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1

FIR filter banks for hexagonal data processing.  

PubMed

Images are conventionally sampled on a rectangular lattice. Thus, traditional image processing is carried out on the rectangular lattice. The hexagonal lattice was proposed more than four decades ago as an alternative method for sampling. Compared with the rectangular lattice, the hexagonal lattice has certain advantages which include that it needs less sampling points; it has better consistent connectivity and higher symmetry; the hexagonal structure is also pertinent to the vision process. In this paper, we investigate the construction of symmetric FIR hexagonal filter banks for multiresolution hexagonal image processing. We obtain block structures of FIR hexagonal filter banks with 3-fold rotational symmetry and 3-fold axial symmetry. These block structures yield families of orthogonal and biorthogonal FIR hexagonal filter banks with 3-fold rotational symmetry and 3-fold axial symmetry. In this paper, we also discuss the construction of orthogonal and biorthogonal FIR filter banks with scaling functions and wavelets having optimal smoothness. In addition, we present a few of such orthogonal and biorthogonal FIR filters banks. PMID:18701391

Jiang, Qingtang

2008-09-01

2

Optimal implementation approach for discrete wavelet transform using FIR filter banks on FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a wavelet transform implementation approach using a FIR filter bank that uses a Wallace Tree structure for fast multiplication. VHDL models targeted specifically for synthesize have been written for clocked data registers, adders and the multiplier. Symmetric wavelets like Biorthogonal wavelets can be implemented using this design. By changing the input filter coefficients different wavelet decompositions may be implemented. The design is mapped onto the ORCA series FPGA after synthesis and optimization for timing and area.

Sargunaraj, Joe J.; Rao, Sathyanarayana S.

1998-10-01

3

Cosine-modulated FIR filter banks satisfying perfect reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors obtain a necessary and sufficient condition on the 2 M (M=number of channels) polyphase components of a linear-phase prototype filter of length N=2 mM (where m=an arbitrary positive integer), such that the polyphase component matrix of the modulated filter is lossless. The losslessness of the polyphase component matrix, in turn, is sufficient to ensure that the analysis\\/synthesis system

R. David Koilpillai; P. P. Vaidyanathan

1992-01-01

4

Balanced multiwavelet bases based on symmetric FIR filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a basic difference between multiwavelets and scalar wavelets that explains, without using zero moment properties, why certain complications arise in the implementation of discrete multiwavelet transforms. Assuming one wishes to avoid the use of prefilters in implementing the discrete multiwavelet transform, it is suggested that the behavior of the iterated filter bank associated with a multiwavelet basis of multiplicity r is more fully revealed by an expanded set of r2 scaling functions (phi) i,j. This paper also introduces new K-balanced orthogonal multiwavelet bases based on symmetric FIR filers. The nonlinear design equations arising in this work are solved using Groebner bases. The K-balanced multiwavelet bases based on even- length symmetric FIR filters are shown to be particularly well behaved, as illustrated by special relations they satisfy and by the examples constructed.

Selesnick, Ivan W.

1999-10-01

5

A new class of two-channel biorthogonal filter banks and wavelet bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a novel framework for a new class of two-channel biorthogonal filter banks. The framework covers two useful subclasses: i) causal stable IIR filter banks. ii) linear phase FIR filter banks. There exists a very efficient structurally perfect reconstruction implementation for such a class. Filter banks of high frequency selectivity can be achieved by using the proposed framework with low

See-May Phoong; Chai W. Kim; P. P. Vaidyanathan; Rashid Ansari

1995-01-01

6

New design of orthogonal filter banks using the Cayley transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a challenging task to design orthogonal filter banks, especially multidimensional (MD) ones. In the one-dimensional (1D) two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) filter bank case, several design methods exist. Among them, designs based on spectral factorizations (by Smith and Barnwell) and designs based on lattice factorizations (by Vaidynanathan and Hoang) are the most effective and widely used. The 1D two-channel infinite impulse response (IIR) filter banks and associated wavelets were considered by Herley and Vetterli. All of these design methods are based on spectral factorization. Since in multiple dimensions, there is no factorization theorem, traditional 1D design methods fail to generalize. Tensor products can be used to construct MD orthogonal filter banks from 1D orthogonal filter banks, yielding separable filter banks. In contrast to separable filter banks, nonseparable filter banks are designed directly, and result in more freedom and better frequency selectivity. In the FIR case, Kovacevic and Vetterli designed specific two-dimensional and three-dimensional nonseparable FIR orthogonal filter banks. In the IIR case, there are few design results (if any) for MD orthogonal IIR filter banks. To design orthogonal filter banks, we must design paraunitary matrices, which leads to solving sets of nonlinear equations. The Cayley transform establishes a one-to-one mapping between paraunitary matrices and para-skew-Hermitian matrices. In contrast to nonlinear equations, the para-skew-Hermitian condition amounts to linear constraints on the matrix entries which are much easier to solve. We present the complete characterization of both paraunitary FIR matrices and paraunitary IIR matrices in the Cayley domain. We also propose efficient design methods for MD orthogonal filter banks and corresponding methods to impose the vanishing-moment condition.

Zhou, Jianping; Do, Minh N.; Kovacevic, Jelena

2003-11-01

7

Exact reconstruction analysis/synthesis filter banks with time-varying filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines some of the analysis/synthesis issues associated with FIR time-varying filter banks where the filter bank coefficients are allowed to change in response to the input signal. Several issues are identified as being important in order to realize performance gains from time-varying filter banks in image coding applications. These issues relate to the behavior of the filters as transition from one set of filter banks to another occurs. Lattice structure formulations for the time varying filter bank problem are introduced and discussed in terms of their properties and transition characteristics.

Arrowood, J. L., Jr.; Smith, M. J. T.

1993-01-01

8

Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

9

Design of FIR filters with discrete coefficients via sphere relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for designing FIR digital filters, with each coefficient a sum of signed power-of-2 terms, by sphere relaxation is proposed. To justify the design methodology, we present an analysis showing that the globally optimal design always lies in a vicinity of the optimal FIR filter with continuous coefficients. The design problem at hand is then addressed using a new

Wu-sheng Lu

2006-01-01

10

The Design of Multidimensional FIR Digital Filters by Phase Correction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a new technique for the design of multidimensional FIR digital filters. Given the desired amplitude response, the truncation error of a low order approximation to a high order filter is iteratively decreased by varying the phase respo...

M. T. Manry J. K. Aggarwal

1976-01-01

11

Exact Reconstruction Analysis/Synthesis Filter Banks with Time-Varying Filters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines some of the analysis/synthesis issues associated with FIR time-varying filter banks where the filter bank coefficients are allowed to change in response to the input signal. Several issues are identified as being important in order to ...

J. L. Arrowood, M. J. T. Smith

1993-01-01

12

New Class of Two-Channel Biorthogonal Filter Banks and Wavelet Bases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We propose a novel framework for a new class of two-channel biorthogonal filter banks. The framework covers two useful subclasses: (1) causal stable IIR filter banks; (2) linear phase FIR filter banks. There exists a very efficient structurally perfect re...

S. M. Phoong P. P. Vaidyanathan R. Ansari C. W. Kim

1993-01-01

13

Efficient parallel FIR filter implementations using frequency spectrum characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel (or block) FIR digital filters can be used either for high-speed or low-power (with reduced supply voltage) applications. Traditional parallel filter implementations cause linear increase in the hardware cost with respect to the block size. Recently, an efficient parallel FIR filter implementation technique requiring a less-than linear increase in the hardware cost was proposed. This paper makes two contributions.

Jin-Gyun Chungl; Yong-Bae Kim; Hang-Geun Jeong; Keshab K. Parhi; Zhongfeng Wang

1998-01-01

14

Equiripple FIR filter design by the FFT algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm has been used in a variety of applications in signal and image processing. In this article, a simple procedure for designing finite-extent impulse response (FIR) discrete-time filters using the FFT algorithm is described. The zero-phase (or linear phase) FIR filter design problem is formulated to alternately satisfy the frequency domain constraints on the magnitude

A. E. Cetin; OMER N. GEREK; YASEMIN YARDIMCI

1997-01-01

15

One structure for efficient narrow-band bandpass FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a narrow-band bandpass FIR filter design with a small number of multipliers per output sample (NMPS). The proposed method is based on the use of the pipelining\\/interleaving (PI) technique within a quadrature modulation structure, where only one narrow-band lowpass filter is required. In order to reduce the NMPS, the narrow-band lowpass filter is designed with an interpolated

G. Jovanovic-Dolecek; J. Diaz-Carmona

2002-01-01

16

The Dual Carrier ABSK System Based on a FIR Bandpass Filter  

PubMed Central

The special impacting filter (SIF) with IIR structure has been used to demodulate ABSK signals. The key points of SIF, including the resonance circuit's high Q value and the “slope-phase discrimination” character of the filter sideband, are demonstrated in the paper. The FIR narrow-band bandpass filtering system, which can also provide the impact-filtering effect, is proposed. A dual carrier system of ABSK signals is designed with the proposed FIR filter as its receiver. The simulation results show that the FIR filter can work well. Moreover, compared to the traditional SIF, the proposed FIR filter can not only achieve higher spectral efficiency, but also give better demodulation performance.

Chen, Zhimin; Wu, Lenan; Wang, Jiwu

2014-01-01

17

Causal stable matched IIR wavelets and perfect reconstruction filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters have been the major players in the Wavelets and Multiresoltion Analysis field; mainly due to their ease of design and understandable nature, as well as their well behaved characteristics such as stability and linear phase response. However, it has been demonstrated that in a number of cases IIR filters are more appropriate. This paper describes a new solution for the wavelet conditions to derive stable IIR filters that are matched in a least squares sense to specified frequency responses. The derived solution treats independently the numerator and denominator in the rational transfer function. This solution can be applied to any IIR wavelet filter bank satisfying the orthogonality and perfect reconstruction conditions. Based on the proposed solutions, a new IIR wavelet filter bank with the low pass filter matched to a desired frequency response is developed.

Rao, Raghuveer M.; Lopez-Estrada, Alex A.; Bopardikar, Ajit S.; Szu, Harold H.

2000-04-01

18

Optimum FIR filter for sampled signals in presence of jitter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements of the integrated readout electronics for calorimetry at high luminosity hadron colliders pose new challenges both to hardware design and to the performance of signal processing algorithms. Both aspects have been treated in detail by the FERMI(RD16) collaboration [C. Alippi et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 344 (1994) 180], from which this work has been motivated. The estimation of the amplitude of sampled signals is usually performed with a digital FIR filter, or with a more sophisticated non linear digital filter using FIR filters as building blocks [S.J. Inkinen and J. Niittylahti, Trainable FIR-order statistic hybrid filters, to be published in IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems; H. Alexanian et al., FERMI Collaboration, Optimized digital feature extraction in the FERMI microsystem Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 357 (1995)]. In presence of significant signal phase jitter with respect to the clock, the phase dependence of the filter output can be a major source of error. This is especially true for measurements of large amplitudes for which the effect of electronic noise becomes negligible. This paper reports on the determination of digital FIR filters that optimize the signal over noise ratio due to known jitter distributions for different filter lengths. As the presence of electronic noise is neglected, the results are mainly relevant for measurements of large signals. FERMI is a collaboration with the aim of designing integrated electronics for the read out of calorimeter detectors in particle physics experiments at hadron colliders. It includes: CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, University of Linköping, Sweden; Center for Industrial Microelectronics and Materials Technology, University of Linköping, Sweden; LPNHE Universities Paris VI-VII, Paris, France; Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy, Sezine INFN, Pavia, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell'Universitá e Sezione INFN, Pavia, Italy; Dipartimento di Elettronica dell' Universitá e Sezione INFN, Pavia, Italy; Physics Department, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; SiCon AB, Linköping Sweden; ABB-Hafo AB, Järfälla, Sweden Swedish Microsystem AB, Linköping, Sweden.

Cattaneo, Paolo Walter

1996-02-01

19

Design of M-band filter banks based on wavelet transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiresolution representation of a signal is effective for signal processing. In this paper, the relationship between the multirate filtering and wavelet transform is described. It is indicated that the design of M-band perfect reconstruction multirate filter banks can be interpreted as the construction of the multiresolution wavelet bases with resolution step M. With this observation, a set of formulations for the design of perfect reconstruction FIR multirate filter banks is derived. Also, the experimental results are presented and discussed.

Yaou, Ming-Haw; Chang, WenThong

1991-11-01

20

FIR filter optimization for video processing on FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional finite impulse response (FIR) filters are an important component in many image and video processing systems. The processing of complex video applications in real time requires high computational power, which can be provided using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) due to their inherent parallelism. The most resource-intensive components in computing FIR filters are the multiplications of the folding operation. This work proposes two optimization techniques for high-speed implementations of the required multiplications with the least possible number of FPGA components. Both methods use integer linear programming formulations which can be optimally solved by standard solvers. In the first method, a formulation for the pipelined multiple constant multiplication problem is presented. In the second method, also multiplication structures based on look-up tables are taken into account. Due to the low coefficient word size in video processing filters of typically 8 to 12 bits, an optimal solution is found for most of the filters in the benchmark used. A complexity reduction of 8.5% for a Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGA could be achieved compared to state-of-the-art heuristics.

Kumm, Martin; Fanghänel, Diana; Möller, Konrad; Zipf, Peter; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

2013-12-01

21

Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

1994-01-01

22

Closed-form design of fractional delay FIR filter using discrete hartley transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the design of fractional delay FIR filter is investigated. First, the interpolation formula of discrete-time sequence is derived by using discrete Hartley transform (DHT). Then, the DHT-based interpolation formula is applied to design fractional delay FIR filter by using suitable index mapping. The filter coefficients are easily computed because closed-form design is obtained. Finally, design examples are

Chien-Cheng Tseng; Su-Ling Lee

2007-01-01

23

A theory of multirate filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multirate filter banks produce multiple output signals by filtering and subsampling a single input signal, or conversely, generate a single output by upsampling and interpolating multiple inputs. Two of their main applications are subband coders for speech processing and transmultiplexers for telecommunications. Below, we derive a theoretical framework for the analysis, synthesis, and computational complexity of multirate filter banks. The

MARTIN VETTERLI

1987-01-01

24

Wavelets and filter banks: theory and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wavelet transform is compared with the more classical short-time Fourier transform approach to signal analysis. Then the relations between wavelets, filter banks, and multiresolution signal processing are explored. A brief review is given of perfect reconstruction filter banks, which can be used both for computing the discrete wavelet transform, and for deriving continuous wavelet bases, provided that the filters

Martin Vetterli; Cormac Herley

1992-01-01

25

Necessary and sufficient condition for perfect reconstruction matrix filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A matrix filter is a linear and time-invariant operator on the space of vector-valued signals. Matrix filter bank is the generalization of filter bank. A perfect reconstruction matrix filter bank consists of an analysis matrix filter bank and a synthesis matrix filter bank. In the theory of filter design, generating a perfect reconstruction matrix filter bank from a given lowpass matrix filter is considered. Such a lowpass matrix filter is called a primary matrix filter. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for a lowpass matrix filter being primary and discuss the relation between perfect reconstruction matrix filter bank and biorthogonal multiwavelet.

Wang, Jianzhong

1999-10-01

26

Matched low-pass filter design for orthogonal IIR filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses a solution to the problem of designing the low pass filter of a two-channel IIR orthogonal perfect reconstruction filter bank to match a specified frequency response. The derived solution treats independently the numerator and denominator in the rational transfer function. Based on the proposed solutions, a low pass filter is matched to a desired frequency response and the frequency response constrained to be have multiple zeroes at (pi) . The end result is a low pass filter with a smoother response function than FIR based solutions for a given number of filter coefficients while optimal in the sense of being close to desired functions. The paper concludes by demonstrating the solution by matching the low pass filter of a Meyer wavelet.

Wilkinson, Larry; Bopardikar, Ajit S.; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Szu, Harold H.

