing slices directly from micro images by omitting the process for the commonly used sub-aperture extraction. Therefore, intellectual property cores, containing switch controlled Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, are developed and applied to the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) XC6SLX45 from Xilinx. Enabling the hardware design to work economically, the FIR filters are composed of stored product as well as upsampling and interpolation techniques in order to achieve an ideal relation between image resolution, delay time, power consumption and the demand of logic gates. The video output is transmitted via High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) with a resolution of 720p at a frame rate of 60 fps conforming to the HD ready standard. Examples of the synthesized refocusing slices are presented.

Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar

2014-03-01

52

FPGA Realization of FIR Filters by Efficient and Flexible Systolization Using Distributed Arithmetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design optimization of one- and two-dimensional fully pipelined computing structures for area-delay-power-efficient implementation of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter by systolic decomposition of distributed arithmetic (DA)-based inner-product computation. The systolic decomposition scheme is found to offer a flexible choice of the address length of the lookup tables (LUT) for DA-based computation to decide on suitable area

Pramod Kumar Meher; Shrutisagar Chandrasekaran; Abbes Amira

2008-01-01

53

Wavelets and multirate filter banks : theory, structure, design, and applications  

E-print Network

Wavelets and filter banks have revolutionized signal processing with their ability to process data at multiple temporal and spatial resolutions. Fundamentally, continuous-time wavelets are governed by discrete-time filter ...

Chen, Ying-Jui, 1972-

2004-01-01

54

Design of FIR Filters with Discrete Coefficients using Ant Colony Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new design method for linear phase FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters with discrete coefficients. In a hardware implementation, filter coefficients must be represented as discrete values. The design problem of digital filters with discrete coefficients is formulated as the integer programming problem. Then, an enormous amount of computational time is required to solve the problem in a strict solver. Recently, ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) which is one heuristic approach, is used widely for solving combinational problem like the traveling salesman problem. In our method, we formulate the design problem as the 0-1 integer programming problem and solve it by using the ACO. Several design examples are shown to present effectiveness of the proposed method.

Tsutsumi, Shuntaro; Suyama, Kenji

55

Digital Modem Design Based on Multirate Filter Banks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach for the architecture of an all digital modem design is presented. The key feature is a lower processing rate than that of the Nyquist rate (the input sampling rate) and even the symbol rate. The lower processing rate is achieved by the use of a parallel structure, based on multirate filter banks concepts. In this proposed scheme, matched filtering is implemented in the subbands of an analysis/synthesis filter bank.

Sadr, R.; Raphaeli, D.; Hinedi, S.

1994-01-01

56

A 100MHz 64-tap FIR digital filter in 0.8-?m BiCMOS gate array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 64-tap FIR (finite impulse response) digital filter that has been designed using a newly developed filter compiler and fabricated in a 0.8-?m triple-level interconnect BiCMOS gate array technology is presented. The filter has been tested and is fully functional at a 100-MHz clock rate. These results are obtained by combining an optimized architecture and gate array floorplan with submicrometer

T. Yoshino; R. Jain; P. T. Yang; H. Davis; W. Gass; A. H. Shah

1990-01-01

57

2009 IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA 2009), October 4-6, 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Selective Tap Training of FIR filters for Blind Source  

E-print Network

2009 IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA 2009), October 4-6, 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Selective Tap Training of FIR filters for Blind Source Separation of Convolutive by adapting only a small subset of taps from separating FIR filters which are expected to attain largest

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Hexagonal tight frame filter banks with idealized high-pass filters  

E-print Network

Hexagonal tight frame filter banks with idealized high-pass filters Qingtang Jiang1 Department of Mathematics and Computer Science University of Missouri­St. Louis St. Louis, MO 63121, U.S.A. Abstract

Jiang, Qingtang

59

Structured Noise Removal By Using A High Flexible 2D Fir Digital Filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on the adjustment of data acquisition devices, medical images may be degraded by structured noise, which has to be removed before further steps of image processing techniques like contour finding or feature extraction are applied. In the 2D frequency domain of an image, structured noise usually is characterized by a pattern with relatively sharp bounded regions. So, to loose not too much image information by filtering, it is necessary to apply a digital filter, whose bandstop-region has nearly the same pattern as the structured noise region. In this paper, a polynomal approximation algorithm within the scope of the window method of designing 2D Finite-duration Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters is presented, with which it is possible to design lowpass-, highpass-, bandpass-, and bandstop-filters of arbitrary shape, size and position in the 2D frequency domain. The effect of enhancement by this method on a 2D-echocardiogram degraded by ripple structured noise is demonstrated.

Hecker, R.; Poppl, S. J.

1982-11-01

60

Filters for distortion-free two-band multirate filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, conditions are given for a two-band multi-rate filter bank to be alias free and to have a unity frequency response. It is shown that the class of quadrature mirror filters (QMF's) that satisfies these conditions is quite limited. A class of filters which does satisfy these conditions is given, and a simple procedure for designing filters from

F. Mintzer

1985-01-01

61

Development of superconductive microwave filters for mobile communications and filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of superconductive microwave filters connected to the use of cooled electronics is now in the critical phase of system integration. All the different steps of filter development, design and fabrication must be controlled, reproducible and technically realisable by conventional microelectronics tools. We developed filters for mobile communications and filter banks with the goal of optimising these aspects. Lanthanum

B. Marcilhac; Y. Lemaitre; D. Mansart; J. C. Mage

1999-01-01

62

A new class of subband adaptive filter using alias-free maximally decimated DFT-bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional subband adaptive filters (ADFs) using filter banks have shown degradation in performance because of the nonideal nature of the filters. A frequency sampling filter (FSF) bank is proposed which enables identification of an unknown system. An efficient implementation of the FSF bank using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is illustrated and a class of ADFs using the FSF bank

Hiroshi Ochi; Y. Yamada; H. Kiya

1992-01-01

63

Time-domain filter bank analysis: a new design theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a new time-domain approach for the analysis and design of a broad class of general analysis\\/synthesis systems based on M-band filter banks. They derive a set of time-domain conditions for reconstruction which can be used directly in a filter bank design procedure. The general and unrestricted nature of this framework allows for the design of many useful

Kambiz Nayebi; Thomas P. Barnwell; Mark J. T. Smith

1992-01-01

64

Optimization design of filter banks in subband image coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new optimization-based method for designing filter banks in subband image coding. We formulate the design problem as a nonlinear optimization problem whose objective consists of both the performance metrics of the image coder; such as the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and those of individual filters. In contrast to previous methods that design

Yi Shang; Longzhuang Li

1999-01-01

65

Analysis and Design of Offset QPSK Using Redundant Filter Banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the analysis and design of OQPSK digital modulation. We first establish the discrete time formulation, which allows us to find the equivalent redundant filter banks. It is well known that redundant filter banks are related with redundant transformation of the Frame theory. According to the Frame theory, the redundant transformations and corresponding representations are not unique. In this way, we show that the solution to the pulse shaping problem is not unique. Then we use this property to minimize the effect of the channel noise in the reconstructed symbol stream. We evaluate the performance of the digital communication using numerical examples.

Fernandez-Vazquez, Alfonso; Jovanovic-Dolecek, Gordana

2013-02-01

66

Sensorless jerk monitoring using an adaptive antisymmetric high-order FIR filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the computerized numerical controllers (CNC) machine-tool processes many finishing and wear problems are related to jerk (derivative of acceleration). Since jerk sensors are expensive and scarce, a sensorless approach is presented as novelty. By taking the incoming signal from a digital incremental encoder included in the standard servo-loop of a CNC machine, the jerk is calculated with a new digital signal processing technique. The contribution of this work focuses on a simple high-order FIR filter with an adaptive algorithm that makes it possible to extract the jerk from the digital position measurement in a sensorless fashion. The algorithm reaches a good approximation to the expected jerk shape by overcoming the intrinsic quantization noise in the digital measurement and the changing dynamical conditions of a real machining process. The algorithm is tested on simulations and over one real CNC machine achieving great similarity between analytical and monitored jerk. It preserves most of the important jerk characteristics like peaks and coarse shape, getting a maximum of 2% of average jerk error on simulations, and 5% of average jerk error on real experiments. This computational efficient algorithm reaches a processing rate up to 760,000 samples per second in an FPGA implementation, which makes it suitable for high speed applications.

Morales-Velazquez, Luis; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Alfredo Osornio-Rios, Roque; Cabal-Yepez, Eduardo

2009-10-01

67

An FPGA architecture for real-time polyphase 2D FIR double-trapezoidal plane-wave filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An architecture is proposed for the real-time hardware implementation of beamforming polyphase 2D FIR double-trapezoidal filters. Such filters are useful for high-throughput real-time beamforming of temporally-broadband band-pass spatio-temporal (ST) plane-waves (PWs). The single-chip implementation of a cluster of identical prototype building block circuits is described for a Xilinx Virtex-4 Stimes35 ff668-10 FPGA chip and tested using on-chip stepped hardware co-simulation.

Thushara K. Gunaratne; H. L. P. A. Madanayake; Len T. Bruton

2008-01-01

68

Wavelets and filter banks: relationships and new results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discrete version of the wavelet transform, which has recently emerged as a powerful tool for nonstationary signal analysis is closely related to filter banks, which have been studied in digital signal processing. Also, multiresolution signal analysis has been used in image processing. The relationship between these techniques is indicated. It is shown how to construct biorthogonal systems with linear-phase

Martin Vetterli; C. Herley

1990-01-01

69

Channel Linear Phase Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank With Rational Coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a general class of -channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks (FBs) with rational coefficients. A subset of the presented solutions has dyadic coeffi- cients, leading to multiplierless implementations suitable for low- power mobile computing. All of these FBs are constructed from a lattice structure that is VLSI-friendly, employs the minimum number of delay elements, and robustly

Trac D. Tran

1999-01-01

70

Efficiency of Filter Bank Multicarrier Techniques in Burst Radio Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) technique has been proposed in the FP7 European research program, as an enhancement to the OFDM technique for future broadband radio systems. Besides gains in efficiency, mainly due to the absence of cyclic prefix, an important feature of FBMC is the absence of spectral leakage, which makes it particularly appealing for cognitive radio. However, in

Maurice G. Bellanger

2010-01-01

71

Nonseparable multidimensional perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet bases for Rn  

Microsoft Academic Search

New results on multidimensional filter banks and their connection to multidimensional nonseparable wavelets are presented. Among the topics discussed are sampling in multiple dimensions, multidimensional perfect reconstruction filter banks, the two-channel case in multiple dimensions, the synthesis of multidimensional filter banks, and the design of compactly supported wavelets

Jelena Kovacevic; Martin Vetterli

1992-01-01

72

Iterated oversampled filter banks and wavelet frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper takes up the design of wavelet tight frames that are analogous to Daubechies orthonormal wavelets - that is, the design of minimal length wavelet filters satisfying certain polynomial properties, but now in the oversampled case. The oversampled dyadic DWT considered in this paper is based on a single scaling function and tow distinct wavelets. Having more wavelets than necessary gives a closer spacing between adjacent wavelets within the same scale. As a result, the transform is nearly shift-invariant, and can be used to improve denoising. Because the associated time- frequency lattice preserves the dyadic structure of the critically sampled DWT it can be used with tree-based denoising algorithms that exploit parent-child correlation.

Selesnick, Ivan W.; Sendur, Levent

2000-12-01

73

TIMEVARYING FILTER BANKS WITH VARIABLE SYSTEM DELAY Gerald Schuller  

E-print Network

of N , it can be spec­ ified in terms of the input sampling rate, so that it can be matched more) = h(n) \\Delta cos i � N (k + 0:5)(n + 0:5 + n0 ) j (1) gk (n) = h 0 (n) \\Delta 2 N \\Delta cos i � N (k is yk (m), where m is the index at the lower sampling rate. The filter bank is PR if the synthesis out

74

IEEE TRANS. SIGNAL PROC., VOL. 56, NO. 12, 5861-5873, DEC. 2008 1 Orthogonal and Biorthogonal FIR Hexagonal Filter  

E-print Network

Hexagonal Filter Banks with Sixfold Symmetry Qingtang Jiang AbstractRecently hexagonal image processing has Erdogan. The author is with the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of MissouriSt. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA, e-mail: jiangq@umsl.edu , web: www.cs.umsl.edu/jiang . Fig. 1. Square

Jiang, Qingtang

75

A filter bank for the directional decomposition of images: theory and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce a directionally oriented 2-D filter bank with the property that the individual channels may be critically sampled without loss of information. The passband regions of the component filters are wedge-shaped and thus provide directional information. It is shown that these filter bank outputs may be maximally decimated to achieve a minimum sample representation in a way that

Roberto H. Bamberger; Mark J. T. Smith

1992-01-01

76

Two-Dimensional Half-Rate Codes Using Two-Dimensional Finite-Field Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This correspondence introduces two-dimensional (2-D) filter bank codes (TDFBCs). The synthesis bank of a two-channel two-dimensional filter bank over a finite field is used to design the 2-D code, and the corresponding analysis bank is used to generate the syndrome of the code. First, we study the encoder of half-rate TDFBCs and show that these linear codes are lattice-cyclic. It

Mina Sartipi; Farshid Delgosha; Faramarz Fekri

2007-01-01

77

Parity-Check Matrix Calculation for Paraunitary Oversampled DFT Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint source-channel coding schemes based on oversampled filter banks were recently proposed. Oversampled filter banks are considered as error-correcting codes, extending the notion of code subspace, parity-check matrix, and syndrome to the domain of real and complex numbers. We here present an efficient calculation and implementation of the parity-check polynomial matrices for oversampled discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter banks. If

Tanja Karp; Michel Kieffer; Pierre Duhamel

2008-01-01

78

Canonical Signed Digit Study. Part 2; FIR Digital Filter Simulation Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite Impulse Response digital filter using Canonical Signed-Digit (CSD) number representation for the coefficients has been studied and its computer simulation results are presented here. Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion is employed to optimize filter coefficients into the corresponding CSD numbers. To further improve coefficients optimization process, an extra non-zero bit is added for any filter coefficients exceeding 1/2. This technique improves frequency response of filter without increasing filter complexity almost at all. The simulation results show outstanding performance in bit-error-rate (BER) curve for all CSD implemented digital filters included in this presentation material.

Kim, Heechul

1996-01-01

79

A comparison between prolate spheroidal and Gaussian FIR pulse shaping filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of Slepianpsilas PSWF and Gaussian chip waveforms are compared in asynchronous CDMA systems, where Markov spreading codes are employed. Bit error rate of Gaussian and PSWF filters are significantly better than RRC filters. Implementation of the pulse shaping filters and Markov code generators by an FPGA will be reported at the conference.

Yutaka Jitsumatsu; Masato Ogata; Tohru Kohda

2008-01-01

80

A Filter Bank Approach to Earthquake Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a race against time. The longer it takes to detect and characterize an ongoing event, the larger is the blind zone - the region where a warning arrives only after the most damaging ground motion has occurred. The problem is most acute during medium size earthquakes, where damaging ground motion is confined to a small zone around the epicenter. An ideal EEW algorithm which is fast enough to provide relevant alerts for such scenario events would have to produce reliable event characterization based on observations of very short snippets of data recorded at only very few stations. For such a scheme to work, without significant numbers of false alarms (which continue to hamper both single-station and network based approaches today), the real-time information that is available for an earthquake has to be exploited in a more optimal way than what is currently done. Our approach is to fully mine the broadband frequency content of incoming waveforms that contains significant information on the size and epicentral distance of the ongoing event. We propose a filter bank approach with minimum phase delay filters which allows us to use frequency information from each frequency band at each triggered station at the earliest possible time. We have compiled and processed an extensive dataset of near-field earthquake waveforms. In an empirical maximum likelihood scheme, we use the filter bank output from the first seconds after the P-wave onset of each waveform to estimate the most likely magnitude and epicentral distance to have caused this waveform. We show how our single station approach can be integrated into an evolutionary and fully probabilistic network EEW system. We demonstrate that our method can allow sufficiently accurate characterization of an ongoing event with two stations, with consistent characterization of the evolving uncertainty of the location and magnitude.

Meier, Men-Andrin; Heaton, Tom; Clinton, John

2014-05-01

81

DMT bit rate maximization with optimal time domain equalizer filter bank architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multicarrier modulation system, a time domain equalizer (TEQ) traditionally shortens the transmission channel impulse response (CIR) to mitigate intersymbol interference (ISI). In this paper, we propose a data-rate optimal TEQ filter bank whose data rates at the equalizer output of this filter bank are significantly better than those of the Maximum Bit Rate and Minimum ISI methods and

Milos Milosevic; Lucio F. C. Pessoa; Brian L. Evans; Ross Baldick

2002-01-01

82

Using modulated filter banks for ISI\\/ICI-corrupted multicarrier transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we proposed an algorithm using symbol- overlapping, redundant transforms for both, transmitter and receiver. We show that a combination of a low-delay cosine- modulated filter bank at the transmitter and an optimized filter bank at the receiver performs as good as the Discrete Multitone solution, but with much smaller latency time. For channel equalization Zero-Forcing and MMSE

Steffen Trautmann; Tanja Karp; Norbert J. Fliege

1999-01-01

83

An Efficient SDP Based Design for Prototype Filters of M-Channel Cosine-Modulated Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an efficient semidefinite programming (SDP) based design for prototype filters of cosine-modulated filter banks (CMFBs). We consider a class of near-perfect reconstruction CMFBs with the linear phase prototype filter, which structurally eliminates the amplitude overall distortion. The prototype filter design problem is then formulated into a convex semi-infinite programming problem. Furthermore, to handle the semi-infinite constraints, we

H. H Khat; H. D. Tuan; T. Q. Nguyen

2007-01-01

84

Design of multiplierless, high-performance, wavelet filter banks with image compression applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JPEG2000 image coding standard employs the biorthogonal 9\\/7 wavelet for lossy compression. The performance of a hardware implementation of the 9\\/7 filter bank depends on the accuracy and the efficiency with which the quantized filter coefficients are represented. A high-precision representation ensures compression performance close to the unquantized, infinite precision filter bank, but at the cost of increased hardware

Kishore A. Kotteri; Amy E. Bell; Joan E. Carletta

2004-01-01

85

A filter bank approach to earthquake early warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a race against time. The longer it takes to detect and characterize an ongoing event, the larger is the blind zone - the region where a warning arrives only after the most damaging ground motion has occurred. The problem is most acute during medium size earthquakes, where damaging ground motion is confined to a small zone around the epicenter. An ideal EEW algorithm which is fast enough to provide relevant alerts for such scenario events would have to produce reliable event characterization based on observations of very short snippets of data recorded at only very few stations. For such a scheme to work, without significant numbers of false alarms (which continue to hamper both single-station and network based approaches today), the real-time information that is available for an earthquake has to be exploited in a more optimal way than what is currently done. Our approach is to fully mine the broadband frequency content of incoming waveforms that contains significant information on the size and epicentral distance of the ongoing event. We propose a filter bank approach with minimum phase delay filters which allows us to use frequency information from each frequency band at each triggered station at the earliest possible time. We have compiled and processed an extensive event dataset of near-field earthquake waveforms. In an empirical maximum likelihood scheme, we use the filter bank output from the first seconds after the P-wave onset of each waveform to estimate a) the likelihood that the waveform corresponds to a local seismic event; and b) the most likely magnitude and epicentral distance to have caused this waveform. We show how our single station approach can be integrated into an evolutionary and fully probabilistic network EEW system. This method could be expanded to a Bayesian framework by considering prior information, as proposed in the Virtual Seismologist (Cua and Heaton, 2007). We demonstrate that our method can allow sufficiently accurate characterization of an ongoing event with two stations, with consistent characterization of the evolving uncertainty of the location and magnitude.

Meier, M.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.

2013-12-01

86

Design of FIR digital filters for pulse shaping and channel equalization using time-domain optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three algorithms are developed for designing finite impulse response digital filters to be used for pulse shaping and channel equalization. The first is the Minimax algorithm which uses linear programming to design a frequency-sampling filter with a pulse shape that approximates the specification in a minimax sense. Design examples are included which accurately approximate a specified impulse response with a maximum error of 0.03 using only six resonators. The second algorithm is an extension of the Minimax algorithm to design preset equalizers for channels with known impulse responses. Both transversal and frequency-sampling equalizer structures are designed to produce a minimax approximation of a specified channel output waveform. Examples of these designs are compared as to the accuracy of the approximation, the resultant intersymbol interference (ISI), and the required transmitted energy. While the transversal designs are slightly more accurate, the frequency-sampling designs using six resonators have smaller ISI and energy values.

Houts, R. C.; Vaughn, G. L.

1974-01-01

87

SUBMISSION TO IEEE TRANS. IMAGE PROC. 1 FIR Filter Banks for Hexagonal Data Processing  

E-print Network

Jiang AbstractImages are conventionally sampled on a rectangular lattice, and they are also commonly resolution of images and it is closely related to the human Q. Jiang is with the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of MissouriSt. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA, e-mail: jiangq@umsl.edu , web

Jiang, Qingtang

88

Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals  

DOEpatents

A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

2014-10-14

89

Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals  

DOEpatents

A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

2014-05-20

90

Efficient Design of Cosine-Modulated Filter Banks via Convex Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thispaperpresentsefficientapproachesfordesigning cosine-modulated filter banks with linear phase prototype filter. First, we show that the design problem of the prototype filter being a spectral factor of th-band filter is a nonconvex optimization problem with low degree of nonconvexity. As a result, the non- convex optimization problem can be cast into a semi-definite pro- gramming (SDP) problem by a convex relaxation technique.

Ha Hoang Kha; Hoang Duong Tuan; Truong Q. Nguyen

2009-01-01

91

Parallel digital modem using multirate digital filter banks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of architectures for an all-digital modem is presented in this report. This architecture, referred to as the parallel receiver (PRX), is based on employing multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to demodulate, track, and detect the received symbol stream. The resulting architecture is derived, and specifications are outlined for designing the DFB for the PRX. The key feature of this approach is a lower processing rate then either the Nyquist rate or the symbol rate, without any degradation in the symbol error rate. Due to the freedom in choosing the processing rate, the designer is able to arbitrarily select and use digital components, independent of the speed of the integrated circuit technology. PRX architecture is particularly suited for high data rate applications, and due to the modular structure of the parallel signal path, expansion to even higher data rates is accommodated with each. Applications of the PRX would include gigabit satellite channels, multiple spacecraft, optical links, interactive cable-TV, telemedicine, code division multiple access (CDMA) communications, and others.

Sadr, Ramin; Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Raphaeli, Dan; Hinedi, Sami

1994-01-01

92

Design and Implementation of an Accelerated Gabor Filter Bank Using Parallel Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

In computer vision, images are often preprocessed by the so-called Gabor transform. Using a Gabor filter bank, an image can be decomposed into orientationalcomponents l ying in a specified frequency range. This biologically motivated decomposition simplifies higher level image processing like extraction of contours or pattern recognition. How- ever, the IEEE floating-point implementation of this filter is too slow for

Nikolaus Voß; Bärbel Mertsching

2001-01-01

93

Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization  

E-print Network

Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Fingerprint image generation Evolutionary algorithm Image filters Input pressure a b s t r a c t Constructing a fingerprint database is important to evaluate the performance

Cho, Sung-Bae

94

Wavelet-based compression of medical images: filter-bank selection and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelet-based image coding algorithms (lossy and lossless) use a fixed perfect reconstruction filter-bank built into the algorithm\\u000a for coding and decoding of images. However, no systematic study has been performed to evaluate the coding performance of wavelet\\u000a filters on medical images. We evaluated the best types of filters suitable for medical images in providing low bit rate and\\u000a low computational

A. Saffor; A. R. bin Ramli; K. H. Ng

2003-01-01

95

Enhanced adaptive filter-bank-based automated pavement crack detection and segmentation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We incorporate, evaluate, and assess the feasibility of using filter banks in automated pavement distress systems from a system level. We integrate a novel filter-bank-based distress segmentation method, which, unlike previously researched methods, does not depend on highpass data. In addition, we incorporate the standard Said Pearlman set partitioning in hierarchical trees compression coder into the automated pavement distress system, which is a first in this area of research. A third contribution of the research is a statistical detection algorithm that assists in overall system performance. Preliminary testing using images provided by the Georgia Department of Transportation demonstrate the promise of the proposed method.

Lettsome, Clyde A.; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Kaul, Vivek

2012-10-01

96

New Fingerprint Image Enhancement Using Directional Filter Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method of directional filter-based analysis for fingerprint enhancement. Fingerprint images can be represented by a directional field of regular structure of ridge patterns. The dominant directional component of ridge plays a very important role in the pre-processing steps of fingerprint image analysis such as ridge's linking and noise removal for minutiae extraction. A directional filter

Oh Sang-keun; Joon-jae Lee; Chul-hyun Park; Bum-soo Kim; Kil-houm Park

2003-01-01

97

New Design of Orthogonal Filter Banks Using the Cayley Transform  

E-print Network

, several design methods exist. Among them, designs based on spectral factorizations (by Smith and Barnwell, which was proposed by Smith and Barnwell [11], designs the autocorrelation sequence of a filter

Do, Minh N.

98

Channel coding for power line communication based on oversampled filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oversampled filter banks (OSFB) can be applied as channel coding and have shown benefits in correlated and impulsive noise. Therefore, in this paper, we consider such channel coders for a power line communications scenario, where such conditions create a hostile channel environment. The proposed channel coder assumes the knowledge of the noise covariance matrix. The transmission is accomplished over the

C. Liu; S. Weiss; S. Redif; T. Cooper; L. Lampe; J. G. McWhirter

2005-01-01

99

Computer-aided diagnosis scheme using a filter bank for detection of microcalcification clusters in mammograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammography is considered the most effective method for early detection of breast cancers. However, it is difficult for radiologists to detect microcalcification clusters. Therefore, we have developed a computerized scheme for detecting early-stage microcalcification clusters in mammograms. We first developed a novel filter bank based on the concept of the Hessian matrix for classifying nodular structures and linear structures. The

Ryohei Nakayama; Yoshikazu Uchiyama; Koji Yamamoto; Ryoji Watanabe; Kiyoshi Namba

2006-01-01

100

Instantaneous Erasures in Oversampled Filter Banks: Conditions for Output Perfect Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we aim at finding the conditions that an oversampled filter bank (OFB) should satisfy, in order to maintain its perfect reconstruction property when erasures happen in the subband domain. This problem has been addressed before mainly from frame-theoretic point of view and only for the case of what we call in this paper classic erasure. In the

Mohsen Akbari; Fabrice Labeau

2011-01-01

101

Wavelet-based compression of medical images: filter-bank selection and evaluation.  

PubMed

Wavelet-based image coding algorithms (lossy and lossless) use a fixed perfect reconstruction filter-bank built into the algorithm for coding and decoding of images. However, no systematic study has been performed to evaluate the coding performance of wavelet filters on medical images. We evaluated the best types of filters suitable for medical images in providing low bit rate and low computational complexity. In this study a variety of wavelet filters are used to compress and decompress computed tomography (CT) brain and abdomen images. We applied two-dimensional wavelet decomposition, quantization and reconstruction using several families of filter banks to a set of CT images. Discreet Wavelet Transform (DWT), which provides efficient framework of multi-resolution frequency was used. Compression was accomplished by applying threshold values to the wavelet coefficients. The statistical indices such as mean square error (MSE), maximum absolute error (MAE) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) were used to quantify the effect of wavelet compression of selected images. The code was written using the wavelet and image processing toolbox of the MATLAB (version 6.1). This results show that no specific wavelet filter performs uniformly better than others except for the case of Daubechies and bi-orthogonal filters which are the best among all. MAE values achieved by these filters were 5 x 10(-14) to 12 x 10(-14) for both CT brain and abdomen images at different decomposition levels. This indicated that using these filters a very small error (approximately 7 x 10(-14)) can be achieved between original and the filtered image. The PSNR values obtained were higher for the brain than the abdomen images. For both the lossy and lossless compression, the 'most appropriate' wavelet filter should be chosen adaptively depending on the statistical properties of the image being coded to achieve higher compression ratio. PMID:12956184

Saffor, A; bin Ramli, A R; Ng, K H

2003-06-01

102

Wavelet filter banks in a local weather forecast system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall is one of the most important events in daily life of human beings. During several decades, scientists have been trying to characterize the weather, current forecasts are based on high complex dynamic models (ensembles). In this paper is presented a local rainfall forecast system based on wavelet Time Series analysis and of Neural Networks. After several year taking data, a subjective local model has been automated by this system in different stages. This work is focused to explain the wavelet filters (MOWDT and CWT). This filtering stage obtains the pressure waves at appropriate scales and trains the neural classifier. As a result it allows detecting the upcoming of warm and cold fronts.

Buendia-Buendía, Fulgencio; Andina, Diego; María Tarquis, Ana; Buendia, Gabriel

2013-04-01

103

First results from the FPGA/NIOS Adaptive FIR Filter Using Linear Prediction Implemented in the AERA Radio Stations to Reduce Narrow Band RFI for Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

The FPGA/NIOS FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP) to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI) has been installed in several radio stations in the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) experiment. AERA observes coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays to make a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio signals provide complementary information to that obtained from Auger surface detectors, which are predominantly sensitive to the particle content of an air shower at the surface. The radio signals from air showers are caused by the coherent emission due to geomagnetic and charge-excess processes. These emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 - 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. A FIR filter implemented in the FPGA logic segment of the front-end electronics of a radio sensor significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we present first results of the efficiency of the adaptive LP FIR filter, deployed in real AERA station on pampas, with a comparison to the currently used IIR notch filter with constant coefficients. The laboratory tests confirms the stability of the filter. Using constant LP coefficients the suppression efficiency remains the same for hours, which corresponds to more than $\\bf 10^{12}$ clock cycles. We compared in real conditions several variants of the LP FIR filter with various lengths and various coefficients widths (due to fixed-point representations in the FPGA logic) with the aim to minimize the power consumption for the radio station while keeping sufficient accuracy for noise reduction.

Zbigniew Szadkowski; D. G?as; C. Timmermans; T. Wijnen for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2014-06-03

104

Quadrature mirror filter banks, M-band extensions and perfect-reconstruction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, quadrature mirror filters (QMF) are reviewed. After a brief introduction to multirate building blocks, the two-band QMF bank is discussed. Various distortions caused by the structure, and methods to eliminate these distortions are outlined. Perfect-reconstruction structures for the two-band case are reviewed, and the results are extended to the case of arbitrary number of channels. The relation

P. P. Vaidyanathan

1987-01-01

105

Nearly perfect-reconstruction cosine-modulated filter bank design for VDSL modems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our previous paper, we applied the idea of perfect-reconstruction cosine-modulated filter banks to develop efficient transmultiplexers for multicarrier VDSL transmission systems of the discrete wavelet multitone type. However, it is sometimes judicious to relax perfect-reconstruction conditions by allowing amplitude and\\/or aliasing distortions. In this paper, we present a nearly perfect-reconstruction cosine-modulated transmultiplexer approach for VDSL modems. The effects of

A. Viholainen; T. Saramaki; M. Renfors

1999-01-01

106

Hyperspectral Image Compression Based on Wavelets and Uniform Directional Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiscale geometric analysis method based on wavelet and uniform directional filter banks (WUDFB) is structured in order to overcome the insufficiencies of contourlet transform and wavelet-based contourlet transform which are used in compression. A novel WUDFB-based compression algorithm of hyperspectral imagery is proposed, in which intra-band WUDFB and inter-band prediction are used to remove the spatial and spectral redundancy

Dong Song; Lihua Hu; Yan Feng

2009-01-01

107

Digital filtering by polyphase network:Application to sample-rate alteration and filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digital filtering process can be achieved by a set of phase shifters with suitable characteristics. A particular set, named polyphase network, is defined and analyzed. It permits the use of recursive devices for efficient sample-rate alteration. The comparison with conventional filters shows that, with the same active memory, a reduction of computation rate approaching a factor of 2 can

MAURICE G. BELLANGER; GEORGES BONNEROT; MICHEL COUDREUSE

1976-01-01

108

A blind watermarking scheme using new nontensor product wavelet filter banks.  

PubMed

As an effective method for copyright protection of digital products against illegal usage, watermarking in wavelet domain has recently received considerable attention due to the desirable multiresolution property of wavelet transform. In general, images can be represented with different resolutions by the wavelet decomposition, analogous to the human visual system (HVS). Usually, human eyes are insensitive to image singularities revealed by different high frequency subbands of wavelet decomposed images. Hence, adding watermarks into these singularities will improve the imperceptibility that is a desired property of a watermarking scheme. That is, the capability for revealing singularities of images plays a key role in designing wavelet-based watermarking algorithms. Unfortunately, the existing wavelets have a limited ability in revealing singularities in different directions. This motivates us to construct new wavelet filter banks that can reveal singularities in all directions. In this paper, we utilize special symmetric matrices to construct the new nontensor product wavelet filter banks, which can capture the singularities in all directions. Empirical studies will show their advantages of revealing singularities in comparison with the existing wavelets. Based upon these new wavelet filter banks, we, therefore, propose a modified significant difference watermarking algorithm. Experimental results show its promising results. PMID:21078567

You, Xinge; Du, Liang; Cheung, Yiu-Ming; Chen, Qiuhui

2010-12-01

109

Multiscale filter bank approach to camera-movement control in active vision systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active vision systems faced with the problem of searching for targets in natural scenes are finding space variant sensors increasingly important. A popular class of space variant sensors are those based on the structure of the primate retina: they have a small area near the optical axis of greatly increased resolution (the fovea) coupled with a gradual falloff in resolution as one moves towards the periphery. In such systems, a primary requirement is an efficient mechanism for targeting the optical axis to different points of interest in the visual world. In this paper, we describe a robust and efficient paradigm for achieving foveal targeting by making use of iconic scene descriptions comprised of the responses of a bank of steerable filters at multiple scales and orientations. The filter bank description is rotation and scale invariant, occlusion tolerant, and view-insensitive to a considerable extent. We describe procedures for robustly matching vectors of a previously foveated point to instances of the point in other possibly transformed images obtained after camera motion. In such situations, the multiscale structure of the filter bank lends itself naturally to an efficient targeting mechanism for the space variant sensor.

Rao, Rajesh P.; Ballard, Dana H.

1994-10-01

110

Current-State Constrained Filter Bank for Wald Testing of Spacecraft Conjunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a filter bank consisting of an ordinary current-state extended Kalman filter, and two similar but constrained filters: one is constrained by a null hypothesis that the miss distance between two conjuncting spacecraft is inside their combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one is constrained by an alternative complementary hypothesis. The unconstrained filter is the basis of an initial screening for close approaches of interest. Once the initial screening detects a possibly risky conjunction, the unconstrained filter also governs measurement editing for all three filters, and predicts the time of closest approach. The constrained filters operate only when conjunctions of interest occur. The computed likelihoods of the innovations of the two constrained filters form a ratio for a Wald sequential probability ratio test. The Wald test guides risk mitigation maneuver decisions based on explicit false alarm and missed detection criteria. Since only current-state Kalman filtering is required to compute the innovations for the likelihood ratio, the present approach does not require the mapping of probability density forward to the time of closest approach. Instead, the hard-body constraint manifold is mapped to the filter update time by applying a sigma-point transformation to a projection function. Although many projectors are available, we choose one based on Lambert-style differential correction of the current-state velocity. We have tested our method using a scenario based on the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale mission, scheduled for launch in late 2014. This mission involves formation flight in highly elliptical orbits of four spinning spacecraft equipped with antennas extending 120 meters tip-to-tip. Eccentricities range from 0.82 to 0.91, and close approaches generally occur in the vicinity of perigee, where rapid changes in geometry may occur. Testing the method using two 12,000-case Monte Carlo simulations, we found the method achieved a missed detection rate of 0.1%, and a false alarm rate of 2%.

Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

2012-01-01

111

Real-Time Diagnosis of Faults Using a Bank of Kalman Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new robust method of automated real-time diagnosis of faults in an aircraft engine or a similar complex system involves the use of a bank of Kalman filters. In order to be highly reliable, a diagnostic system must be designed to account for the numerous failure conditions that an aircraft engine may encounter in operation. The method achieves this objective though the utilization of multiple Kalman filters, each of which is uniquely designed based on a specific failure hypothesis. A fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) system, developed based on this method, is able to isolate faults in sensors and actuators while detecting component faults (abrupt degradation in engine component performance). By affording a capability for real-time identification of minor faults before they grow into major ones, the method promises to enhance safety and reduce operating costs. The robustness of this method is further enhanced by incorporating information regarding the aging condition of an engine. In general, real-time fault diagnostic methods use the nominal performance of a "healthy" new engine as a reference condition in the diagnostic process. Such an approach does not account for gradual changes in performance associated with aging of an otherwise healthy engine. By incorporating information on gradual, aging-related changes, the new method makes it possible to retain at least some of the sensitivity and accuracy needed to detect incipient faults while preventing false alarms that could result from erroneous interpretation of symptoms of aging as symptoms of failures. The figure schematically depicts an FDI system according to the new method. The FDI system is integrated with an engine, from which it accepts two sets of input signals: sensor readings and actuator commands. Two main parts of the FDI system are a bank of Kalman filters and a subsystem that implements FDI decision rules. Each Kalman filter is designed to detect a specific sensor or actuator fault. When a sensor or actuator fault occurs, large estimation errors are generated by all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis. By monitoring the residual output of each filter, the specific fault that has occurred can be detected and isolated on the basis of the decision rules. A set of parameters that indicate the performance of the engine components is estimated by the "correct" Kalman filter for use in detecting component faults. To reduce the loss of diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in the face of aging, the FDI system accepts information from a steady-state-condition-monitoring system. This information is used to update the Kalman filters and a data bank of trim values representative of the current aging condition.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2006-01-01

112

Minimum redundancy for ISI free FIR filterbank transceivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been great interest in the design of filterbank transceivers. Usually, with proper time domain equalization, the channel is modeled as an FIR filter. It is known that for FIR channels, the introduction of certain redundancy allows the receiver to cancel intersymbol interference (ISI) completely, and channel equalization is performed implicitly using FIR transceivers. This scheme allows us to

Yuan-Pei Lin; See-May Phoong

2002-01-01

113

Application of a Bank of Kalman Filters for Aircraft Engine Fault Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a bank of Kalman filters is applied to aircraft gas turbine engine sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation (FDI) in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, thereby isolating the specific fault. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The proposed FDI approach is applied to a nonlinear engine simulation at nominal and aged conditions, and the evaluation results for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions are given. The ability of the proposed approach to reliably detect and isolate sensor and actuator faults is demonstrated.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2003-01-01

114

An efficient algorithm for the optimization of FIR filters synthesized using the multistage frequency-response masking approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very efficient technique to drastically reduce the number of multipliers and adders in narrow transition-band linear-phase\\u000a finite-impulse response digital filters is to use the one-stage or multistage frequency-response masking (FRM) approach, which\\u000a has been originally introduced by Lim and further improved by Lim and Lian. In these original synthesis techniques, the subfilters\\u000a in the overall implementation are separately designed.

Juha Yli-Kaakinen; Tapio Saramaki

2011-01-01

115

Boundary handling mechanism for lifting-based spatial adaptation of filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time/space varying filter banks (FBs) are proved to be useful in building signal adaptive transforms. Lifting factorization of FBs allows to spatially adapt between arbitrary FBs, avoiding the need to design border FBs to complete perfect reconstruction (PR) during the transition. However, lifting based switching between arbitrarily designed FBs induces spurious transients into the resulting subbands during the transition. In this paper we propose a boundary handling mechanism that maintains good frequency response and eliminates the transients during the transition. We successfully show spatial adaptation between JPEG2000 9/7 and 5/3 FBs to reduce the ringing artifacts in images.

Jayachandra, D.; Makur, Anamitra

2012-03-01

116

IEEE TRANS. IMAGE PROC., VOL. 17, NO. 9, SEP. 2008 1 FIR Filter Banks for Hexagonal Data Processing  

E-print Network

Qingtang Jiang Abstract--Images are conventionally sampled on a rectangular lattice. Thus, traditional and it is closely related to the human visual system. Hence, Q. Jiang is with the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Missouri­St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA, e-mail: jiangq@umsl.edu , web

Jiang, Qingtang

117

A Dual-polarized Broadband Planar Antenna and Channelizing Filter Bank for Millimeter Wavelengths  

E-print Network

We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a broadband log-periodic antenna coupled to multiple cryogenic bolometers. This detector architecture, optimized here for astrophysical observations, simultaneously receives two linear polarizations with two octaves of bandwidth at millimeter wavelengths. The broad bandwidth signal received by the antenna is divided into sub-bands with integrated in-line frequency-selective filters. We demonstrate two such filter banks: a diplexer with two sub-bands and a log-periodic channelizer with seven contiguous sub-bands. These detectors have receiver efficiencies of 20-40% and percent level polarization isolation. Superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers detect the power in each sub-band and polarization. We demonstrate circularly symmetric beam patterns, high polarization isolation, accurately positioned bands, and high optical efficiency. The pixel design is applicable to astronomical observations of intensity and polarization at millimeter through sub-mil...

OBrient, Roger; Arnold, Kam; Edwards, Jennifer; Engargiola, Greg; Holzapfel, William L; Lee, Adrian T; Myers, Michael J; Quealy, Erin; Rebeiz, Gabriel; Richards, Paul; Suzuki, Aritoki

2013-01-01

118

Multiscale image fusion using the undecimated wavelet transform with spectral factorization and nonorthogonal filter banks.  

PubMed

Multiscale transforms are among the most popular techniques in the field of pixel-level image fusion. However, the fusion performance of these methods often deteriorates for images derived from different sensor modalities. In this paper, we demonstrate that for such images, results can be improved using a novel undecimated wavelet transform (UWT)-based fusion scheme, which splits the image decomposition process into two successive filtering operations using spectral factorization of the analysis filters. The actual fusion takes place after convolution with the first filter pair. Its significantly smaller support size leads to the minimization of the unwanted spreading of coefficient values around overlapping image singularities. This usually complicates the feature selection process and may lead to the introduction of reconstruction errors in the fused image. Moreover, we will show that the nonsubsampled nature of the UWT allows the design of nonorthogonal filter banks, which are more robust to artifacts introduced during fusion, additionally improving the obtained results. The combination of these techniques leads to a fusion framework, which provides clear advantages over traditional multiscale fusion approaches, independent of the underlying fusion rule, and reduces unwanted side effects such as ringing artifacts in the fused reconstruction. PMID:23144033

Ellmauthaler, Andreas; Pagliari, Carla L; da Silva, Eduardo A B

2013-03-01

119

Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

120

An optimization of the FPGA/NIOS adaptive FIR filter using linear prediction to reduce narrow band RFI for the next generation ground-based ultra-high energy cosmic-ray experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic part of an extensive air shower developing in the atmosphere provides significant information complementary to that obtained by water Cherenkov detectors which are predominantly sensitive to the muonic content of an air shower at ground. The emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 and 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. The Auger Engineering Radio Array currently suppresses the RFI by multiple time-to-frequency domain conversions using an FFT procedure as well as by a set of manually chosen IIR notch filters in the time-domain. An alternative approach developed in this paper is an adaptive FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP). The coefficients for the linear predictor are dynamically refreshed and calculated in the virtual NIOS processor. The radio detector is an autonomous system installed on the Argentinean pampas and supplied from a solar panel. Powerful calculation capacity inside the FPGA is a factor. Power consumption versus the degree of effectiveness of the calculation inside the FPGA is a figure of merit to be minimized. Results show that the RFI contamination can be significantly suppressed by the LP FIR filter for 64 or less stages.

Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Fraenkel, E. D.; Glas, Dariusz; Legumina, Remigiusz

2013-12-01

121

Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

Sadr, R.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

1992-01-01

122

Filter-bank based digital sub-banding ASIC architecture for coherent optical receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a highly efficient high performance architecture for the digital signal processing of high speed coherent optical receivers. Our ASIC signal processing architecture ports for the first time to optical reception efficient filter bank signal processing structures. The resulting optical receiver ASICs are applicable to long-haul and metro photonic communication and provide substantial energy efficiency saving 30%-50% in power consumption. We aim to develop an ultra-high-speed optical receiver ASIC for transporting 160 Gb/s in a 25 GHz optical band - seven such channels will together carry 1Tb/s (plus overhead) in our 'TeraSanta' project of TeraBitPerSecond efficient transponders.

Nazarathy, Moshe; Tolmachev, Alex

2013-01-01

123

Efficient thresholding-based ECG compressors for high quality applications using cosine modulated filter banks.  

PubMed

The aim of electrocardiogram (ECG) compression is to achieve as much compression as possible while the significant information is preserved in the reconstructed signal. Lossy thresholding-based compressors have shown good performance needing low computational resources. In this work, two compression schemes that include nearly perfect reconstruction cosine modulated filter banks for the signal decomposition are proposed. They are evaluated for highly reliable applications, where the reconstructed signal must be very similar to the original. The whole MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and suitable metrics are used in the assessment, to obtain representative results. Results show that the proposed compressors yield better performance than discrete wavelet transform-based techniques, when high quality requirements are imposed. PMID:22255969

Hernando-Ramiro, Carlos; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando; Pedroviejo-Benito, Fatimá

2011-01-01

124

Design of two-channel filter bank using nature inspired optimization based fractional derivative constraints.  

PubMed

In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (?p), stopband error (?s), transition band error (?t), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. PMID:25034647

Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

2014-07-14

125

A dual-polarized broadband planar antenna and channelizing filter bank for millimeter wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a broadband log-periodic antenna coupled to multiple cryogenic bolometers. This detector architecture, optimized here for astrophysical observations, simultaneously receives two linear polarizations with two octaves of bandwidth at millimeter wavelengths. The broad bandwidth signal received by the antenna is divided into sub-bands with integrated in-line frequency-selective filters. We demonstrate two such filter banks: a diplexer with two sub-bands and a log-periodic channelizer with seven contiguous sub-bands. These detectors have receiver efficiencies of 20%-40% and percent level polarization isolation. Superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers detect the power in each sub-band and polarization. We demonstrate circularly symmetric beam patterns, high polarization isolation, accurately positioned bands, and high optical efficiency. The pixel design is applicable to astronomical observations of intensity and polarization at millimeter through sub-millimeter wavelengths. As compared with an imaging array of pixels measuring only one band, simultaneous measurements of multiple bands in each pixel has the potential to result in a higher signal-to-noise measurement while also providing spectral information. This development facilitates compact systems with high mapping speeds for observations that require information in multiple frequency bands.

O'Brient, Roger; Ade, Peter; Arnold, Kam; Edwards, Jennifer; Engargiola, Greg; Holzapfel, William L.; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, Michael J.; Quealy, Erin; Rebeiz, Gabriel; Richards, Paul; Suzuki, Aritoki

2013-02-01

126

Evaluation of an Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, an approach for in-flight fault detection and isolation (FDI) of aircraft engine sensors based on a bank of Kalman filters is developed. This approach utilizes multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific fault hypothesis. When the propulsion system experiences a fault, only one Kalman filter with the correct hypothesis is able to maintain the nominal estimation performance. Based on this knowledge, the isolation of faults is achieved. Since the propulsion system may experience component and actuator faults as well, a sensor FDI system must be robust in terms of avoiding misclassifications of any anomalies. The proposed approach utilizes a bank of (m+1) Kalman filters where m is the number of sensors being monitored. One Kalman filter is used for the detection of component and actuator faults while each of the other m filters detects a fault in a specific sensor. With this setup, the overall robustness of the sensor FDI system to anomalies is enhanced. Moreover, numerous component fault events can be accounted for by the FDI system. The sensor FDI system is applied to a commercial aircraft engine simulation, and its performance is evaluated at multiple power settings at a cruise operating point using various fault scenarios.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2004-01-01

127

Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters Developed and Demonstrated for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-flight sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is critical to maintaining reliable engine operation during flight. The aircraft engine control system, which computes control commands on the basis of sensor measurements, operates the propulsion systems at the demanded conditions. Any undetected sensor faults, therefore, may cause the control system to drive the engine into an undesirable operating condition. It is critical to detect and isolate failed sensors as soon as possible so that such scenarios can be avoided. A challenging issue in developing reliable sensor FDI systems is to make them robust to changes in engine operating characteristics due to degradation with usage and other faults that can occur during flight. A sensor FDI system that cannot appropriately account for such scenarios may result in false alarms, missed detections, or misclassifications when such faults do occur. To address this issue, an enhanced bank of Kalman filters was developed, and its performance and robustness were demonstrated in a simulation environment. The bank of filters is composed of m + 1 Kalman filters, where m is the number of sensors being used by the control system and, thus, in need of monitoring. Each Kalman filter is designed on the basis of a unique fault hypothesis so that it will be able to maintain its performance if a particular fault scenario, hypothesized by that particular filter, takes place.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2005-01-01

128

An analysis\\/synthesis model for the human visual system based on subspace decomposition and multirate filter bank theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage model of the human visual system (HVS) comprised of low-level (analysis) and a high-level (synthesis) processing stages is presented. The processing done at the low-level stage is described using two approaches, one based on a subspace decomposition and the other on a multirate filter bank. These two models simultaneously provide the high-level processing stage with different perspectives or

Lina Karam

1992-01-01

129

Oversampled linear-phase perfect reconstruction filter banks with higher-order feasible building blocks: Structure and parameterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes new building blocks for the lattice structure of oversampled linear-phase perfect reconstruction filter banks (OLPPRFBs). The structure is an extended version of higher-order feasible building blocks for critically-sampled LPPRFBs. It uses fewer number of building blocks and design parameters than those of tra- ditional OLPPRFBs, whereas the frequency characteristic of the new OLPPRFB is comparable to that

Yuichi Tanaka; Masaaki Ikehara; Truong Q. Nguyen

2008-01-01

130

Filter-bank based efficient transmission of reduced-guard-interval OFDM.  

PubMed

We propose a new way to structure the digital signal processing for reduced guard-interval (RGI) OFDM optical receivers. The idea is to digitally parallelize the processing over multiple parallel virtual sub-channels, occupying disjoint spectral sub-bands. This concept is well known in the optical or analog sub-carrier domains, but it turns out that it can also be performed efficiently in the digital domain. Here we apply critically sampled uniform analysis and synthesis DFT filter bank signal processing techniques in order to realize a novel hardware efficient variant of RGI OFDM, referred to as Multi-Sub-Band OFDM (MSB-OFDM), reducing by 10% receiver computational complexity, relative to a single-polarization version of the CD pre-equalizer. In addition to being more computationally efficient than a conventional RGI OFDM system, the signal flow architecture of our scheme is amenable to being more readily realized over multiple FPGAs, for experimental demonstrations or flexible prototyping. PMID:22274045

Tolmachev, Alex; Nazarathy, Moshe

2011-12-12

131

Systematic design of transmitter and receiver architectures for flexible filter bank multi-carrier signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-carrier (MC) signaling is currently in the forefront of a myriad of systems, either wired or wireless, due to its high spectral efficiency, simple equalization, and robustness in front of multipath and narrowband interference sources. Despite its widespread deployment, the design of efficient architectures for MC systems becomes a challenging task when adopting filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation due to the inclusion of band-limited shaping pulses into the signal model. The reason to employ these pulses is the numerous improvements they offer in terms of performance, such as providing higher spectral confinement and no frequency overlap between adjacent subcarriers. These attributes lead to a reduced out-of-band power emission and a higher effective throughput. The latter is indeed possible by removing the need of cyclic prefix, which is in charge of preserving orthogonality among subcarriers in conventional MC systems. Nevertheless, the potential benefits of FBMC modulations are often obscured when it comes to an implementation point of view. In order to circumvent this limitation, the present paper provides a unified framework to describe all FBMC signals in which both signal design and implementation criteria are explicitly combined. In addition to this, we introduce the concept of flexible FBMC signals that, unlike their traditional MC counterparts, do not impose restrictions on the signal parameters (i.e., symbol rate, carrier spacing, or sampling frequency). Moreover, our framework also proposes a methodology that overcomes the implementation issues that characterize FBMC systems and allows us to derive simple, efficient, and time-invariant transmitter and receiver architectures.

Gutiérrez, Esteban; López-Salcedo, José A.; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

2014-12-01

132

FPGA architectures for electronically scanned wide-band RF beams using 3-D FIR/IIR digital filters for rectangular array aperture receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time digital implementation of three-dimensional (3-D) infinite impulse response (IIR) beam filters are discussed. The 3-D IIR filter building blocks have filter coefficients, which are defined using algebraic closed-form expressions that are functions of desired beam personalities, such as the look-direction of the aperture, the bandwidth and sampling frequency of interest, inter antenna spacing, and 3dB beam size. Real-time steering of such 3-D beam filters are obtained by proposed calculation of filter coefficients. Application specific computing units for rapidly calculating the 3-D IIR filter coefficients at nanosecond speed potentially allows fast real-time tracking of low radar cross section (RCS) objects at close range. Proposed design consists of 3-D IIR beam filter with 4 4 antenna grid and the filter coefficient generation block in separate FPGAs. The hardware is designed and co-simulated using a Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T FPGA. The 3-D filter operates over 90 MHz and filter coefficient computing structure can operate at up to 145 MHz.

Wijayaratna, Sewwandi; Madanayake, Arjuna; Beall, Brandon D.; Bruton, Len T.

2014-05-01

133

Bioprocess fault detection by nonlinear multivariate analysis: application of an artificial autoassociative neural network and wavelet filter bank.  