2002-03-01

27

Pyramidal directional filter banks and curvelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible multiscale and directional representation for im ages is proposed. The scheme combines directional filter banks with the Laplacian pyramid to provides a sparse representation for t wo- dimensional piecewise smooth signals resembling images. The underlying expansion is a frame and can be designed to be a tight frame. Pyramidal directional filter banks provide an e ffective method to

Minh N. Dot; Martin Vetterlits

2001-01-01

28

Texture Classification: Are Filter Banks Necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We question the role that large scale filter banks have tra- ditionally played in texture classification. It is demon- strated that textures can be classified using the joint distri- bution of intensity values over extremely compact neigh- bourhoods (starting from as small as 3 ×3 pixels square), and that this outperforms classification using filter banks with large support. We develop

Manik Varma; Andrew Zisserman

2003-01-01

29

A computer program for designing optimum FIR linear phase digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general-purpose computer program which is capable of designing a large Class of optimum (in the minimax sense) FIR linear phase digital filters. The program has options for designing such standard filters as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop filters, as well as multipassband-stopband filters, differentiators, and Hilbert transformers. The program can also be used to design filters

JAMES H. MCCLELLAN; THOMAS W. PARKS; LAWRENCE R. RABINER

1973-01-01

30

Fixed analysis adaptive synthesis filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subband/Wavelet filter analysis-synthesis filters are a major component in many compression algorithms. Such compression algorithms have been applied to images, voice, and video. These algorithms have achieved high performance. Typically, the configuration for such compression algorithms involves a bank of analysis filters whose coefficients have been designed in advance to enable high quality reconstruction. The analysis system is then followed by subband quantization and decoding on the synthesis side. Decoding is performed using a corresponding set of synthesis filters and the subbands are merged together. For many years, there has been interest in improving the analysis-synthesis filters in order to achieve better coding quality. Adaptive filter banks have been explored by a number of authors where by the analysis filters and synthesis filters coefficients are changed dynamically in response to the input. A degree of performance improvement has been reported but this approach does require that the analysis system dynamically maintain synchronization with the synthesis system in order to perform reconstruction. In this paper, we explore a variant of the adaptive filter bank idea. We will refer to this approach as fixed analysis adaptive synthesis filter banks. Unlike the adaptive filter banks proposed previously, there is no analysis synthesis synchronization issue involved. This implies less coder complexity and more coder flexibility. Such an approach can be compatible with existing subband wavelet encoders. The design methodology and a performance analysis are presented.

Lettsome, Clyde A.; Smith, Mark J. T.; Mersereau, Russell M.

2008-05-01

31

Alternative approaches implementing high-performance FIR filters on lookup-table-based FPGAs: a comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite impulse response filters (FIR filters) are very commonly used in digital signal processing (DSP) applications and are traditionally implemented using ASICs or DSP-processors. For FPGA implementation, due to the high throughput rate and large computational power required under real-time constraints, they are a challenging subject. Indeed, the limitation of resources on FPGA, i.e., logic blocks and flip flops, and furthermore, the high routing delays, requires compact implementations of the circuits. Three approaches for implementation of high-performance symmetric FIR filters on lookup table-based FPGAs will be considered in this paper. Fully parallel distributed arithmetic, table lookup multiplication, and conventional hardware multiplication. Implementation results will be illustrated by an 8 taps 8 bits symmetric FIR filter, and comparative considerations of the above approaches invoked for Xilinx FPGAs will be also shown.

Do, Tien-Toan; Kropp, Holger; Reuter, Carsten; Pirsch, Peter

1998-10-01

32

Discrete coefficient FIR digital filter design based upon an LMS criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method optimizing (in the least square response error sense) the remaining unquantized coefficients of a FIR linear phase digital filter when one or more of the filter coefficients takes on discrete values is introduced. By incorporating this optimization method into a tree search algorithm and employing a suitable branching policy, an efficient algorithm for the design of high-order

YONG CHING LIM; SYDNEY R. PARKER

1983-01-01

33

Lagrange multiplier approach to the design of FIR filters for multirate applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of Lagrange multipliers is presented for the design of optimal finite-duration impulse-response (FIR) digital filters for multirate signal processing applications. The filter passbands are constrained to be maximally flat, and the integral of the aliasing error is minimized. The use of these optimality criteria for practical applications is justified. It is shown that the overall frequency response can

G. W. Medlin; J. W. Adams; C. T. Leondes

1988-01-01

34

GPS-Based Adaptive Estimating of Time Errors for Clock Synchronization with a FIR Filter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we investigate one of the possibilities to adapt an unbiased moving average (MA) filter, and a finite impulse response (FIR) filter to the slope of time error function. The linear regression coefficient is used as a statistical estimator of...

A. Marienko J. Fernandez-Cortes O. Ibarra-Manzano R. Rojas-Laguna Y. Shmaliy

2001-01-01

35

An iterated rational filter bank for audio coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a regular third-of-an-octave filter bank for high fidelity audio coding. The originality here is twofold: first, the filter bank is an iterated orthonormal rational filter bank for which the generating filters have been designed so that its outputs closely approximate a wavelet transform. This is different from the known coding algorithms which all use an integer filter

T. Blu

1996-01-01

36

The Synergy between Complex Channel-Specific FIR Filter and Spatial Filter for Single-Trial EEG Classification  

PubMed Central

The common spatial pattern analysis (CSP), a frequently utilized feature extraction method in brain-computer-interface applications, is believed to be time-invariant and sensitive to noises, mainly due to an inherent shortcoming of purely relying on spatial filtering. Therefore, temporal/spectral filtering which can be very effective to counteract the unfavorable influence of noises is usually used as a supplement. This work integrates the CSP spatial filters with complex channel-specific finite impulse response (FIR) filters in a natural and intuitive manner. Each hybrid spatial-FIR filter is of high-order, data-driven and is unique to its corresponding channel. They are derived by introducing multiple time delays and regularization into conventional CSP. The general framework of the method follows that of CSP but performs better, as proven in single-trial classification tasks like event-related potential detection and motor imagery.

Yu, Ke; Wang, Yue; Shen, Kaiquan; Li, Xiaoping

2013-01-01

37

Strain contouring with Gabor filters: filter bank design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel fringe processing method is proposed to segment whole-field strain distributions from interferometric deformation patterns by use of Gabor filters. This novel strategy is specifically proposed for strain measurement with a Gabor filter used as a set of wavelets. To increase computational speed as well as for selection of contour intervals, judicious design of the filter bank, based on the fringe pattern and the requirements of the user, is crucial in this methodology. A filter design strategy is developed and, based on the proposed filter design scheme, properly designed filter banks are generated and applied for strain contouring in low-strain and strain concentration regions. This scheme allows one to measure engineering strains within regions of interest and hence provides the design engineer great flexibility of monitoring, testing, or analysis.

Jun, Wang; Asundi, Anand

2002-12-01

38

Fast low-cost FIR filter processed ECDM labels for optical label switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A code-label recognition time of less than 500ps is demonstrated using low-cost FIR-filters. The electronically-processed label provides a control signal from an auto-correlated label. Error-free electronic code-label switching of an optical 10Gb\\/s signal is demonstrated.

J. B. Rosas-Fernandez; J. D. Ingham; Y. Yu; R. V. Penty; I. H. White

2010-01-01

39

FIR filter design over a discrete powers-of-two coefficient space  

Microsoft Academic Search

FIR digital filters with discrete coefficient values selected from the powers-of-two coefficient space are designed using the methods of integer programming. The frequency responses obtained are shown to be superior to those obtained by simply rounding the coefficients. Both the weighted minimax and the weighted least square error criteria are considered. Using a weighted least square error criterion, it is

Yong Lim; S. Parker

1983-01-01

40

Modeling the hemodynamic response in fMRI using smooth FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling the hemodynamic response in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) experiments is an important aspect of the analysis of functional neuroimages. This has been done in the past using parametric response function, from a limited family. In this contribution, the authors adopt a semi-parametric approach based on finite impulse response (FIR) filters. In order to cope with the increase in the

Cyril Goutte; Finn Årup Nielsen; K. H. Hansen

2000-01-01

41

METEOR: a constraint-based FIR filter design program  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed to specify a filter only in terms of upper and lower limits on the response, find the shortest filter length which allows these constraints to be met, and then find a filter of that order which is farthest from the upper and lower constraint boundaries in a minimax sense. The simplex algorithm for linear programming is used

Kenneth Steiglitz; Thomas W. Parks; James F. Kaiser

1992-01-01

42

Flexible design of multidimensional perfect reconstruction FIR 2-band filters using transformations of variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to designing multidimensional linear-phase FIR diamond subband filters having the perfect reconstruction property is presented. It is based on a transformation of variables technique and is equivalent to the generalized McClellan transformation. Methods for designing a whole class of transformation are given. The approach consists of two parts; design of the transformation and design of the 1-D filters.

David B. H. Tay; Nick G. Kingsbury

1993-01-01

43

A united approach to the design of optimum FIR linear-phase digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for designing finite-duration impulse-response (FIR) linear-phase digital filters is presented in which the four possible cases for such filters are treated in a unified approach. It is shown how to reduce each case to the proper form so that the Remez exchange algorithm can be used to compute the best approximation to the desired frequency response. The result

JAMES H. MCCLELLAN; THOMAS W. PARKS

1973-01-01

44

Analysis of a generalized coding\\/decoding method using FIR digital filters for radar waveform design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous results dealing with radar systems utilizing complementary coded pulse compression waveforms are extended. The objective is to show how the generation and compression of such codes can be based on a specific single-input\\/multiple-output FIR (finite-impulsive-response) digital filter structure. Driving this filter with a unit pulse yields all members of a complementary code set sequence simultaneously. A decoder is then

Daniel B. Koch

1990-01-01

45

On the application of under-decimated filter banks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximally decimated filter banks have been extensively studied in the past. A filter bank is said to be under-decimated if the number of channels is more than the decimation ratio in the subbands. A maximally decimated filter bank is well known for its application in subband coding. Another application of maximally decimated filter banks is in block filtering. Convolution through block filtering has the advantages that parallelism is increased and data are processed at a lower rate. However, the computational complexity is comparable to that of direct convolution. More recently, another type of filter bank convolver has been developed. In this scheme, the convolution is performed in the subbands. Quantization and bit allocation of subband signals are based on signal variance, as in subband coding. Consequently, for a fixed rate, the result of convolution is more accurate than is direct convolution. This type of filter bank convolver also enjoys the advantages of block filtering, parallelism, and a lower working rate. Nevertheless, like block filtering, there is no computational saving. In this article, under-decimated systems are introduced to solve the problem. The new system is decimated only by half the number of channels. Two types of filter banks can be used in the under-decimated system: the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks. They are well known for their low complexity. In both cases, the system is approximately alias free, and the overall response is equivalent to a tunable multilevel filter. Properties of the DFT filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks can be exploited to simultaneously achieve parallelism, computational saving, and a lower working rate. Furthermore, for both systems, the implementation cost of the analysis or synthesis bank is comparable to that of one prototype filter plus some low-complexity modulation matrices. The individual analysis and synthesis filters have complex coefficients in the DFT filter banks but have real coefficients in the cosine modulated filter banks.

Lin, Y.-P.; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

1994-01-01

46

A Steerable Filter Bank for Image Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel image fusion method based on steerable filter bank is proposed. The registered images are first decomposed using steerable pyramid. The EM algorithm is used to fuse the image components in the low frequency band. The selection method involving the informative importance measure is applied to those in the high frequency band. The final fused image

Liu Gang; Lu Xueqin; Huang Guohong

2008-01-01

47

EFFICIENT FIR FILTER STRUCTURES BASED ON THE FREQUENCY-RESPONSE MASKING APPROACH FOR INTERPOLATION AND DECIMATION BY A FACTOR OF TWO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces FIR filter structures for interpolation and decimation by a factor of two. They are based on the fre- quency-response masking (FRM) approach in which the over- all filter makes use of periodic model filters and nonperiodic masking filters. By using FRM techniques it is possible to obtain FIR filters requiring few multipliers even when the transition band

Håkan Johansson

48

Spatially-varying IIR filter banks for image coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on the application of spatially variant infinite impulse response (IIR) filter banks to subband image coding. The new filter bank is based on computationally efficient recursive polyphase decompositions that dynamically change in response to the input signal. In the absence of quantization, reconstruction can be made exact. However, by proper choice of an adaptation scheme, we show that subband image coding based on time varying filter banks can yield improvement over the use of conventional filter banks.

Chung, Wilson C.; Smith, Mark J. T.

1992-01-01

49

Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks  

SciTech Connect

The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

50

Design Techniques for Uniform-DFT, Linear Phase Filter Banks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniform-DFT filter banks are an important class of filter banks and their theory is well known. One notable characteristic is their very efficient implementation when using polyphase filters and the FFT. Separately, linear phase filter banks, i.e. filter banks in which the analysis filters have a linear phase are also an important class of filter banks and desired in many applications. Unfortunately, it has been proved that one cannot design critically-sampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks and achieve perfect reconstruction. In this paper, we present a least-squares solution to this problem and in addition prove that oversampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks (which are also useful in many applications) can be constructed for perfect reconstruction. Design examples are included illustrate the methods.

Sun, Honglin; DeLeon, Phillip

1999-01-01

51

Performance of fir adaptive filters using recursive algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive digital filters used for speech and data processing are investigated. The algorithms use either a least mean square recursively in time. Only the all-zero transversal and lattice filter structures are considered. A geometric or Hilbert space formalism is used to derive the LMS lattice, LS lattice, and "Fast" Kalman algorithms in a cohesive manner. Convergence properties of the LMS adaptive lattice filter are discussed. A deterministic model for multistage convergence is described which gives filter coefficient mean-values an output mean squared error as functions of time. The model is then extended to the LMS and LS lattice joint process estimators and to the "Fast" Kalman algorithm. In each case calculated curves obtained from the model are compared with simulation results. The performance of each adaptive predictor in the context of adaptive differential pulse code modulation of speech is compared.

Honig, M. L.

1981-11-01

52

Orthogonal and Biorthogonal FIR Hexagonal Filter Banks With Sixfold Symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, hexagonal image processing has attracted attention. The hexagonal lattice has several advantages in comparison with the rectangular lattice, the conventionally used lattice for image sampling and processing. For example, a hexagonal lattice needs less sampling points; it has better consistent connectivity; it has higher symmetry; and its structure is plausible to human vision systems. The multiresolution analysis method has

Qingtang Jiang

2008-01-01

53

Comparison of optimal and local search methods for designing finite wordlength FIR digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparison between an optimal (branch-and-bound) algorithm and a suboptimal (local search) algorithm for the design of finite wordlength finite-impulse-response (FIR) digital filters. Experimental results are described for 11 examples of length 15 to 35. It is concluded that when computer resources are not available for the optimal method, it is still worth applying the local search

D. Kodek; K. Steiglitz

1981-01-01

54

A filter family designed for use in quadrature mirror filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a family of filters that have been designed for Quadrature Mirror Filter (QMF) Banks. These filters provide a significant improvement over conventional optimal equiripple and window designs when used in QMF banks. The performance criterion for these filters differ from those usually used for filter design in a way which makes the usual filter design techniques difficult

J. D. Johnston

1980-01-01

55

Recursive time-varying filter banks for subband image coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filter banks and wavelet decompositions that employ recursive filters have been considered previously and are recognized for their efficiency in partitioning the frequency spectrum. This paper presents an analysis of a new infinite impulse response (IIR) filter bank in which these computationally efficient filters may be changed adaptively in response to the input. The filter bank is presented and discussed in the context of finite-support signals with the intended application in subband image coding. In the absence of quantization errors, exact reconstruction can be achieved and by the proper choice of an adaptation scheme, it is shown that IIR time-varying filter banks can yield improvement over conventional ones.

Smith, Mark J. T.; Chung, Wilson C.

1992-01-01

56

Cat Swarm Optimization algorithm for optimal linear phase FIR filter design.  

PubMed

In this paper a new meta-heuristic search method, called Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) algorithm is applied to determine the best optimal impulse response coefficients of FIR low pass, high pass, band pass and band stop filters, trying to meet the respective ideal frequency response characteristics. CSO is generated by observing the behaviour of cats and composed of two sub-models. In CSO, one can decide how many cats are used in the iteration. Every cat has its' own position composed of M dimensions, velocities for each dimension, a fitness value which represents the accommodation of the cat to the fitness function, and a flag to identify whether the cat is in seeking mode or tracing mode. The final solution would be the best position of one of the cats. CSO keeps the best solution until it reaches the end of the iteration. The results of the proposed CSO based approach have been compared to those of other well-known optimization methods such as Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RGA), standard Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE). The CSO based results confirm the superiority of the proposed CSO for solving FIR filter design problems. The performances of the CSO based designed FIR filters have proven to be superior as compared to those obtained by RGA, conventional PSO and DE. The simulation results also demonstrate that the CSO is the best optimizer among other relevant techniques, not only in the convergence speed but also in the optimal performances of the designed filters. PMID:23958491

Saha, Suman Kumar; Ghoshal, Sakti Prasad; Kar, Rajib; Mandal, Durbadal

2013-11-01

57

Design of Digital FIR Filter Based on Dynamic Distributed Arithmetic Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents a method for implementing high speed Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters using just adders, Look Up Tables (LUTs) and shifters. The extensive use of a Dynamic Distributed Arithmetic (DDA) algorithm eliminates the multiplier unit which requires more number of adders. Xilinx Spartan III devices is used for optimization. It is observed that up to 56.75% reduction in the number of slices, upto 75% reduction in flip flops and up to 53.2% reduction in the number of LUTs is achieved. The speed of the DDA is improved by 31%.