PubMed

A nonlinear multivariate analysis, artificial autoassociative neural network (AANN), was applied to bioprocess fault detection. In an optimal production process of a recombinant yeast with a temperature controllable expression system, faults in test cases with faulty temperature sensors and plasmid instability of recombinant cells could be detected by the AANN. Since the raw data of measured variables included high-frequency noise, a wavelet filter bank (WFB) was applied to noise elimination before training of the AANN. The filtering performance of the WFB was compared with those of some classical first-order digital filters. The filtered signals at several resolution scales by the WFB were employed as the training data of the AANN. The computing time and summation of square of errors in training were compared, and the appropriate degree of the noise filtering and the density of the training data of the AANN were discussed. The performance of the feature capturing by the AANN was compared with that by a linear multivariate analysis, principal component analysis. A J index defined in this paper, using inputs and outputs of the AANN, was used for fault detection successfully. The output of the first unit of the trained AANN functioned effectively for the discrimination of the data in the abnormal cases from the data in the normal cases. PMID:9496671

Shimizu, H; Yasuoka, K; Uchiyama, K; Shioya, S

1998-01-01

134

Interpolated finite impulse response filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to implement computationally efficient finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters is presented. The filter structure is a cascade of two sections. The first section generates a sparse set of impulse response samples and the other section generates the remaining samples by using interpolation. The method can be used to implement most practical FIR filters with significant savings

Y. Neuvo; Dong Cheng-Yu; SANJIT K. MITRA

1984-01-01

135

An adaptive filtering approach to spectral estimation and SAR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an adaptive FIR filtering approach, which is referred to as the amplitude and phase estimation of a sinusoid (APES), for complex spectral estimation. We compare the APES algorithm with other FIR filtering approaches including the Welch (1967) and Capon (1969) methods. We also describe how to apply the FIR filtering approaches to target range signature estimation and synthetic

Jian Li; Petre Stoica

1996-01-01

136

Non-separable bidimensional filter banks associated with oversampled wavelet transforms  

E-print Network

to the low-pass filter m0: ^(2) = m0() ^() · m0 is 1-periodic and must satisfy the Smith-Barnwell equation: m that m() := m0(N) also satisfies the Smith-Barnwell equation. m() 2 + m( + 1 2 ) 2 = m0(N) 2 + m0(N + N 2: := { } , ~ := { ~ } · Filters: m , ~m , 0 L, satisfying the generalized Smith- Barnwell equations, L =0 m () ~m ( + (AT )-1 s

Johnson, Brody Dylan

137

Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) in Brain-Computer Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In motor imagery-based brain computer interfaces (BCI), discriminative patterns can be extracted from the electroencephalogram (EEG) using the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm. However, the performance of this spatial filter depends on the operational frequency band of the EEG. Thus, setting a broad frequency range, or manually selecting a subject-specific frequency range, are commonly used with the CSP algorithm. To

Kai Keng Ang; Zhang Yang Chin; Haihong Zhang; Cuntai Guan

2008-01-01

138

Frequency Selective KYP Lemma and its Applications to IIR Filter Bank Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a transfer function\\/filter F(ejomega) of order n, Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP) lemma characterizes the intractable semi-infinite programming (SIP) condition F(e-jomega)1 Theta [F(ejomega)1]T ges 0 forall omega in frequency domain by a tractable semi-definite programming (SDP) in state-space domain. Some recent results generalize this lemma to SDP for SIP of frequency selectivity (FS-SIP). All these SDP characterizations are given at the expense

H. G. Hoang; H. D. Tuan; T. Q. Nguyen

2007-01-01

139

Inverse filtering of room acoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method is proposed for realizing exact inverse filtering of acoustic impulse responses in room. This method is based on the principle called the multiple-input\\/output inverse theorem (MINT). The inverse is constructed from multiple finite-impulse response (FIR) filters (transversal filters) by adding some extra acoustic signal-transmission channels produced by multiple loudspeakers or microphones. The coefficients of these FIR filters

M. Miyoshi; Y. Kaneda

1988-01-01

140

Filters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Filters, is the eighth chapter in Volume II âÂÂAlternating Current (AC). A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Low-pass filters, High-pass filters, Band-pass filters, Band-stop filters, and Resonant filters. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-02

141

J. OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 200X 1 Analysis of Scalable PMD Compensators using FIR  

E-print Network

. As to the measurement of PMD-induced transmission degradation in the optical domain, several approaches have been Robert L. Konsbruck Abstract-- We investigate the potential of optical -stage FIR filter architectures

Oswald. Peter

142

FIR statistics of paired galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much progress has been made in understanding the effects of interaction on galaxies (see reviews in this volume by Heckman and Kennicutt). Evidence for enhanced emission from galaxies in pairs first emerged in the radio (Sulentic 1976) and optical (Larson and Tinsley 1978) domains. Results in the far infrared (FIR) lagged behind until the advent of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The last five years have seen numerous FIR studies of optical and IR selected samples of interacting galaxies (e.g., Cutri and McAlary 1985; Joseph and Wright 1985; Kennicutt et al. 1987; Haynes and Herter 1988). Despite all of this work, there are still contradictory ideas about the level and, even, the reality of an FIR enhancement in interacting galaxies. Much of the confusion originates in differences between the galaxy samples that were studied (i.e., optical morphology and redshift coverage). Here, the authors report on a study of the FIR detection properties for a large sample of interacting galaxies and a matching control sample. They focus on the distance independent detection fraction (DF) statistics of the sample. The results prove useful in interpreting the previously published work. A clarification of the phenomenology provides valuable clues about the physics of the FIR enhancement in galaxies.

Sulentic, Jack W.

1990-01-01

143

Telephone Channel Compensation in Speaker Verification Using a Polynomial Approximation in the Log-Filter-Bank Energy Domain .  

E-print Network

??This correspondence presents a novel feature-space channel compensation technique that models the convolutional distortion in the log-energy mel-filter domain by means of a polynomial approximation.… (more)

Garretón, Claudio

2012-01-01

144

Clutter rejection filters in color flow imaging: a theoretical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general class of linear clutter rejection filters is described, covering the commonly used filter types including FIR\\/IIR filters with linear initialization, as well as regression filters, where the clutter component is estimated by least square curve fitting. The filter can be described by a complex valued matrix, and a frequency response is defined. However, in contrast to a time

Hans Torp

1997-01-01

145

Setup for FIR scattering on plasma crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for the investigation of plasma crystals. It is equivalent to the X-ray scattering methods of solid state physics but using far infrared (FIR) laser beams with wavelengths comparable to the Debye length of the system. This method could provide information about structure and dynamics of large 3D plasma crystals. Such crystals with up to 1 million particles have been realised in CCP discharges using micron sized Melamin-Formaledhyd (MF) particles. We present the setup of the FIR laser system, scattering arrangement, and plasma chamber. Results are discussed including video analysis of plasma crystals and FIR scattering on test samples.

Ränsch, Jens; Aschinger, Andreas; Winter, Jörg

2008-09-01

146

Setup for FIR scattering on plasma crystals  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new method for the investigation of plasma crystals. It is equivalent to the X-ray scattering methods of solid state physics but using far infrared (FIR) laser beams with wavelengths comparable to the Debye length of the system. This method could provide information about structure and dynamics of large 3D plasma crystals. Such crystals with up to 1 million particles have been realised in CCP discharges using micron sized Melamin-Formaledhyd (MF) particles. We present the setup of the FIR laser system, scattering arrangement, and plasma chamber. Results are discussed including video analysis of plasma crystals and FIR scattering on test samples.

Raensch, Jens; Aschinger, Andreas; Winter, Joerg [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik II, Universitaetsstr. 150, NB 5/70, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

2008-09-07

147

New Estimation Filtering for Battery Management Systems of Lead-Acid Cells in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper proposes a new estimation filtering for battery management systems of lead-acid cells in hybrid electric vehicles. The well known finite impulse response (FIR) filter is adopted for the estimation filtering. The proposed method provides the filtered estimates for the output voltage as well as voltages across the bulk and surface capacitors. These filtered estimates have good inherent

Pyung-Soo Kim

2007-01-01

148

MICROWAVE PHOTONIC FILTER DESIGN VIA OPTICAL FREQUENCY COMB SHAPING  

E-print Network

is dedicated to my parents, to my parents in law, to my dear children, and to my lovely wife. #12;iii ................................................................................................................23 3.2. Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Flat-top Filter Design

Purdue University

149

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d)  

E-print Network

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d) Location This established is SE., although some SW. and NE. exposures exist. The W. part is dominated by Red Butte, a recent. Parts of the Mud Creek canyon are very steep, as are the upper slopes of Red Butte. Rocks are entirely

Standiford, Richard B.

150

Design of Microwave Band Pass Filters for the Debuncher Stochastic Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The FIR filters designed for the debuncher stochastic cooling system needed improvement. Its bandwidth was too wide, its magnitude was not flat, its phase ripple was too great, and it was difficult to control the characteristics of the filter. A simple microwave technique was employed to have a short time delay, simple robust layout, and small board size. A significant savings was seen over the FIR technique and these filters were installed in the Antiproton Source Debuncher while the FIR filters were removed from the debuncher stochastic cooling entirely.

Deibele, C.; /Fermilab

2001-01-01

151

Multicriterion optimized QMF Bank design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank with multicriterion constraints such as minimal aliasing and\\/or minimal error coding is among the most important problems in filterbank design, for solving which linear algebra-based methods are still heuristic and do not always work, especially for large filter length. It is shown in this paper that this problem can be reduced either to convex

Hoang Duong Tuan; Le Hai Nam; Hoang Tuy; Truong Q. Nguyen

2003-01-01

152

Item Banking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using item banks while providing useful information to those who are considering implementing an item banking project in their school district. The primary advantage of item banking is in test development. Also describes start-up activities in implementing item banking. (SLD)

Rudner, Lawrence

1999-01-01

153

FIR filtering by the modified Fermat number transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Right-angle circular convolution (RCC) and the modified Fermat number transform (MFNT) are introduced. It is shown that a linear convolution of two N-point sequences can be obtained by a corresponding N-point RCC. It is also shown that the MFNT supports RCC so that a linear convolution can be computed by an N -point MFNT and its inverse plus N multiplies

W. Li; A. M. Peterson

1990-01-01

154

Zero-phase FIR filters: Blessing or curse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

These are exciting times for observational seismology. State-of-the-art broadband seismometers now easily cover a frequency band of more than one hundred seconds to several tens of Hertz in a single sensor. Commonly available data loggers provide a dynamic range exceeding 120 dB. Ground motion amplitudes differing by more than 6 orders of magnitude can be simultaneously recorded without distortion.

Frank Scherbaum

1997-01-01

155

SARGENT'S FIR HYBRID: ABIES AMABILIS X LASIOCARPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

in the summer of 1896, Professor Charles Sprague Sargent found a fir tree that he thought might be a natural hybrid between Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes and A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. The founder and Director of the Arnold Arboretum, Sargent was generally recognized as America's pre eminent dendrologist. His brief description of the putative hybrid (Sargent, 1898) is still the

William B. Critchfield

156

Design of fractional order digital FIR differentiators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the design of a fractional order FIR differentiator is investigated. First, the fractional derivative of the power function is defined. Then, the impulse response of the fractional order differentiator is obtained by solving linear equations of the Vandermonde form. Finally, one example is used to demonstrate that the fractional derivatives of digital signals are easily computed by

Chien-Cheng Tseng

2001-01-01

157

Design of Optimal Digital Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four methods for designing digital filters optimal in the Chebyshev sense are developed. The properties of these filters are investigated and compared. An analytic method for designing narrow-band FIR filters using Zolotarev polynomials, which are extensions of Chebyshev polynomials, is proposed. Bandpass and bandstop narrow-band filters as well as lowpass and highpass filters can be designed by this method. The design procedure, related formulae and examples are presented. An improved method of designing optimal minimum phase FIR filters by directly finding zeros is proposed. The zeros off the unit circle are found by an efficient special purpose root-finding algorithm without deflation. The proposed algorithm utilizes the passband minimum ripple frequencies to establish the initial points, and employs a modified Newton's iteration to find the accurate initial points for a standard Newton's iteration. The proposed algorithm can be used to design very long filters (L = 325) with very high stopband attenuations. The design of FIR digital filters in the complex domain is investigated. The complex approximation problem is converted into a near equivalent real approximation problem. A standard linear programming algorithm is used to solve the real approximation problem. Additional constraints are introduced which allow weighting of the phase and/or group delay of the approximation. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The desired constant group delay which gives the minimum Chebyshev error is found to be smaller than that of a linear phase filter of the same length. These filters, in addition to having a smaller, approximately constant group delay, have better magnitude characteristics than exactly linear phase filters with the same length. The filters have nearly equiripple magnitude and group delay. The problem of IIR digital filter design in the complex domain is formulated such that the existence of best approximation is guaranteed. An efficient and numerically stable algorithm for the design is proposed. The methods to establish a good initial point are investigated. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The magnitudes of the filter poles near the passband edge are larger than of those far from the passband edge. A delay overshooting may occur in the transition band (don't care region), and it can be reduced by decreasing the maximum allowed pole magnitude of the design problem at the expense of increasing the approximation error.

Chen, Xiangkun

158

Optical to FIR SED of Ly? Emitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an optical and FIR analysis of a sample of 65 Ly? emitters at 2.0˜FIR counterparts and are (U)LIRGs candidates, being, therefore, dusty objects despite that they show Ly? in emission and with large equivalent widths.

Oteo, I.; Bongiovanni, A.; Pérez García, A. M.; Cepa, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Pep Team

2011-10-01

159

Bank Mergers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News exaimnes the recent flurry of merger activities in the banking sector. The ten resources discussed provide the details of the recent three big banking mergers and the likely effects on efficiency, lending and consumers. On April 6, 1998, Citibank, the second largest bank in America, announced that it will be merging with Travelers Group, a large financial services firm, in a deal worth $80 billion -- the largest merger deal ever. Only a week later, BankAmerica announced it would merge with NationsBank to create the first coast-to-coast bank in America, in a deal worth $60 billion. The third deal took place on the same day, when First Chicago NBD and Banc One announced they will be merging in a deal valued at $30 billion.

Ng, Thiam Hee.

160

Banks, Bank Robbers, and Continuing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wytheville Community College (Virginia) and Bland Correctional Center collaboratively created a customized seminar on banking security by videotaping convicted bank robbers giving their perceptions of banks. (SK)

Williamson, Rick P.; Bandy, Genny

1989-01-01

161

An economical class of digital filters for decimation and interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of digital linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters for decimation (sampling rate decrease) and interpolation (sampling rate increase) are presented. They require no multipliers and use limited storage making them an economical alternative to conventional implementations for certain applications. A digital filter in this class consists of cascaded ideal integrator stages operating at a high sampling rate

E. Hogenauer

1981-01-01

162

DNA Banking  

SciTech Connect

The author is involved in the ethical, legal, and social issues of banking of DNA and data from DNA analysis. In his attempt to determine the extent of DNA banking in the U.S., the author surveyed some commercial companies performing DNA banking services. This article summarizes the results of that survey, with special emphasis on the procedures the companies use to protect the privacy of individuals. 4 refs.

Reilly, P.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States))

1992-11-01

163

Pacific Silver fir Current Figure S5a. Projected habitat of pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis Douglas ex J. Forbes). The left  

E-print Network

Pacific Silver fir ­ Current Figure S5a. Projected habitat of pacific silver fir (Abies-2006 Recent Average1961-1990 Climate Normal #12;Pacific Silver fir ­ 2020s Figure S5b. Projected habitat of pacific silver fir for the 2011­2040 normal period according to 18 climate

Hamann, Andreas

164

Quantum mechanical features of optically pumped CW FIR lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantum mechanical predictions for the gain of an optically pumped CW FIR laser are presented for cases in which one or both of the pump and FIR transitions are pressure or Doppler broadened. The results are compared to those based on the rate equation model. Some of the quantum mechanical predictions are verified in CH3OH.

Seligson, D.; Leite, J. R. R.; Sanchez, A.; Feld, M. S.; Ducloy, M.

1977-01-01

165

Characterization of eastern US spruce-fir soils. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

The spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. This chapter describes the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, including soil properties that are important in understanding forest function and the consequences of atmospheric deposition to forested ecosystems. Chapter 1 describes the silvical characteristics of the spruce-fir forest. The Spruce-Fir Research Cooperative included six intensive study sites; five were high-elevation research sites located from western North Carolina to New Hampshire, with one low-elevation site in Maine. Information gained from research at these sites, and other relevant research from these regions, provides the basis for this description of eastern U. S. spruce-fir soils.

Fernandez, I.J.

1992-01-01

166

Application of B-splines in digital filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. In many digital signal processing applications, the input signal rate is higher than the output signal Nyquist rate. In the case of an FIR (finite-impulse-response) digital filter, it has been found that a B-spline representation of the filter response leads to minimal time and circuit complexities. The number of filter coefficients required in this

L. Ferrari

1989-01-01

167

A Reconfigurable Channel Filter for Software Defined Radio Using RNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high-speed FIR channel filter using residue number system (RNS) whose frequency response can be reconfigured\\u000a to adapt to a multitude of channel filtering specifications of a multi-standard software defined radio (SDR) receiver. The\\u000a channel filters in the channelizer of an SDR extract multiple narrowband channels corresponding to different communication\\u000a standards from the wideband input signal. The

K. G. Smitha; A. P. Vinod

168

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking  

E-print Network

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking Job Code 0203 ­ Level 6 CIBC is a leading Banking, Wealth Management and Wholesale Banking ­ we provide a full range of financial products Group of Companies please visit CIBC.com. Job Overview The Commercial Banking Associate Program provides

Northern British Columbia, University of

169

Online banking applications and community bank performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of online banking intensity on the financial performance of community banks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study estimates online banking intensity and bank performance indices using a combination of primary and secondary data. Online banking intensity is specified as a latent construct and estimated using web feature data collected from

Ram N. Acharya; Albert Kagan; Srinivasa Rao Lingam

2008-01-01

170

Status of the spruce; Fir cooperative research program  

SciTech Connect

Aside from the mixed conifer forest in the San Bernadino National Forest near the Los Angeles Basin, the only significant visible decline and mortality of a U.S. forest possibly caused by regional air pollution is found in the high elevation spruce/fir forests of the Appalachians (VA, NC, TN, W VA), Adirondacks (NY), Green Mountains (VT), and the White Mountains (NH). In January, most of the scientists that have or are currently studying Spruce-Fir conditions met in Philadelphia. They came to a consensus on the regional condition of the Spruce-Fir forests. The results of that meeting are summarized.

Hertel, G.D.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Arre, T. (Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA (US)); Eager, C. (Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, TN (US)); Mohnen, V. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (USA)); MedLarz, S. (Northrop Services, Broomall, PA (US))

1987-01-01

171

Single Passband, Discretely Tunable, Photonic Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on Highly Birefringent Fiber-Based Comb Filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By experiment, we demonstrate a photonic microwave finite impulse response (FIR) filter scheme that exhibits both the features of flexible frequency tuning and single passband. The proposed filter is constructed by the combined use of a broadband Gaussian-shaped supercontinuum (SC) and a wavelength spacing tunable, highly birefringent (Hi-Bi) fiber-based comb filter. By incorporating a three-segment, Hi-Bi fiber-based, Lyot-type, comb filter into a spectrum slicing-based photonic microwave FIR filter scheme, we achieve both novel features of single passband and passband RF frequency tuning at the same time. It is shown that the discrete tuning of passband RF frequency can be obtained simply by rotating beam polarization. Our experimental demonstration shows a flexible passband RF frequency tuning over a range of 7.3 GHz.

Ryu, Uh-Chan; Chang, You Min; Lee, Ju Han

2008-10-01

172

Western larch resistance to Douglas-fir beetle attack.  

E-print Network

??Live western larch, Larix occidentalis Nutt., a tree species resistant to the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, produces the monoterpene 3-carene in higher concentrations compared… (more)

Neal, Tiffany A.

2004-01-01

173

NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

174

Bank Terminals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

1978-01-01

175

Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation.  

PubMed

Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating. PMID:19044527

Bertschinger, G; Endres, C P; Lewen, F; Oosterbeek, J W

2008-10-01

176

Particle swarm optimization-based approach for optical finite impulse response filter design.  

PubMed

This study presents what is to our knowledge a new and efficient method for the design of an optical finite impulse response (FIR) filter by employing a particle swarm optimization technique. With the method proposed, the design of an optical FIR filter, which is able to provide an arbitrary spectrum output based on crystal birefringence, could be implemented with good performance and high efficiency. The design procedure is discussed. A typical example of a green/magenta filter used in a liquid crystal on silicon projection display is included to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of this method in this design process as compared with simulated annealing. PMID:12645986

Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Guangjie; Yu, Feihong

2003-03-10

177

Effects of Grand Fir l\\\\lonoterpenes on the Fir Engraver') Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)~ and its Symbiotic Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoterpenes present in grand fir, Abies grand-iS (Douglas) Lindley, phloem were tested for their effects on fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, adults and the symbiotic fungus Trichosporium symbioticum ·Wright. All of the monoterpene vapors caused significant beetle mortality within 4 h. Toxicity was observed at doses normally found in the host tree, either in unattacked phloem or in reaction tissue

RAFFA K. F; A. A. BERRYMAN; J. SIMASKO; W. TEAL; B. L. WONG

178

General Banking Conditions 2009 General Banking Conditions  

E-print Network

General Banking Conditions 2009 r #12;#12;1 General Banking Conditions (Version 2009. 1 Scope The provisions of these General Banking Conditions shall apply to all existing and future legal relationships between the Bank and the Customer to the extent that it is not otherwise provided

Franssen, Michael

179

Analysis of quantization errors in the direct form for finite impulse response digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the three possible types of quantization effects in the direct form realization of finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters is presented. These quantization effects include roundoff noise, A-D noise, and filter frequency response errors due to coefficient quantization. Since the analysis of roundoff noise and A-D noise for the direct form is straightforward, this paper concentrates on

D. Chan; L. Rabiner

1973-01-01

180

Development of FIR arrays with integrating amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of optimized photoconductor arrays suitable for far infrared space astronomical applications are described. Although the primary impetus is the production of a 16 by 16 element Ge:Ga demonstration array for SIRTF, the extension of this technology to Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is considered. The optimization of Ge:Ga and Ge:Be photoconductor materials is discussed. In collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, measurements of FIR photoconductors with quantum efficiencies greater than 20 percent at 100 micrometers, and dark currents below 300 electrons/s are presented. Integrating J-FET amplifier technology is discussed. The current generation of integrating amplifiers has a demonstrated read noise of less than 20 electrons for an integration time of 100 s. The design is shown for a stackable 16 x n Ge:Ga array that utilizes a 16-channel monolithic version of the J-FET integrator. A part of the design is the use of a thin, thermally insulating substrate that allows the electronics to operate at the optimum temperature of 50 K while maintaining thermal and optical isolation from the detectors at 2 K. The power dissipation for the array is less than 16 mW. The array design may particularly be applicable to high resolution imaging spectrometers for LDR.

Young, Erick T.

1988-01-01

181

Frequency-domain adaptation of causal digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptation of causal FIR digital filters in the discrete frequency domain is considered, and it is shown how the bin-normalized form of the LMS algorithm can converge to a biased solution for problems such as linear prediction. A discrete frequency-domain version of Newton's algorithm is derived, and it is demonstrated how this can converge to the optimal causal solution,

Stephen J. Elliott; Boaz Rafaely

2000-01-01

182

Bank ownership type and banking relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate and test hypotheses about the role of bank ownership type—foreign, state-owned, and private domestic banks—in banking relationships. Our application uses data from India, an important developing nation. The empirical results are consistent with all of our hypotheses with regard to foreign banks. First, these banks tend to establish relationships with relatively transparent firms. Second, firms that have relationships

Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Maria Soledad Martinez Peria; Rida Zaidi

2008-01-01

183

Wideband digital filter using FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital filter being developed by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is presented here. The filter is designed using field programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits and has an equivalent clock rate of 4 GHz. The ALMA radio astronomy array being developed by the NRAO in cooperation with several European scientific agencies will consist of up to 64 twelve-meter diameter antennas to be used for observing astronomical sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This instrument is to observe with bandwidths up to 16 GHz per antenna in eight unbroken RF bands of 2 GHz each. Bandwidth-resolution trade-offs are done in ALMA by providing each of the eight 4-Gsample/s digitizers per antenna with a programmable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filter. The filter can be selected to perform 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, . . ., 1/64 band filtering and sample decimation. In the 1/2 band mode, the filter has the equivalent of 128 tap weight multiplications. Tap weights increase by factors of two to the limit of 2048 tap weights when the filter is programmed to be a 1/32 band low-pass or high-pass filter. The filter is designed to process the output of a four-bit digitizer. The filter utilizes RAM look-up tables for tap weight multiplications. The output of the tap weight multiplications drive an adder tree which has 10-bit precision in the early stages and 7-bit precision in latter stages. Output quantizing of the adder tree output is done in look-up table RAM to 2- bit, 4-level precision. The filter is implemented on a 280-mm, 6-U, Euro card using FPGA ICs running with a system clock rate of 125 MHz.

Escoffier, Raymond P.; Webber, John C.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Broadwell, Charles M.

2000-07-01

184

Thermally-efficient reconfigurable narrowband RF-photonic filter.  

PubMed

We present the design and fabrication of thermally-efficient tuning structures integrated into a narrowband reconfigurable radio-frequency (RF)-photonics filter using silicon-on-insulator waveguide optical delay lines. By introducing thermal isolation trenching, we are able to achieve IIR, FIR or arbitrary mixed response with less than 120 mW average tuning power in a single RF-photonic unit cell filter. PMID:21164810

Feng, Ning-Ning; Dong, Po; Feng, Dazeng; Qian, Wei; Liang, Hong; Lee, Daniel C; Luff, Jonathan B; Agarwal, Anjali; Banwell, Tom; Menendez, Ron; Toliver, Paul; Woodward, Ted K; Asghari, Mehdi

2010-11-22

185

Multiresolution Bilateral Filtering for Image Denoising  

PubMed Central

The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that does spatial averaging without smoothing edges; it has shown to be an effective image denoising technique. An important issue with the application of the bilateral filter is the selection of the filter parameters, which affect the results significantly. There are two main contributions of this paper. The first contribution is an empirical study of the optimal bilateral filter parameter selection in image denoising applications. The second contribution is an extension of the bilateral filter: multiresolution bilateral filter, where bilateral filtering is applied to the approximation (low-frequency) subbands of a signal decomposed using a wavelet filter bank. The multiresolution bilateral filter is combined with wavelet thresholding to form a new image denoising framework, which turns out to be very effective in eliminating noise in real noisy images. Experimental results with both simulated and real data are provided. PMID:19004705

Zhang, Ming; Gunturk, Bahadir K.

2008-01-01

186

Empirical mode decomposition as a filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has recently been pioneered by Huang et al. for adaptively representing nonstationary signals as sums of zero-mean amplitude modulation frequency modulation components. In order to better understand the way EMD behaves in stochastic situations involving broadband noise, we report here on numerical experiments based on fractional Gaussian noise. In such a case, it turns out that

Patrick Flandrin; Gabriel Rilling; Paulo Goncalves

2004-01-01

187

Gabor filters in industrial inspection: a review. Application to semiconductor industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on reviewing some recent works of the use of Gabor filters dealing with industrial applications. After a brief recall of Gabor filter basis, the two usual uses of Gabor filters are recalled: filter bank approach and filter design approach. The third part presents recent published works domain by domain. A fourth part exposes our own work with

F. Meriaudeau; F. Truchetet; O. Laligant; P. Bourgeat

2005-01-01

188

Bank Supervisory Framework and Bank Performance  

E-print Network

Abstract: Ongoing changes in the structure and nature of banking, as well as banking crises across the globe have focused the attention of policy makers on the appropriate structure, scope, and degree of independence of banking supervision. Key issues for banking supervision structure are whether there should be one or multiple supervisory authorities, and whether the central bank should be involved in bank supervision. The issue pertaining to the scope of supervision is whether bank supervisory authorities should supervise other financial service industries, including in particular securities and insurance. Finally, the issue regarding the independence of supervisory authorities is the degree to which bank supervisors should be subject to political and economic policy pressure and influence. How these issues are addressed is important, because policies that fail to provide for an appropriate bank supervisory framework may undermine bank performance and even lead to full-scale banking crises. The intense interest policy makers have shown in these issues has not been matched, however, by researchers. In particular, there is very little systematic empirical evidence on how, or indeed whether, the structure, scope, or independence of bank supervision affects the banking industry. This paper addresses this gap in three respects. First, drawing on the existing literature, we

James R. Barth; Daniel E. Nolle; Triphon Phumiwasana; Glenn Yago; James R. Barth; Daniel E. Nolle; Triphon Phumiwasana; Glenn Yago

2002-01-01

189

Ranking the Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ranking the Banks, sponsored by American Banker, does just what the title suggests: ranks banks, worldwide. Five catagories of banks -- World Banks, Thrifts, Industry, Bank Holding Companies, and Commercial banks -- are subdivided into a number of different subcatagories including Top 100 Banking Companies in Assets, Top 100 World Banking Companies in Deposits, and Top 25 Lead Legal Advisers. Each compilation of data is ranked and tabled and the current ranking is displayed against the last. All tables are clearly dated, and those exclusive to American Banker online are highlighted with an icon.

190

Internet Banking System Prototype  

E-print Network

Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

2010-01-01

191

Cyclic block filtered multitone modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A filter bank modulation transceiver is presented. The idea is to obtain good sub-channel frequency confinement as it is done by the family of exponentially modulated filter banks that is typically referred to as filtered multitone (FMT) modulation. However, differently from conventional FMT, the linear convolutions are replaced with circular convolutions. Since transmission occurs in blocks, the scheme is referred to as cyclic block FMT (CB-FMT). This paper focuses on the principles, design, and implementation of CB-FMT. In particular, it is shown that an efficient realization of both the transmitter and the receiver is possible in the frequency domain (FD), and it is based on the concatenation of an inner discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and a bank of outer DFTs. Such an implementation suggests a simple sub-channel FD equalizer. The overall required implementation complexity is lower than in FMT. Furthermore, the orthogonal filter bank design is simplified. The sub-channel frequency confinement in CB-FMT yields compact power spectrum and lower peak-to-average power ratio than in OFDM. Furthermore, the FD equalization allows the exploitation of the transmission medium time and frequency diversity; thus, it potentially yields lower symbol error rate and higher achievable rate in time-variant frequency-selective fading.

Tonello, Andrea M.; Girotto, Mauro

2014-12-01

192

Simulations of a FIR Oscillator with Large Slippage parameter at Jefferson Lab for FIR/UV pump-probe experiments  

SciTech Connect

We previously proposed a dual FEL configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that would allow simultaneous lasing at FIR and UV wavelengths. The FIR source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules, using the exhaust beam from a UVFEL as the input electron beam. Since the UV FEL requires very short pulses, the input to the FIR FEL is extremely short compared to a slippage length and the usual Slowly Varying Envelope Approximation (SVEA) does not apply. We use a non-SVEA code to simulate this system both with a small energy spread (UV laser off) and with large energy spread (UV laser on).

Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Campbell, L. T. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (Great Britain); Daresbury Laboratory and Cockcroft Institute, Warrington (Great Britain); McNeil, B.W.T. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (Great Britain); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Shinn, Michelle D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-03-01

193

GROWTH-TREND DECLINES OF SPRUCE AND FIR IN MID-APPALACHIAN SUBALPINE FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dendroecological analysis of 258 increment growth cores collected from red spruce, balsam fir, and Fraser fir in central West Virginia and western Virginia indicates marked declines in growth-trend during the past 20 years similar to that reported for spruce and fir in high-eleva...

194

Low-complexity wavelet filter design for image compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image compression algorithms based on the wavelet transform are an increasingly attractive and flexible alternative to other algorithms based on block orthogonal transforms. While the design of orthogonal wavelet filters has been studied in significant depth, the design of nonorthogonal wavelet filters, such as linear-phase (LP) filters, has not yet reached that point. Of particular interest are wavelet transforms with low complexity at the encoder. In this article, we present known and new parameterizations of the two families of LP perfect reconstruction (PR) filters. The first family is that of all PR LP filters with finite impulse response (FIR), with equal complexity at the encoder and decoder. The second family is one of LP PR filters, which are FIR at the encoder and infinite impulse response (IIR) at the decoder, i.e., with controllable encoder complexity. These parameterizations are used to optimize the subband/wavelet transform coding gain, as defined for nonorthogonal wavelet transforms. Optimal LP wavelet filters are given for low levels of encoder complexity, as well as their corresponding integer approximations, to allow for applications limited to using integer arithmetic. These optimal LP filters yield larger coding gains than orthogonal filters with an equivalent complexity. The parameterizations described in this article can be used for the optimization of any other appropriate objective function.

Majani, E.

1994-01-01

195

The ISS Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR): a Summary of Capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user scientific research facility that will fly in the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR will be one of the two racks that will make up the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) - the other being the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The ISS will provide the FCF with the necessary resources, such as power and cooling. While the ISS crew will be available for experiment operations, their time will be limited. The FCF is, therefore, being designed for autonomous operations and remote control operations. Control of the FCF will be primarily through the Telescience Support Center (TSC) at the Glenn Research Center. The FCF is being designed to accommodate a wide range of combustion and fluids physics experiments within the ISS resources and constraints. The primary mission of the FIR, however, is to accommodate experiments from four major fluids physics disciplines: Complex Fluids; Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Interfacial Phenomena; and Dynamics and Stability. The design of the FIR is flexible enough to accommodate experiments from other science disciplines such as Biotechnology. The FIR flexibility is a result of the large volume dedicated for experimental hardware, easily re-configurable diagnostics that allow for unique experiment configurations, and it's customizable software. The FIR will utilize six major subsystems to accommodate this broad scope of fluids physics experiments. The major subsystems are: structural, environmental, electrical, gaseous, command and data management, and imagers and illumination. Within the rack, the FIR's structural subsystem provides an optics bench type mechanical interface for the precise mounting of experimental hardware; including optical components. The back of the bench is populated with FIR avionics packages and light sources. The interior of the rack is isolated from the cabin through two rack doors that are hinged near the top and bottom of the rack. Transmission of micro-gravity disturbances to and from the rack is minimized through the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). The environmental subsystem will utilize air and water to remove heat generated by facility and experimental hardware. The air will be circulated throughout the rack and will be cooled by an air-water heat exchanger. Water will be used directly to cool some of the FIR components and will also be available to cool experiment hardware as required. The electrical subsystem includes the Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU), which provides 28 VDC and 120 VDC power to the facility and the experiment hardware. The EPCU will also provide power management and control functions, as well as fault protection capabilities. The FIR will provide access to the ISS gaseous nitrogen and vacuum systems. These systems are available to support experiment operations such as the purging of experimental cells, creating flows within experimental cells and providing dry conditions where needed. The FIR Command and Data Management subsystem (CDMS) provides command and data handling for both facility and experiment hardware. The Input Output Processor (IOP) provides the overall command and data management functions for the rack including downlinking or writing data to removable drives. The IOP will also monitor the health and status of the rack subsystems. The Image Processing and Storage Units (IPSU) will perform diagnostic control and image data acquisition functions. An IPSU will be able to control a digital camera, receive image data from that camera and process/ compress image data as necessary. The Fluids Science and Avionics Package (FSAP) will provide the primary control over an experiment. The FSAP contains various computer boards/cards that will perform data and control functions. To support the imaging needs, cameras and illumination sources will be available to the investigator. Both color analog and black and white digital cameras with lenses are expected. These cameras will be capable of high resolution and, separately

Gati, F.; Hill, M. E.

2002-01-01

196

Reducing the computational complexity of narrowband 2D fan filters using shaped 2D window functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional (2D) discrete-domain FIR narrow fan filters may be used for the selective filtering of sampled broadband 2D plane waves on the basis of their directions of arrival (DOA). We show that the 2D region of support (ROS) of the unit impulse response h(n1,n2) of such filters may be reduced in size by using a shaped 2D window function, where

Leila Khademi; Leonard T. Bruton

2003-01-01

197

The FIR-Radio Correlation & Implications for GLAST Observations  

E-print Network

· if tcool > Bmin ­ Lradio ~ eB3/2: e B · MW: tsyn ~ tIC ~ tesc ~ 107-108 yr · Arp 220: tsyn ~ ? (B ~ ?) tIC ~ 5000 yr tesc ~ ?; tesc > R/vw~ 3x105 yr tIC in Starbursts & FIR-Radio favor tcool tIC, i

Wurtele, Jonathan

198

PEST MANAGEMENT Douglas-fir pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis  

E-print Network

PEST MANAGEMENT Douglas-fir pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in North trap types and at different loads for trapping the Douglas-Ã?r pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis Columbia. This moth causes considerable problems in lodgepole pine seed orchards at this location. No signi

Lindgren, Staffan

199

Dust in FIR-bright ADF-S galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiwavelength Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of far-infrared (FIR) galaxies detected in the AKARI South Ecliptic Poles Survey (ADF-S) allow to trace differences between [Ultra]-Luminous Infrared Galaxies ([U]LIRGS) and other types of star-forming galaxies (SF).

Ma?ek, K.; Pollo, A.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Malkan, M.

2015-02-01

200

Anomalous dispersion and the pumping of far infrared (FIR) lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the anomalous dispersion at the pump transition in molecular far-infrared lasers (FIR) can lead to sizable focusing and defocusing effects. Criteria for beam spreading and trapping are considered with CH2F as an example.

Lawandy, N. M.

1978-01-01

201

Bacterial diversity associated with subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) ectomycorrhizae following  

E-print Network

Bacterial diversity associated with subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) ectomycorrhizae following, Thelephora, Tomentella, Russulaceae, and E-strain ectomycorrhizae (ECM) of Abies lasiocarpa seedlings were Russulacées et de la souche E de Abies lasiocarpa en ayant recours à deux approches. En premier lieu, des

Massicotte, Hugues

202

Original article Tree-ring characteristics of subalpine fir  

E-print Network

Original article Tree-ring characteristics of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt fluctuations on radial growth and tree-ring properties of Abies lasiocarpa, we sampled dominant trees in 49 impacts on wood quality of high and low-elevation Abies lasiocarpa. The correlation and response functions

Boyer, Edmond

203

Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in Coastal Western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search o{ an explanation for the disjunct, isolated population of subalpine fir on Prince of Wales Island io southeastern Alaska, Harris (1965) suggests that the stand had descended from a local remnant population that escaped glaciation rather rhan from postglacial westward migration. During independent, but related, studies on plant distributions in coastal western North America, both of us have

A. Worley; Dennis Jaques

204

Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir  

E-print Network

Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir and Redwood Forests Philip B. Durgin United. This source of nitrogen can decisively affect forest regeneration.5 Because organic matter is a necessary and vital soil constituent, the effect of logging on the amount of soil organic matter needs to be assessed

Standiford, Richard B.

205

Blind estimation of multiple digital signals transmitted over FIR channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using oversampling and the finite-alphabet property of digital communication signals, it is possible to blindly identify an FIR channel carrying a superposition of such signals, provided they have the same (known) period, and certain rank conditions on the data and channel matrices are satisfied. In particular, this technique allows separation of finite alphabet signals, removal of intersymbol interference, and synchronization

Alle-Jan van der Veen; Shrilpa Talwar; Arogyaswami Paulraj

1995-01-01

206

Robust FIR fllter for Linear Discrete-time System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a robust receding horizon flnite impulse response(FIR) fllter is proposed for a class of linear discrete time systems with uncertainty satisfying an integral quadratic constraint. The robust state estimation problem involves constructing the set of all possible states at the current time consistent with given system input, output measurements and the integral quadratic constraint.

Zhonghua Quan; Soohee Han; Wook Hyun Kwon

2005-01-01

207

FIR signature verification system characterizing dynamics of handwriting features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an online signature verification method based on the finite impulse response (FIR) system characterizing time-frequency characteristics of dynamic handwriting features. First, the barycenter determined from both the center point of signature and two adjacent pen-point positions in the signing process, instead of one pen-point position, is used to reduce the fluctuation of handwriting motion. In this paper, among the available dynamic handwriting features, motion pressure and area pressure are employed to investigate handwriting behavior. Thus, the stable dynamic handwriting features can be described by the relation of the time-frequency characteristics of the dynamic handwriting features. In this study, the aforesaid relation can be represented by the FIR system with the wavelet coefficients of the dynamic handwriting features as both input and output of the system. The impulse response of the FIR system is used as the individual feature for a particular signature. In short, the signature can be verified by evaluating the difference between the impulse responses of the FIR systems for a reference signature and the signature to be verified. The signature verification experiments in this paper were conducted using the SUBCORPUS MCYT-100 signature database consisting of 5,000 signatures from 100 signers. The proposed method yielded equal error rate (EER) of 3.21% on skilled forgeries.

Thumwarin, Pitak; Pernwong, Jitawat; Matsuura, Takenobu

2013-12-01

208

Introduction of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir to Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of shoot elongation of 2-yr seedlings from native North American populations of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir were compared to those of Argentine land races originating from unknown provenances. The comparisons were conducted in Moscow, Idaho (USA), and suggested that the ponderosa pine land race was descended from a California provenance at low or middle elevations but that the growth

Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Leonardo A. Gallo

2001-01-01

209

Temporal Stability and Dendroclimatology in Silver Fir and Red Spruce  

E-print Network

Temporal Stability and Dendroclimatology in Silver Fir and Red Spruce By Kevin T. SMITH 1 spruce. - Phyton (Horn, Austria) 39 (3): (xxx) - (xxx). Dendroclimatology uses precisely dated tree in Slovenia and red spruce in the northeastern US were calibrated to monthly climate variables for two periods

Cufar, Katarina

210

Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

211

Hedging bank liquidity risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquidity risk in banking has been attributed to transactions deposits and their potential to spark runs or panics. We show instead that transactions deposits help banks hedge liquidity risk from unused loan commitments. Bank stock-return volatility increases with unused commitments, but the increase is smaller for banks with high levels of transactions deposits. This deposit-lending risk management synergy becomes more

Evan Gatev; Til Schuermann; Philip E. Strahan

2006-01-01

212

The Bank that Failed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school bank at Easton Middle School operated successfully as an educational experience until the state bank examiners closed it for violating banking laws. The process has become a "real life" education as school authorities and students work to change the law and open a "legal bank." (MD)

Bumstead, Richard A.

1983-01-01

213

Strategic online banking adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the determinants of banks’ decisions to adopt a transactional website for their customers. Using a panel of commercial banks in the United States for the period 2003–2006, we show that although bank-specific characteristics are important determinants of banks’ adoption decisions, competition also plays a prominent role. The extent of competition is related to the geographic

Rubén Hernández-Murillo; Gerard Llobet; Roberto Fuentes

2010-01-01

214

Comparison of narrowband adaptive filter technologies for GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrowband interference can seriously degrade the performance of GPS systems. Several techniques exist for reducing this interference, including adaptive transversal filters, overlapped FFTs, and filter banks. All these techniques attempt to filter out the interference before the GPS receiver performs correlation. This paper compares these three interference suppression techniques for application to GPS. Likely VLSI-based designs with various levels of

Robert Rifkin; John J. Vaccaro

2000-01-01

215

WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION  

SciTech Connect

The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-10

216

Central Banking Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Central Banks of the World is a pointers page to central banks and central bank information for over 45 countries, as well as multilateral financial institutions, research and training establishments, and conference information. To show how little is generally known about the history of central banking in the United States, this site includes an email message sent to the webmaster of the First Bank of the United States, promoting a certain software company's web interactivity applications. Of course, since the First Bank of the United States was closed in 1811, its web site is primarily historical. The Central Banks site lists over 30 Internet directories and pointers pages that list the First Bank of the United States as a functioning financial institution. To help remedy this situation, the site includes a pointer to a brief history of banking in the US.

1996-01-01

217

Disk filter  

DOEpatents

An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1986-01-01

218

Disk filter  

DOEpatents

An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09

219

Lumber recovery and deterioration of beetle-killed douglas-fir and grand fir in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time since death over a 4-year period on the amount of usable product volume and value, and to determine the species of fungi associated with wood deterioration in the stems of Douglas-fir and grand fir trees killed by bark beetles in northeastern Oregon.

Parry, D.L.; Filip, G.M.; Willits, S.A.; Parks, C.G.

1996-09-01

220

BANDPASS ADAPTIVE POLE-ZERO FILTERING John J. ShynkBernardWidrow  

E-print Network

,thebandpassfilterstransformawideband adaptive filter into several narrowband adaptive filters which operate independently to minimize the commonBANDPASS ADAPTIVE POLE-ZERO FILTERING John J. ShynkBernardWidrow Information Systems Laboratory-zero filter comprised of a bank ofbandpassfilters is presented. Thebandpass

Widrow, Bernard

221

Primary Attraction of the Fir Engraver, Scolytus ventralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory bioassays, Porapak Q-captured and steam-distilled volatiles from the bark of host trees, Abies grandis, particularly from root-rot-infected trees, attracted 50–70% of male and female fir engravers, Scolytus ventralis. Gas chromatographic–electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of Porapak Q-captured bark volatiles revealed 19 EAD-active compounds of which 13 (mostly monoterpenes) were identified by GC–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In separate field experiments, multiple-funnel

J. E. Macías-Sámano; J. H. Borden; R. Gries; H. D. Pierce; G. Gries; G. G. S. King

1998-01-01

222

Prediction and assignment of the FIR spectrum of hydrogen peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Millimeter and submillimeter microwave studies are used to predict and assign the FIR rotational-torsional spectrum of hydrogen peroxide. Special attention is given to the strong Q-branch features that have recently been used by Traub and Chance to place an upper limit on the atmospheric abundance of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, 67 new transitions are reported in the 400-1000 GHz region.

Helminger, P.; Messer, J. K.; De Lucia, F. C.; Bowman, W. C.

1984-01-01

223

An improved FIR photometer for atmospheric and astronomical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is given to the design, operation, and performance of an FIR photometer suitable for ground-based and balloon-borne astronomical observations in the mm and sub-mm regions. The internal arrangement of the cryostat is indicated schematically. A composite germanium bolometer operating at 0.35 K with He-3 in the final stage was used to measure the optical performance of the photometer.

Mason, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Masi, S.; Dalloglio, G.; Ferri, G.; Radford, S. J. E.

1986-09-01

224

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

1993-01-01

225

Aircraft Materials Test Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a bank of test questions on materials used in the aircraft industry. 35 test questions and their correct answers are included in this test bank.

2012-11-13

226

Aircraft Fasteners Test Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a bank of test questions on the use of fasteners in the aerospace industry. Eighty three test questions and their correct answers are included in this test bank.

2012-11-23

227

Cascaded integrator comb filters with smoothly varying coefficients for reduced delay in synchrotron feedback loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the J-PARC complex in Tokai, Japan, is designed to accelerate a high intensity proton beam from 181 MeV, and later 400 MeV to 3 GeV in 20 ms within the 40 ms machine cycle. The beam power up to 1 MW demands a stable beam control to avoid excessive losses and activation of the accelerator chain. The fully digital control system is based on quadrature modulation and demodulation. In the amplitude control loops standard FIR filters separate the harmonics (h=2) and (h=4) after down conversion. For the phase loops at (h=2) and (h=4), intended to damp synchrotron oscillations, the delay in a FIR filter would limit the loop stability. Cascaded integrator comb filters, also called CIC filters, provide a shorter delay because they filter the longitudinal beam signal only where it is necessary. The notches are located at multiples of the revolution frequency of the proton beam. For fixed frequency accelerator applications, digital comb filters with fixed clock frequency are widely used to improve loop stability. For variable frequency accelerator applications, as in a proton synchrotron, where the frequency swing is larger than the notch width, usually the clock frequency of the comb filter is variable and chosen to be an integer multiple of the particle revolution frequency. At J-PARC RCS, the clock frequency has to be fixed. Tracking the frequency would require a variable noninteger number of filter taps. Here we present a filter, based on the weighted output of 2 CIC filters with variable length, and one tap difference. The filter function looks like a CIC with smoothly varying coefficients, where the notches follow the revolution frequency of the proton beam. The delay of this filter is approximately half of the corresponding FIR filter, so that the phase loops have a higher stability margin.

Schnase, A.; Nomura, M.; Tamura, F.; Yamamoto, M.; Anami, S.; Ezura, E.; Hara, K.; Ohmori, C.; Takagi, A.; Yoshii, M.

2005-12-01

228

Minority-Owned Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest installment from this quarterly report from the Federal Reserve Board of Governors lists minority-owned banks by state. Data include assets, deposits, and established dates. The data from this study, from the banks that participate in the Department of the Treasury's Minority Bank Deposit Program, are compiled from "Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income filed quarterly by banks (FFIEC 031 through 034) and from other information in the Board's National Information Center database."

229

An optically tunable wideband optoelectronic oscillator based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter.  

PubMed

An optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with wideband frequency tunability and stable output based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Realized by cascading a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter together, the tunable bandpass MPF successfully replaces the narrowband electrical bandpass filter in a conventional single-loop OEO and serves as the oscillating frequency selector. The FIR filter is based on a tunable multi-wavelength laser and dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) while the IIR filter is simply based on an optical loop. Utilizing a long length of DCF as the dispersion medium for the FIR filter also provides a long delay line for the OEO feedback cavity and as a result, optical tuning over a wide frequency range can be achieved without sacrificing the quality of the generated signal. By tuning the wavelength spacing of the multi-wavelength laser, the oscillation frequency can be tuned from 6.88 GHz to 12.79 GHz with an average step-size of 0.128 GHz. The maximum frequency drift of the generated 10 GHz signal is observed to be 1.923 kHz over 1 hour and its phase noise reaches the -112 dBc/Hz limit of our measuring equipment at 10 kHz offset frequency. PMID:23938489

Jiang, Fan; Wong, Jia Haur; Lam, Huy Quoc; Zhou, Junqiang; Aditya, Sheel; Lim, Peng Huei; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Shum, Perry Ping; Zhang, Xinliang

2013-07-15

230

European Central Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

231

Banking on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

Internet Research, 1996

1996-01-01

232

Frontiers of Online Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the changing dynamics, banking products, technology, and management challenges in the nascent online banking industry. The paper also examines the critical role of aligning internal processes, back-office systems, and the retail interface in the delivery of the next generation of financial services. A central theme of the paper is the need to look at online banking as

R. Kalakota; F. Frei

1996-01-01

233

Snow Bank Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Local professors teamed up with a fourth-grade teacher to show students the similarities and differences between sedimentary rock layers and snow banks. Students observed and drew snow banks and explored the effects of melting and salting on the snow banks.

Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

234

HI and FIR emission from S0 galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large body of work has accumulated in recent years which throws into disarray the traditional assumption that S0 systems are inert, non-starforming galaxies with uniform, old stellar populations. The copious 21-cm data have been recently reviewed and assessed by Wardle and Knapp (1986). This work showed that roughly a third of the several hundred observed S0's contain detectable amounts of neutral hydrogen (HI). More recently, Pogge and Eskridge (1987) have shown that a significant fraction of HI-rich systems also exhibit H alpha emission. Thronson et al. (1989) report detection of CO line emission from two thirds of the S0's in their sample. Both of these last papers, however, report on fairly small data sets (approx. 20 objects each). From co-added Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, Knapp et al. (1989) report that roughly two thirds of a sample of several hundred S0's are detected at 60 and 100 microns. Work by Bally and Thronson (1989) and Walsh et al. (1989) has shown that, while a large number of S0's follow a relation between radio continuum and far infrared radiation (FIR) emission similar to that found for spirals, significant numbers of both radio-bright, and FIR-bright S0's exist. Clearly, a large number of factors are involved in determining the state of the interstellar medium in S0 galaxies. The class is probably heterogeneous, suggesting that large data samples are required to sort out various sorts of objects. The 21 cm and FIR samples are the two largest currently available. It is therefore of interest to compare the two and see where this leads. The following results are already clear: HI and FIR flux data can be used to isolate strong candidates for systems which have gained their HI gas via accretion; a rough power-law relationship exists for galaxies which are undergoing relatively normal star-forming activity; a heterogeneous class of galaxies with strong FIR emission compared to their HI emission exists. Further work is required to determine the various physical processes responsible for this last class.

Eskridge, Paul B.; Pogge, Richard W.

1990-01-01

235

Implementation of Low Power and High-Speed Higher Order Channel Filters for Software Radio Receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most computationally intensive part of the wideband receiver of a software defined radio (SDR) is the channelizer since it operates at the highest sampling rate. Higher order FIR channel filters are needed in the channelizer to meet the stringent adjacent channel attenuation specifications of wireless communications standards. In this paper, we present a coefficient-partitioning algorithm for realizing low power

A. Prasad Vinod; Edmund Ming-Kit Lai; Sabu Emmanuel

2006-01-01

236

Design of Fractional Delay Filters Using Convex Optimization William Putnam ( putnam@ccrma.stanford.edu)  

E-print Network

In Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305­8180 ABSTRACT Fractional sample delay arrays [1], [2], delay lines for physical models of musical instruments [3] [4], and time delay estimation[5]. This paper addresses the design of finite impulse response (FIR) FD filters. The problem

Smith III, Julius Orion

237

Design of Fractional Delay Filters Using Convex Optimization William Putnam ( putnam@ccrma.stanford.edu)  

E-print Network

In Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305-8180 ABSTRACT Fractional sample delay arrays [1], [2], delay lines for physical models of musical instruments [3] [4], and time delay estimation[5]. This paper addresses the design of finite impulse response (FIR) FD filters. The problem

Smith III, Julius Orion

238

Kidney Filtering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students filter different substances through a plastic window screen, different sized hardware cloth and poultry netting. Their model shows how the thickness of a filter in the kidney is imperative in deciding what will be filtered out and what will stay within the blood stream.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

239

User's guide to the douglas-fir beetle impact model. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Douglas-fir beetle occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir. At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precendent conditions for epidemics of Douglas-fir beetle. An impact model has been developed to simulate tree mortality during such epidemics. The model has been linked to the Stand Prognosis Model (Forest Vegetation Simulator). This is a guide for using the model.

Marsden, M.A.; Eav, B.B.; Thompson, M.K.

1994-09-01

240

Bahrain's offshore banking center  

SciTech Connect

The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

1983-01-01

241

A 600-MHz median-type digital filter on GaAs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single-chip GaAs implementation of an FIR-median hybrid filter is presented. The very high-speed digital filter combines linear averaging structures to a median selector. The filter operates on 5-b samples with ECL-compatible I/O interfaces. The 1500-transistor LSI device with 3.6-sq mm chip size was processed with a 1.0-micron GaAs depletion-mode (D-mode) MESFET process. The filter demonstrates 600-MHz sample rate when operated in test mode utilizing special built-in feedback.

Vainjo, Olli; Sundaram, Mani; Long, Stephen I.; Neuvo, Yrjo

1992-01-01

242

Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

2014-05-01

243

The Origins of Banking Panics: Models, Facts, and Bank Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banking panics are the central event informing and rationalizing government intervention into the banking industry. In the last decade progress has been made in understanding the origins of panics. This essay reviews recent theoretical and empirical work on the origins of banking panics. New evidence on the causes of banking panics is introduced. Banking panics do not appear to have

Charles W. Calomiris; Gary Gorton

1991-01-01

244

2-D FIR interferometry and polarimetry on TPX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiple fan-beam approach to 2-D FIR interferometry and polarimetry is under investigation for use on next generation tokamaks such as TPX. The approach utilizes a small number (3-5) of inside launch fan beams, and a finite number (5-15) of receive horns positioned within the vacuum vessel on the outboard side of the plasma. Positioning of the horns is achieved with minimal penetration of internal structures, within the design constraints dictated by a highly restricted viewing access. The choice of operating frequency is discussed considering both physics and design issues.

Geck, W. R.; Qin, X.; Liao, J.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

1995-01-01

245

Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration  

E-print Network

We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.

S. Henrot-Versille; R. Cizeron; F. Couchot

2007-07-31

246

Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration  

E-print Network

We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.