Vigneswaran, T.; Subbarami Reddy, P.

58

A new two-dimensional block adaptive FIR filtering algorithm and its application to image restoration.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new two-dimensional (2-D) optimum block stochastic gradient (TDOBSG) algorithm for 2-D adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filtering. The TDOBSG algorithm employs a space-varying convergence factor for all the filter coefficients, where the convergence factor at each block iteration is optimized in a least squares sense that the squared norm of the a posteriori estimation error vector is minimized. It has the same order of computational complexity as another 2-D optimum block adaptive (TDOBA) algorithm. Computer simulations for image restoration show that the TDOBSG algorithm outperforms the TDOBA algorithm and other related algorithms in terms of objective and/or subjective measures. PMID:18267399

Wang, T; Wang, C L

1998-01-01

59

Initial test of a bunch feedback system with a two-tap FIR filter board  

SciTech Connect

Initial beam test of the KEKB bunch-by-bunch feedback system prototypes has been performed in the TRISTAN-AR on the longitudinal plane. A simple two-tap finite impulse response (FIR) filter system consisting of hardware logic realizes the function of the phase shift by 90{degree}, the suppression of static components, and the delay of up to a hundred turns. With the prototype filter board and a longitudinal kicker, the feedback loop has been closed successfully. The shunt impedance of the kicker was estimated from the excitation amplitude and measured damping. The damping time of the system has been measured by using the single-bunch Robinson instability. The feedback system stabilized the coupled-bunch instability completely under 8-bunch operation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Tobiyama, M.; Kikutani, E.; Obina, T.; Minagawa, Y.; Kasuga, T. [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan)

1997-01-01

60

Data Driven Design of Filter Bank for Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filter bank approach is commonly used in feature extraction phase of speech recognition (e.g. Mel frequency cepstral coe-cients). Fil- ter bank is applied for modiflcation of magnitude spectrum according to physiological and psychological flndings. However, since mechanism of human auditory system is not fully understood, the optimal fllter bank parameters are not known. This work presents a method where the

Lukas Burget; Hynek Hermansky

2001-01-01

61

Information extraction by edge detection using complementary filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the 2D Complementary Filter (CF) Banks, a signal processing technique applied to information extraction by edge detection. Based on the 2D multirate signal processing theory and complementary filters properties, the CF Banks allow to consider different types of sampling and filters. Procedures to design 2D nonseparable quincunx, rectangular and circular complementary filters are developed for an alias free decimation and interpolation. The CF bank is related with wavelet theory. Perfect reconstruction is achieved when the CF bank is implemented with quincunx sampling and filters. Although perfect reconstruction is not reached in other cases, the analysis and synthesis are performed without aliasing, corresponding to a high signal-to-noise ratio and visual quality. New structures were designed to get a better data compression. Implementation of CF Banks analysis/synthesis with images and application in information extraction by edge detection are shown.

Almeida, Maria G.

2001-08-01

62

Optimal wavelet filter bank design for image fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel optimization-based method for designing wavelet filter banks in image fusion is proposed. The filter bank design is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. The objective function of the optimization problem consists of both the performance metrics of the image fusion, such as the root mean square error (RMSE), and those of individual filters. The optimization problem is solved using simulating annealing.

Liu, Gang; Lv, Xueqin; Huang, Guohong

2007-11-01

63

SPREADING SEQUENCE DESIGN VIA PERFECT-RECONSTRUCTION FILTER BANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital transmultiplexers, i.e., synthesis\\/analysis filter banks, traditionally employed for TDMA to FDMA conversion and vice-versa, provide also a multirate model for channel dis- tortion free DS-CDMA systems, with the synthesis filter impulse responses playing the role of spreading sequences. Orthogonal filter banks constitute therefore an appropriate framework for designing new orthogonal codes and have been shown to give rise to

Eleftherios Kofidis; Phillip A. Regalia

64

BI-ORTHOGONAL FILTER BANKS WITH DIRECTIONAL VANISHING MOM ENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study 2-D nonseparable filter banks that anni hi- late information along a certain discrete direction. This i s done by having filters with directional vanishing moments (DVM). We study the approximation property of such filters and the desi gn problem providing conditions for its solvability. In parti cular we completely characterize the solution and propose a

Arthur L. da Cunha; Minh N. Do

2005-01-01

65

On two-channel filter banks with directional vanishing moments.  

PubMed

The contourlet transform was proposed to address the limited directional resolution of the separable wavelet transform. One way to guarantee good approximation behavior is to let the directional filters in the contourlet filter bank have sharp frequency response. This requires filters with large support size. We seek to isolate the key filter property that ensures good approximation. In this direction, we propose filters with directional vanishing moments (DVM). These filters, we show, annihilate information along a given direction. We study two-channel filter banks with DVM filters. We provide conditions under which the design of DVM filter banks is possible. A complete characterization of the product filter is, thus, obtained. We propose a design framework that avoids 2-D factorization using the mapping technique. The filters designed, when used in the contourlet transform, exhibit nonlinear approximation comparable to the conventional filters while being shorter and, therefore, providing better visual quality with less ringing artifacts. Furthermore, experiments show that the proposed filters outperform the conventional ones in image approximation and denoising. PMID:17491453

da Cunha, Arthur L; Do, Minh N

2007-05-01

66

Optimum Low Cost Two Channel IIR Orthonormal Filter Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we statistically optimize a well known class of IIR two channel orthonormal filter banks parameterized by a single coefficient when subband quantizers are present. The optimization procedure is extremely simple and very fast compared for ex...

J. Tuqan P. P. Vaidyanathan

1997-01-01

67

Filters for distortion-free two-band multirate filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, conditions are given for a two-band multi-rate filter bank to be alias free and to have a unity frequency response. It is shown that the class of quadrature mirror filters (QMF's) that satisfies these conditions is quite limited. A class of filters which does satisfy these conditions is given, and a simple procedure for designing filters from

F. Mintzer

1985-01-01

68

Time-domain filter bank analysis: a new design theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a new time-domain approach for the analysis and design of a broad class of general analysis\\/synthesis systems based on M-band filter banks. They derive a set of time-domain conditions for reconstruction which can be used directly in a filter bank design procedure. The general and unrestricted nature of this framework allows for the design of many useful

Kambiz Nayebi; Thomas P. Barnwell; Mark J. T. Smith

1992-01-01

69

Medical volume segmentation using bank of Gabor filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will present an unsupervised approach for segmenting medical volume images based on texture proper- ties. The texture properties of the volume data are defined based on spatial frequencies as implemented using a statis- tical method known as Gabor filters. Each Gabor filter in the bank is tuned to detect patterns of a specific frequency and orientation

Adebayo Olowoyeye; Mihran Tuceryan; Shiaofen Fang

2009-01-01

70

Sensorless jerk monitoring using an adaptive antisymmetric high-order FIR filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the computerized numerical controllers (CNC) machine-tool processes many finishing and wear problems are related to jerk (derivative of acceleration). Since jerk sensors are expensive and scarce, a sensorless approach is presented as novelty. By taking the incoming signal from a digital incremental encoder included in the standard servo-loop of a CNC machine, the jerk is calculated with a new digital signal processing technique. The contribution of this work focuses on a simple high-order FIR filter with an adaptive algorithm that makes it possible to extract the jerk from the digital position measurement in a sensorless fashion. The algorithm reaches a good approximation to the expected jerk shape by overcoming the intrinsic quantization noise in the digital measurement and the changing dynamical conditions of a real machining process. The algorithm is tested on simulations and over one real CNC machine achieving great similarity between analytical and monitored jerk. It preserves most of the important jerk characteristics like peaks and coarse shape, getting a maximum of 2% of average jerk error on simulations, and 5% of average jerk error on real experiments. This computational efficient algorithm reaches a processing rate up to 760,000 samples per second in an FPGA implementation, which makes it suitable for high speed applications.

Morales-Velazquez, Luis; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Alfredo Osornio-Rios, Roque; Cabal-Yepez, Eduardo

2009-10-01

71

Analysis and Design of Offset QPSK Using Redundant Filter Banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the analysis and design of OQPSK digital modulation. We first establish the discrete time formulation, which allows us to find the equivalent redundant filter banks. It is well known that redundant filter banks are related with redundant transformation of the Frame theory. According to the Frame theory, the redundant transformations and corresponding representations are not unique. In this way, we show that the solution to the pulse shaping problem is not unique. Then we use this property to minimize the effect of the channel noise in the reconstructed symbol stream. We evaluate the performance of the digital communication using numerical examples.

Fernandez-Vazquez, Alfonso; Jovanovic-Dolecek, Gordana

2013-02-01

72

Real-time evaluation of ventilation filter-bank systems.  

PubMed

This study evaluated two government facility ventilation systems. One was a metropolitan government office complex with a recirculation system where outside air was the makeup air; the other was a NIOSH facility that used 100% outside air with no recirculation. The methodology employed was a modified American Society of Agricultural Engineers standard (S525) for testing total enclosure filtration efficiency, in agricultural tractor cabs, with optical particle counters (OPC). The low-efficiency bag filters were tested when new and after being in the ventilation system for 3 months. The replacement medium-efficiency filters were evaluated for 6 months (the manufacturer's suggested change-out schedule). These eight-chamber, medium-efficiency filters had an increased filter surface area that resulted in increased airflow through the system. Unfortunately, these filters contained electrostatic filter media and lost filtration efficiency rapidly, which was subsequently confirmed in a 30-day study conducted to determine an appropriate change-out schedule for the eight-chamber bag filters. The study determined that less than 6 months' use was justified due to the reduced efficiency of the electrostatic filter media. The NIOSH facility's air handler #8 (100% outside air unit) was upgraded from electrostatic bag filters, which had a suggested 9-month change-out schedule, to V Bank mechanical, wet-laid, glass fiber filters. The results of a 3-year evaluation showed that the V Bank filters had better filter efficiency after 3 years of service than the electrostatic filters had at 9 months. Both studies employed matched OPC instruments to reduce instrument-to-instrument bias. The methodology is adaptable to monitoring the total efficiency of most air filtration systems, and results can help make decisions about upgrading filter performance. PMID:17162482

Moyer, Ernest S; Commodore, Michael A; Hayes, Jeffrey L; Fotta, Steven A; Berardinelli, Stephen P

2007-01-01

73

Texture image retrieval using complex directional filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the shift-invariant complex directional filter bank (CDFB) is proposed for texture image retrieval. By combining the Laplacian pyramid and the CDFB, a new image representation with an overcomplete ratio of less than 8\\/3 is obtained. The direction subbands' coefficients are used to form a feature vector for classification. Texture retrieval performance of the proposed representation is compared

An P. N. Vo; Truong T. Nguyen; Soontorn Oraintara

2006-01-01

74

An efficient algorithm for uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient algorithm for design and implementation of uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks is presented. By means of a single design parameter, a continuum of frequency spacings can be obtained. As an example, a frequency spacing similar to the critical bands of the human auditory system is possible, showing no significant deviations from critical band measurements. No numerical optimization

G. Doblinger

1991-01-01

75

A new filter bank theory for time-frequency representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new formalism for the description of analysis\\/synthesis systems based on filter banks. Although this work was done in the context of speech coding systems, the results apply to a far broader class of problems. This new formalism has three specific advantages. First, it allows for the description of many different techniques and approaches with one unifying

M. Smith

1987-01-01

76

Design of IIR orthogonal wavelet filter banks using lifting scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The lifting scheme is well known to be an efficient tool for constructing second generation wavelets and is often used to design a class of biorthogonal wavelet filter banks. For its efficiency, the lifting implementation has been adopted in the international standard JPEG2000. It is known that the orthogonality of wavelets is an important property for many applications. This paper

Xi Zhang; Wei Wang; Toshinori Yoshikawa; Yoshinori Takei

2006-01-01

77

Wavelets and filter banks: relationships and new results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discrete version of the wavelet transform, which has recently emerged as a powerful tool for nonstationary signal analysis is closely related to filter banks, which have been studied in digital signal processing. Also, multiresolution signal analysis has been used in image processing. The relationship between these techniques is indicated. It is shown how to construct biorthogonal systems with linear-phase

Martin Vetterli; C. Herley

1990-01-01

78

Nonseparable multidimensional perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet bases for Rn  

Microsoft Academic Search

New results on multidimensional filter banks and their connection to multidimensional nonseparable wavelets are presented. Among the topics discussed are sampling in multiple dimensions, multidimensional perfect reconstruction filter banks, the two-channel case in multiple dimensions, the synthesis of multidimensional filter banks, and the design of compactly supported wavelets

Jelena Kovacevic; Martin Vetterli

1992-01-01

79

Iterated oversampled filter banks and wavelet frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper takes up the design of wavelet tight frames that are analogous to Daubechies orthonormal wavelets - that is, the design of minimal length wavelet filters satisfying certain polynomial properties, but now in the oversampled case. The oversampled dyadic DWT considered in this paper is based on a single scaling function and tow distinct wavelets. Having more wavelets than necessary gives a closer spacing between adjacent wavelets within the same scale. As a result, the transform is nearly shift-invariant, and can be used to improve denoising. Because the associated time- frequency lattice preserves the dyadic structure of the critically sampled DWT it can be used with tree-based denoising algorithms that exploit parent-child correlation.

Selesnick, Ivan W.; Sendur, Levent

2000-12-01

80

Evaluation of least squares designed contrast-enhancing FIR filters for automatic segmentation of 3D confocal images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent advances in high-speed confocal imaging, data storage, and computational power, practical high-speed 3D cytometry instrumentation is on the horizon. For 3D cytometry to become practical for example from the perspective of a pathologist, speed attained in part by walk-away automation is fundamentally important. This level of automation can only be obtained with fully automated segmentation of image objects from background. Accuracy of this first image analysis task is crucial since it determines the results of all subsequent quantitative analyses. Confocal cell images often have low contrast due to both inherently low signal-to-noise ratios and high cell- cell contrast ratios that can occupy much of the available imaging dynamic range. A contrast-enhancing technique previously developed for 2D images of fluorescent cell nuclei was extended for 3D confocal images (stacks of 2D image slices). Edge sharpening and contrast-enhancement necessary for automatic thresholding are achieved by filtering with a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. These optimal FIR filters range in size from 3 X3X3X to 13X13X13 and were designed by utilizing the perceptron criterion and nonlinear least squares on confocal training datasets derived from fluorescent microspheres. By utilizing fluorescent beads of known shapes and sizes, the ideal (or standard) segmented image is known a priori. The contrast-enhancing performance of these filters on 3D confocal images of DAPI stained cell nuclei demonstrates that they should lead to accurate, fully automated 3D image segmentation.

Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.

2002-05-01

81

Optimized linear-phase filter banks for wavelet image coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we address the issue of designing a two- channel linear phase biorthogonal filter bank that maximizes the two most desired properties for the wavelet transform in image coding applications, namely, orthogonality and energy compaction. Proper cost functions are formulated for these two criteria and an efficient signal-adaptive optimization algorithm is proposed. Our algorithm is motivated by a number of interesting properties of the correlation matrix of typical image signals, and uses lifting operations to efficiently represent the degrees of freedom subject to perfect reconstruction conditions. In addition, it offers a successive tradeoff between our two optimization goals. Experimental results on the popular Daubechies 9-7 and 10-18 filter banks reveal that considerable improvements in terms of both orthogonality and energy compaction can be achieved through the proposed optimization technique.

Yang, Xuguang; Ramchandran, Kannan

1998-01-01

82

Vector-valued wavelets and vector filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce vector-valued multiresolution analysis and vector-valued wavelets for vector-valued signal spaces. We construct vector-valued wavelets by using paraunitary vector filter bank theory. In particular, we construct vector-valued Meyer wavelets that are band-limited. We classify and construct vector-valued wavelets with sampling property. As an application of vector-valued wavelets, multiwavelets can be constructed from vector-valued wavelets. We show

Xiang-Gen Xia; B. W. Suter

1996-01-01

83

Multidimensional EEMD filter bank for geophysical data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) algorithm is a noise-assisted data-driven nonlinear analysis method evolved from its original version, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. The advantage of using EEMD is mainly to alleviate mode mixing problem of the EMD filter bank. The EMD and EEMD techniques have been widely applied to many fields of scientific and engineering studies in the last decade but just a few to the geophysical exploration data analysis probably due to the multidimensional feature of exploration data. Several 2D EMD based data analysis algorithms have been developed lately; however, the difficulty of sifting 2D data and the mode mixing problem inherited from EMD algorithm hindered their further developments. To deal with the stated issues, we modify a newer technique, the multidimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MDEEMD) algorithm, to achieve a 2D EEMD filter bank for exploration data signal enhancement. With the data reconstructed by using significant components of the filter bank, the signal embedded in the original data can be retrieved successfully. Furthermore, we compare the performance of MDEEMD with that of logarithmic transformed multidimensional empirical mode decomposition (NLT MDEMD) to find a solution for compromising computation cost. A controlled model study along with a set of real exploration data example are provided to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method.