Henrot-Versillé, S; Couchot, F

2007-01-01

247

Adaptively combined FIR and functional link artificial neural network equalizer for nonlinear communication channel.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel computational efficient adaptive nonlinear equalizer based on combination of finite impulse response (FIR) filter and functional link artificial neural network (CFFLANN) to compensate linear and nonlinear distortions in nonlinear communication channel. This convex nonlinear combination results in improving the speed while retaining the lower steady-state error. In addition, since the CFFLANN needs not the hidden layers, which exist in conventional neural-network-based equalizers, it exhibits a simpler structure than the traditional neural networks (NNs) and can require less computational burden during the training mode. Moreover, appropriate adaptation algorithm for the proposed equalizer is derived by the modified least mean square (MLMS). Results obtained from the simulations clearly show that the proposed equalizer using the MLMS algorithm can availably eliminate various intensity linear and nonlinear distortions, and be provided with better anti-jamming performance. Furthermore, comparisons of the mean squared error (MSE), the bit error rate (BER), and the effect of eigenvalue ratio (EVR) of input correlation matrix are presented. PMID:19244019

Zhao, Haiquan; Zhang, Jiashu

2009-04-01

248

Bank for International Settlements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), a creation of the Hague Conference of 1930, is "a[n international] central banking institution" whose aim is "to promote the co-operation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations." Its web site provides a detailed profile of BIS, along with its basic texts and charters. However, the power of the site is its publication section, a small but growing list of full text publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), highlighted by the quarterly International Banking and Financial Market Developments, a "commentary on recent developments in international banking, securities and global derivatives markets based on partial information available for the [most recent quarter] and on more detailed banking data for [the previous quarter]." The site also contains BIS Review, "a collection of important articles and speeches by senior central bankers."

1997-01-01

249

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Monroeville, PA); Dilmore, William J. (Murrysville, PA)

1992-01-01

250

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

1992-09-01

251

Projected Changes in Climatic Suitability for Douglas Fir and Spruce Forests in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of projected climate change on spruce and Douglas fir forests in British Columbia was assessed using bioclimatic envelope models. Present and future climatic suitability was modelled for Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), hybrid spruce (Picea engelmannii xglauca), and white spruce (Picea glauca). Bioclimatic envelope models use historical climate data to define the climatic envelopes that

A. Flower; T. Q. Murdock; K. Campbell

2008-01-01

252

Three-Dimensional Canopy Structure of an Old-Growth Douglas-Fir Forest  

E-print Network

Three-Dimensional Canopy Structure of an Old-Growth Douglas-Fir Forest Bo Song, Jiquan Chen, and Janet Silbernagel ABSTRACT. In this study, the structurally heterogeneous canopy of a 12-ha plot in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest was analyzed using three-dimensional (3-D) canopy modeling, geographic

Song, Bo

253

Chemical and mineral composition of ectomycorrhizosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies  

E-print Network

Chemical and mineral composition of ectomycorrhizosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa- zosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) in the Ae horizon of a Luvisol. Can. J'ectomycorhi- zosphère sous sapin subalpin (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) dans l'horizon Ae d'un luvisol. Can. J. Soil

Massicotte, Hugues

254

Spatial changes in forest floor and foliar chemistry of spruce-fir forests across New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., high elevation spruce-fir forests receive greater amounts of nitrogen deposition relative to low elevation areas. At high elevations the cycling of nitrogen is naturally low due to slower decomposition and low biological N demand. The combination of these factors make spruce-fir ecosystems potentially responsive to changes in N inputs.

S. G. McNulty; J. D. Aber; R. D. Boone

1991-01-01

255

REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF BALSAM FIR (ABIES BALSAMEA), WHITE SPRUCE (PICEA GLAUCA), AND BLACK SPRUCE  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF BALSAM FIR (ABIES BALSAMEA), WHITE SPRUCE (PICEA GLAUCA), AND BLACK SPRUCE (P. MARIANA) AT THE ECOTONE BETWEEN MIXEDWOOD AND CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN THE BOREAL ZONE OF WESTERN'Universite´, Rouyn-Noranda, Que´bec, J9X 5E4, Canada The reproductive potentials of balsam fir and white spruce (co

Asselin, Hugo

256

Annosus Root Disease in True Firs in Northern and Central California National Forests1  

E-print Network

Annosus Root Disease in True Firs in Northern and Central California National Forests1 G. W stand and tree characteristics associated with the occurrence of annosus root disease-feet) of the total dead firs during a 1.5-year period. Annosus root disease was estimated to infest 18 percent

Standiford, Richard B.

257

Chemistry of throughfall under douglas fir and Rocky Mountain juniper. [Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca; Juniperus scopulorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and nitrate were measured in throughfall under isolated douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) trees in northern Utah for 39 storms in 1970 and 1971. Concentrations were 3-16 times greater under the trees than in the open. Throughfall under douglas fir invariably had higher concentrations than that

G. E. Hart; D. R. Parent

1974-01-01

258

Tree Height Estimation in Redwood/Douglas-fir Stands in Mendocino  

E-print Network

649 Tree Height Estimation in Redwood/Douglas-fir Stands in Mendocino County Helge Eng1 Abstract In this study, height-diameter equations were developed for managed stands of coastal redwood/Douglas-fir stands in Mendocino County. Equations were developed by species to predict tree height as a function of diameter

Standiford, Richard B.

259

FIR-FILTER DESIGN FOR DERIVATIVE ESTIMATION IN A NANOPOSITIONING Johann Reger  

E-print Network

, Ilmenau University of Technology ABSTRACT The paper is concerned with the real-time estimation of time-free approach is well- apt for the derivative estimation under real-time con- ditions. The serviceability. Naturally, the real-time processability of these proce- dures is highly dependent on the numerical

Knobloch,Jürgen

260

A 128-Tap Complex FIR Filter Processing 20 Giga-Samples/s  

E-print Network

:jean-marc.tanguy@alcatel-lucent.com Abstract--To enable 40Gb/s data transmission over optical fibres using QPSK modulation, the first step]. The terminal will benefit to next-generation high information- spectral density optical networks, whileGb/s transmission are as follows. For each of the two polarizations, the optical signal is sampled

Boyer, Edmond

261

Analog FIR Filter Used for Range-Optimal Pulsed Radar Applications  

E-print Network

Page Table 1 Coefficients values for each Gm cell and bandwidth selection .......................... 18 Table 2 Transconductance values in uA/V for each Gm cell and bandwidth selection ... 19 Table 3 Specification for the OTA....55 19 Table 2 Transconductance values in uA/V for each Gm cell and bandwidth selection Gm 3.5 4 6 8 10 12 15 20 25 30 1 1.380 0.091 0.484 0.300 0.030 0.339 0.442 0.170 0.442 0.248 2 -0.210 -0.032 -0.073 -0.070 0.026 -0.025 -0.072 0.020 -0.067 0...

Su, Eric Chen

2014-08-13

262

Adaptive FIR Filtering of Range Sidelobes for Air and Spaceborne Rain Mapping Stephen P. Lohmeier  

E-print Network

are currently performed using both active and passive microwave sensors (i.e., radars and radiometers sensor suite--the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), a passive sensor, and the Precipitation Radar (PR power for a long duration. Subsequent signal processing results in a range profile of the target

Kansas, University of

263

Bank Record Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

1982-01-01

264

Bank Director Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created for directors of financial companies, Bank Director Magazine is a quarterly publication that examines issues of importance to bank directors. The online publication includes the complete table of contents, as well as a selection of articles from the current issue. The site also features a directory of names, addresses, and phone numbers of M&A investment banking and law firms, consulting firms, and technology and retail delivery companies.

265

Distributed Active Filters for Harmonic Resonance Suppression in Industrial Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant harmonics amplification in industry facilities has been reported. This phenomenon is identified as harmonic resonance between power factor correction capacitor banks and system inductors. Conventional active filter techniques aimed at harmonic current compensation are not effective under this resonance situation. This paper proposes a distributed active filter design for harmonics damping within industry facility. In this system, the active

Shen-Yuan Kuo; Tzung-Lin Lee; Chien-An Chen; Po-Tai Cheng; Ching-Tsai Pan

2007-01-01

266

17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR FILTERS ARE VISIBLE TO THE SIDES OF THE DOORS. THE BUILDING WAS DIVIDED INTO ZONES BY AIRLOCK DOORS AND AIR FILTERS. AIR PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS WERE MAINTAINED IN THE ZONES, SUCH THAT AIRFLOW WAS PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION. (9/24/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

267

Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

1990-01-01

268

Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center) [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center; Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)) [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA)) [Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA)

1990-05-01

269

High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues  

SciTech Connect

New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong [Centre for Laser, Atomic and Molecular Studies (CLAMS), University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B. [Canadian Light Source, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 101 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada)

2010-02-03

270

Historical Statistics on Banking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Historical Statistics on Banking (HSOB), from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, "provides annual statistical information on the banking industry beginning in 1934." The site contains commercial banking reports, savings institution reports, and bank and thrift failure reports from 1934 to 1999. The Milestones feature offers a chronological retrospective on the FDIC's collection and use of data. Although the database is fairly easy to use, the HSOB Help section contains additional detailed instructions on saving and printing charts, and also offers a helpful glossary of terms used.

271

Photographic filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the main aspects related to photographic filters are examined and prepared as a reference for researchers and students of remote sensing. A large range of information about the filters including their basic fundamentals, classification, and main types is presented. The theme cannot be exhausted in this or any other individual publication because of its great complexity, profound theoretical

Jose Eduardo Rodigues; Wagner Santosdealmeida

1987-01-01

272

Water Filter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective. Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

273

FDIC Banking Review, October 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC's monthly publication Banking Review includes the article "Financially Distressed Banks: How Effective Are Enforcement Actions in the Supervision Process?" which looks at some effects of bank examinations.

274

Fluoroscopic filtering  

SciTech Connect

A radiation source emits a beam of penetrating radiation toward an examination object. A protective filter, fabricated of yttrium foil attached to a bakelite card, is positioned in the path of the radiation beam between the source and the examination object. The yttrium filter has a preselected critical absorption edge operable to obstruct from the beam photon energy below 20 keV and permit a filtered beam having a photon energy above 20 keV to pass through the examination object. The filtered radiation emerging from the examination object is detected by preselected means, such as illuminated film, an X-ray intensifier, a CT scanner, or the like. The detector generates an output signal corresponding to the intensity of the emerging filtered radiation. An image processor converts the output signals to a radiographic image displaying the examination object.

Hartwell, G.

1985-02-12

275

Multidimensional digital filters for point-target detection in cluttered infrared scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional (3-D) spatiotemporal prediction-error filter (PEF) is used to enhance foreground/background contrast in (real and simulated) sensor image sequences. Relative velocity is utilized to extract point targets that would otherwise be indistinguishable with spatial frequency alone. An optical-flow field is generated using local estimates of the 3-D autocorrelation function via the application of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse FFT. Velocity estimates are then used to tune in a background-whitening PEF that is matched to the motion and texture of the local background. Finite impulse response (FIR) filters are designed and implemented in the frequency domain. An analytical expression for the frequency response of velocity-tuned FIR filters, of odd or even dimension with an arbitrary delay in each dimension, is derived.

Kennedy, Hugh L.

2014-11-01

276

China's Banking Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the main problems facing the Chinese banking system and concludes that, despite serious problems, the risk seems small that, in the near future, a financial crisis will occur that will pose severe problems for the international financial system. An internal financial crisis, however, could occur. Without government support, the economic viability of many of China's banks is

Dick Nanto; Radha Sinha

2002-01-01

277

Multimedia Technology in Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banking in the global village becomes reality with multimedia communication systems that connect far flung regions and integrate all their various marketplaces. International banks in particular face the major challenge of achieving the right balance between global and local. They must identify local customers' requirements and satisfy them by exploiting the expertise and technology available worldwide

Achim Karduck; Andre Geiser; Thomas Gutekunst

1996-01-01

278

Banking on Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank

Roach, Ronald

2010-01-01

279

iBank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

2012-01-01

280

Overflowing the Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will teach students about levees and how they are designed to hold a river in its bank. They will construct a model of a river bank and explore how levees can cause water levels to back up into smaller streams and tributaries, causing floods.

281

GenBank.  

PubMed

GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bi-monthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:19910366

Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

2010-01-01

282

GenBank.  

PubMed

GenBank® is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 250,00 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:22144687

Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Clark, Karen; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

2012-01-01

283

GenBank.  

PubMed

GenBank® (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for almost 260 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assigns accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:23193287

Benson, Dennis A; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

2013-01-01

284

Volunteer Community Language Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

285

12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

2014-01-01

286

12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

2011-01-01

287

12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

2013-01-01

288

12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

2012-01-01

289

Random filtering structure-based compressive sensing radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently with an emerging theory of `compressive sensing' (CS), a radically new concept of compressive sensing radar (CSR) has been proposed in which the time-frequency plane is discretized into a grid. Random filtering is an interesting technique for efficiently acquiring signals in CS theory and can be seen as a linear time-invariant filter followed by decimation. In this paper, random filtering structure-based CSR system is investigated. Note that the sparse representation and sensing matrices are required to be as incoherent as possible; the methods for optimizing the transmit waveform and the FIR filter in the sensing matrix separately and simultaneously are presented to decrease the coherence between different target responses. Simulation results show that our optimized results lead to smaller coherence, with higher sparsity and better recovery accuracy observed in the CSR system than the nonoptimized transmit waveform and sensing matrix.

Zhang, Jindong; Ban, YangYang; Zhu, Daiyin; Zhang, Gong

2014-12-01

290

Compact Micromachined Bandpass Filters for Infrared Planetary Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal instrument strawman payload of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter on the Europa Jupiter Science Mission will map out thermal anomalies, the structure, and atmospheric conditions of Europa and Jupiter within the 7-100 micron spectral range. One key requirement for the payload is that the mass cannot exceed 3.7 kg. Consequently, a new generation of light-weight miniaturized spectrometers needs to be developed. On the path toward developing these spectrometers is development of ancillary miniaturized spectroscopic components. In this paper, we present a strategy for making radiation hard and low mass FIR band pass metal mesh filters. Our strategy involves using MEMS-based fabrication techniques, which will permit the quasi-optical filter structures to be made with micron-scale precision. This will enable us to achieve tight control over both the pass band of the filter and the micromachined silicon support structure architecture, which will facilitate integration of the filters for a variety of applications.

Brown, Ari D.; Aslam, Shahid; Chervenak, James A.; Huang, Wei-Chung; Merrell, Willie; Quijada, Manuel

2011-01-01

291

Design of odd number rational coefficients symmetric compactly-supported biorthogonal wavelet filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most wavelet filters that constructed based on Daubechies compactly-supported wavelet construction theory have nonlinear phase and irrational number coefficients. Nonlinear phase may cause distortion in image processing, and irrational filter coefficients will cause much inconvenience for wavelet applications on computer, especially for embedded processor applications. With thought of the theory of perfect-reconstruction filter banks, this paper does a study for

Han Fang-fang; Duan Fa-jie; Duan Xiao-jie; Zhang Chao

2010-01-01

292

UV and FIR selected star-forming galaxies at z=0: differences and overlaps  

E-print Network

We study two samples of local galaxies, one is UV (GALEX) selected and the other FIR (IRAS) selected, to address the question whether UV and FIR surveys see the two sides ('bright' and 'dark') of the star formation of the same population of galaxies or two different populations of star forming galaxies. No significant difference between the L$_{tot}$ ($=L_{60}+L_{FUV}$) luminosity functions of the UV and FIR samples is found. Also, after the correction for the `Malmquist bias' (bias for flux limited samples), the FIR-to-UV ratio v.s. L$_{tot}$ relations of the two samples are consistent with each other. In the range of $9 \\la \\log(L_{tot}/L_\\sun) \\la 12$, both can be approximated by a simple linear relation of $\\log (L_{60}/L_{FUV})=\\log(L_{tot}/L_\\sun)-9.66$. These are consistent with the hypothesis that the two samples represent the same population of star forming galaxies, and their well documented differences in L$_{tot}$ and in FIR-to-UV ratio are due only to the selection effect. A comparison between the UV luminosity functions shows marginal evidence for a population of faint UV galaxies missing in the FIR selected sample. The contribution from these 'FIR-quiet' galaxies to the overall UV population is insignificant, given that the K-band luminosity functions (i.e. the stellar mass functions) of the two samples do not show any significant difference.

C. Kevin Xu; Veronique Buat; Jorge Iglesias-Páramo; Tsutomu T. Takeuchi; Tom A. Barlow; Luciana Bianchi; Jose Donas; Karl Forster; Timothy M. Heckman; Patrick N. Jelinsky; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Roger F. Malina; D. Christopher Martin; Bruno Milliard; Patrick Morrissey; R. Michael Rich; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovich; Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Todd Small; Alex S. Szalay; Barry Y. Welsh; Ted K. Wyder; Sukyoung Yi

2006-04-04

293

An FIR cooled grating spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a liquid-He-cooled spectrometer being developed for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) to study FIR lines originating in the interstellar medium are discussed. Currently, the spectrometer contains six Ge:Ga photoconductor detectors mounted in integrating cavities and cooled to about 3 K; the collimator focal plane has space for 39 such detectors. The instrument achieves a maximum resolving power of 6000 by means of a 45-cm long echelle grating and is optically capable of operating in the spectral range 25-300 microns. A laboratory spectrum of water vapor, an atmospheric water absorption feature measured from the KAO with Mars as a source, and the forbidden O(2+) emission from W51-IRS1 are shown.

Erickson, E. F.; Haas, M. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Simpson, J. P.; Augason, G. C.; Houck, J. R.; Harwit, M. O.; Rank, D. M.

1985-01-01

294

GenBank.  

PubMed

GenBank(®) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 300 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:25414350

Benson, Dennis A; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

2015-01-28

295

Core 4: Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Image Bank supplements the coursework for Core 4: The Shaping of the Modern World, an introductory course offered by the History Department of Brooklyn College. The Image Bank indexes numerous historical images spanning from the Scientific Revolution to the present. The images are divided into eight major topic indexes: Ancien Regime and Critics; Age of Revolutions; Industry and Society; Liberalism and Nationalism; Varieties of Imperialism; The World Turned Upside Down; Fascism, Depression & WWII; and, The World Since 1945. Indexes for major topics contain clustered subtopics, allowing users to locate relevant images quickly. This Image Bank presents students and educators with a valuable, visual method for understanding Modern Western History.

296

Banking Panics and Business Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a century of newly constructed data, competing theories explaining banking panics are tested. The evidence shows that banking panics during the U.S. national banking era (1865-1914) were the products of revisions in the perceived risk of the banking system based on the arrival of new information. Panics were triggered by a leading indicator of recession. Whenever this variable reached

Gary Gorton

1988-01-01

297

The Evolution of Online Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explore the success of U.S. banks in utilizing online banking as a distribution channel for their products and services. The emergence of the Internet as a distribution medium of revolutionary potential in the mid-1990s was greeted by the majority of banks with reservation and caution. At the beginning of this era banks were

Douglas Ross

298

Islamic banking in Brunei Darussalam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the current realities of the Islamic banking system of Brunei Darussalam from the perspective of the theories of modern financial intermediation and Islamic financial contracting. The limited information on the banking system of Brunei Darussalam reveals that the first phase of the Islamic banking experimentation has been successful, as Islamic banks command roughly 11.5 per cent of

M. Shahid Ebrahim; Tan Kai Joo

2001-01-01

299

Laboratory and field ecophysiological studies on the impact of air pollution on red spruce and Fraser fir  

SciTech Connect

In the first study, red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir.) seedlings were submitted to long-term multiple growing cycle intermittent ozone fumigations. No effect of ozone exposure on growth and gas exchange of the seedlings was found. Net photosynthesis at saturating light intensity was reduced in both species and the light compensation point was shifted upwards in spruce when exposed to ozone. Fraser fir seedlings showed inconsistent responses of CO{sub 2} curve parameters to ozone exposure. In the second study, the impact of summer exposure to ambient pollutants on winter hardiness in red spruce seedlings was examined. The seedlings were subjected to the following summertime treatments while kept in exclusion chambers on the top of Whitetop Mountain (Virginia): ambient air and clouds, ambient air with clouds excluded, charcoal filtered air, and chamberless control treatment. During the following winter the seedlings were placed in Blacksburg (Virginia), in two locations: in the open and in a shadehouse. A number of conducted tests indicated that there were significant differences in winter damage between the chamber treatments and chamberless control, as well as between the winter exposure locations. Among the summer chamber exposure regimes, the treatment excluding clouds seemed to perform the best. In the third study, the physiology of red spruce trees of various sizes growing on two sites on the top of Whitetop Mtn., was compared and related to ambient ozone concentration. Some seedlings were treated with an antioxidant EDU, to help evaluate the impact of ozone on their physiology.

Tyszko, P.B.

1991-01-01

300

Statistics on Banking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC Statistics on Banking is a "quarterly publication that provides aggregate financial and structure information on FDIC-insured institutions, with summary totals by state and charter type." The latest figures for third quarter 1997 are now available.

301

Fall Math Idea Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math idea bank includes autumn themed hands-on activities focused on the topics of leaves, spiders, and pumpkins. Also included in this resource are links to online activities and websites for research.

Petti, Wendy

2014-01-01

302

World Bank: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people are familiar with the World Bank's work in the areas of international finance and economic development, but they may not be aware of their work in the area of biodiversity. The World Bank happens to be the world's largest financier of biodiversity, and their work includes supporting the sustainable use of biodiversity outside protected areas, eradication of alien species, and land conservation. First-time visitors may wish to start their journey through the site by clicking on the "What's New" area. Here they will find reports on biodiversity, the role of indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation, and a review of the World Bank's conservation projects during the past twenty years. Another way to look through the materials on the site is by using the drop-down menus that read "Topic", "Country", and "Region/Income". Visitors can also read overview statements that cover the Bank's work on biodiversity and poverty, biosafety, and mountain ecosystems.

303

Investment Banks Goldman Sachs  

E-print Network

Financial Corporation PNC Bank Wachovia Asset Management Firms Acadian Asset Management Alliance Capital Management Baring Asset Management Dimensional Fund Advisors First Quadrant New Amsterdam Partners Numeric Investors Old Mutual Asset Management Oppenheimer Capital Pareto Investment Management Limited

Aronov, Boris

304

Mile High Wetland Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site listed here is provided by an environmental consulting firm that works with commercial and private landowners to establish Wetland Banks. An innovative concept (and growing reality) that has received mixed reviews from scientists, Wetland Banking attempts to combine the goals of developers (i.e., to develop a certain area) and wetland conservationists (i.e., to maintain/ restore areas of intact wetlands). If misused, this approach could work against wetland conservation; if properly instated, however, Wetland Banking might offer an alternative to the currently poor success rate of wetland mitigation projects. This resource by Mile High Wetlands Group, LLC, offers background information on Wetland banking, with an emphasis on the Group's local area (Colorado).

305

Light and temperature differentially colimit subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce seedling  

E-print Network

spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) seedling croissance de semis d'épinette (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) et de sapin (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook

Massicotte, Hugues

306

The Lost Research of Early Northeastern Spruce-Fir Experimental A Tale of Lost Opportunities  

E-print Network

spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) with vary- ing forests or northern coniferous forests. They are typ- ically dominated by red spruce (Picea rubens), black

307

Banking Data and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article on free banking data and research, created by Ruth Kobylecky Humphrey for the American Library Association, includes an index of annotations on a wide range of federal and association Websites that offer financial information and help for their members. The index is broken into several sections including Federal Agencies, The Federal Reserve System, International Banking, and the Secondary Market. Within each section, the entries are arranged in alphabetical order and carefully annotated.

Humphrey, Ruth K.

308

Reliability models for finger joint strength and stiffness properties in Douglas-fir visual laminating grades  

E-print Network

RELIABILITY MODELS FOR FINGER JOINT STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS PROPERTIES IN DOUGLAS-FIR VISUAL LAMINATING GRADES A Thesis by ALLAN GERARD BURK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Agr icultural Engineer ing RELIABILITY MODELS FOR FINGER JOINT STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS PROPERTIES IN DOUGLAS-FIR VISUAL LAMINATING GRADES A Thesis by ALI AN GERARD BURK Approved as to style...

Burk, Allan Gerard

2012-06-07

309

Star Formation and Dust Attenuation Properties in Galaxies from a Statistical UV-to-FIR Analysis  

E-print Network

We study two galaxy samples selected in ultraviolet (UV) and in far-infrared (FIR) for which the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the far UV (FUV) to the FIR are available. We compare the observed SEDs to modelled SEDs with several star formation histories (SFHs; decaying star formation rate plus burst) and attenuation laws (power law + 2175 Angstroem bump). The Bayesian method allows to estimate statistically the best parameters by comparing each observed SED to the full set of 82800 models. We reach the conclusion that the UV dust attenuation cannot be estimated correctly from an SED analysis if the FIR information is not used. The deduced dispersion is larger than with the FIR data and the distribution is not symetrically distributed about zero: there is an over-estimation for UV-selected galaxies and an under-estimation for FIR-selected galaxies. The output from the analysis process suggests that UV-selected galaxies have attenuation laws in average similar to the LMC extinction while FIR-selected galaxy attenuation laws more resemble the MW extinction law. The dispersion about the average relation in the Log(Fdust/Ffuv) vs. FUV-NUV diagram (once the main relation with FUV-NUV is accounted for) is explained by two other parameters: the slope of the attenuation law and the instantaneous birthrate parameter b_0 for UV-selected galaxies and the same ones plus the strength of the bump for the FIR-selected galaxies. We propose a recipe to estimate the UV dust attenuation for UV-galaxies only (that should be used whenever the FIR information is not available because the resulting Afuv is poorly defined with an uncertainty of about 0.32): A_{FUV} = 1.4168 (FUV-NUV)^2 + 0.3298 (NUV-I)^2 + 2.1207 (FUV-NUV) + 2.7465 (NUV-I) + 5.8408

Denis Burgarella; Veronique Buat; Jorge Iglesias-Paramo

2005-04-20

310

Dimerization of FIR Upon FUSE DNA Binding Suggests Mechanism of c-myc Inhibition  

SciTech Connect

c-myc is essential for cell homeostasis and growth but lethal if improperly regulated. Transcription of this oncogene is governed by the counterbalancing forces of two proteins on TFIIH--the FUSE binding protein (FBP) and the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR). FBP and FIR recognize single-stranded DNA upstream of the P1 promoter, known as FUSE, and influence transcription by oppositely regulating TFIIH at the promoter site. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with light scattering reveals that an FIR dimer binds one molecule of single-stranded DNA. The crystal structure confirms that FIR binds FUSE as a dimer, and only the N-terminal RRM domain participates in nucleic acid recognition. Site-directed mutations of conserved residues in the first RRM domain reduce FIR's affinity for FUSE, while analogous mutations in the second RRM domain either destabilize the protein or have no effect on DNA binding. Oppositely oriented DNA on parallel binding sites of the FIR dimer results in spooling of a single strand of bound DNA, and suggests a mechanism for c-myc transcriptional control.

Crichlow,G.; Zhou, H.; Hsiao, H.; Frederick, K.; Debrosse, M.; Yang, Y.; Folta-Stogniew, E.; Chung, H.; Fan, C.; et al

2008-01-01

311

Automated Sensing of Douglas Fir Bud-Burst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of plant biological events such as budburst in the spring can have major impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem carbon balance. While research efforts that address the timing of events is gaining considerable momentum, the technology available for sensing and recording the timing of events is limited, especially for trees. Thus, researchers often perform manual measurements, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This has resulted in efforts such as Project BudBurst, a network of professional and volunteer observers across the United States that monitor plants as seasons change. Access to forest trees can be difficult during periods of greatest interest, such as when buds open in the spring. For example, high elevation, snow, and melting snow during the spring hamper access to trees in alpine regions. Researchers at Oregon State University and The University of Iowa are developing instrumentation for automating sensing of budburst in Douglas firs. While the instrumentation targets Douglas firs, it can find application in studying budburst in other species. We present an initial bud-burst sensor that uses optical techniques to sense bud opening. An optical fiber illuminates a target bud with modulated light, a second fiber detects, and guides reflect light to a photodetector and signal processing electronics. Changes in the reflected light indicate the budburst. The instrumentation exploits advances in microelectronics, particularly miniaturization and low power consumption, and uses advanced signal processing techniques such as lock-in detection. The instrumentation records the reflected light every 15 minutes on high-capacity, non-volatile Flash media. Power consumption is very low and sensors have an extrapolated, continuous operating time more than 9 months, suggesting their deployment in the fall, and retrieval in the following spring. We believe the sensor will enable a caliber of research not yet achievable owing to the difficulty of phenological data collection. We aim to make the sensor cost-effective and ultimately deployable in a wireless network. We envision its application in various disciplines and sectors including forestry, agriculture, climate change research, and genomics.

Lintz, H. E.; Kruger, A.; Wagner, D. A.; Tenney, I. J.

2011-12-01

312

Phosphorus Filter  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tom Kehler, fishery biologist at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania, checks the flow rate of water leaving a phosphorus filter column. The USGS has pioneered a new use for acid mine drainage residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, usi...

313

Filtering centrifuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Below, we propose a new automatic airtight filtering centrifuge for separating suspensions containing a nonabrasive solid phase with a particle size greater than 10 #m, andwe presentthe results of atest ofanexperimental model of such a centrifuge. It is based on a slotted-type screen. The centrifuge was developed and tested under laboratory conditions and in an experimental polyethylene-syn thesis unit in

A. E. Solokhnenko; V. I. Kukushkin

1978-01-01

314

Seed parasitism redirects ovule development in Douglas fir  

PubMed Central

Many parasitic species of insects complete their entire development in seeds. They feed off storage reserves within the ovule. These reserves only normally accumulate in fertilized ovules. Consequently, female insects that oviposit their eggs directly into the plant ovule need to be able to select correctly, as unfertilized ovules of conifers normally become so-called empty seed. We provide clear evidence that in conifers, seed-parasitizing insects do not need to discriminate between fertilized and unfertilized plant ovules when ovipositing their eggs. A host-specific insect, the chalcid Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), lays its eggs in ovules of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) before fertilization has taken place in the plant. Oviposition not only prevents the expected degeneration and death of unfertilized ovules, but it induces energy reserve accumulation. Ovules that would otherwise develop as empty seed are redirected in their development by the insect to provide food for the developing larvae. Instead of the insect exploiting normal events during seed development, the insect manipulates seed development for its own reproductive advantage. PMID:16011924

von Aderkas, Patrick; Rouault, Gaëlle; Wagner, Rebecca; Rohr, René; Roques, Alain

2005-01-01

315

Nitrogen leaching from Douglas-fir forests after urea fertilization.  

PubMed

Leaching of nitrogen (N) after forest fertilization has the potential to pollute ground and surface water. The purpose of this study was to quantify N leaching through the primary rooting zone of N-limited Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forests the year after fertilization (224 kg N ha(-1) as urea) and to calculate changes in the N pools of the overstory trees, understory vegetation, and soil. At six sites on production forests in the Hood Canal watershed, Washington, tension lysimeters and estimates of the soil water flux were used to quantify the mobilization and leaching of NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, and dissolved organic nitrogen below the observed rooting depth. Soil and vegetation samples were collected before fertilization and 1 and 6 mo after fertilization. In the year after fertilization, the total leaching beyond the primary rooting zone in excess of control plots was 4.2 kg N ha(-1) (p = 0.03), which was equal to 2% of the total N applied. The peak NO(3)-N concentration that leached beyond the rooting zone of fertilized plots was 0.2 mg NO(3)-N L(-1). Six months after fertilization, 26% of the applied N was accounted for in the overstory, and 27% was accounted for in the O+A horizon of the soil. The results of this study indicate that forest fertilization can lead to small N leaching fluxes out of the primary rooting zone during the first year after urea application. PMID:18689739

Flint, Cynthia M; Harrison, Rob B; Strahm, Brian D; Adams, A B

2008-01-01

316

Response of birds to thinning young Douglas-fir forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a result of recent fire history and decades of even-aged forest management, many coniferous forests in western Oregon are composed of young (20-50 yrs), densely stocked Douglas-fir stands. Often these stands are structurally simple - a single canopy layer with one or two overstory tree species - and have a relatively sparse understory. The lack of structural complexity in these stands may limit the availability of key habitat components for several species of vertebrates, including birds. Thinning may increase structural diversity by reducing competition among overstory trees and increasing the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor, thereby increasing development of understory vegetation. Existing old-growth forests may have developed under lower densities than is typical of contemporary plantations. Thus, thinning also may be a tool for accelerating the development of late-successional forest conditions in some circumstances. In addition to the potential increases in structural and biological diversity, thinning frequently is used to optimize wood fiber production and to generate timber revenue.

Hayes, John P.; Weikel, Jennifer M.; Huso, Manuela; Erickson, Janet L.

2003-01-01

317

12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations...Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign...

2010-01-01

318

75 FR 32778 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below...acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are considered...individual; Keith E. Busse Family Investment Company, LLC; and Aaron R....

2010-06-09

319

75 FR 26961 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The...Arguinchona, Boise, Idaho; to retain voting shares of Syringa Bancorp, and thereby indirectly retain voting shares Syringa Bank, both of Boise,...

2010-05-13

320

An Implementation of Rational Wavelets and Filter Design for Phonetic Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although wavelet analysis has been proposed for speech processing as an alternative to Fourier analysis, most approaches make use of off-the-shelf wavelets and dyadic tree-structured filter banks. In this paper, we extend previous wavelet-based frameworks in two ways. First, we increase the flexibility in wavelet selection by taking advantage of the relationship between wavelets and filter banks and by designing

Ghinwa F. Choueiter; James R. Glass

2007-01-01

321

Development of tissue bank.  

PubMed

The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

Narayan, R P

2012-05-01

322

Self-thinning dynamics in a balsam fir ( Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) insect-mediated boreal forest chronosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-thinning dynamics were examined in a natural, 120-year, insect-mediated balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) chronosequence in the humid boreal forests of western Newfoundland. The well-developed chronosequence representing the classic stages of stand development provided a unique opportunity to quantify balsam fir self-thinning dynamics and to independently test a first approximation stand density management diagram developed for mixed balsam fir-black

John W. McCarthy; Gordon Weetman

2007-01-01

323

ACCUMULATION OF MONOTERPENES AND ASSOCIATED VOLATILES FOLLOWING INOCULATION OF GRAND FIR WITH A FUNGUS TRANSMITTED BY THE FIR ENGRAVER, SCOLYTUS VENTRALIS (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can. Ent. 114: 797-810 (1982) The accumulation of monoterpenes during the defensive response by grand fir was quantified over a 28-day period. Monoterpene content increased expo­ nentially with time and varied greatly among trees. Following analysis, sampled trees were observed for 4 years. Those trees which showed an extensive accu­ mulation of monoterpenes in response to artificial inoculation with fungi

Kenneth F. Raffa; Alan A. Berryman

1982-01-01

324

Effect of Swiss needle cast on Douglas-fir stem ethanol and monoterpene concentrations, oleoresin flow, and host selection by the Douglas-fir beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglas-fir growing on the western slopes of the Oregon Coast Range are experiencing an unprecedented outbreak of Swiss needle cast (SNC) caused by the fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. SNC can produce substantial physiological stress in host trees by reducing needle gas exchange and enhancing premature needle abscission, resulting in slower growth. Based on the frequent link between stressed trees and insect

Rick G. Kelsey; Daniel K. Manter

2004-01-01

325

40 CFR 1036.715 - Banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 1036.715 Section 1036.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1036.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

2013-07-01

326

40 CFR 1037.715 - Banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 1037.715 Section 1037.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1037.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

2014-07-01

327

40 CFR 1036.715 - Banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 1036.715 Section 1036.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1036.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

2012-07-01

328

40 CFR 1037.715 - Banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 1037.715 Section 1037.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1037.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

2013-07-01

329

40 CFR 1036.715 - Banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 1036.715 Section 1036.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1036.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

2014-07-01

330

40 CFR 1037.715 - Banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 1037.715 Section 1037.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1037.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

2012-07-01

331

GenBank.  

PubMed

The GenBank sequence database continues to expand its data coverage, quality control, annotation content and retrieval services for the scientific community. Besides handling direct submissions of sequence data from authors, GenBank also incorporates DNA sequences from all available public sources; an integrated retrieval system, known as Entrez, also makes available data from the major protein sequence and structural databases, and from U.S. and European patents. MIDLINE abstracts from published articles describing the sequences are also included as an additional source of biological annotation for sequence entries. GenBank supports distribution of the data via FTP, CD-ROM, and E-mail servers. Network server-client programs provide access to an integrated database for literature retrieval and sequence similarity searching. PMID:7937042

Benson, D A; Boguski, M; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J

1994-09-01

332

Mozilla Digital Memory Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for History and New Media at George Mason University doesn't shy away from provocative digital archive projects, and the Mozilla Digital Memory Bank is certainly one such work. Drawing on support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mozilla Foundation this site serves as a permanent, open, peer-produced digital archive of Mozilla history. Users are welcome to start by browsing the "Memory Bank" section, which includes blogs, interviews, documents, testimonials, and press releases. For those with a geographical bent, there is the "Mozilla Map", which lets users find out where in the world Mozilla developers and users are located. And for those who can't make up their mind about where to start, they can just click on over to the "Featured Bank Deposit" and start reading.

333

World Bank Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has a number of specialized units designed to perform research in order to allow the organization to make informed policy decisions throughout the world. This website happens to provide information on the World Bank Institute, which effectively serves as the capacity development arm of the Bank and also "helps countries share and apply global and local knowledge to meet development challenges". On the Institute's site, visitors can find out about its various programs, which include work on preventing HIV/AIDS risk in the Balkans and scholarships designed to promote knowledge sharing and capacity building in the developing world. Visitors will want to pay close attention to the Publications area, as they may view or download working papers from a wide range of topics, including energy policy, labor force development, and development economics.

334

World Bank: China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has a number of marvelous country profile websites, and their site dedicated to China is top-notch. It's not just a simple demographic overview of this dynamic country; it is a series of meditations on the state of their economy, political culture, urban development, and other affairs. First-time users will want to look at the "Country-At-A-Glance" section at the top of the homepage to get a thumbnail sketch of the country's current state of affairs. Over on the left-hand side of the page, visitors can look over the "Projects & Programs" area, which talks about the Bank's activities in the country, which include energy efficiency projects and sustainable biodiversity conservation works. Moving on, the "What's New" area features opinion pieces from World Bank officials, press releases, and information about lending policies. Users are also invited to sign up for their RSS feed and email updates here.

335

Multicentury history of western spruce budworm outbreaks in interior Douglas-fir forests near Kamloops, British Columbia.  

E-print Network

??Western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis (Freeman)) is a native defoliator of the Interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) forests of British Columbia, Canada.… (more)

Campbell, Rochelle.

2008-01-01

336

Plasmonic filters.  

SciTech Connect

Metal films perforated with subwavelength hole arrays have been show to demonstrate an effect known as Extraordinary Transmission (EOT). In EOT devices, optical transmission passbands arise that can have up to 90% transmission and a bandwidth that is only a few percent of the designed center wavelength. By placing a tunable dielectric in proximity to the EOT mesh, one can tune the center frequency of the passband. We have demonstrated over 1 micron of passive tuning in structures designed for an 11 micron center wavelength. If a suitable midwave (3-5 micron) tunable dielectric (perhaps BaTiO{sub 3}) were integrated with an EOT mesh designed for midwave operation, it is possible that a fast, voltage tunable, low temperature filter solution could be demonstrated with a several hundred nanometer passband. Such an element could, for example, replace certain components in a filter wheel solution.

Passmore, Brandon Scott; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

2009-09-01

337

Toward single-material multilayer interference mid-infrared filters with sub-wavelength structures for cryogenic infrared astronomical missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are trying to develop high performance mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) optical filters with mechanical strength and robustness for thermal cycling toward cryogenic infrared astronomical space missions. Multilayer interference filters enable us to design a wide variety of spectral response by controlling refractive index and thickness of each layer, however, in longer MIR and FIR (30-300?m) wavelength regions, there are a few optical materials known to have both good transparency and physical robustness, which makes difficult to realize high performance filters because of limited refractive index values. It is also difficult to deposit thick layers required for MIR/FIR multilayer filters by conventional method. Furthermore, multilayer interference filters are realized by thin film coatings having different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), which makes filters fragile for thermal cycling. To clear these problems, we introduce sub-wavelength structures (SWS) for controlling the refractive index. Then, only one material is necessary for fabricating filters, which enables us to fabricate filters with mechanical strength and robustness for thermal cycling. In 30-300?m wavelength regions silicon is very suitable for filter material because not only silicon has little absorption and physical robustness but also SWS are easily fabricated by micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. As a first step, we have fabricated anti-reflection SWS layer on silicon wafers to demonstrate the refractive index control by simple SWS (periodic cylindrical holes on a silicon wafer). Comparing measured transmittance with both effective medium approximation (EMA) theory and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) simulation, we confirm that the refractive control of SWS layer is verified.

Makitsubo, Hironobu; Wada, Takehiko; Mita, Makoto

2011-03-01

338

Low-complexity digital filter geometry for spherical coded imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research in the area of electro-optical system design identified the benefits of spherical aberration for extending the depth-of-field of electro-optical imaging systems. In such imaging systems, spherical aberration is deliberately introduced by the optical system lowering system modulation transfer function (MTF) and then subsequently corrected using digital processing. Previous research, however, requires complex digital postprocessing algorithms severely limiting its applicability to only expensive systems. In this paper, we examine the ability of low-cost spatially invariant finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters to restore system MTF degraded by spherical aberration. We introduce an analytical model for choosing the minimum, and hence cheapest, FIR filter size capable of providing the critical level sharpening to render artifact-free images. We identify a robust quality criterion based on the post-processed MTF for developing this model. We demonstrate the reliability of the estimated model by showing simulated spherical coded imaging results. We also evaluate the hardware complexity of the FIR filters implemented for various spherical aberrations on a low-end Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform.

Feng, Guotong; Shoaib, Mohammed; Robinson, M. D.

2009-08-01

339

On the uniqueness of community banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the public, all banks seem alike. But banking insiders make important distinctions between community banks and all other banks. Policymakers worry that community banks’ unique characteristics threaten their survival in the face of industry consolidation. However, despite dramatic regulatory and technological changes in the industry in the past two decades, community banks have not only survived but often prospered.

Scott E. Hein; Timothy W. Koch; S. Scott MacDonald

2005-01-01

340

Canopy light transmittance in Douglas-fir--western hemlock stands.  

PubMed

We measured vertical and horizontal variation in canopy transmittance of photosynthetically active radiation in five Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco-Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. (Douglas-fir-western hemlock) stands in the central Cascades of southern Washington to determine how stand structure and age affect the forest light environment. The shape of the mean transmittance profile was related to stand height, but height of mean maximum transmittance was progressively lower than maximum tree height in older stands. The vertical rate of attenuation declined with stand age in both the overstory and understory. A classification of vertical light zones based on the mean and variance of transmittance showed a progressive widening of the bright (low variance and high mean) and transition (high variance and rapid vertical change) zones in older stands, whereas the dim zone (low variance and mean) narrowed. The zone of maximum canopy surface area in height profiles, estimated by inversion of transmittance profiles, changed from relatively high in the canopy in most young stands ("top-heavy") to lower in the canopy in older stands ("bottom-heavy"). In the understory, all stands had similar mean transmittances, but the spatial scale of variation increased with stand age and increasing crown size. The angular distribution of openness was similar in all stands, though the older stands were less open at all angles than the younger stands. Understory openness was generally unrelated to transmittance in the canopy above. Whole-canopy leaf area indices, estimated using three methods of inverting light measurements, showed little correspondence across methods. The observed patterns in light environment are consistent with structural changes occurring during stand development, particularly the diversification of crowns, the creation of openings of various sizes and the elaboration of the outer canopy surface. The ensemble of measurements has potential use in distinguishing forests of differing ages that have similar stature. PMID:11830411

Parker, Geoffrey G; Davis, Melinda M; Chapotin, Saharah Moon

2002-02-01

341

A SNP resource for Douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation  

PubMed Central

Background Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauca) are native to North America, the coastal variety is also widely planted for timber production in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Our main goal was to develop a SNP resource large enough to facilitate genomic selection in Douglas-fir breeding programs. To accomplish this, we developed a 454-based reference transcriptome for coastal Douglas-fir, annotated and evaluated the quality of the reference, identified putative SNPs, and then validated a sample of those SNPs using the Illumina Infinium genotyping platform. Results We assembled a reference transcriptome consisting of 25,002 isogroups (unique gene models) and 102,623 singletons from 2.76 million 454 and Sanger cDNA sequences from coastal Douglas-fir. We identified 278,979 unique SNPs by mapping the 454 and Sanger sequences to the reference, and by mapping four datasets of Illumina cDNA sequences from multiple seed sources, genotypes, and tissues. The Illumina datasets represented coastal Douglas-fir (64.00 and 13.41 million reads), interior Douglas-fir (80.45 million reads), and a Yakima population similar to interior Douglas-fir (8.99 million reads). We assayed 8067 SNPs on 260 trees using an Illumina Infinium SNP genotyping array. Of these SNPs, 5847 (72.5%) were called successfully and were polymorphic. Conclusions Based on our validation efficiency, our SNP database may contain as many as ~200,000 true SNPs, and as many as ~69,000 SNPs that could be genotyped at ~20,000 gene loci using an Infinium II array—more SNPs than are needed to use genomic selection in tree breeding programs. Ultimately, these genomic resources will enhance Douglas-fir breeding and allow us to better understand landscape-scale patterns of genetic variation and potential responses to climate change. PMID:23445355

2013-01-01

342

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision  

E-print Network

§ Basel Committee on Banking Supervision International Convergence of Capital Measurement, or for additions/changes to the mailing list, should be sent to: Bank for International Settlements Press © Bank for International Settlements 2005. All rights reserved. Brief excerpts may be reproduced

McNeil, Alexander J.

343

BANKING SPREADS IN LATIN AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermediation spreads in Latin America are high by international standards. This paper examines the determinants of bank interest margins in that region using bank- and country-level data from 85 countries, including 14 Latin American economies. The results suggest that Latin America has higher interest rates, less efficient banks, and larger reserve requirements than other regions and that these factors have

R. GASTON GELOS

2009-01-01

344

The Diffusion of Online Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial services environment has been subject to changes on many fronts. Technological change and the advent of the Internet are among the most dramatic and challenging areas of change for the sector. This paper looks at retail banking and its adoption of online banking, in particular the factors driving and inhibiting adoption by banks. An international Delphi study confirms

Laura Bradley; Kate Stewart

2003-01-01

345

National Trade Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

346

HPCwire Job Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HPCwire Job Bank has become the matchmaker site of choice for bringing together the best talent and the leading employers in HPC commercial computing, research, academia, and the entire ecosystem of suppliers and users of HPC systems and technology, representing career opportunities in hardware, software, middleware, sales, marketing, consulting, design, development, engineering, research, testing, customer support and production.

347

Personalized Electronic Banking Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personalization is without a doubt a promising area that might be able to answer some of the burning questions that Internet banking must deal with today and even more in the days to come. The possibilities of personalization are not yet fully utilized, nor is there sufficient hands-on experience or research-based knowledge about the most advanced ideas of how to

Mika Hiltunen; Leo Heng; Linda Helgesen

348

Bank-a-Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article gives procedures for consumer foods teachers to use to actively involve students in making independent food purchasing decisions according to the school foods lab budget and food buying principles. Included are forms used to keep records for each lab: unit bank account, meat lab evaluation, and market order. (MF)

Karls, Doris; Jordan, Elaine

1978-01-01

349

Snow Bank Detectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

350

The Protein Data Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http:\\/\\/www.rcsb.org\\/pdb\\/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource.

Helen M. Berman; John D. Westbrook; Zukang Feng; Gary Gilliland; Talapady N. Bhat; Helge Weissig; Ilya N. Shindyalov; Philip E. Bourne

2000-01-01

351

Quality in Retail Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality is increasingly being seen as a key strategic differentiator within the financial services sector in the UK, with most major players undertaking some form of quality initiative. Describes work undertaken within TSB Bank plc to determine both retail customer and staff perceptions of those factors which determine service quality. Initially identifies the models developed by Parasuraman et al. as

R. F. Blanchard; R. L. Galloway

1994-01-01

352

Academic Interventions Bank Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes development of a bank of interventions in response to individual student needs identified by Student Study Teams (SSTs) in the Horry County (South Carolina) school district. It also describes the training of SST members in the selection, application, and monitoring of each intervention. Following a survey that identified basic…

Jenkins, Tom; Torrens, Meg

353

Janus Serum Bank  

Cancer.gov

The Janus Serum bank was established in order to collect and store blood samples from presumably healthy individuals for future use in cancer research. The intention was to obtain information on factors important in the pathogenesis and etiology of cancer by examining blood samples obtained during the preclinical stage or latent period before the tumor has developed.

354

Blood Bank Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially, blood banks are facilities which procure, store, process, and dispense blood. To operate effectively in the face of both random supply and random demand, sizable buffer stocks of blood are maintained. The resulting inventory control problem is an extremely complex one for several reasons: (1) both supply and demand are random; (2) approximately 50 percent of all bloods demanded,

John B. Jennings

1973-01-01

355

Ceramic filters  

SciTech Connect

Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

1995-12-31

356

Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution by Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. Subsp. nordmanniana) leaves.  

PubMed

The utility of Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. Subsp. nordmanniana) leaves from Eastern Black Sea region for the removal (sorption) of metal ions from aqueous solutions was investigated. For this, the optimum values of pH, time, metal concentration, leaf concentration, leaf particle size and adsorption capacity were determined. Also the recovery conditions of the metals from leaves were studied. Cd metal was selected because of its toxic properties. Freundlich isotherm model was used to describe the adsorption behaviour and the experimental results obtained for Cd(2+) adsorption, followed this model well. The utility of Nordmann fir leaves to remove toxic metals from aqueous solutions was proved. Hence, this study showed that the leaves of Nordmann fir can provide cheap source as biosorbents for toxic metal removal from natural or wastewaters. PMID:17475482

Serencam, H; Gundogdu, A; Uygur, Y; Kemer, B; Bulut, V N; Duran, C; Soylak, M; Tufekci, M

2008-04-01

357

Sun angle, view angle, and background effects on spectral response of simulated balsam fir canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment is described that examines the effects of solar zenith angle and background reflectance on the composite scene reflectance of small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) arranged in different densities. In this study, the shape, density, and, consequently, the needle area index and phytomass of the canopies, as well as the background reflectance, were controlled. The effects of sun angle, view angle, and background reflectance on the multispectral response of small balsam fir trees were significant. Regression models relating spectral vegetation indices (i.e., normalized difference (ND) and greenness (GR) to phytomass) showed very poor relationships for balsam fir canopies with a grass background. However, strong linear relationships were found for ND and GR with phytomass for a background that simulated the reflectance of snow. Changing solar zenith angle significantly affected the models relating ND to phytomass for the snow background, but was not significant in the model relating GR to phytomass for the snow background

Ranson, K. J.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

1986-01-01

358

Fine-scale variability in growth–climate relationships of Douglas-fir, North Cascade Range, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about the sensitivity to climate of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is valu- able because it will allow forest managers to maximize growth, better understand how carbon sequestration may change over time, and better model and predict future ecosystem responses to climatic change. We examined the effects of clima- tic variability on the growth of Douglas-fir along an elevational

Michael J. Case; David L. Peterson

2005-01-01

359

The geographical distribution of genetic variation of silver fir ( Abies alba, Pinaceae ) in relation to its migration history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver fir presently occurs in many mountainous regions of eastern, western, southern and Central Europe. In order to elucidate the biogeographic history of fir populations in different European areas, the distribution of area-specific alleles at eight enzyme loci and the allele frequency distributions at seven polymorphic enzyme loci were investigated in seed or bud samples from 48 provenances comprising 98

M. Konnert; F. Bergmann

1995-01-01

360

Competition and regeneration in quaking aspenwhite fir (Populus tremuloidesAbies concolor) forests in the Northern Sierra  

E-print Network

Competition and regeneration in quaking aspen­white fir (Populus tremuloides­Abies concolor competition between quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and white fir (Abies concolor) affect growth Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides, hereafter aspen) is the most widely distributed hardwood in North

Taylor, Alan

361

Trapping Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) with Pheromone Baited Multiple-Funnel Traps to Reduce Tree Mortality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Douglas fir beetle (Dendroctonuspseudotsugae Hopkins) (DFB) causes considerable mortality to Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western North American forests. We evaluated the ability of pheromone-baited multiple-funnel traps to protect small, high-value stands of trees, such as ...

362

Survival, frost susceptibility, growth, and disease resistance of corkbark and subalpine fir grown for landscape and Christmas trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho Sandpoint Research and Extension Center (SREC) and two commercial nurseries in Idaho and Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest...

363

Overstory/understory relationships in old growth Grand fir habitat types of northeast Oregon  

E-print Network

system was implemented on the Deep Creek unit. This system was developed to remove the large old growth Ponderosa Pine and Douglas Fir from the area. The high-grade operation only removed the largest and best timber during that period. After 1930... the railroad logging ended. The area was high-graded again during World War II. The harvest again concentrated on large Ponderosa Pine and Douglas Fir. The Forest Service acquired much of the area in the 1950's along with various sections being owned...

Schreder, Peter Todd

2012-06-07

364

Adaptive filtering in subbands with critical sampling: analysis, experiments, and application to acoustic echo cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exact analysis of the critically subsampled two-band modelization scheme is given, and it is demonstrated that adaptive cross-filters between the subbands are necessary for modelization with small output errors. It is shown that perfect reconstruction filter banks can yield exact modelization. These results are extended to the critically subsampled multiband schemes, and important computational savings are seen to be

Andrk Gilloire; Martin Vetterli

1992-01-01

365

A Cloud Model Inference System Based Alpha-Beta Filter for Tracking of Maneuvering Target  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive alpha-beta filter based on cloud model inference is presented for maneuvering target tracking. The proposed tracker incorporates cloud model in a conventional alpha-beta filter by using the rule bank based on cloud model, which utilizes the residue error and the change of residue error in the last prediction to determine the values of alpha and beta, then track

Jianjun Huang; Jiali Zhong; Pengfei Li

2010-01-01

366

A 230 KV power factor correction installation taking into account the low voltage filters  

SciTech Connect

Power factor is an important component for utilities in maintaining the overall efficiency of the power delivery. Utilities encourage industrial customers to provide their own power factor correction for low power factor loads. At the end of large capacity transmission lines utilities tend to provide power factor correction through shunt capacitor banks. With increased number of filter banks in low voltage distribution systems for power factor correction and harmonic filtering, installation of high voltage capacitor banks require careful considerations. In this paper, the study results of a practical 105 MVAR, 230 kV capacitor bank is discussed. The effect of the existing 13.8 kV filter on the installation of the high voltage power factor correction capacitors is examined. The frequency domain analysis to evaluate various resonant frequencies are also discussed.