Jeng, Yih; Chen, Chih-Sung; Lee, Chao-Shing

2014-05-01

84

Canonical Signed Digit Study. Part 2; FIR Digital Filter Simulation Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite Impulse Response digital filter using Canonical Signed-Digit (CSD) number representation for the coefficients has been studied and its computer simulation results are presented here. Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion is employed to optimize filter coefficients into the corresponding CSD numbers. To further improve coefficients optimization process, an extra non-zero bit is added for any filter coefficients exceeding 1/2. This technique improves frequency response of filter without increasing filter complexity almost at all. The simulation results show outstanding performance in bit-error-rate (BER) curve for all CSD implemented digital filters included in this presentation material.

Kim, Heechul

1996-01-01

85

Modulated Filter Banks with Arbitrary System Delay: Efficient Implementations and the Time-Varying Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method for the design and implementation of modulated filter banks with perfect recon- struction. It is based on the decomposition of the analysis and syn- thesis polyphase matrices into a product of two different types of simple matrices, replacing the polyphase filtering part in a mod- ulated filter bank. Special consideration is given

Gerald D. T. Schuller; Tanja Karp

1997-01-01

86

Design of multiplierless programmable linear phase narrowband-bandpass FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a design technique for narrowband multiplierless programmable linear phase bandpass filters as a tapped cascade of very low complexity multiplierless cascade integrator-comb (CIC) filters of E.B. Hogenauer (1981). The design is based in a frequency transformation technique discussed by S.N. Hazra (1984) which maps a lowpass prototype filter to a programmable bandpass filter and is

Kamakshi Sivaramakrishnan; Ivan R. Linscott; Leonard G. Tyler

2004-01-01

87

A Class of Quadratic FIR Filters with Applications to Spectral Shaping and Narrow Band Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In signal processing problems involving quadratic performance functional and stationary signals, solutions often involve a first stage of filtering called whitening. The whitening filter is a characterization of the signal power spectrum. For this reason, whitening and spectral estimation problems are closely related. The whitening filter obtained by Yule-Walker equations uncorrelates N samples of the output with the past input

Issa M. S. Panahi; Kripasagar Venkat

2005-01-01

88

Lattice structure for multifilters derived from complex-valued scalar filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiwavelet-based filter banks, unlike filter banks based on scalar wavelets, are able to provide simultaneously orthogonality, linear phase, and short support. However, a general lattice structure for multifilters, analogous to that available for scalar filter banks has yet to be determined.. Such lattice structures have considerable advantages for both theory and design. This paper derives a complete and minimal lattice structure for a class of 2- wavelet multifilters which are based on complex-valued orthogonal scalar filter banks. An example derived from the Daubechies D6 wavelet is presented, along with considerations of how requiring symmetry and higher approximation order restricts the lattice coefficients.

Johnson, Kurt A.; Nguyen, Truong Q.

1996-10-01

89

Optimal and unbiased FIR filtering in discrete time state space with smoothing and predictive properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address p-shift finite impulse response optimal (OFIR) and unbiased (UFIR) algorithms for predictive filtering ( p > 0), filtering ( p = 0), and smoothing filtering ( p < 0) at a discrete point n over N neighboring points. The algorithms were designed for linear time-invariant state-space signal models with white Gaussian noise. The OFIR filter self-determines the initial mean square state function by solving the discrete algebraic Riccati equation. The UFIR one represented both in the batch and iterative Kalman-like forms does not require the noise covariances and initial errors. An example of applications is given for smoothing and predictive filtering of a two-state polynomial model. Based upon this example, we show that exact optimality is redundant when N ? 1 and still a nice suboptimal estimate can fairly be provided with a UFIR filter at a much lower cost.

Shmaliy, Yuriy S.; Ibarra-Manzano, Oscar

2012-12-01

90

A simultaneous coefficient calculation method for sincN FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel simultaneous coefficient calculation method for sincN filter and its application to the filter design are described. This method can be applied to any (N) stages of sincN filters with no degradation of coefficient accuracy. Every coefficient can be calculated by Nth-order multiple-loop accumulation of N-scaled delayed impulses. The coefficient can be obtained every clock or operation cycle because

Mikio Shiraishi

2003-01-01

91

FIR filter synthesis algorithms for minimizing the delay and the number of adders  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the complexity of digital filters is dominated by the number of multiplications, many works have focused on minimizing the complexity of multiplier blocks that compute the constant coefficient multiplications required in filters. Although the complexity of multiplier blocks is significantly reduced by using efficient techniques such as decomposing multiplications into simple operations and sharing common subexpressions, previous works have

Hyeong-Ju Kang; Hansoo Kim; In-Cheol Park

2000-01-01

92

FIR filter synthesis algorithms for minimizing the delay and the number of adders  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the complexity of digital filters is dominated by the number of multiplications, many works have focused on minimizing the complexity of multiplier blocks that compute the constant coefficient multiplications required in filters. Although the complexity of multiplier blocks is significantly reduced by using efficient techniques such as decomposing multiplications into simple operations and sharing common subexpressions, previous works have

Hyeong-Ju Kang; In-Cheol Park

2001-01-01

93

Classifying transient signals with nonlinear dynamic filter banks  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, several specific advances in the study of chaotic processes have been made which appear to have immediate applicability to signal processing. This paper describes two applications of one of these advances, nonlinear modeling, to signal detection & classification, in particular for short-lived or transient or signals. The first method uses the coefficients from an adaptively fit model as a set of features for signal detection and classification. In the second method, a library of predictive nonlinear dynamic equations is used as a filter bank, and statistics on the prediction residuals are used to form feature vectors for input data segments. These feature vectors provide a mechanism for detecting and classifying model transients at signal-to-noise ratios as low as {minus}10 dB, even when the generating dynamics of the transient signals are not present in the filter bank. The second method and some validating experiments are described in detail. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Brush, J.S. [Cambridge Research Associates, 1430 Spring Hill Road, Suite 200, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States)

1996-06-01

94

FILTER BANK DESIGN BASED ON MINIMIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL ALIA SING TERMS FOR MINIMUM MUTUAL INFORMATION SUBBAND ADAPTIVE BEAMFORMI NG  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new filter bank design methods for sub- band adaptive beamforming. In this work, we design analysis and synthesis prototypes for modulated filter banks so as to mini mize each aliasing term individually. We then drive the total response error to null by constraining these prototypes to be Nyquist(M ) filters. Thereafter those modulated filter banks are applied

Kenichi Kumatani; John McDonough; Stefan Schacht; Dietrich Klakow; Philip N. Garner; Weifeng Li

95

A Filter Bank Approach to Earthquake Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a race against time. The longer it takes to detect and characterize an ongoing event, the larger is the blind zone - the region where a warning arrives only after the most damaging ground motion has occurred. The problem is most acute during medium size earthquakes, where damaging ground motion is confined to a small zone around the epicenter. An ideal EEW algorithm which is fast enough to provide relevant alerts for such scenario events would have to produce reliable event characterization based on observations of very short snippets of data recorded at only very few stations. For such a scheme to work, without significant numbers of false alarms (which continue to hamper both single-station and network based approaches today), the real-time information that is available for an earthquake has to be exploited in a more optimal way than what is currently done. Our approach is to fully mine the broadband frequency content of incoming waveforms that contains significant information on the size and epicentral distance of the ongoing event. We propose a filter bank approach with minimum phase delay filters which allows us to use frequency information from each frequency band at each triggered station at the earliest possible time. We have compiled and processed an extensive dataset of near-field earthquake waveforms. In an empirical maximum likelihood scheme, we use the filter bank output from the first seconds after the P-wave onset of each waveform to estimate the most likely magnitude and epicentral distance to have caused this waveform. We show how our single station approach can be integrated into an evolutionary and fully probabilistic network EEW system. We demonstrate that our method can allow sufficiently accurate characterization of an ongoing event with two stations, with consistent characterization of the evolving uncertainty of the location and magnitude.

Meier, Men-Andrin; Heaton, Tom; Clinton, John

2014-05-01

96

A Mapping-Based Design for Nonsubsampled Hourglass Filter Banks in Arbitrary Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidimensional hourglass filter banks decompose the frequency spectrum of input signals into hourglass-shaped directional subbands, each aligned with one of the frequency axes. The directionality of the spectral partitioning makes these filter banks useful in separating the directional information in multidimensional signals. Despite the existence of various design techniques proposed for the 2-D case, to our best knowledge, the design

Yue M. Lu; Minh N. Do

2008-01-01

97

A New Family of Nonredundant Transforms Using Hybrid Wavelets and Directional Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new family of nonredundant geometrical image transforms that are based on wavelets and directional filter banks. We convert the wavelet basis functions in the finest scales to a flexible and rich set of directional basis elements by employing directional filter banks, where we form a nonredundant transform family, which exhibits both directional and nondirectional basis functions. We

Ramin Eslami; Hayder Radha

2007-01-01

98

Implementation of Adaptive Lifting Scheme in the Design of IIR Orthogonal Wavelet Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifting scheme is well known to be an efficient tool for constructing second generation wavelets and is often used to design a class of bi-orthogonal wavelet filter banks. This paper presents the implementation of a class of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) orthogonal wavelet filter banks by using the adaptive lifting scheme with two lifting steps. A class of II

Amati Srinivasarao; R. Satyabama; S. Annadurai

2007-01-01

99

A new transient model for three-phase power transformers using a wavelet filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for three-phase power transformers for electromagnetic transient studies, which employs a wavelet filter bank. In this model, both the primary and the secondary windings are represented by stages of a wavelet filter bank, where each turn is represented by one complete stage. The sum of responses of all stages forms the transformer total response. Using

S. A. Saleh; M. A. Rahman

2005-01-01

100

Use of minimum-adder multiplier blocks in FIR digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational complexity of VLSI digital filters using fixed point binary multiplier coefficients is normally dominated by the number of adders used in the implementation of the multipliers. It has been shown that using multiplier blocks to exploit redundancy across the coefficients results in significant reductions in complexity over methods using canonic signed-digit (CSD) representation, which in turn are less

Andrew G. Dempster; M. D. Macleod

1995-01-01

101

Design of FIR digital filters for pulse shaping and channel equalization using time-domain optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three algorithms are developed for designing finite impulse response digital filters to be used for pulse shaping and channel equalization. The first is the Minimax algorithm which uses linear programming to design a frequency-sampling filter with a pulse shape that approximates the specification in a minimax sense. Design examples are included which accurately approximate a specified impulse response with a maximum error of 0.03 using only six resonators. The second algorithm is an extension of the Minimax algorithm to design preset equalizers for channels with known impulse responses. Both transversal and frequency-sampling equalizer structures are designed to produce a minimax approximation of a specified channel output waveform. Examples of these designs are compared as to the accuracy of the approximation, the resultant intersymbol interference (ISI), and the required transmitted energy. While the transversal designs are slightly more accurate, the frequency-sampling designs using six resonators have smaller ISI and energy values.

Houts, R. C.; Vaughn, G. L.

1974-01-01

102

Ring-Edged Bank Array Made by Inkjet Printing for Color Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mask-free inkjet printing (IJP) process has been developed to fabricate color filters. The coffee ring effect was used to create a ring-edged bank array with fine structures by IJP of poly(methylmethacrylate). After the color filtering inks were deposited in the banks, a color filter panel was made without any transitional photolithography process. The resulting color coordinates of the three

Jhih-Ping Lu; Fang-Chung Chen; Yuh-Zheng Lee

2009-01-01

103

Tunable FIR and IIR Fractional-Delay Filter Design and Structure Based on Complex Cepstrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cepstrum-based approach is proposed to design finite- and infinite-impulse-response (IIR) fractional-delay (FD) filters. The maximal-flatness criteria on frequency responses are formulated as a system of linear equations to solve the truncated complex cepstrum. The closed-form solutions to cepstrum sequences can be derived. Moreover, it is very attractive that the resultant cepstrum coefficients are directly proportional to the desired FD.

Soo-Chang Pei; Huei-Shan Lin

2009-01-01

104

An analytical formula for the design of quadrature mirror filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadrature mirror filters have an outstanding relevance in the implementation of filter banks for dividing the speech signal into frequency bands and for reconstructing it from these subbands. An analytical formula is given, which allows one to optimize the design of the basic low-pass FIR filter by means of a straight nonlinear minimization procedure.

GIANCARLO PIRANI; VALERIO ZINGARELLI

1984-01-01

105

Speaker verification on the polycost database using frequency filtered spectral energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral parameters that result from filtering the frequency sequence of log mel-scaled filter-bank energies with a first or second order FIR filter have proved to be competitive for speech recognition. Recently, the authors have shown that this frequency filtering can approximately equalize the cepstrum variance enhancing the oscillations of the spectral envelope curve that are most effective for discrimination

Javier Hernando; Climent Nadeu

1998-01-01

106

Filter bank selection for the ownership verification of wavelet based digital image watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wavelet transform has been widely used in many signal processing applications. Advanced researches have intensively investigated the characteristics of wavelet filters, adaptive wavelet decomposition structure for coding optimization and different combination of mathematical operations for digital image watermarking implementations. Among these studies, there are researches shown that the combination of wavelet filters or filter bank decomposition structure can be implemented

Min-jen Tsai

2004-01-01

107

Simplified design of steerable pyramid filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steerable pyramid decomposition is an invertible representation similar to the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform, but with interesting shift- and rotation-invariance properties. It is slightly overcomplete and amenable to a filter bank implementation via convolution and down- and up-sampling operations. This paper presents a simple method for designing the FIR filter kernels required to implement the transform

K. R. Castleman; M. Schulze; Q. Wu

1998-01-01

108

Multiplier-free linear-phase filter banks for image and video compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been widely proposed for image and video compression. In many systems the DWT represents a large proportion of the codec complexity. In order to reduce the complexity, and as results manufacturing cost, it is desirable to choose filer bank which has low complexity, without compromising compression performance. This paper presents several multiplier free filter banks for use within image and video compression system. The filter banks are compared to alternative designs which are known to be well suited to image and video compression. The proposed filters offer almost identical performance with a significant reduction in complexity.

Redmill, David W.; Bull, David R.

1998-01-01

109

Palm print image recovery and de-noising via multi-channel wavelet filter bank.  

PubMed

In this paper, a 3-channel wavelet transform method is introduced to recover palm print images following serious deformation. The deformation processing is actually a kind of digital re-sampling. A filter bank consisting of three filters is implemented for wavelet decomposition of the palm print image, and then a procedure of binary interpolation is performed after the image is reconstructed by another filter bank consisting of another three filters. The design of multi-channel wavelet filter bank is based on the Quadrature Mirror Filter (QMF) method. Because the noise is caused by the Morie stripe, the images are further de-noised after the geometry deformation is addressed. Acceptable results have been obtained. PMID:16980286

Qiao, Y-H; Li, F-Q; Qiao, A-K; Zhang, J-H; Liang, K; Zeng, Y-J

2006-01-01

110

On the construction of invertible filter banks on the 2-sphere.  

PubMed

The theories of signal sampling, filter banks, wavelets, and "overcomplete wavelets" are well established for the Euclidean spaces and are widely used in the processing and analysis of images. While recent advances have extended some filtering methods to spherical images, many key challenges remain. In this paper, we develop theoretical conditions for the invertibility of filter banks under continuous spherical convolution. Furthermore, we present an analogue of the Papoulis generalized sampling theorem on the 2-Sphere. We use the theoretical results to establish a general framework for the design of invertible filter banks on the sphere and demonstrate the approach with examples of self-invertible spherical wavelets and steerable pyramids. We conclude by examining the use of a self-invertible spherical steerable pyramid in a denoising experiment and discussing the computational complexity of the filtering framework. PMID:18270119

Yeo, Boon Thye Thomas; Ou, Wanmei; Golland, Polina

2008-03-01

111

A simple method to build oversampled filter banks and tight frames.  