Natarajan, R. [ABB Power T and D Co., Raleigh, NC (United States); Hale, E. [Black and Veatch Construction, Inc., Lake Oswego, OR (United States); Ashmore, S. [ABB HV Capacitors, Saint-Laurent (Canada); Larsson, K. [ABB, Quebec (Canada)

1999-11-01

367

Empirical Study of Multi-scale Filter Banks  

E-print Network

kernels has been developed by Bodlaender et al. [4] and Fortnow and Santhanam [9]. In this paper we show only recently. In particular, Bodlaender et al. [4] and Fortnow and Santhanam [9] have developed collapses to the third level (PH = 3 p), which is deemed unlikely. Bodlaender et al. [4] observed

Granada, Universidad de

368

World Bank Integrity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the World Bank Group, the Integrity Vice Presidency "independently investigates allegations of corruption and fraud." On their homepage, much of the material is covered within three primary sections: "Fighting Fraud & Corruption", "Investigating Staff Misconduct", and "Allegations". In the "Fighting Fraud & Corruption" area, visitors can learn about completed investigations and learn about the outcomes, which in many cases include sanctions and debarments. Moving on, the "Investigating Staff Misconduct" area includes information about recent investigations into partner organizations who have worked with the World Bank in the past and alleged abuses regarding travel fraud, abuse of authority, and corruption within infrastructure projects. Visitors may also wish to scroll down on the homepage to look over their annual report and check out news updates.

369

World Bank: Global Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank works to combat poverty and to increase development opportunities around the world, but they also have selected six strategic themes that focus in on global development. First-time visitors to the site can listen to World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick talk about these themes, and they may also wish to follow along with the accompanying slideshow. Themes include global public goods, the Arab world, and middle-income countries. By clicking on one of these themes, visitors can read comprehensive reports, working papers, or take a look at presentations that explore these areas in greater detail. Many of these information sources are contained within a "Highlights" area. Visitors with a penchant for economic development, international political economy, or international affairs will find this site very useful. It's also easy to see how these materials might be used in a classroom setting to spark discussion or debate about some of these very timely matters.

370

PhysioBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PhsyioBank is an impressive archive of digital recordings of physiologic signals and related data for use by the biomedical research community. The website is maintained by the National Institute of Biomedical Imagining and Bioengineering and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and new material is being added on a regular basis. Currently, the site includes biomedical signals and reports from healthy subjects and patients with a range of conditions, including congestive heart failure, epilepsy, gait disorders, and sleep apnea. First-time visitors would do well to take the interactive tour and then use the Getting Started section for locating resources. Also, visitors should make sure to look at the PhysioBank Archives. Here they will find a complete listing of all the currently available databases, organized according to the types of signals and annotations contained in each database. Finally, visitors can send queries about the site and its database via a contact form on the site's homepage.

371

Who Robbed the Bank?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use DNA profiling to determine who robbed a bank. After they learn how the FBI's Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is used to match crime scene DNA with tissue sample DNA, students use CODIS principles and sample DNA fragments to determine which of three suspects matches evidence obtain at a crime location. They communicate their results as if they were biomedical engineers reporting to a police crime scene investigation.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

372

Deutsche Bank Deutsche Bank S.p.A. la consociata italiana di Deutsche Bank AG che, con oltre  

E-print Network

Deutsche Bank Deutsche Bank S.p.A. è la consociata italiana di Deutsche Bank AG che, con oltre 100.000 collaboratori in più di 72 Paesi nel mondo, vanta più di 24 milioni di clienti. Deutsche Bank ricerca brillanti laureati con ottime capacità relazionali, realizzative e cognitive. Posizione Addetto Personal Banking

Robbiano, Lorenzo

373

World Bank: Anticorruption [pdf[  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its many different guises, corruption around the world tends to affect the poor, who are often the most reliant on the provision of public services, and are also least likely to be able to pay the extra costs associated with bribery and fraud. The World Bank has identified corruption as "the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development," and thusly has set up this anticorruption website to serve as an online resource for policy-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other interested parties. On the site, the World Bank lays out its strategy for combating corruption, which includes increasing political accountability, strengthening civil society participation, and improving public sector management. The site also contains a number of helpful resources, such as toolkits for assessing government performance in this area, and information and reports on various regional and country-based approaches to dealing with corruption. The site is rounded out by a calendar of events and key strategy documents, such as "Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance, A World Bank Strategy."

374

Autism brain tissue banking.  

PubMed

One avenue of progress toward understanding the neurobiological basis of autism is through the detailed study of the post-mortem brain from affected individuals. The primary purpose of autism brain tissue banking is to make well-characterized and optimally preserved post-mortem brain tissue available to the neuroscience research community. In this paper we discuss our current understanding of the criteria for optimal characterization and preservation of post-mortem brain tissue; the pitfalls associated with inadequate clinical and neuropathological characterization and the advantages and disadvantages of post-mortem studies of the brain. We then describe the current status of the brain tissue bank supported by the Autism Tissue Program, including the demographic characteristics of the tissue donors, post-mortem interval, sex, age and the method of preservation. Finally, we provide information on the policies and procedures that govern the distribution of brain specimens by this bank and the nature of the studies that are currently being supported directly by this program. PMID:17919127

Haroutunian, Vahram; Pickett, Jane

2007-10-01

375

Bank Portfolios and the Bank Lending Channel in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the adjustments in the structure of assets and liabilities of the Austrian banking sector taking place after a monetary tightening. Following increases in short-term interest rates, the share of loans to non-banks in interest-earning assets rises, which is at odds with predictions from the bank lending channel of monetary policy transmission. An extension of credit to nonfinancial

Johann Burgstaller; Johannes Kepler

376

The Bank Lending Channel and Monetary Policy Rules for European Banks: Further Extensions  

E-print Network

1 The Bank Lending Channel and Monetary Policy Rules for European Banks: Further Extensions Nicholas Apergis Department of Banking & Financial Management University of Piraeus 18534 Piraeus GREECE Department of Banking & Financial Management University of Piraeus 18534 Piraeus GREECE Abstract

Ahmad, Sajjad

377

The effects of culture on banking strategy : a study of three banks in three countries  

E-print Network

Every company pursues a different strategy, and banks are no different. In the banking industry, each bank performs its business based on its own business strategies. Japanese banks have different strategies, but in terms ...

Kuroiwa, Seiichi

2006-01-01

378

C, DRAGOTTI AND GOYAL: FILTER BANK FRAME EXPANSIONS WITH ERASURES 1 Filter Bank Frame Expansions with Erasures  

E-print Network

­ ception and development of source coding problems that generalized Shannon's basic point to wavelet and Gabor transforms. A beau­ tiful tutorial on the art of frame theory was written by Casazza [12] and the book [16] by Daubechies offer excellent introductions to frames and in particular, wavelet and Gabor

Dragotti, Pier Luigi

379

Understanding the high profitability of Chinese banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The big Chinese state-owned banks came as winners out of the global financial crisis. According to the Banker ranking, Chinese banks led the global banking profitability ranking through the years from 2008 to 2010 and contributed one fifth of global banking profits in 2010. The Chinese banking sector, which was deemed as wholly insolvent ten years ago, was reborn like

Horst Löchel; Helena Xiang Li

2011-01-01

380

RAM digital filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modification of conventional digital counting filter is designed to store all possible combinations of filter coefficients in random access memory. Filter includes analog-to-digital coverter, X shift register, memory, accumulator, and digital-to-analog converter.

Zohar, S.

1977-01-01

381

Carbon Cycling in Balsam Fir Ecosystems Following Forestry Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are using the eddy covariance method to monitor carbon cycling following forestry practices in Abies balsamea (L.) Mill forests. The impact of forestry practices depends on the extent and duration of lost photosynthetic uptake and on the quantity of additional ecosystem respiration due to the decomposition of logging residues. A 33 year-old forest was thinned in 2005, reducing density from 2300 to 1500 trees per hectare, leaf area index from 6.5 to 4.7, and biomass from 46.6 to 36.4 Mg C ha-1. Gross primary production (GPP) in the year after thinning decreased to 11.3 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in comparison to 15.9 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in the year before thinning. GPP was higher in subsequent years because LAI was recovering from disturbance and environmental conditions were more favourable for photosynthesis than in 2004. Interannual variation in the effects of environmental conditions on photosynthesis was apparent when comparing monthly distribution of GPP among years. For example, high GPP in 2007 could be ascribed to greater precipitation in July and August than in other years. Thinning reduced ecosystem respiration (ER) from 11.0 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in 2004 to 8.3 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in 2006. We estimate that most of the readily decomposable logging residues were oxidized in the three years following thinning. Clearcutting released a dense layer of A. balsamea advanced regeneration and stimulated abundant regeneration of Prunus pensylvanica (L.f.) on disturbed ground. GPP increased rapidly as a result, reaching 7.1 Mg C ha- 1 y-1 in the fourth year. ER at the clearcut site was 7 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in the first year, two thirds of that in the undisturbed, 33 year-old forest. ER increased to 8.3 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in the next three years as the more readily decomposable of the 95 Mg C ha-1 of logging residues was oxidized. The clearcut became a smaller source of C in each year, decreasing from 5.8 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in the year after harvest to 1.2 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in 2008. We predict that the clearcut site will become a net sink for carbon approximately six years after harvesting. Our preliminary conclusion is that balsam fir ecosystems recover photosynthetic uptake relatively quickly after disturbance by a variety of means and that this response offsets additional ecosystem respiration due to decomposition of logging residues. Results such as these are essential for increasing our understanding of ecosystem processes so that models can be developed to predict the impact of altered climate regimes on the carbon dynamics of forests under management.

Lavigne, M. B.; Foster, R. J.; Goodine, G. K.

2009-05-01

382

On the Nature of the Deeply Embedded Protostar OMC-2 FIR 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 ?m, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 ?m. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 ?m, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L ?, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L ?. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L ?. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L ?, while the luminosity of the colder (~20 K) extended core could be around 100 L ?, with a mass of about 27 M ?. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L ?. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

Furlan, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Osorio, M.; Stutz, A. M.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Stanke, T.; Manoj, P.; Adams, J. D.; Tobin, J. J.

2014-05-01

383

The effects of multiple stresses on Fraser fir physiology in Great Smoky Mountains  

E-print Network

reduction in water and sap conductance and death in 2- 5 years (Hollingsworth et al. Image © Greg Cook (http and fog deposition ~ 30 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Johnson et al. 1991) ~20 kg N ha-1 yr-1 leach out (Nodvin et al and nitrogen deposition and soil Ca:Al ratios on Fraser fir health. Develop a mechanistic model

Gray, Matthew

384

Canopy microclimate and arboreal lichen loading in subalpine spruce-fir forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair lichen communities in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) - subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests of the northern Cariboo Mountains (British Columbia) show distinct vertical zonation. Alectoria sarmentosa reaches peak abundance in the lower canopy (over 35 kg\\/ha) whereas Bryoria spp. lichens reach peak abundance in the upper canopy (over 250 kg\\/ha). These distribution patterns are accentuated by stand structure with

Jocelyn Campbell; Darwyn S. Coxson

2001-01-01

385

Conservation genetics of small relic populations of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in the northern Apennines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and isolated silver fir populations from the Emilian Apennines (northern Italy) were studied to assess their level of genetic variation and their relationship with Alpine populations. We investigated the variability of two chloroplast microsatellites to analyse the within?population genetic variability of four peripheral and fragmented Apennine populations and to determine their phylogenetic relatedness to seven Alpine populations covering the

P. Piovani; S. Leonardi; A. Piotti; P. Menozzi

2010-01-01

386

Seasonality and Abundance of Truffles from Oak Woodlands to Red Fir Forests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Truffles are an important food source for many small mammals in forest ecosystems; however, we know little about the seasonality, abundance, or diversity of the truffle community in the Sierra Nevada. This study examined how truffle abundance and diversity varied between oak woodland, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed-conifer, and red fir (Abies magnifica) forests. Species richness (number of species) and

Malcolm P. North

387

Northern Flying Squirrel Mycophagy and Truffle Production in Fir Forests in Northeastern California1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we summarize the results of four studies in which we either examined the feeding habits of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), a mycophagous (consuming fungi) small mammal, or compared the abundance of truffles (sporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi) among different types of fir (Abies) forest. The studies were conducted within the Lassen National Forest in northeastern

Jeffrey R. Waters; Kevin S. McKelvey; Cynthia J. Zabel; Daniel Luoma

2000-01-01

388

The use of riparian forest strips by small mammals in a boreal balsam fir forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because riparian forest strips are perceived to buffer aquatic ecosystems from logging-related disturbance, they are usually not harvested. However, their value as refuges for terrestrial wildlife is unknown. We conducted two live-trapping experiments in the riparian zone adjacent to rivers in a boreal balsam fir (Abies balsamea) forest in Quebec. In the first experiment, we compared late summer use, during

Marcel Darveau; Paul Labbé; Patrick Beauchesne; Louis Bélanger; Jean Huot

2001-01-01

389

Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

2013-01-01

390

Partial and clearcut harvesting of dry Douglas-fir forests: Implications for small mammal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests offer a wide range of timber and non-timber values, which may benefit from a balanced timber harvest by variable retention systems with conservation of biodiversity. A major component of biodiversity are forest floor small mammal communities whose abundance and diversity serve as ecological indicators of significant change in forest structure and function from harvesting activities.

Walt Klenner; Thomas P. Sullivan

2009-01-01

391

EFFECTS OF CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND MORTALITY IN DOUGLAS FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Little is known about the effects of global climate change on the production and mortality of fine roots. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir fine ( 2 mm in diameter) roots. The study was conducted in sun-lit cont...

392

Winter use of douglas-fir forests by Blue Grouse in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied winter use of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests by blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) from 1981 to 1983 at 2 study areas in northcentral Colorado. Comparisons of used and available stands indicated grouse were concentrated spatially, but there were no consistent differences related to basal area of tree species, conifer stem densities, and topography that were common to both areas. Blue grouse used dense (2,000 stems/ha) second growth (40-75 yr old), open to dense (200-1,900 stems/ha) mature (100-200 yr old), and open (Abies lasiocarpa), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), limber pine (P. flexilis), Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides). Grouse used stands on mesic northern and eastern aspects, on xeric southern and western aspects, at elevations of 2,530-2,960 m, and on slopes of 1-45°. Preferential use (P < 0.05) of Douglas-fir trees occurred within stands that had an abundance of limber pine (use = availability) and subalpine fir (use < availability). Large Douglas-fir (20-90 cm dbh) were preferred (P < 0.05) within stands that had an abundance of smaller (?15 cm dbh) trees. Both sexes used similar trees.

Cade, Brian S.; Hoffman, Richard W.

1990-01-01

393

BOLE WATER CONTENT SHOWS LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATION IN CENTURY-OLD DOUGLAS-FIR TREES  

EPA Science Inventory

Purportedly, large Douglas-fir trees in the American Pacific Northwest use water stored in bole tissues to ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought, the water content of bole tissues being drawn down over the summer months and replenished during the winter. Continuous mo...

394

Detection of FIR radiation by photon drag of free carriers in semimetal thin film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast ns. response with good sensitivity of far infrared radiation (FIR) is observed in anisotropic thin films of Bi and Sb evaporated at large angle. The signal in the wavelength region lambda > 200 mum is assigned to the classical optical pressure on the free carriers while the signal in the 100 microns region can be assigned to a band

S. Marchetti; R. Simili; M. Bernardini; M. Giorgi

1988-01-01

395

Neutralization and buffering capacity of leaves of sugar maple, largetooth aspen, paper birch and balsam fir.  

PubMed

We compared the acidity, the external acid neutralizing capacity and the buffering capacity of leaves of four commercially important tree species, largetooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill), at two sites of contrasting soil fertility in southern Quebec. External acid neutralizing capacity (ENC) of leaves was determined by measuring the change in pH induced by soaking fresh leaves in an acidic solution (pH 4.0) for two hours. The ENC was highest for largetooth aspen (14.3 micro equiv H(+) g(-1)), and lowest for sugar maple and balsam fir (< 5 micro equiv H(+) g(-1)). The buffering capacity index (BCI) was determined by measuring the amount of acid necessary to produce a change of 5 micro equiv H(+) in the leaf homogenate. The BCI ranged from 883 micro equiv H(+) g(-1) for largetooth aspen to less than 105 micro equiv H(+) g(-1) for sugar maple and balsam fir. Leaves of sugar maple and balsam fir had a lower internal pH and a higher percentage of ENC over BCI than paper birch and largetooth aspen. Overall, ENC was correlated with the concentration of all leaf nutrients except Ca, and BCI was correlated with Mg, N and Ca. The site effect was relatively unimportant for all variables. PMID:14969931

Liu, G E; Côté, B

1993-01-01

396

ADAPTIVE FLUT FI.R SUPPRES; II.)N J. B. Moore  

E-print Network

ADAPTIVE FLUT FI.R SUPPRES; II.)N J. B. Moore llrpartm~nt of Systems [nqlnceling, Au,tr, !l ian National (Inlvrr', lty Canberra, Australia, ACT ?LOI and A. Chakravdrty and 0. Garlgsaas The Boeing Company using some form ,! plant Identification scheme can alleviate sc!!T,eof the difficulties. It will change

Moore, John Barratt

397

Death and Deterioration of Balsam Fir Weakened by Spruce Budworm Defoliation  

E-print Network

Death and Deterioration of Balsam Fir Weakened by Spruce Budworm Defoliation in Ontario Part II spruce associationswith balsamfir, aspen, and white birch on the slopesand 729 lower hilltops; by jack pine and white birch on the higher, more rocky portions; and by black spruce,tamarack, and someeastern

398

Components and controls of water flux in an old growth Douglas Fir/western Hemlock ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report measurements of rates of sap flow in dominant trees, changes in soil moisture, and evaporation from coarse woody debris in an old-growth Douglas-fir / western hemlock ecosystem at Wind River, Washington during dry periods in summer. The measurements are compared with eddy covariance measu...

399

Molecular identification of individual oak and fir trees from maternal tissues of their fruits or seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of DNA markers to purely maternal tissues has been scarcely addressed in trees. We have focused on non-parenchymatic maternal tissues of the fruits and seeds of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and investigated whether they can be used for a direct molecular identification of the mother trees. Total DNA with sufficient quantity

Birgit Ziegenhagen; Sascha Liepelt; Vivian Kuhlenkamp; Matthias Fladung

2003-01-01

400

Population size and diversity of Frankia in soils of Ceanothus velutinus and Douglas-fir stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of host plants on Frankia populations was investigated using soils from Ceanothus velutinus (Dougl.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands. Population sizes of Ceanothus-infective Frankia in the soils were measured using plant bioassays with C. velutinus, C. sanguineus (Pursh), and C. integerrimus (H. & A.) as trap plants. The Frankia population in soil from the C. velutinus

Soon-Chun Jeong; David D. Myrold

2001-01-01

401

Formation of Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizae on California white fir in an eastern Sierra Nevada minesoil  

SciTech Connect

A recent report disclosed P. tinctorius occurring in ectomycorrhizal association with Jeffrey pine and Sierra lodgepole pine on spoils of the Leviathan Mine in Alpine County, California. Located on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada at an elevation of 2,200 m and consisting of approximately 100 ha, this open-pit sulfur mine has been inactive since 1962. The average annual precipitation of approximately 50 cm is primarily snowfall, and the minesoil has a pH of 4.0 to 4.5, a deficiency of plant-available N, and a potentially phytotoxic concentration of Al. Walker's report concerning examinations made in September 1988 of the probable hosts of P. tinctorius in Leviathan Mine noted that basidiocarps of this symbiont were absent in the immediate vicinity of the latter four tree species. Reexamination of Leviathan Mine spoils in August and September 1989, however, revealed numerous P. tinctorius basidiocarps near seedlings and saplings of California white fir. Typically, one or two dark yellow to brown basidiocarps, matching the description of Coker and Couch (1928), were observed around solitary white fir seedlings, while as many as five encircled individual white fir saplings. Stipitate, substipitate, and sessile forms were observed, varying in size from 9 to 17 cm in length and from 3 to 7 cm in diameter. Approximately 100 basidiocarps were found associated with white fir, and these were rarely more than 2 m from the host.

Walker, R.F. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (USA))

1990-03-01

402

Optically pumped FIR lasers: Frequency and power measurements and laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically pumped FIR lasers are currently in use in both frequency metrology and laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy programs in the NBS Boulder labs. The laser for use in frequency metrology is a CW 71 ?m methyl alcohol waveguide laser with over 100 mW output for frequency synthesis. Another laser with an intracavity absorption cell for laser spectroscopy has been constructed

KENNETH M. EVENSON; DONALD A. JENNINGS; F. RUSSELL PETERSEN; JOHN A. MUCHA; JUAN J. JIMENEZ; R. M. Charlton; CARLETON J. HOWARD

1977-01-01

403

Adsorption and activity profiles of cellulases during the hydrolysis of two Douglas fir pulps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption and specific activities of various cellulases were evaluated during the hydrolysis of Avicel and Douglas fir-derived kraft and refiner mechanical pulps (RMP). Both the RMP and kraft pulps required higher enzyme loadings and longer hydrolysis times to achieve complete hydrolysis than did Avicel. Complete hydrolysis of a 2% kraft pulp required an enzyme loading of 60 FPU g?1

Abdellatif Boussaid; John N. Saddler

1999-01-01

404

EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

405

SPATIAL EFFECTS OF RETENTION TREES ON MYCORRHIZAS OF DOUGLAS-FIR SEEDLINGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Retention forestry places seedlings in proximity to residual trees, exposing seedlings to additional sources of ectomycorrhizal fungus (EMF) inoculum. To investigate this, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were planted near (2-6 m) and far (16-30 m) from 44- to 72-year-ol...

406

HTS narrow band filters at UHF band for radio astronomy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance narrow-band High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) filters at 610 MHz with very sharp cut-off response and low loss are needed for improving the observation of pulsars at the Jodrell Bank Observatory, UK. An eight-pole quasi-elliptic HTS filter using compact resonators has been designed for this purpose. The measured response of filter has an insertion loss of 0.3 dB (including a

Jiafeng Zhou; Michael J. Lancaster; Frederick Huang; Neil Roddis; Dave Glynn

2005-01-01

407

77 FR 65382 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. Jill M. Frei Trust, Wagner, South Dakota, (Security National Bank of South...acquire voting shares of Commercial State Bank of Wagner, both in Wagner, South Dakota. B. Federal Reserve Bank of...

2012-10-26

408

12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices. 7.1003 Section 7.1003 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2012-01-01

409

12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices. 7.1003 Section 7.1003 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2011-01-01

410

12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices. 7.1003 Section 7.1003 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2013-01-01

411

12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices. 7.1003 Section 7.1003 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2014-01-01

412

The Implementation of Mobile Bank Usage from marketing point of view of bank managers in Jordan.  

E-print Network

The Implementation of Mobile Bank Usage from marketing point of view of bank managers in Jordan of view in Jordan on the different dimensions of the study (Gender of bank managers, Age of bank managers between the Implementation of Mobile Bank Usage from marketing point of view of bank managers in Jordan

413

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

414

Interactions between Seagrass Complexity, Hydrodynamic Flow and Biomixing Alter Food Availability for Associated Filter-Feeding Organisms  

PubMed Central

Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.

2014-01-01

415

Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.  

PubMed

Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

2014-01-01

416

The Effects of Bank Ownership Type on Banking Relationships and Multiple Banking in Developing Economies Detailed Evidence from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is extensive research on banking relationships, multiple banking, and bank ownership types - foreign-owned, state-owned, and private, domestically-owned banks. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have directly tested the abilities of these ownership types to provide the main banking relationship or second banking relationship with firms, or investigated the effects of these ownership types in determining whether firms

Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Maria Soledad Martinez Peria; Rida Zaidi

2005-01-01

417

Minority banks and minority communities: Are minority banks good neighbors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lagging development of many minority communities has had an adverse effect on economic growth in the United States. One factor historically associated with creating or exacerbating this minority problem is the unwillingness of banks to service minority communities adequately. The federal government used two initiatives to address banks' reluctance to aid minorities: the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) that ended

Ann B. Matasar; Deborah D. Pavelka

2004-01-01

418

Bricks vs clicks: entrepreneurial online banking behaviour and relationship banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Little research has been conducted on the effects of information technology on financing entrepreneurial businesses or small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of entrepreneurial online banking and relationship banking on the severity of financial problems perceived by entrepreneurs and their interactive effect. It also investigates how characteristics of

Liang Han

2008-01-01

419

RADIO IMAGING OF THE NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 REGION: A HYPERCOMPACT H II REGION CANDIDATE IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

The NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 region was observed in the 6.9 mm continuum with an angular resolution of about 1.5 arcsec. The 6.9 mm continuum map shows four compact sources, FIR 5w, 5e, 6c, and 6n, as well as an extended structure of the ionization front associated with the optical nebulosity. FIR 6c has a source size of about 0.4 arcsec or 150 AU. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of FIR 6c is peculiar: rising steeply around 6.9 mm and flat around 1 mm. The possibility of a hypercompact H II region is explored. If the millimeter flux of FIR 6c comes from hot ionized gas heated by a single object at the center, the central object may be a B1 star of about 5800 solar luminosities and about 13 solar masses. The 6.9 mm continuum of FIR 6n may be a mixture of free-free emission and dust continuum emission. Archival data show that both FIR 6n and 6c exhibit water maser activity, suggesting the existence of shocked gas around them. The 6.9 mm continuum emission from FIR 5w has a size of about 1.8 arcsec or 760 AU. The SEDs suggest that the 6.9 mm emission of FIR 5w and 5e comes from dust, and the masses of the dense molecular gas are about 0.6 and 0.5 solar masses, respectively.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-10

420

31 CFR 515.314 - Banking institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking institution. 515.314 Section 515.314...REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.314 Banking institution. The term banking institution shall include any person...

2013-07-01

421

31 CFR 515.314 - Banking institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking institution. 515.314 Section 515.314...REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.314 Banking institution. The term banking institution shall include any person...

2012-07-01

422

31 CFR 515.314 - Banking institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking institution. 515.314 Section 515.314...REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.314 Banking institution. The term banking institution shall include any person...

2010-07-01

423

31 CFR 515.314 - Banking institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking institution. 515.314 Section 515.314...REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.314 Banking institution. The term banking institution shall include any person...

2014-07-01

424

31 CFR 500.314 - Banking institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking institution. 500.314 Section 500.314...REGULATIONS General Definitions § 500.314 Banking institution. The term banking institution shall include any person...

2010-07-01

425

31 CFR 515.314 - Banking institution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Banking institution. 515.314 Section 515.314...REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.314 Banking institution. The term banking institution shall include any person...

2011-07-01

426

The World Bank Group Energy Strategy  

E-print Network

The World Bank Group Energy Strategy Approach Paper Sustainable Development Network October 2009...............................................................................................................................................iii World Bank Group Energy Strategy Approach Paper...............................................................................................................3 World Bank Group Energy Sector Strategy and Performance in Recent Years

Kammen, Daniel M.

427

Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

Tara Holzmiller

2008-12-01

428

Evaluation of adaptive/nonadaptive filtering and wavelet transform techniques for noise reduction in EMG mobile acquisition equipment.  