PubMed

This paper presents conditions under which the sampling lattice for a filter bank can be replaced without loss of perfect reconstruction. This is the generalization of common knowledge that removing up/downsampling will not lose perfect reconstruction. The results provide a simple way of building oversampled filter banks. If the original filter banks are orthogonal, these oversampled banks construct tight frames of l2 (Z(n)) when iterated. As an example, a quincunx lattice is used to replace the rectangular one of the standard wavelet transform. This replacement leads to a tight frame that has a higher sampling in both time and frequency. The frame transform is nearly shift invariant and has intermediate scales. An application of the transform to image fusion is also presented. PMID:17990745

Yang, Bo; Jing, Zhongliang

2007-11-01

112

Customizing a discrete wavelet transform filter bank using the lifting scheme for improved compression ratios of an ECG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifting scheme is used to adaptively change a biorthogonal filter bank, which implements a discrete wavelet transform (DWT), for improved compression of an ECG waveform. The filter bank is initialized using a Haar wavelet and the associated filters are then lifted so as to minimize a reconstruction error. This error is based on the difference between an input ECG

G. McDarby; C. Heneghan; B. G. Cellar

1999-01-01

113

Theory and design of two-dimensional nonseparable shift-invariant filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shift-variance limits the usage of 2D maximally-decimated filter banks in many image processing applications where shift-invariance is desired. Several approaches have been proposed to overcome this problem for both 1D and 2D multirate systems. All of the existing methods are 1D-based algorithms, i.e. dealing with 2D image by separable processing, and thus do not have the advantages that a non- separable 2D system offers. In this paper, a framework for the theory and the design of 2D shift-invariant filter banks with non-separable sampling and/or non-separable filters are presented. There are three major advantages that the proposed 2D shift-invariant filter banks have over the separable 2D systems using the existing methods. First of all, it is a non-separable 2D approach and therefore has the advantages that a 'true' 2D approach offers. Secondly, the resulting 2D filter banks and wavelets have the conventional dyadic structure while possessing better SI property. Finally, the proposed filter bank is independent of input images. Design examples are presented.

Hui, Y.; Kok, C. W.; Nguyen, Truong Q.

1996-10-01

114

Lifted linear phase filter banks and the polyphase-with-advance representation [JPEG 2000 image coding applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop the noncausal polyphase-with-advance representation that underlies the theory of lifted filter banks and wavelet transforms used in the ISO\\/IEC JPEG 2000 image coding standard. The theory includes a matrix algebra framework for analyzing linear phase two-channel filter banks. Whole- and half-sample symmetric filter banks are characterized completely in terms of the theory, and linear phase lifting factorizations are

Christopher M. Brislawn; Brendt Wohlberg

2004-01-01

115

Two-dimensional nonseparable perfect reconstruction (PR) filter bank design based on the Bernstein polynomial approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents design of 2D nonseparable Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank (PRFB) for two different sampling lattices: the quincuncial and rectangular. In quincunx case z-domain PR conditions are mapped into Bernstein-x domain. Desired power spectrum of 2D nonseparable filter is approximated by using Bernstein polynomial. Since we introduce mapping from complex periodic domain to real polynomial domain, PRFB design in Bernstein-x domain is much easier to handle. The parametric solution for 2D nonseparable design technique is obtained with desired regularity for quincunx sampling lattices. This technique allows us to design of 2D wavelet transform. For rectangular downsampling, the use of signed shuffling operations to obtain a PRFB from a low pass filter enables the reduction of PR conditions. This design technique leads us to efficient implementation structure since all the filters in the bank have the same coefficients with sign and position changes. This structure overcomes the high complexity problem that is the major shortcoming of 2D nonseparable filter banks. Designed filter banks are tested on 2D image models and real images in terms of compaction performance. It has been shown that nonseparable design can outperform separable ones in the application of data compression.

Harmanci, Kerem A.; Anarim, Emin; Caglar, Hakan; Sankur, Bulent

1994-09-01

116

Enhanced adaptive filter-bank-based automated pavement crack detection and segmentation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We incorporate, evaluate, and assess the feasibility of using filter banks in automated pavement distress systems from a system level. We integrate a novel filter-bank-based distress segmentation method, which, unlike previously researched methods, does not depend on highpass data. In addition, we incorporate the standard Said Pearlman set partitioning in hierarchical trees compression coder into the automated pavement distress system, which is a first in this area of research. A third contribution of the research is a statistical detection algorithm that assists in overall system performance. Preliminary testing using images provided by the Georgia Department of Transportation demonstrate the promise of the proposed method.

Lettsome, Clyde A.; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Kaul, Vivek

2012-10-01

117

On the application of optimal wavelet filter banks for ECG signal classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses ECG signal classification after parametrizing the ECG waveforms in the wavelet domain. Signal decomposition using perfect reconstruction quadrature mirror filter banks can provide a very parsimonious representation of ECG signals. In the current work, the filter parameters are adjusted by a numerical optimization algorithm in order to minimize a cost function associated to the filter cut-off sharpness. The goal consists of achieving a better compromise between frequency selectivity and time resolution at each decomposition level than standard orthogonal filter banks such as those of the Daubechies and Coiflet families. Our aim is to optimally decompose the signals in the wavelet domain so that they can be subsequently used as inputs for training to a neural network classifier.

Hadjiloucas, S.; Jannah, N.; Hwang, F.; Galvão, R. K. H.

2014-03-01

118

Simultaneous estimation of neutron density and reactivity in a nuclear reactor using a bank of Kalman filters  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the problem of simultaneously estimating neutron density and reactivity while operating a nuclear reactor. It is solved by using a bank of Kalman filters as an estimator and applying a probabilistic test to determine which filter of the bank has the best performance.

Cortina, E.; D'Atellis, C.E. (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Centro de Calculo Cientifico, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (AR))

1990-07-01

119

A Noise-Robust Front-End Based on Tree-Structured Filter-Bank for Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new model of auditory preprocessors based on tree structured filter-banks to provide the robustness to noise and the ease of hardware implementation. The robustness to noise is further improved by two components: one is the adaptive Q control of filter-bank in the sense of enhancing the contrast between frequency channels and another is the adaptive gain

Rhee Man Kil; Young-ik Kim; Geon Hyoung Lee

2000-01-01

120

New regular M-band orthogonal wavelet filter bank design using zero-insertion method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new regular M-band orthogonal wavelet filter bank (OWFB) is designed by inserting zeros into the filter transfer functions, which improves the characteristics of the frequency magnitude response. In an application of the sub-band coding of a still image, the new OWFB improves the PSNR by approximately 1 dB in the reconstructed image over the existing OWFB at the same bit rate.

Kwon, S.-K.; Kim, J.-K.

1994-05-01

121

Low noise optical multi-carrier generation using optical-FIR filter for ASE noise suppression in re-circulating frequency shifter loop.  

PubMed

In this paper, an improved multi-carrier generation scheme based on single-side-band recirculating frequency shifter with optical finite impulse response (FIR) filter for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise suppression is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The carrier-to-noise-ratio (CNR) instead of tone-to-noise-ratio (TNR) is introduced to more reasonably and exactly evaluate the signal-to-noise-ratio of a multi-carrier source with non-flat noise floor. We have experimentally attain the worst case CNR of 22.5dB and 19.1dB for generated 50 and 69 flat low noise carriers, which has shown significant improvement than the previous cited works based on recirculating frequency shifter. PMID:24718161

Lin, Jiachuan; Xi, Lixia; Li, Jianrui; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xia; Niazi, Shahab Ahmad

2014-04-01

122

A multirate filter bank based approach to the detection and enhancement of linear features in images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method based on the directional filter bank for the detection and enhancement of linear features in multidimensional data is presented. Results demonstrating the effectiveness of this new method are presented for two trial cases: the enhancement of cell boundaries in biomedical images, and the analysis and enhancement of fingerprints

Roberto H. Bamberger; Mark J. T. Smith

1991-01-01

123

Filters Bank Derived from the Wavelet Transform for Real Time Change Detection in Signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to detect the faults in industrial systems, through on-line monitoring. The faults that are concerned correspond to changes in frequency components of the signal. Thus, early fault detection, which reduces the possibility of catastrophic damage, is possible by detecting the changes of characteristic features of the signal. This approach combines the filters bank technique,

O. Mustapha; D. Lefebvre; M. Khalil; G. Hoblos; H. Chafouk

2008-01-01

124

Multiclass voluntary facial expression classification based on Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the classification of voluntary facial expressions from electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) signals using the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) algorithm. The FBCSP algorithm is an autonomous and effective machine learning approach for classifying two classes of EEG measurements in motor imagery-based Brain Computer Interface (BCI). However, the problem of facial expression recognition typically involves more

Zheng Yang Chin; Kai Keng Ang; Cuntai Guan

2008-01-01

125

Design of almost symmetric orthogonal wavelet filter bank via direct optimization.  

PubMed

It is a well-known fact that (compact-support) dyadic wavelets [based on the two channel filter banks (FBs)] cannot be simultaneously orthogonal and symmetric. Although orthogonal wavelets have the energy preservation property, biorthogonal wavelets are preferred in image processing applications because of their symmetric property. In this paper, a novel method is presented for the design of almost symmetric orthogonal wavelet FB. Orthogonality is structurally imposed by using the unnormalized lattice structure, and this leads to an objective function, which is relatively simple to optimize. The designed filters have good frequency response, flat group delay, almost symmetric filter coefficients, and symmetric wavelet function. PMID:22345542

Murugesan, Selvaraaju; Tay, David B H

2012-05-01

126

Wavelet-based compression of medical images: filter-bank selection and evaluation.  

PubMed

Wavelet-based image coding algorithms (lossy and lossless) use a fixed perfect reconstruction filter-bank built into the algorithm for coding and decoding of images. However, no systematic study has been performed to evaluate the coding performance of wavelet filters on medical images. We evaluated the best types of filters suitable for medical images in providing low bit rate and low computational complexity. In this study a variety of wavelet filters are used to compress and decompress computed tomography (CT) brain and abdomen images. We applied two-dimensional wavelet decomposition, quantization and reconstruction using several families of filter banks to a set of CT images. Discreet Wavelet Transform (DWT), which provides efficient framework of multi-resolution frequency was used. Compression was accomplished by applying threshold values to the wavelet coefficients. The statistical indices such as mean square error (MSE), maximum absolute error (MAE) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) were used to quantify the effect of wavelet compression of selected images. The code was written using the wavelet and image processing toolbox of the MATLAB (version 6.1). This results show that no specific wavelet filter performs uniformly better than others except for the case of Daubechies and bi-orthogonal filters which are the best among all. MAE values achieved by these filters were 5 x 10(-14) to 12 x 10(-14) for both CT brain and abdomen images at different decomposition levels. This indicated that using these filters a very small error (approximately 7 x 10(-14)) can be achieved between original and the filtered image. The PSNR values obtained were higher for the brain than the abdomen images. For both the lossy and lossless compression, the 'most appropriate' wavelet filter should be chosen adaptively depending on the statistical properties of the image being coded to achieve higher compression ratio. PMID:12956184

Saffor, A; bin Ramli, A R; Ng, K H

2003-06-01

127

Advanced filter banks and time interleaving for analog and digital conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a comparison of Advanced Filter Banks (AFB) and Time-Interleaving for high-speed, high-resolution conversion between analog and digital signals using a parallel array of converters. The AFB is an unconventional class of filter bank that employs both analog and digital signal processing. The AFB improves the speed and resolution of the conversion compared to the standard Time-Interleaved array conversion technique. Gain and phase mismatch errors are analyzed for both the AFB and Time-Interleaving architectures. The filters in the AFB isolate the converters in the array from each other and attenuate the effects of mismatches. In four-channel example systems analyzed in this paper, gain and phase errors are attenuated by 21 dB more in the AFB (with 30 dB stopband attenuation) than in the Time- Interleaved system. The AFB is capable of analog-to-digital conversion with 14-bit resolution and 400 MHz sample rate.

Velazquez, Scott R.

1999-10-01

128

Design of regular 2D nonseparable wavelets/filter banks using transformations of variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we are concerned with the design of 2D biorthogonal, 2-channel filter banks where the sampling is on the quincunx lattice. Such systems can be used to implement the nonseparable Discrete Wavelet Transform and also to construct the nonseparable scaling and wavelet functions. One important consideration of such systems (brought into attention by wavelet theory) is the regularity or smoothness of the scaling and wavelet functions. The regularity is related to the zero-property--the number of zeros of the filter transfer function at the aliasing frequency (((omega) 1,(omega) 2) equals ((pi) ,(pi) ) for the quincunx lattice). In general the greater the number of zeros, the greater the regularity. It has been shown previously by the authors that the transformation of variables is an effective and flexible way of designing multidimensional filter banks. However the wavelet aspects of the filter banks (i.e., regularity) were not considered. In this paper we shall show how the zero- property can be easily imposed through the transformation of variables technique. A large number of zeros can be imposed with ease. Arbitrarily smooth scaling and wavelet functions can be constructed. Several design examples will be given to illustrate this.

Tay, David B. H.; Kingsbury, Nick G.

1994-10-01

129

Minimum redundancy for ISI free FIR filterbank transceivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been great interest in the design of filterbank transceivers. Usually, with proper time domain equalization, the channel is modeled as an FIR filter. It is known that for FIR channels, the introduction of certain redundancy allows the receiver to cancel intersymbol interference (ISI) completely, and channel equalization is performed implicitly using FIR transceivers. This scheme allows us to

Yuan-Pei Lin; See-May Phoong

2002-01-01

130

Ladder structures for multidimensional linear-phase perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of multidimensional filter banks and wavelets have been areas of active research for use in video and image communication systems. At the same time efficient structures for the implementation of such filters are of importance. In 1-D, the well known lattice structure and the recently introduced ladder structure are attractive. However, their extensions to higher dimensions (m-D) have been limited. In this paper we reintroduce the ladder structure, with the purpose of transforming the structure into m-D using the McClellan transform.

Kalker, A. A. C. M.; Shah, I. A.

1992-11-01

131

Digital filtering by polyphase network:Application to sample-rate alteration and filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digital filtering process can be achieved by a set of phase shifters with suitable characteristics. A particular set, named polyphase network, is defined and analyzed. It permits the use of recursive devices for efficient sample-rate alteration. The comparison with conventional filters shows that, with the same active memory, a reduction of computation rate approaching a factor of 2 can

MAURICE G. BELLANGER; GEORGES BONNEROT; MICHEL COUDREUSE

1976-01-01

132

Multiresolution Image Representation Using Combined 2-D and 1-D Directional Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, effective multiresolution image representations using a combination of 2-D filter bank (FB) and directional wavelet transform (WT) are presented. The proposed methods yield simple implementation and low computation costs compared to previous 1-D and 2-D FB combinations or adaptive directional WT methods. Furthermore, they are nonredundant transforms and realize quad-tree like multiresolution representations. In applications on nonlinear

Yuichi Tanaka; Masaaki Ikehara; Truong Q. Nguyen

2009-01-01

133

Hyperspectral Image Compression Based on Wavelets and Uniform Directional Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiscale geometric analysis method based on wavelet and uniform directional filter banks (WUDFB) is structured in order to overcome the insufficiencies of contourlet transform and wavelet-based contourlet transform which are used in compression. A novel WUDFB-based compression algorithm of hyperspectral imagery is proposed, in which intra-band WUDFB and inter-band prediction are used to remove the spatial and spectral redundancy

Dong Song; Lihua Hu; Yan Feng

2009-01-01

134

Assessment of NPR MDFT filter banks for subband coding and data transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly perfect reconstruction (N-PR) modified discrete Fourier Transform (MDFT) filter banks (FBs) have been widely applied to signal coding and their use for data transmission in multicarrier communications has also been addressed in the literature. However, comparison and assessment of the performance of alternative designs for uniform N-PR MDFT-based systems is hampered by the lack of explicit formulas for easily

F. Cruz-Roldan; M. Blanco-Velasco; J. Saez-Landete; C. Heneghan; P. Amo-Lopez

2011-01-01

135

Quadrature mirror filter banks, M-band extensions and perfect-reconstruction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, quadrature mirror filters (QMF) are reviewed. After a brief introduction to multirate building blocks, the two-band QMF bank is discussed. Various distortions caused by the structure, and methods to eliminate these distortions are outlined. Perfect-reconstruction structures for the two-band case are reviewed, and the results are extended to the case of arbitrary number of channels. The relation

P. P. Vaidyanathan

1987-01-01

136

A blind watermarking scheme using new nontensor product wavelet filter banks.  

PubMed

As an effective method for copyright protection of digital products against illegal usage, watermarking in wavelet domain has recently received considerable attention due to the desirable multiresolution property of wavelet transform. In general, images can be represented with different resolutions by the wavelet decomposition, analogous to the human visual system (HVS). Usually, human eyes are insensitive to image singularities revealed by different high frequency subbands of wavelet decomposed images. Hence, adding watermarks into these singularities will improve the imperceptibility that is a desired property of a watermarking scheme. That is, the capability for revealing singularities of images plays a key role in designing wavelet-based watermarking algorithms. Unfortunately, the existing wavelets have a limited ability in revealing singularities in different directions. This motivates us to construct new wavelet filter banks that can reveal singularities in all directions. In this paper, we utilize special symmetric matrices to construct the new nontensor product wavelet filter banks, which can capture the singularities in all directions. Empirical studies will show their advantages of revealing singularities in comparison with the existing wavelets. Based upon these new wavelet filter banks, we, therefore, propose a modified significant difference watermarking algorithm. Experimental results show its promising results. PMID:21078567

You, Xinge; Du, Liang; Cheung, Yiu-Ming; Chen, Qiuhui

2010-12-01

137

Current-State Constrained Filter Bank for Wald Testing of Spacecraft Conjunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a filter bank consisting of an ordinary current-state extended Kalman filter, and two similar but constrained filters: one is constrained by a null hypothesis that the miss distance between two conjuncting spacecraft is inside their combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one is constrained by an alternative complementary hypothesis. The unconstrained filter is the basis of an initial screening for close approaches of interest. Once the initial screening detects a possibly risky conjunction, the unconstrained filter also governs measurement editing for all three filters, and predicts the time of closest approach. The constrained filters operate only when conjunctions of interest occur. The computed likelihoods of the innovations of the two constrained filters form a ratio for a Wald sequential probability ratio test. The Wald test guides risk mitigation maneuver decisions based on explicit false alarm and missed detection criteria. Since only current-state Kalman filtering is required to compute the innovations for the likelihood ratio, the present approach does not require the mapping of probability density forward to the time of closest approach. Instead, the hard-body constraint manifold is mapped to the filter update time by applying a sigma-point transformation to a projection function. Although many projectors are available, we choose one based on Lambert-style differential correction of the current-state velocity. We have tested our method using a scenario based on the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale mission, scheduled for launch in late 2014. This mission involves formation flight in highly elliptical orbits of four spinning spacecraft equipped with antennas extending 120 meters tip-to-tip. Eccentricities range from 0.82 to 0.91, and close approaches generally occur in the vicinity of perigee, where rapid changes in geometry may occur. Testing the method using two 12,000-case Monte Carlo simulations, we found the method achieved a missed detection rate of 0.1%, and a false alarm rate of 2%.

Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

2012-01-01

138

Reversible wavelet filter banks with side informationless spatially adaptive low-pass filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelet transforms that have an adaptive low-pass filter are useful in applications that require the signal singularities, sharp transitions, and image edges to be left intact in the low-pass signal. In scalable image coding, the spatial resolution scalability is achieved by reconstructing the low-pass signal subband, which corresponds to the desired resolution level, and discarding other high-frequency wavelet subbands. In such applications, it is vital to have low-pass subbands that are not affected by smoothing artifacts associated with low-pass filtering. We present the mathematical framework for achieving 1-D wavelet transforms that have a spatially adaptive low-pass filter (SALP) using the prediction-first lifting scheme. The adaptivity decisions are computed using the wavelet coefficients, and no bookkeeping is required for the perfect reconstruction. Then, 2-D wavelet transforms that have a spatially adaptive low-pass filter are designed by extending the 1-D SALP framework. Because the 2-D polyphase decompositions are used in this case, the 2-D adaptivity decisions are made nonseparable as opposed to the separable 2-D realization using 1-D transforms. We present examples using the 2-D 5/3 wavelet transform and their lossless image coding and scalable decoding performances in terms of quality and resolution scalability. The proposed 2-D-SALP scheme results in better performance compared to the existing adaptive update lifting schemes.

Abhayaratne, Charith

2011-07-01

139

Robust FIR Beamforming Applied TO Medical Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

We previously described a beamformer architecture that replaces the single apodization weights on each receive channel with channel-unique finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The filter weights are designed to optimize the contrast resolution performance of the imaging system. While the FIR beamformer offers significant gains in contrast resolution, the beamformer suffers from low sensitivity and its performance rapidly degrades in the presence of noise. In this paper a new method is presented to improve the robustness of the FIR beamformer to electronic noise as well as variation or uncertainty in the array response. A method is also described, which controls the sidelobe levels of the FIR beamformer’s spatial response by applying an arbitrary weighting function in the filter design algorithm. The robust FIR beamformer is analyzed using a generalized cystic resolution metric that quantifies a beamformer’s clinical imaging performance as a function of cyst size and channel input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Fundamental performance limits are compared between two robust FIR beamformers (the dynamic focus FIR (DF-FIR) beamformer and the group focus FIR (GF-FIR) beamformer), the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformer, and the spatial matched filter (SMF) beamformer. Results from this study show that the new DF- and GF-FIR beamformers are more robust to electronic noise compared to the optimal contrast resolution FIR beamformer. Furthermore, the added robustness only comes with a slight loss in cystic resolution. Results from the generalized cystic resolution metric show that a 9-tap robust FIR beamformer outperforms the SMF and DAS beamformer until receive channel input SNR drops below ?5 dB; whereas, the 9-tap optimal contrast resolution beamformer’s performance deteriorates around 50 dB SNR. The effects of moderate phase aberrations, characterized by an a priori root-mean-square strength of 28 ns and an a priori full-width at half-maximum correlation length of 3.6 mm, are investigated on the robust FIR beamformers. Full sets of robust FIR beamformer filter weights are constructed using an in silico model of the Ultrasonix Sonix RP scanner and the L14-5/38mm probe. Using the derived weights a series of simulated point target and anechoic cyst B-mode images are generated to further investigate the potential increases in contrast resolution when using the robust FIR beamformers. Under the investigated conditions, the 7-tap optimal contrast resolution beamformer and the 7-tap robust beamformer with added SNR constraint increase lesion detectability by 247% and 137% compared to the conventional DAS beamformer, respectively. Finally experimental phantom and in vivo images are produced using this novel receive architecture. The simulated and experimental images clearly show a reduction in clutter and an increase in contrast resolution compared to the conventionally beamformed images. This novel receive beamformer can be applied to any conventional ultrasound system where the system response is reasonably well characterized.

Guenther, Drake A.; Walker, William F.

2009-01-01

140

Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

Sadr, R.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

1992-01-01

141

Parallel Implementation of the 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform on Graphics Processing Units: Filter Bank versus Lifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread usage of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has motivated the development of fast DWT algorithms and their tuning on all sorts of computer systems. Several studies have compared the performance of the most popular schemes, known as filter bank scheme (FBS) and lifting scheme (LS), and have always concluded that LS is the most efficient option. However, there

Christian Tenllado; Javier Setoain; Manuel Prieto; Luis Piñuel; Francisco Tirado

2008-01-01

142

Spectro-temporal modulation subspace-spanning filter bank features for robust automatic speech recognition.  

PubMed

In an attempt to increase the robustness of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems, a feature extraction scheme is proposed that takes spectro-temporal modulation frequencies (MF) into account. This physiologically inspired approach uses a two-dimensional filter bank based on Gabor filters, which limits the redundant information between feature components, and also results in physically interpretable features. Robustness against extrinsic variation (different types of additive noise) and intrinsic variability (arising from changes in speaking rate, effort, and style) is quantified in a series of recognition experiments. The results are compared to reference ASR systems using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs), MFCCs with cepstral mean subtraction (CMS) and RASTA-PLP features, respectively. Gabor features are shown to be more robust against extrinsic variation than the baseline systems without CMS, with relative improvements of 28% and 16% for two training conditions (using only clean training samples or a mixture of noisy and clean utterances, respectively). When used in a state-of-the-art system, improvements of 14% are observed when spectro-temporal features are concatenated with MFCCs, indicating the complementarity of those feature types. An analysis of the importance of specific MF shows that temporal MF up to 25 Hz and spectral MF up to 0.25 cycles/channel are beneficial for ASR. PMID:22559385

Schädler, Marc René; Meyer, Bernd T; Kollmeier, Birger

2012-05-01

143

New method for designing two-channel causal stable IIR perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for designing two-channel causal stable IIR PR filter banks and wavelet bases is proposed. It is based on the structure previously proposed by Phoong et al. (1995). Such a filter bank is parameterized by two functions (alpha) (z) and (beta) (z), which can be chosen as an all-pass function to obtain IIR filterbanks with very high stopband attenuation. One of the problems with this choice is that a bump of about 4 dB always exists near the transition band of the analysis and synthesis filters. The stopband attenuation of the high-pass analysis filter is also 10 dB lower than that of the low-pass filter. By choosing (beta) (z) and (alpha) (z) as an all-pass function and a type-II linear- phase finite impulse response function, respectively, the bumping can be significantly suppressed. In addition, the stopband attenuation of the high-pass filter can be controlled easily. The design problem is formulated as a polynomial approximation problem and is solved efficiently by the Remez exchange algorithm. The extension of this method to the design of a class of IIR wavelet basis is also considered.

Mao, J. S.; Chan, S. C.; Ho, Ka L.

2000-10-01

144

A novel fast and reduced redundancy structure for multiscale directional filter banks.  

PubMed

The multiscale directional filter bank (MDFB) improves the radial frequency resolution of the contourlet transform by introducing an additional decomposition in the high-frequency band. The increase in frequency resolution is particularly useful for texture description because of the quasi-periodic property of textures. However, the MDFB needs an extra set of scale and directional decomposition, which is performed on the full image size. The rise in computational complexity is, thus, prominent. In this paper, we develop an efficient implementation framework for the MDFB. In the new framework, directional decomposition on the first two scales is performed prior to the scale decomposition. This allows sharing of directional decomposition among the two scales and, hence, reduces the computational complexity significantly. Based on this framework, two fast implementations of the MDFB are proposed. The first one can maintain the same flexibility in directional selectivity in the first two scales while the other has the same redundancy ratio as the contourlet transform. Experimental results show that the first and the second schemes can reduce the computational time by 33.3%-34.6% and 37.1%-37.5%, respectively, compared to the original MDFB algorithm. Meanwhile, the texture retrieval performance of the proposed algorithms is more or less the same as the original MDFB approach which outperforms the steerable pyramid and the contourlet transform approaches. PMID:17688211

Cheng, Kin-On; Law, Ngai-Fong; Siu, Wan-Chi

2007-08-01

145

Comparison of spatial M-band filter banks for t+2D video coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the most powerful schemes for scalable video coding are based on the so-called t+2D paradigm. In these schemes, temporal redundancy is first exploited through a motion-compensated multiresolution decomposition and the resulting temporal subband frames are then generally spatially decomposed with a wavelet transform. Thus, temporal and spatial scalability are achieved, in particular when also the motion information is properly managed between resolution levels. However, spatial wavelet transform may not be the most appropriate for exploiting the spatial redundancy of the detail subbands, since very often the power spectral density of these frames is not as concentrated at low frequencies as in the case of natural images. Recently, we have shown that orthonormal 4-band transforms can provide similar or even better results, especially for textured video sequences. In this paper, we elaborate on this idea and compare several M-band transforms for spatial decomposition of the temporal detail frames. Several M-band filter bank designs are given and lapped transforms are also considered. We show by simulation results that lapped transforms achieve a rate versus distortion performance that is comparable and sometimes better to that of the dyadic biorthogonal 9/7 wavelet transform, for a lower complexity.

Pau, Gregoire; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice

2005-07-01

146

Hardware implementation of shape-adaptive discrete wavelet transform with the JPEG2000 defaulted (9, 7) filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an efficient hardware implementation of two-dimen- sional shape-adaptive discrete wavelet transform (2-D SA-DWT) with the JPEG2000 defaulted (9,7) filter bank is presented. Two techniques are used to minimize the critical path and the inter- nal buffer size. One technique is the flipping structure which can shorten the critical path of the lifting scheme by flipping multi- plier

Chao-tsung Huang; Po-chih Tseng; Liang-gee Chen

2003-01-01

147

Removal of BaseLine Wander and Power-Line Interference from the ECG by an Efficient FIR Filter with a Reduced Number of Taps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear phase filtering is proposed for the removal of baseline wander and power-line frequency components in electrocardiograms. In order to reduce the large number of computations involved in the digital filtering that are necessary, the desired filter spectrum was defined periodically. Making use of the property that the spectrum period is 50 Hz, the spectrum can be realized with a

Alste van J. A; T. S. Schilder

1985-01-01

148

Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern Algorithm on BCI Competition IV Datasets 2a and 2b  

PubMed Central

The Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) algorithm is an effective and popular method for classifying 2-class motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG) data, but its effectiveness depends on the subject-specific frequency band. This paper presents the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) algorithm to optimize the subject-specific frequency band for CSP on Datasets 2a and 2b of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Competition IV. Dataset 2a comprised 4 classes of 22 channels EEG data from 9 subjects, and Dataset 2b comprised 2 classes of 3 bipolar channels EEG data from 9 subjects. Multi-class extensions to FBCSP are also presented to handle the 4-class EEG data in Dataset 2a, namely, Divide-and-Conquer (DC), Pair-Wise (PW), and One-Versus-Rest (OVR) approaches. Two feature selection algorithms are also presented to select discriminative CSP features on Dataset 2b, namely, the Mutual Information-based Best Individual Feature (MIBIF) algorithm, and the Mutual Information-based Rough Set Reduction (MIRSR) algorithm. The single-trial classification accuracies were presented using 10?×?10-fold cross-validations on the training data and session-to-session transfer on the evaluation data from both datasets. Disclosure of the test data labels after the BCI Competition IV showed that the FBCSP algorithm performed relatively the best among the other submitted algorithms and yielded a mean kappa value of 0.569 and 0.600 across all subjects in Datasets 2a and 2b respectively.

Ang, Kai Keng; Chin, Zheng Yang; Wang, Chuanchu; Guan, Cuntai; Zhang, Haihong

2012-01-01

149

MKID development for SuperSpec: an on-chip, mm-wave, filter-bank spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperSpec is an ultra-compact spectrometer-on-a-chip for millimeter and submillimeter wavelength astronomy. Its very small size, wide spectral bandwidth, and highly multiplexed readout will enable construction of powerful multibeam spectrometers for high-redshift observations. The spectrometer consists of a horn-coupled microstrip feedline, a bank of narrow-band superconducting resonator filters that provide spectral selectivity, and kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) that detect the power admitted by each filter resonator. The design is realized using thin-film lithographic structures on a silicon wafer. The mm-wave microstrip feedline and spectral filters of the first prototype are designed to operate in the band from 195-310 GHz and are fabricated from niobium with at Tc of 9.2K. The KIDs are designed to operate at hundreds of MHz and are fabricated from titanium nitride with a Tc of ~ 2 K. Radiation incident on the horn travels along the mm-wave microstrip, passes through the frequency-selective filter, and is finally absorbed by the corresponding KID where it causes a measurable shift in the resonant frequency. In this proceedings, we present the design of the KIDs employed in SuperSpec and the results of initial laboratory testing of a prototype device. We will also brie describe the ongoing development of a demonstration instrument that will consist of two 500-channel, R=700 spectrometers, one operating in the 1-mm atmospheric window and the other covering the 650 and 850 micron bands.

Shirokoff, E.; Barry, P. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Hollister, M. I.; Kovács, A.; McKenney, C.; Leduc, H. G.; Llombart, N.; Marrone, D. P.; Mauskopf, P.; O'Brient, R.; Padin, S.; Reck, T.; Swenson, L. J.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2012-09-01

150

Using Phase and Magnitude Information of the Complex Directional Filter Bank for Texture Image Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how to utilize both magnitude and phase in- formation obtained from the complex directional? lter bank (CDFB) for the purpose of texture image retrieval. The relative phase, which is the difference of phases between adjacent CDFB coef? cients, has a linear relationship with the angle of dominant orientation within a subband. This information is incorporated to form

An P. N. Vo; Soontorn Oraintara; Truong T. Nguyen

2007-01-01

151

Fast implementation of wavelet transform for m-band filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orthogonal m-band discrete wavelet transform has an O(m2) complexity. In this paper, we present a fast implementation of such a discrete wavelet transform. In an orthonormal m-band wavelet system, the vanishing moments and orthogonality conditions are imposed on the scaling filter only. Given a scaling filter, one can design the other m-1 wavelet filters. It is well-known that there are infinitely many solutions in such designing procedure. Here we choose one specific type of solutions and implement the corresponding wavelet transform in a scheme which has complexity O(m). Thus for any scaling filter, one can always construct a full orthogonal m-band wavelet matrix with an O(m) discrete wavelet transform.

Tian, Jun; Wells, Raymond O., Jr.