PubMed

The myoelectric signal can be used to control many rehabilitation systems, for instance, prostheses and artificial neuromuscular electrical stimulation toward restoring movement to spinal cord injured subjects. These mobile systems are usually used in different environments and thus are being exposed to different noise levels with characteristics not completely known. In this article, three main techniques for noise reduction were evaluated: wavelet transform (WT), adaptive digital filters, and nonadaptive digital filters. The WT was used to reconstruct the signal with the components without noise information. Adaptive filters were designed using least mean square (LMS) and recursive least square (RLS) algorithms. Finite-impulse response (FIR) and infinite-impulse response (IIR) nonadaptive filters were used for comparison to both the adaptive filters and the signal reconstruction through the WT. PMID:12797727

Ortolan, Rodrigo Lício; Mori, Ricardo Naoki; Pereira, Roberto R Júnior; Cabral, Cristina M N; Pereira, José Carlos; Cliquet, Alberto Júnior

2003-03-01

429

Communication Skills for Banking Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The communications skills course was developed for bank employees who are non-native speakers of English, to assist them in improving their English and knowledge of the American workplace culture and to increase productivity. It consists of three instructional levels. Topics covered in level 1 reflect concerns of bank managers about basic…

Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

430

Community Banks and Internet Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the factors affecting a community bank's decision to develop Internet-based applications using survey data from representative community banks and secondary data regarding the financial institution's financial performance data (Call Reports). The results from a logistic regression show that there is a significant size effect in developing web and Internet commerce applications. Other factors determining Internet commerce activities

Ram N. Acharya; Albert Kagan

2004-01-01

431

Enhanced Authentication In Online Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The online banking environment has grown tremendously over the past several years and will continue to grow as financial institutions continue to strive to allow customers to complete money transfers, pay bills, and access critical information online. During this same time, online banking has been plagued by Internet criminals and fraudsters attempting to steal customer information. Phishing, pharming, and other

Gregory D. Williamson

432

Hepa filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

433

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOEpatents

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09

434

HEPA filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1994-02-22

435

Guided Image Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel type of explicit image fil- ter - guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter generates the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can perform as an edge-preserving smoothing opera- tor like

Kaiming He; Jian Sun; Xiaoou Tang

2010-01-01

436

ELECTRET AIR FILTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the research progress made so far on electret air filters used for separation of airborne particles from complex air stream. A set of different categories of these filters are delineated and the methods of manufacturing of these filters are described. The principles and mechanisms of filtration and modeling of pressure drop by these filters are analyzed. The

Rashmi Thakur; Dipayan Das; Apurba Das

2012-01-01

437

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOEpatents

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1986-01-01

438

GREEN BANK TELESCOPE DETECTION OF POLARIZATION-DEPENDENT H I ABSORPTION AND H I OUTFLOWS IN LOCAL ULIRGs AND QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a 21 cm H I survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub 8{sub -{sub 1000{sub {mu}m}}}} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of H I absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with H I detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km s{sup -1} in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent H I absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground H I clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the {approx}10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into ''mature'' radio galaxies.

Teng, Stacy H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Baker, Andrew J., E-mail: stacy.h.teng@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2013-03-10

439

World Bank Annual Report 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Fiscal year 1999 (FY99) was a year of continued -- and formidable -- challenges," begins the World Bank Annual Report 1999. It goes on to list the financial crises in Brazil, Asia, and Russia and the natural disasters that struck the Caribbean, Asia, and Central America. And through it all, the World Bank was there. This report charts global economic progress and explains the World Bank's involvement in many aspects of the world economy. Broken into smaller reports, World Bank's annual report looks at the surprising rise of poverty, the issues surrounding Y2K and banking assistance, and the progress in anti-corruption efforts, among other issues. Also included are letters from the chairman, highlights, and summaries of improved projects.

Bank., World

440

12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2012-01-01

441

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2011-01-01

442

12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2013-01-01

443

12 CFR 204.8 - International banking facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false International banking facilities. 204.8 Section 204.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE...

2013-01-01

444

12 CFR 337.11 - Effect on other banking practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effect on other banking practices. 337.11 Section 337.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

2014-01-01

445

12 CFR 337.11 - Effect on other banking practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effect on other banking practices. 337.11 Section 337.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

2013-01-01

446

12 CFR 204.8 - International banking facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false International banking facilities. 204.8 Section 204.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE...

2014-01-01

447

12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2010-01-01

448

12 CFR 337.11 - Effect on other banking practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect on other banking practices. 337.11 Section 337.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

2011-01-01

449

12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2011-01-01

450

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2014-01-01

451

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2013-01-01

452

12 CFR 204.8 - International banking facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International banking facilities. 204.8 Section 204.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE...

2010-01-01

453

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2012-01-01

454

12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2014-01-01

455

12 CFR 204.8 - International banking facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false International banking facilities. 204.8 Section 204.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE...

2012-01-01

456

12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2013-01-01

457

12 CFR 337.11 - Effect on other banking practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect on other banking practices. 337.11 Section 337.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

2012-01-01

458

12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.131 Section 225.131 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2010-01-01

459

12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2012-01-01

460

12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL...

2011-01-01

461

12 CFR 204.8 - International banking facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false International banking facilities. 204.8 Section 204.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE...

2011-01-01

462

12 CFR 337.11 - Effect on other banking practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect on other banking practices. 337.11 Section 337.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

2010-01-01

463

12 CFR 1290.6 - Bank community support programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank community support programs. 1290...Section 1290.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE...HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS...

2014-01-01

464

12 CFR 1290.6 - Bank community support programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank community support programs. 1290...Section 1290.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE...HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS...

2012-01-01

465

Synchrotron FT-FIR spectroscopy of nitro-derivatives vapors: New spectroscopic signatures of explosive taggants and degradation products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first successful rovibrational study of gas phase mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene in the TeraHertz/Far-Infrared (THz/FIR) spectral domain. Using the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier Transform spectrometer connected to multipass cells, the low-energy vibrational cross-sections of the different isomers of mononitrotoluene have been measured and compared to calculated spectra with the density functional theory including the anharmonic contribution. The active FIR modes of 2,4 and 2,6 dinitrotoluene have been assigned to the vibrational bands measured by Fourier Transform FIR spectroscopy of the gas-phase molecular cloud produced in an evaporating/recondensating system. This study highlights the selectivity of gas phase THz/FIR spectroscopy allowing an unambiguous recognition and discrimination of nitro-aromatic compounds used as explosive taggants.

Cuisset, Arnaud; Gruet, Sébastien; Pirali, Olivier; Chamaillé, Thierry; Mouret, Gaël

2014-11-01

466

Synchrotron FT-FIR spectroscopy of nitro-derivatives vapors: new spectroscopic signatures of explosive taggants and degradation products.  

PubMed

We report on the first successful rovibrational study of gas phase mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene in the TeraHertz/Far-Infrared (THz/FIR) spectral domain. Using the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier Transform spectrometer connected to multipass cells, the low-energy vibrational cross-sections of the different isomers of mononitrotoluene have been measured and compared to calculated spectra with the density functional theory including the anharmonic contribution. The active FIR modes of 2,4 and 2,6 dinitrotoluene have been assigned to the vibrational bands measured by Fourier Transform FIR spectroscopy of the gas-phase molecular cloud produced in an evaporating/recondensating system. This study highlights the selectivity of gas phase THz/FIR spectroscopy allowing an unambiguous recognition and discrimination of nitro-aromatic compounds used as explosive taggants. PMID:24975521

Cuisset, Arnaud; Gruet, Sébastien; Pirali, Olivier; Chamaillé, Thierry; Mouret, Gaël

2014-11-11

467

A Landsat Thematic Mapper investigation of the geobotanical relationships in the northern spruce-fir forest, Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation, in the northern spruce-fir forest at Mt. Moosilauke, NH, indicates that Landsat TM data can be used to distinguish between and map major vegetation zones. Principal components analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the TM data; and in this simpler spectral space, it is easier to visualize the discrimination between major vegetation zones: the northern hardwoods zone, spruce-fir zone, fir zone, and alpine tundra zone. The moisture stress index highlights areas of heavy forest damage (fir waves), but does not correlate with low levels of damage in the mixed, background forest at Mt. Moosilauke. Care must be taken to avoid confusion between high-elevation climatically-stressed vegetation (normal krummholz forest) and damaged lower elevation forests, both of which have similar TM5/TM4 ratio values.

Torcoletti, Paul J.; Birnie, Richard W.

1988-01-01

468

Lead in vegetation, forest floor material, and soils of the spruce-fir zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

SciTech Connect

Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Europe. As expected, lead concentrations increased with increasing age of spruce and fir foliage, and with increasing degree of decomposition of litter. Fir bole wood was higher in lead than spruce bole wood, but both species were far below acutely phytotoxic levels. Although the results of this study indicated no immediate cause for concern, periodic monitoring of lead and other metals in the spruce-fir zone should be continued to provide early detection of significant changes. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Bogle, M.A.; Turner, R.R.

1983-01-01

469

13C AND 15N IN MICROARTHROPODS REVEAL LITTLE RESPONSE OF DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under global change requires experiments maintaining natural interactions among soil structure, soil communities, nutrient availability, and plant growth. In model Douglas-fir ecosystems maintained for five growing seaso...

470

Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to determine whether charcoal derived from the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir\\u000a ecosystem may influence soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha, a perennial grass that thrives after fire. In our first experiment, we incubated forest soils with a factorial combination\\u000a of Douglas-fir wood charcoal generated at 350°C and extracts of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi with and without

Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

2007-01-01

471

Charcoal effects on soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha in the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas fir ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory and greenhouse experi- ments to determine whether charcoal derived from the ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir ecosystem may influence soil solution chemistry and growth of Koeleria macrantha ,a perennial grass that thrives after fire. In our first experi- ment, we incubated forest soils with a factorial combination of Douglas-fir wood charcoal generated at 350°C and extracts of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi with

Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

2007-01-01

472

Multicentury history of western spruce budworm outbreaks in interior Douglas-fir forests near Kamloops, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is a native defoliator of forests in the inte- rior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) forests of British Columbia, Canada. Dendrochronological techniques and the software program OUTBREAK were used to reconstruct a defoliation history of Douglas-fir for 19 forest sites near Kamloops in central British Columbia. By comparing the radial-growth response of

Rochelle Campbell; Dan J. Smith; André Arsenault

2006-01-01

473

Blood banking in China.  

PubMed

While transfusion-transmissible diseases, including AIDS and viral hepatitis, continue to spread especially in developing countries, the issue of safeguarding the world's blood supply is of paramount importance. China houses more than 20% of the earth's population, and thus its blood supply has the potential to affect the global community. In recent years, Chinese blood centres have tried to improve the nation's blood safety. Although substantial progress has already been made, many daunting difficulties remain. Traditional cultural barriers need to be overcome to successfully mobilise volunteer blood donors. Gaps in information and technology still need to be closed. Insufficiency of economic resources also restrict the blood bank industry. Other developing countries face many of the same challenges as China. PMID:12480443

Shan, Hua; Wang, Jing-Xing; Ren, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhao, Hai-Yan; Gao, Guo-Jing; Ji, Yang; Ness, Paul M

2002-11-30

474

Millennium Seed Bank Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of organizations have developed a concerted interest in establishing seed banks to protect the wide diversity of existing plant life for future generations. The Royal Botanic Gardens is currently working on their own project, whose ultimate goal is to collect 24,000 plant species. So far, they have successfully secured samples from almost all of the native flowering plants in the United Kingdom, and their work continues on in the present day. Many visitors to the site will want to peruse their homepage and the helpful graphic (a peapod) helps orient first-time visitors to the various sections on the site, such as "Solving Seed Problems" and their publications and data area. The site also includes a field manual for those who would like to collect their own seeds in the field as well as data about the seeds collected thus far in the Seed Information Database.

2005-01-01

475

World Bank: Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank does a great deal of development work throughout Africa, and it is by far the largest provider of assistance on the continent. As of 2007, their portfolio of projects under implementation was over $19 billion. They are also involved with working with a wide range of government partners on the "Africa Action Plan", which is concerned with everything from reducing and mitigating violent conflicts to promoting private sector-led growth and job creation. Visitors can learn about the Plan on the site, and they can also utilize the drop-down menus on the homepage to learn about initiatives and topics in every country on the continent. Along the left-side of the homepage, visitors can explore a number of thematic areas, such as "Data & Statistics", "Development Topics", and "Partnerships". Additionally, visitors with very specific needs can look under the "Resources For" area. Here there are resources organized for government officials, businesses, youth, and so on.

476

Credit Unions vs. Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the debate between the banks and credit unions over the issues of membership. The nine resources discussed provide background information about the debate and the arguments from both sides of the issue. On February 25, 1998, the Supreme Court ruled that the National Credit Union Administration's policy of permitting federal credit unions to serve multiple unrelated groups was unlawful. As a result, the credit union lobby persuaded the House of Representatives to overwhelmingly pass HR 1151, the Credit Union Membership Access Act, by a vote of 411-8. HR 1151 will allow credit unions to form multiple common bonds with certain limitations. Similar legislation is now under consideration in the Senate.

Ng, Thiam Hee.

1998-01-01

477

A modified wavelet transform domain adaptive FIR filtering algorithm for removing the SPN in the MFL data  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread application and fast development of gas and oil pipeline network, the pipeline inspection technology has been used more extensively. The magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method has established itself as the most widely used in-line inspection technique for the evaluation of gas and oil pipelines. The MFL data obtained from seamless pipeline inspection is usually contaminated by the

Wenhua Han; Peiwen Que

2006-01-01

478

A modified wavelet transform domain adaptive FIR filtering algorithm for removing the SPN contained in the MFL data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method has established itself as the most widely used in-line inspection technique for the evaluation of gas and oil pipelines. The MFL data obtained from seamless pipeline inspection is usually contaminated by the seamless pipe noise (SPN). SPN can in some cases completely mask MFL signals from certain type of defects, and therefore considerably reduces

Wenhua Han; Peiwan Que

2005-01-01

479

“A MATLAB based optimum multiband FIR filters design program following the original idea of the Remez multiple exchange algorithm”  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly optimized translation of the core discrete Remez part of the Parks-McClellan (PM) algorithm from its orig- inal FORTRAN code to its MATLAB counterpart has recently been proposed by the authors. The optimization was achieved by first figuring out that the search for the \\

Muhammad Ahsan; Tapio Saramaki

2011-01-01

480

CO emission from radio quiet quasars - New detections support a thermal origin for the FIR emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report detections of CO emission from the radio quiet quasars and luminous Seyfert 1 galaxies 0050+12, 0157+00, 0232-09, 0838+77, 1353+18, 1434+59, and 1613+65, and upper limits in five others. The observations show the same correlation between CO and FIR luminosity, and between 60-100 micron color temperature and the ratio L(FIR)/M(H2), as has previously been found for luminous IR galaxies. These results support thermal radiation from dust as the far-infrared source rather than synchrotron emission. Because we have observed with two different telescopes, and in two different transitions, we have been able to constrain source sizes in a few objects.

Alloin, D.; Barvainis, R.; Gordon, M. A.; Antonucci, R. R. J.

1992-11-01

481

Soil-mediated effects of atmospheric deposition on eastern US spruce-fir forests. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

The coincident observation of Waldsterben in Germany and red spruce decline in the northeastern U.S. has naturally led to some speculation that similar mechanisms may be involved. In the German situation, soil-mediated hypotheses played (and still play) a major role; namely, soil acidification and aluminum toxicity and base cation deficiencies. In the red spruce case, there has been much concern that cation deficiencies and/or aluminum toxicity may also play a major role. The purpose of this chapter is to: (1) review some of the basic properties of soils, nutrition, and nutrient cycling in spruce-fir and fir ecosystems, both in the polluted and in the relatively unpolluted regions of the U.S. and Canada, and (2) to evaluate several soil acidity-related hypotheses for red spruce decline.

Johnson, D.W.; Fernandez, I.J.

1992-01-01

482

Hankel-Norm Approximation of IIR by FIR Models: A Constructive Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a constructive method for (sub)optimal finite-impulse response (FIR) approximation of infinite-impulse response (IIR) models. The method minimizes the Hankel norm of the approximation error by using an explicit solution to the norm-preserved dilation problem. It has advantages over the existing methods in that it is a unified method for both single-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output systems which

Li Chai; Jingxin Zhang; Cishen Zhang; Edoardo Mosca

2008-01-01

483

Factors influencing choice of balsam fir twigs from thinned and unthinned stands by moose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moose were observed to browse preferentially on balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees in stands where the stem density had been mechanically reduced to about 2000 stems\\/ha from over 30,000 stems\\/ha. Twigs from trees in thinned and unthinned stands were analyzed to test the hypotheses that moose were choosing thinned stands to maximize intake of a nutrient, or avoiding plant secondary

I. D. Thompson; R. E. McQueen; P. B. Reichardt; D. G. Trenholm; W. J. Curran

1989-01-01

484

Factors affecting the canopy resistance of a Douglas-fir forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological nature of canopy resistance was studied by comparing the stomatal and canopy resistance of a 10-m high Douglas-fir forest. Stomatal resistance of the needles was measured using porometry, while the canopy resistance was calculated using energy balance\\/Bowen ratio measurements of evapotranspiration. A typical steady increase in the forest canopy resistance during daytime hours, even at high soil water

C. S. Tan; T. A. Black

1976-01-01

485

Assessing the Fertilization Response Potential of Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa): A Retrospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre- and post-fertilization tree growth in unfertilized and fertilized thinned stands was used to estimate the 7-year radial growth response of operationally fertilized subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). Despite large stem growth variability in thinned, and thinned and fertilized stands, the 7-year growth increment of fertilized trees was apparently 51-57% larger than the estimated growth that would have occurred had the

Rob Brockley

486

Growth responses of subalpine fir to climatic variability in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We studied regional variation in growth-limiting factors and responses to climatic variability in subalpine forests by analyzing growth,patterns for 28 tree-ring growth,chronologies,from subalpine fir ( Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) stands in the Cascade and Olympic Mountains (Washington and Oregon, U.S.A.). Factor analysis identified four distinct time series of common,growth,patterns; the dominant,growth,pattern at any site varied with annual precipita -

David W. Peterson; David L. Peterson; Gregory J. Ettl

2002-01-01

487

Attraction of Scolytus unispinosus bark beetles to ethanol in water-stressed Douglas-fir branches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three similar-sized branches on each of seven Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees with a southern exposure were selected randomly to receive a water-stress, defoliation, or control treatment. All water-stressed branches were attacked by Scolytus unispinosus LeConte at 12–24 days after imposing the treatments, resulting in a significantly higher mean density of gallery holes (107m?2) than in the defoliated or

Rick G. Kelsey; Gladwin Joseph

2001-01-01

488

VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 7129 FIRS 2 interferometric 1-D spectrum (Fuente+, 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometric 1-D spectrum towards NGC 7129 FIRS 2 (RA=21:43:01.7, Dec=+66:03:23.6 J2000). The X-axis is frequency in MHz and the Y-axis is intensity in temperature units (K). The spectrum was observed with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer in CD configuration providing a synthesized beam of 1.43"x1.26" PA 144. The adopted source velocity is v=-10km/s. (2 data files).

Fuente, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Caselli, P.; McCoey, C.; Johnstone, D.; Fich, M.; van Kempen, T.; Palau, Aina; Yildiz, U. A.; Tercero, B.; Lopez, A.

2014-05-01

489

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Douglas-fir residue decayed by Fomitopsis pinicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Colonizing populations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were measured in various decay stages of Douglas-fir logs infested withFomitopsis pinicola. Numbers of nitrogen-fixers and N-fixation rates in the wood increased as decay progressed. These increase in bacterial populations\\u000a and N-fixing activity appeared related to increases in wood moisture content. Bacteria resemblingClostridium pasteurianum, Clostridium butyricum, andKlebsiella\\/Enterobacter spp. were isolated from the various wood decay

S. D. Spano; M. F. Jurgensen; M. J. Larsen; A. E. Harvey

1982-01-01

490

Inheritance of restriction fragment length polymorphisms and random amplified polymorphic DNAs in coastal Douglas-fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 225 new genetic loci [151 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and 74 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD)] in coastal Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii] have been identified using a three-generation outbred pedigree. The Mendelian inheritance of 16 RFLP loci and 29 RAPD loci was demonstrated based on single-locus segregation in a sample of F2 progeny.

K. D. Jermstad; A. M. Reem; J. R. Henifin; N. C. Wheeler; D. B. Neale

1994-01-01

491

Genetic evaluation of alternative silvicultural systems in coastal montane forests: western hemlock and amabilis fir.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and mating system were quantified for shelterwood, patch cut and green tree-retention silvicultural systems, and compared to adjacent old-growth. This is a component of a larger study conducted in montane old-growth forests of coastal British Columbia to evaluate the feasibility and ecological consequences of alternative silvicultural systems. The experiment includes replicated treatments representing a range of overstory removal adjacent to old-growth and clearcut areas. Based on 22 electrophoretically assayed loci, the effects of silvicultural systems on genetic parameters of amabilis fir (Abies amabilis and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla were assessed by comparing an average number of alleles per locus, the percent polymorphic loci, and observed and expected heterozygosity between parental populations and naturally regenerated progeny as well as among treatments. Genetic variation in natural regeneration was greater than in parental populations, especially for low-frequency alleles. Silvicultural treatments caused no significant differences in amabilis fir genetic-diversity parameters, while the shelterwood system resulted in lower observed and expected heterozygosity in western hemlock. Nei's genetic distance revealed that all parental populations were extremely similar. The two species had contrasting mating system dynamics with amabilis fir producing higher levels of correlated paternity and inbreeding with wider variation among individual tree outcrossing-rate estimates. Western hemlock had significant levels of correlated paternity only for the green tree and shelterwood treatments demonstrating family structuring inversely related to stand density. Inbreeding in western hemlock was significant but lower than that observed for amabilis fir with a J-shaped distribution for individual tree multilocus outcrossing-rate estimates. The pollination and dispersal mechanisms of the two species represent the most-likely factors causing these differences. Artificial regeneration may be utilized to augment the genetic resources of natural ingress. PMID:12750773

El-Kassaby, Y A; Dunsworth, B G; Krakowski, J

2003-08-01

492

Breeding Bird Response to Riparian Buffer Width in Managed Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relative importance of riparian vs. upland habitats to breeding birds by comparing species abundance, richness, and similarity of bird communities in managed Douglas-fir forests in western Washington State, USA. We also examined whether forested buffer strips along second- and third-order streams effectively maintain the pre-logging riparian breeding bird community by comparing species abundance, richness, and turnover among

Scott F. Pearson; David A. Manuwal

2001-01-01

493

Effects of Interaction Induced Activities in Hickson Compact Groups: CO and FIR Study  

E-print Network

A study of CO and FIR emission in a distance limited (z<0.03) complete sample of Hickson Compact Group (HCG) galaxies was conducted in order to examine the effects of their unique environment on the ISM and star formation activity. Ubiquitous tidal interactions in these dense groups would predict enhanced activities among the HCG galaxies compared to isolated galaxies. Instead their CO and FIR properties are surprisingly similar to isolated spirals. The CO data for 80 HCG galaxies presented here indicate that the spirals globally show the same H2 content as the isolated comparison sample, although 20% are deficient in CO emission. The CO deficiency appears linked with the group evolution, and gas exhaustion through past star formation and removal of external gas reserve by tidal stripping of the outer HI disk offer a possible explanation. The IRAS data for the entire sample of 161 HCG galaxies were re-analyzed using ADDSCAN/SCANPI, improving the sensitivity by a factor of 3-5 over the existing Point Source Catalog (PSC) and better resolving the contribution from individual galaxies. We find that FIR emission in HCG galaxies is similar to isolated, Virgo cluster, and weakly interacting galaxies. A factor two enhancement in the 25 micr/100 micr flux ratio among the HCG spirals is found, which suggests intense, localized nuclear starburst activity similar to HII galaxies. A number of early-type galaxies in HCGs are detected in CO and FIR, lending further support to the idea that tidal interactions and tidally induced evolution of the groups and member galaxies are important in our sample.

L. Verdes-Montenegro; M. S. Yun; J. Perea; A. del Olmo; P. T. P. Ho

1997-11-12

494

Simulating cumulative fire effects in ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successional process model has been adapted for use with species from ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir (Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa)\\/(Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glacua) forests of the inland Northwest. Its design allows modification for application to other forest types. This model, FIRESUM, simulates tree establishment, growth, and mortality, along with live and dead fuel accumulation, fire behavior, and fuel reduction on a 400-m²

R. E. Keane; S. F. Arno; J. K. Brown

1990-01-01

495

Effects of ammonium and nitrate on growth and nitrogen uptake by mycorrhizal Douglas-fir seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In a greenhouse pot study, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Douglas-fir seedling were grown in a forest soil amended with clays and ammonium or nitrate fertilizer. Mycorrhizal seedlings grew taller, increased root and shoot dry weight more, and accumulated more nitrogen and phosphorus than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Mycorrhizal effects were most pronounced in the nitrate treatment. Ammonium enhancement of phosphorus uptake was

Caroline S. Bledsoe; R. J. Zasoski

1983-01-01

496

Temperature and source material influence ecological attributes of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal has numerous physical and chemical properties that allow it to influence a variety of ecological processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate how several ecological properties of charcoal vary as a function of formation temperature and the source of woody material from which it is formed in ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir (Pinus ponderosa\\/Psuedotsuga menziesii) ecosystems. We generated charcoal in

Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

2006-01-01

497

Ethanol and ambrosia beetles in Douglas fir logs with and without branches  

Microsoft Academic Search

November-felled Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) logs with and without branches were left lying on the forest floor through August. In May, as the logs were being colonized by ambrosia beetles,Trypodendron lineatum (Oliv.) andGnathotrichus retusus (LeConte), the ethanol, acetaldehyde, and water concentrations in the delimbed logs were significantly higher than in the branched logs. Since both log types received

Rick G. Kelsey

1994-01-01

498

Angular divergence of forwards and backwards emission from an FIR laser, using a pyroelectric vidicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The angular divergence of FIR radiation at 66 and 116 microns from a D2O cell pumped by a single-mode pulsed CO2 laser is obtained, in both forward and backward directions. The forward emission, in similarity with stimulated Raman scattering at other wavelengths, emerges with divergence close to the diffraction limit in some cases. The backward emission, probably dominated by amplified spontaneous emission, has a greater divergence and at high filling pressures appears to break up into speckles.

Nicholson, J. P.; Ahmed, H.

1984-02-01

499

Pansharpening of multispectral images using filtering in Fourier domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, there is examined filtering based pansharpening methods which means of using several 2D FIR filters in Fourier domain which implies that the filters are applied after taking 2D Discrete Fourier Transform of both multispectral and panchromatic image and after the pansharpening process in Fourier domain, the resulting pansharpened image is obtained with an inverse 2D DFT. In addition, these methods are compared with commonly used fusion methods which are combined as modulation based and component substitution based methods. The algorithms are applied to SPOT 6 co-registered image couples that were acquired simultaneously. Couples are chosen for three different regions which are a city image (Gebze/Turkey), a forest image (Istanbul/Turkey) and an agriculture field image (Sanliurfa/Turkey) in order to analyse the methods in different regional characteristics. These methods are compared by the fusion quality assessments that have common acceptance in community. The results of these quality assessments shows the filtering based methods had the best scores among the traditional methods.

Akoguz, Alper; Kurt, Burak; Pinar, Sedef K.

2014-10-01

500

Multirate digital filters, filter banks, polyphase networks, and applications: a tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic concepts and building blocks in multirate digital signal processing (DSP), including the digital polyphase representation, are reviewed. Recent progress, as reported by several authors in this area, is discussed. Several applications are described, including subband coding of waveforms, voice privacy systems, integral and fractional sampling rate conversion (such as in digital audio), digital crossover networks, and multirate coding

P. P. Vaidyanathan

1990-01-01