1998-03-01

152

Bank filtration in the sandy littoral zone of Lake Tegel (Berlin): Structure and dynamics of the biological active filter zone and clogging processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on clogging processes and on the benthic microalgal and meiofaunal assemblage in the sandy littoral zone of Lake Tegel, which are significantly involved in bank filtration, in a long-term. Our approach combined field studies and “in situ” experiments to highlight the structure of the biological active filter zone as well as the mechanisms and effects of clogging

Anja Hoffmann; Günter Gunkel

2011-01-01

153

Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) in Brain-Computer Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In motor imagery-based brain computer interfaces (BCI), discriminative patterns can be extracted from the electroencephalogram (EEG) using the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm. However, the performance of this spatial filter depends on the operational frequency band of the EEG. Thus, setting a broad frequency range, or manually selecting a subject-specific frequency range, are commonly used with the CSP algorithm. To

Kai Keng Ang; Zhang Yang Chin; Haihong Zhang; Cuntai Guan

2008-01-01

154

Development of Miniature Quad SAW filter bank based on PCB substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A miniaturization and integration are most important design factor in design of mobile handheld phone to enhance multi-function such as Bluetooth, camera and music so on. Especially in RF stage of multi-band GSM mobile phone, dozens of matching L, C passive components and several SAW filters occupy quite a little space, so phone makers partially use 7.0 times 3.5mm SAW

Youngjin Lee; Jonghoo Paik; Seunghee Lee

2007-01-01

155

Extending Vaidyanathan's procedure to improve the performance of unitary filter banks with a fixed lowpass by using additional elementary building blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelet decomposition of signals using the classical Daubechies-Wavelets could also be considered as a decomposition using a filter bank with two channels, a low pass and a high pass channel, represented by the father and mother wavelet, respectively. By generalizing this two channel approach filter banks with N >= 2 channels can be constructed. They possess one scaling function or father wavelet representing the low pass filter and one, two or more mother wavelets representing band pass filters. The resulting band pass filters do not show a satisfactory selective behavior, in general. Hence, a modification of the generalized design seems appropriate. Based on Vaidyanathan's procedure we developed a method to modify the modulation matrix under the condition that the low pass is unchanged and the degree of the band pass filters is not increased. This can be achieved by introducing one or more additional elementary building blocks under certain orthogonality constraints with respect to their generating vectors. While the (polynomial) degree of the modulation matrix remains unchanged, its complexity increases due to its increased McMillan degree.

Steffen, Peter; Brandhuber, Wolfgang

2007-10-01

156

Wavelet transform domain adaptive FIR filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and studies two new wavelet transform domain least mean square (LMS) algorithms. The algorithms exploit the special sparse structure of the wavelet transform of wide classes of correlation matrices and their Cholesky factors in order to compute a whitening transformation of the input data in the wavelet domain and minimize computational complexity. The procedures differ in the

Srinath Hosur; Ahmed H. Tewfik

1997-01-01

157

All-optical multiplexing schemes for multiple access networks based on wavelet packet filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All optical architectures for Wavelet Packet Division Multiplexing (WPDM) are presented, that can be used in multiple access networks to increase the number of simultaneous users. Wavelet waveform coding spreads data signals both in time and frequency domains, with a large capacity improvement with respect to standard Optical-Code Division Multiple Access (O-CDMA) systems. In addition, the orthogonal property of the wavelet atoms ensures low InterSymbol Interference (ISI) and Multiple Access Interference (MAI) noises. To exploit the large bandwidth capacity of optical fibres, the Optical-Electrical-Optical (O-E-O) conversion is completely avoided, and we designed an all optical system that realizes the WPDM fully in the optical domain. A single Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) device multiplies/demultiplies N different users and a diffractive or an integrated optical device performs the waveform coding/decoding. The Wavelet Packet (WP) encoder/decoder is realized as a tree of lattice-form delay-line filters, and can be integrated on a single device along with the optical waveform modulator, resulting in a compact planar optical system. In addition, we show that different choices of WP encoders/decoders are possible to further enhance the system performances.

Cincotti, Gabriella; Svaluto Moreolo, Michela; Neri, Alessandro

2004-08-01

158

Filters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Filters, is the eighth chapter in Volume II âÂÂAlternating Current (AC). A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Low-pass filters, High-pass filters, Band-pass filters, Band-stop filters, and Resonant filters. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-02

159

A new design method based on artificial bee colony algorithm for digital IIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital filters can be broadly classified into two groups: recursive (infinite impulse response (IIR)) and non-recursive (finite impulse response (FIR)). An IIR filter can provide a much better performance than the FIR filter having the same number of coefficients. However, IIR filters might have a multi-modal error surface. Therefore, a reliable design method proposed for IIR filters must be based

Nurhan Karaboga

2009-01-01

160

Detecting recursive and nonrecursive filters using chaos.  

PubMed

Filtering a chaotic signal through a recursive [or infinite impulse response (IIR)] filter has been shown to increase the dimension of chaos under certain conditions. Filtering with a nonrecursive [or finite impulse response (FIR)] filter should not increase dimension, but it has been shown that if the FIR filter has a long tail, measurements of actual signals may appear to show a dimension increase. I simulate IIR and FIR filters that correspond to naturally occurring resonant objects, and I show that using dimension measurements, I can distinguish the filter type. These measurements could be used to detect resonances using radar, sonar, or laser signals, or to determine if a resonance is due to an IIR or an FIR filter. PMID:20370278

Carroll, T L

2010-03-01

161

Ll-filters-a new class of order statistic filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ll-filters are introduced to generate the order statistic filters (L-filters) and the nonrecursive linear, or finite-duration impulse-response (FIR), filters. Such estimators are particularly effective filtering signals that do not necessarily follow Gaussian distributions. They can be designed to restore one-dimensional or multidimensional signals corrupted by noise of impulsive type. Such filters are appealing since they are suitable for being

FRANCESCO PALMIERI; CHARLES G. BONCELET

1989-01-01

162

TIME-VARYING RECURSIVE FILTERS FOR DECIMATION AND INTERPOLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decimation and interpolation require filtering. In order to re- duce the hardware effort, FIR filters with linear phase are im- plemented as polyphase filters often. Still, the number of co- efficients cannot be reduced by this method. Comb filters im- plemented as cascaded-integrator-comb filters are hardware- efficient filters. Due to the periodicity of the comb section the number of registers

Tim Hentschel; Gerhard Fettweis

163

Improved Finite Impulse Response Filters for Enhanced Destriping of Geostationary Satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visible infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) common to many geostationary satellites produces visible wavelength data contaminated with stripes. The stripes affect the usefulness of the data in quantitative studies. This paper briefly reviews the cause of the striping and then develops a tapered window finite impulse response (FIR) filter and a constrained least squares FIR filter. Both filters minimize

James J. Simpson; James R. Stitt; David M. Leath

1998-01-01

164

A computationally efficient FIR MMSE-DFE for CCI-impaired dispersive channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast algorithms for the computation of the FIR MMSE-DFE in the presence of ISI, CCI, and colored noise are presented. Substantial reductions in computational complexity are achieved by using the powerful analytical tools of Cholesky factorization and displacement structure to fully exploit the structure of the problem. Both symbol-spaced and fractionally spaced feedforward filters are considered. Finally, we give a

Naofal Al-Dhahir

1997-01-01

165

Telephone Channel Compensation in Speaker Verification Using a Polynomial Approximation in the Log-Filter-Bank Energy Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This correspondence presents a novel feature-space channel compensation technique that modelsthe convolutionaldistortion inthe log- energy mel-filter domain by means of a polynomial approximation. The proposedparametricdistortion modelgeneratesappropriateconstraints in the spectral domain that help to improve the channel cancelling estimation with limited data. In a text-dependent speaker verification task, the poly- nomial-based channel estimation scheme can lead to reductions in equal error

Claudio Garreton; Nestor Becerra Yoma

2012-01-01

166

A new unscented particle filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new unscented particle filter for dynamic systems that outperforms the general particle filter and the unscented particle filter when the variance of the observation noise is small. Our algorithm uses a bank of unscented Kalman filters to refine the prediction in particle filter. The key difference with the traditional unscented particle filter is the introduction of an

Qi Cheng; Pascal Bondon

2008-01-01

167

An Embedded Adaptive Filtering System on FPGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NLMS adaptive FIR filter is an essential part of many DSP systems including echo cancellers, channel equalizers and noise cancellers. In this paper, we describe an embedded NLMS adaptive filtering system consisting of a flexible LMS core and Xilinx MicroBlaze soft processor, both of which are implemented on a Xilinx Spartan-3 FPGA. The LMS adaptive filter core, which features

Chang Choo; Prasannalakshmi Padmanabhan; Susmita Mutsuddy

168

Systolic De-Multiplexed Finite Impulse Response Filter Array Architecture for Linear and Non-Linear Implementations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described is a finite impulse filter response (FIR) filter for use by signal processors. A demultiplexer receives input data samples at an input data rate. The FIR filter includes a plurality of computational units arranged in a systolic array of taps and...

W. S. Song

2004-01-01

169

Fifteen chord FIR polarimetry system on MTX.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A far-infrared (FIR) polarimeter diagnostic has been added to an existing fifteen chord interferometer on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX). The polarimeter utilizes a new technique for determination of the Faraday rotation angle based on phase measu...

B. W. Rice

1992-01-01

170

Efficient implementation of sharpened CIC decimation filters for software radio receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an efficient structure for sharpened, cascaded integrator comb (CIC) based, decimation filter. Novelty of proposed structure is that it can be achieved for any decimation factor and its efficient finite impulse response (FIR) implementation form. It consists of multirate cascade of sharpened CIC filters with lower (prime) decimation factors. Every cascade stage can be implemented in nonrecursive FIR

Goran Rajic; Hrvoje Babic

2004-01-01

171

ANALYSIS OF PIANO TONES USING AN INHARMONIC INVERSE COMB FILTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a filter configuration for canceling and separat- ing partials from inharmonic piano tones. The proposed configu- ration is based on inverse comb filtering, in which the delay line is replaced with a high-order filter that has a proper phase response. Two filter design techniques are tested with the method: an FIR fil- ter, which is designed using

Heidi-Maria Lehtonen

2008-01-01

172

Internet Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use multivariate logistic regressions to identify factors affecting adoption of Internet banking. These factors include membership in a bank holding company, an urban location, and relatively higher premises and other fixed expenses to net operating revenue, higher noninterest income, and greater accounting cost efficiency than non-Internet banks. More profitable banks were more likely to adopt Internet banking after Quarter

Karen Furst; William W. Lang; Daniel E. Nolle

2002-01-01

173

Optimal Approximation Algorithms for Digital Filter Design.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several new algorithms are presented for the optimal approximation and design of various classes of digital filters. An iterative algorithm is developed for the efficient design of unconstrained and constrained infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters. Both in the unconstrained and constrained cases, the numerator and denominator of the filter transfer function are designed iteratively by recourse to the Remez algorithm and to appropriate design parameters and criteria, at each iteration. This makes it possible for the algorithm to be implemented by means of a short main program which uses (at each iteration) the linear phase FIR filter design algorithm of McClellan et al. as a subroutine. The approach taken also permits the filter to be designed with a desired ripple ratio. Also, the algorithm determines automatically the minimum passband ripple corresponding to the prescribed orders and band edges of the filter. The filter is designed directly without guessing the passband ripple or stopband ripple. Another algorithm, based on similar principles, is developed for the design of a nonlinear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filter, whose transfer function optimally approximates a desired magnitude response, there being no constraints imposed on the phase response. A similar algorithm is presented for the design of two new classes of FIR digital filters, one linear phase and the other nonlinear phase. A filter of either class has significantly reduced number of multiplications compared to the one obtained by its conventional counterpart, with respect to a given frequency response. In the case of linear phase, by introducing the new class of digital filters into the design of multistage decimators and interpolators for narrow-band filter implementation, it is found that an efficient narrow-band filter requiring considerably lower multiplication rate than the conventional linear phase FIR design can be obtained. The amount of data storage required by the new class of nonlinear phase FIR filters is significantly less than its linear phase counterpart. Finally, the design of a (finite-impulse-response) FIR digital filter with some of the coefficients constrained to zero is formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem and the LP technique is then used to design this class of constrained FIR digital filters. . . . (Author's abstract exceeds stipulated maximum length. Discontinued here with permission of author.) UMI.

Liang, Junn-Kuen

174

Indole-3-acetic Acid in Douglas Fir  

PubMed Central

We sought evidence for the occurrence and seasonal variation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in shoots of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco). Collections obtained in December and June were extracted with methanol and diethyl ether. Extracts were purified by solvent partitioning and with Sephadex LH-20. Qualitative and quantitative information was acquired by gas-liquid chromatography of methyl, trimethylsilyl, or both derivatives of plant extract components. Analysis was performed with polar (XE-60) and moderately polar (Hi-Eff-8-BP) stationary phases. Results from three collections demonstrated that IAA does occur in Douglas fir and that amounts vary seasonally. Mass analysis of the proposed endogenous IAA peak from two representative extracts supported gas-liquid chromatography data and established the presence of IAA in Douglas fir.

Deyoe, David R.; Zaerr, Joe B.

1976-01-01

175

A general planar waveguide autoregressive optical filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general architecture for an autoregressive (AR) planar waveguide optical filter is demonstrated for the first time. Its advantages are a flatter passband, sharper rolloff and better rejection in the stopband compared to finite impulse response (FIR) filters with the same number of stages. The architecture can be extended to an arbitrary number of stages. A modified Levinson algorithm is

C. K. Madsen; J. H. Zhao

1996-01-01

176

Fast algorithms for designing multirate cascade filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a multirate cascade of discrete time filters using a FWLS (frequency-weighted least squares) approach is considered. The design strategy enables one to compensate at each stage for errors introduced by preceding stages in the cascade. As a result, very simple filters can be designed for the stages operating at higher sampling rates. A cascade FIR example is

David C. Farden; Dehashis Banerjee; Brian L. Berg

2002-01-01

177

Zero-phase FIR filters: Blessing or curse?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These are exciting times for observational seismology. State-of-the-art broadband seismometers now easily cover a frequency band of more than one hundred seconds to several tens of Hertz in a single sensor. Commonly available data loggers provide a dynamic range exceeding 120 dB. Ground motion amplitudes differing by more than 6 orders of magnitude can be simultaneously recorded without distortion.

Scherbaum, Frank

178

Subspace methods for the blind identification of multichannel FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a problem arising in a context of digital communications. A digital source is transmitted through a continuous channel (the propagation medium), and several measurements are performed at the receiver, either by means of several sensors, or by oversampling the received signal compared to the emission rate. Given only these observations, the baseband equivalents of the corresponding channels

Eric Moulines; P. Duhamel; J.-F. Cardoso; S. Mayrargue

1995-01-01

179

Recursive inversion of externally defined linear systems by FIR filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approximate inversion of an internally unknown linear system, given by its impulse response sequence, by an inverse system having a finite impulse response, is considered. The recursive least-squares procedure is shown to have an exact initialization, based on the triangular Toeplitz structure of the matrix involved. The proposed approach also suggests solutions to the problem of system identification and compensation.

Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram

1989-01-01

180

Nonuniformly Spaced Photonic Microwave Delay-Line Filters and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite impulse response (FIR) filter for microwave signal processing implemented based on an optical delay-line structure with uniformly spaced taps has been extensively investigated, but the realization of such a filter with negative or complex tap coefficients to provide an arbitrary frequency response is still a challenge. In this paper, an overview of photonic microwave delay-line filters with nonuniformly

Yitang Dai; Jianping Yao

2010-01-01

181

Recursive quadrature mirror filters--Criteria specification and design method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criteria are found for a pair of recursive infinite impluse response (IIR) filters which have mirror image amplitude responses and whose outputs are in phase quadrature at all frequencies. A method is suggested for designing filters with these characteristics, and their performance and processing requirements are compared with a typical nonrecursive finite impluse response (FIR) realization. A particular filter is

P. Millar

1985-01-01

182

SARGENT'S FIR HYBRID: ABIES AMABILIS X LASIOCARPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

in the summer of 1896, Professor Charles Sprague Sargent found a fir tree that he thought might be a natural hybrid between Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes and A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. The founder and Director of the Arnold Arboretum, Sargent was generally recognized as America's pre eminent dendrologist. His brief description of the putative hybrid (Sargent, 1898) is still the

William B. Critchfield

183

Optimal filters with heuristic 1-norm sparsity constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a design method for sparse optimal Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters that improve the visibility of a desired stochastic signal corrupted with white Gaussian noise. We emphasize that the filters we seek are of high-order but sparse, thus significantly reducing computational complexity. An optimal FIR filter for the estimation of a desired signal corrupted with white noise can be designed by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the filter output with the constraint that the magnitude (in 2-norm) of the FIR filter coefficients are set to unity.1, 2 This optimization problem is in essence maximizing the Rayleigh quotient and is thus equivalent to finding the eigenvector with the largest eigenvalue.3 While such filters are optimal, they are rarely sparse. To ensure sparsity, one must introduce a cardinality constraint in the optimization procedure. For high order filters such constraints are computationally burdensome due to the combinatorial search space. We relax the cardinality constraint by using the 1-norm approximation of the cardinality function. This is a relaxation heuristic similar to the recent sparse filter design work of Baran, Wei, and Oppenheim.4 The advantage of this relaxation heuristic is that the solutions tend to be sparse and the optimization procedure reduces to a convex program, thus ensuring global optimality. In addition to our proposed optimization procedure for deriving sparse FIR filters, we show examples where sparse high-order filters significantly perform better than low-order filters, whereas complexity is reduced by a factor of 10.

Yazdani, Mehrdad; Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

2011-09-01

184

A Family of Efficient Complex Halfband Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halfband lowpass and bandpass filters, versatile building blocks in a multitude of DSP applications, are revisited. Linear-phase FIR and minimum-phase IIR halfband filters for sample rate alteration are recalled, their computational loads are compared, and optimum signal flow graphs are presented. The same comparisons are carried out for corresponding complex halfband filters (Hilbert-transformers) with and without an additional frequency offset

Heinz G. Göckler; Sanja Damjanovicyz

185

Comparisons of FIR and IIR implementations of a subtraction-based stimulus artifact rejection algorithm.  

PubMed

Finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) temporal filtering techniques are investigated to assess the feasibility of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) implementation of a subtraction-based stimulus artifact rejection (SAR) algorithm in implantable, closed-loop neuroprostheses. The two approaches are compared in terms of their system architectures, overall performances, and the associated computational costs. Pre-recorded neural data from an Aplysia californica are used to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed implementations. Digital building blocks for an FIR-based system are also simulated in a 0.18-microm CMOS technology, showing a total power consumption of <5microW from a 1-V supply and a die area of 1.5 mm2. An IIR-based system can further reduce the required power consumption and die area. PMID:18002236

Azin, Meysam; Chiel, Hillel J; Mohseni, Pedram

2007-01-01

186

Optical to FIR SED of Ly? Emitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an optical and FIR analysis of a sample of 65 Ly? emitters at 2.0˜FIR counterparts and are (U)LIRGs candidates, being, therefore, dusty objects despite that they show Ly? in emission and with large equivalent widths.

Oteo, I.; Bongiovanni, A.; Pérez García, A. M.; Cepa, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Pep Team

2011-10-01

187

Tall oil precursors of Douglas-fir  

SciTech Connect

The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition. High contents of sterol esters (about 35%) and a new triterpene alcohol are reported. The lightwood-inducing effect of paraquat was limited.

Foster, D.O.; Zinkle, D.F.; Conner, A.H.

1980-01-01

188

Bank Mergers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News exaimnes the recent flurry of merger activities in the banking sector. The ten resources discussed provide the details of the recent three big banking mergers and the likely effects on efficiency, lending and consumers. On April 6, 1998, Citibank, the second largest bank in America, announced that it will be merging with Travelers Group, a large financial services firm, in a deal worth $80 billion -- the largest merger deal ever. Only a week later, BankAmerica announced it would merge with NationsBank to create the first coast-to-coast bank in America, in a deal worth $60 billion. The third deal took place on the same day, when First Chicago NBD and Banc One announced they will be merging in a deal valued at $30 billion.

Ng, Thiam H.

189

BioMagResBank databases DOCR and FRED containing converted and filtered sets of experimental NMR restraints and coordinates from over 500 protein PDB structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two new databases of NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints: the Database Of Converted Restraints (DOCR) and the Filtered Restraints Database (FRED). These databases currently correspond to 545 proteins with NMR structures deposited in the Protein Databank (PDB). The criteria for inclusion were that these should be unique, monomeric proteins with author-provided experimental NMR data and coordinates available

Jurgen F. Doreleijers; Aart J. Nederveen; Wim Vranken; Jundong Lina; Alexandre M. J. J. Bonvin; Robert Kaptein; John L. Markley; Eldon L. Ulrich

2005-01-01

190

An economical class of digital filters for decimation and interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of digital linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters for decimation (sampling rate decrease) and interpolation (sampling rate increase) are presented. They require no multipliers and use limited storage making them an economical alternative to conventional implementations for certain applications. A digital filter in this class consists of cascaded ideal integrator stages operating at a high sampling rate

E. Hogenauer

1981-01-01

191

A class of digital filters for decimation and interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters for decimation (sampling rate decrease) and interpolation (sampling rate increase) are presented. They require no multipliers and limited storage, thus making them an economical alternative to conventional implementations for certain applications. A digital filter in this class consists of cascaded ideal integrator stages operating at a high sampling rate and an

E. Hogenauer

1980-01-01

192

On the design of digital Nyquist channel filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem in the design of digital communication systems is the synthesis of a Nyquist channel filter which minimizes intersymbol interference in the transmission of data [l]. This contribution gives a simple design technique for FIR digital pulse shaping filters with linear phase, zero intersymbol interference and arbitrarily flat passbands, with any desired selectivity. The algorithm employs algebraic constraints

H. Baher; J. Coffey

1986-01-01

193

Centrifugal Barrel Finishing Of Turbine-Blade "Fir Trees"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified centrifugal barrel-finishing machine imparts desired residual compressive stresses to "fir trees" of turbine blades. Centrifugal forces generate compressive stresses, which are transmitted to turbine blades through abrasive slurries in which suspended. Eliminates need for shot peening, rounding of edges and burrs caused by shot peening and, consequently, need for mass finishing operations to remove burrs. Improves surface finish of "fir trees".

Mandel, Johnny L.

1990-01-01

194

Nonlinear filtering for robust signal processing  

SciTech Connect

A generalized framework for the description and design of a large class of nonlinear filters is proposed. Such a family includes, among others, the newly defined Ll-estimators, that generalize the order statistic filters (L-filters) and the nonrecursive linear filters (FIR). Such estimators are particularly efficient in filtering signals that do not follow gaussian distributions. They can be designed to restore signals and images corrupted by noise of impulsive type. Such filters are very appealing since they are suitable for being made robust against perturbations on the assumed model, or insensitive to the presence of spurious outliers in the data. The linear part of the filter is used to characterize their essential spectral behavior. It can be constrained to a given shape to obtain nonlinear filters that combine given frequency characteristics and noise immunity. The generalized nonlinear filters can also be used adaptively with the coefficients computed dynamically via LMS or RLS algorithms.

Palmieri, F.

1987-01-01

195

Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications  

PubMed Central

Far infrared (FIR) radiation (? = 3–100 ?m) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 ?m) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

2013-01-01

196

Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

2009-09-01

197

Xilinx Virtex II Pro Implementation of a Reconfigurable UMTS Digital Channel Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reconfigurable digital root raised cosine (RRC) filter for a UMTS terrestrial radio access (UTRA) mobile terminal receiver is implemented on a Xilinx Vitrex II Pro Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The filter employs a finite impulse response (FIR) and monitors in- band and out-of-band received signal powers and calculates the appropriate filter length that meets the bit- energy to

J. Chandran; R. Kaluri; Jugdutt Singh; Viktor Öwall; Ronny Veljanovski

2004-01-01

198

Adaptive processing with neural network controlled resonator-banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes a novel neuromorphic architecture for structurally adaptive control systems. The neural network controlled resonator-bank (NCRB) architecture consists of two main components, a resonator-bank filter structure and a neural network which controls the transfer characteristics of the filter. The architecture offers an attractive alternative to the approximation of nonlinear dynamic systems having a finite number of stable operating

Jams Sztipanovits

1989-01-01

199

Stability of nuclear DNA content among divergent and isolated populations of Fraser fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fraser fir (Abics frmeri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic species consisting of six major disjunct populations in the Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A. Nuclear DNA content was measured with laser flow cytometry to determine if ge- nome size differences could be detected among the disjunct populations of Fraser fir and its close relatives, balsam fir (Abies bnlsamea (L.) Mill.) and Canaan fir

L. D. Auckland; J. S. Johnston; H. J. Price; F. E. Bridgwater

2001-01-01

200

George Bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides a rich feast for anyone who has a hunger to learn more about Georges Bank! Its 593 large pages provide articles on a wide variety of scientific and resource management topics. Many human interest features are also included. Among the latter are a photograph demonstrating the only proper way for a seagoing chemist to imbibe, and articles entitled, “My First Trip on Georges Bank,” and “‘Bait Up!’: Dory Fishing on Georges Bank.”Proving that every cloud has a silver lining, interest in producing this book was driven by the climate of controversy that surrounded Georges Bank in the latter 1970s and early 1980s. This was a time when exploratory wells were being driven to search for oil and when disputes between Canada and the United States about jurisdiction over the Bank were reaching their peak. As Backus notes in the Foreword, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., set up a Coastal Research Center in 1979 when “the oil/fish dispute on Georges Bank was hot.” The direct costs of publishing this book were, in turn, supported by the Coastal Research Center.

Codispoti, L. A.

201

[Algorithm of digital demodulation and filtering in MRI spectrometers].  

PubMed

In the design of RF receiver of the digital MRI spectrometer console, a digital demodulation and filtering algorithm is presented in this thesis. The MR signals are firstly converted to digital signals by the A/D converter, and then quadrature-demodulated from high frequency carrier wave. The CIC filter, half-band filter and linear phase FIR filter are designed to process the cascaded filtering and decimation of the demodulated signals. This method achieves a satisfying processing speed and filtering effect, and also reduces the data size obviously. The experiment based on the permanent magnetism resonance imaging system proves its effectiveness and practicability. PMID:18973037

Pan, Wen-Yu; Liu, Zheng-Min; Zhou, He-Qin

2008-07-01

202

New Tunable Source for the FIR-THz Spectral Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Grating Coupled Oscillator (GCO) has the potential to be a practical coherent source for far-infrared/terahertz (FIR/THz) research and applications. The GCO, simply an electron beam skimming a diffraction grating, has inherently many desirable feature...

J. H. Brownell

2003-01-01

203

Investigation of Combustion Characteristics of Douglas Fir Hogged Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The initial results are presented of studies of the combustion characteristics of Douglas Fir bark (hogged fuel) as burned in a spreader-stoker experimental test facility. The project was funded by ERDA and attempts to determine combustion characteristics...

D. C. Junge

1978-01-01

204

Biology of Arboreal Rodents in Douglas-Fir Forests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and Washington include (listed in decreasing order of dependence on trees) red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaudus), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), Douglas' squirrel...

A. B. Carey

1991-01-01

205

Differential Susceptibility of White Fir Provenances to Balsam Twig Aphid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Susceptibility of Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona provenances of white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.) to crown injury caused by balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch.) was assessed in an experimental plantation in the cent...

G. T. Ferrell

1989-01-01

206

Linear FIR multiuser detection for multiple data rate CDMA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideal linear multiuser detectors for code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems have infinite memory-length (referred to as IIR detectors). To obtain practical detectors for CDMA systems linear finite memory-length (referred to as FIR) multiuser detectors have been proposed. We generalize the linear FIR detection to CDMA systems supporting multiple data rates. A generic multirate CDMA system model is formulated, which can represent

Markku J. Juntti; J. O. Lilleberg

1997-01-01

207

Branch Banking, Bank Competition, and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often argued that branching stabilizes banking systems by facilitating diversification of bank portfolios; however, previous empirical research on the Great Depression offers mixed support for this view. Using data on national banks from the 1920s and 1930s, we show that branch banking raises the level of competition and increases exit from the banking system. This consolidation strengthens the

Mark Carlson; Kris James Mitchener

2006-01-01

208

Optimal approximation algorithms for digital filter design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several new algorithms are presented for the optimal approximation and design of various classes of digital filters. An iterative algorithm is developed for the efficient design of unconstrained and constrained infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters. Both in the unconstrained and constrained cases, the numerator and denominator of the filter transfer function are designed iteratively by recourse to the Remez algorithm and to appropriate design parameters and criteria, at each iteration. This makes it possible for the algorithm to be implemented by means of a short main program which uses (at each iteration) the linear phase FIR filter design algorithm of McClellan et al. as a subroutine. The approach taken also permits the filter to be designed with a desired ripple ratio. Also, the algorithm determines automatically the minimum passband ripple corresponding to the prescribed orders and band edges of the filter. The filter is designed directly without guessing the passband ripple or stopband ripple.

Liang, J. K.

209

Global Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few sectors of the global economy have experienced the dynamic and structural change that has occurred over the past several decades in banking and financial services or as much turbulence and damage to the economy and to ordinary people. Regulatory and technological changes have been among the main catalysts of change in the financial industry worldwide, making entrenched competitive structures

Roy C. Smith; Ingo Walter; Gayle DeLong

210

Bank Terminals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

1978-01-01

211

Central banking, free banking, and financial crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Summary View In the Keynesian view, the central bank is a part of an extramarket remedy to a market malady. Investment markets are inherently unstable; government control of the economy's money supply is an important element in macroeconomic stabilization policy. The case against central banking—and for free banking—reverses the characterization of both remedy and malady. Free banking is a

Roger W. Garrison

1996-01-01

212

Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

2009-01-01

213

Development and operation of a balloon-borne telescope for FIR imaging, radiometry and spectrometry of the Galactic Cygnus region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A balloon-borne, FIR 60 cm telescope has been constructed which is equipped with He-cooled filters and a composite silicon bolometer having an NEP of 1.3 x 10 to the -14th W/sq rt Hz for imaging, radiometry and spectroscopy of the Cygnus region at wavelengths up to 330 microns. A test flight took place at the CNES balloon station at Aire/Adour, F, on May 8, 1989. The balloon stayed 4.5 h at the observation height of 39 km. Tests and results are discussed.

Degiacomi, C. G.; Holenstein, A.; Kneubuehl, F. K.; Huguenin, D.

1990-01-01

214

Fast Newton transversal filters-a new class of adaptive estimation algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of adaptive algorithms for the estimation of FIR (finite impulse response) transversal filters is presented. The main characteristic of this class is the fast computation of the gain vector needed for the adaptation of the transversal filters. The method for deriving these algorithms is based on the assumption that the input signal is autoregressive of order M, where

George V. Moustakides; Sergios Theodoridis

1991-01-01

215

Aerial Application of Mexacarbate and Stabilized Pyrethrins on Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of mexacarbate and stabilized pyrethrins formulations was tested in 1972 on field populations of Douglas-fir tussock moth larvae (Orgyia pseudotsugata), in eastern Washington and Oregon forests of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and...

C. B. Williams P. J. Shea B. Maksymiuk J. A. Neisess D. McComb

1978-01-01

216

Radio Continuum, FIR, and CO Emission in BIMA SONG Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well-known correlation between global radio continuum (RC) and far-infrared (FIR) emissions in external galaxies is at the same time one of the most robust and one of the most puzzling relations in extragalactic astronomy. The RC/FIR correlation is linear and has a dispersion of only a factor of two, over a luminosity range of more than four orders of magnitude (e.g. Condon 1992, ARAA, 30, 576; Yun, Reddy, & Condon 2001, 554, 803). The RC/FIR relation appears to hold within galaxies down to size scales of about 100 pc, but breaks down on smaller scales (B. Wells, PhD thesis). Even though the RC and FIR are both thought ultimately to originate as a result of star formation in molecular clouds, the tightness of the correlation is surprising given the many disparate steps involved in producing the two types of emission: the FIR is generally believed to originate from warm dust that is heated by the radiation from hot young stars, and the RC originates as synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons accelerated by supernova remnants. In this paper, we explore the molecular cloud links to the FIR and RC in about a dozen sources by using the new, 6"-resolution CO data from the BIMA Survey of Nearby Galaxies (SONG). We also examine these correlations on global scales for two dozen galaxies. Preliminary results show that within some sources, the CO and RC emissions are linearly correlated to within the errors in the flux density measurements. Within other galaxies, the small-scale correlation may be somewhat less precise, at least on size scales as small as a few hundred parsecs. This research is supported in part by NSF grant AST 99-81308.

Helfer, T. T.; Murgia, M.; Ekers, R. D.; Blitz, L.; Wong, T.; Moscadelli, L.; Gregorini, L.

2002-12-01

217

Block FIR Decision-Feedback Equalizers for Filterbank Precoded Transmissions with Blind Channel Estimation Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In block transmission systems, transmitter-induced redundancy using finite-impulse response (FIR) filterbanks can be used to suppress intersymbol interference and equalize FIR channels irrespective of channel zeros. At the receiver end, linear or decision-feedback (DF) FIR filterbanks can be applied to recover the transmitted data. Closed-form expressions are derived for the FIR linear or DF filterbank receivers corresponding to varying amounts

Anastasios Stamoulis; Georgios B. Giannakis; Anna Scaglione

2000-01-01

218

Simulations of a FIR Oscillator with Large Slippage parameter at Jefferson Lab for FIR/UV pump-probe experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously proposed a dual FEL configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that would allow simultaneous lasing at FIR and UV wavelengths [1]. The FIR source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules, using the exhaust beam from a UVFEL as the input electron beam. Since the UV FEL requires very short pulses, the input to the FIR FEL is extremely short compared to a slippage length and the usual Slowly Varying Envelope Approximation (SVEA) does not apply. We use a non-SVEA code [2] to simulate this system both with a small energy spread (UV laser off) and with large energy spread (UV laser on).

Benson, S. V.; Campbell, L. T.; McNeil, B. W. J.; Neil, G. R.; Shinn, M. D.; Williams, G. P.

2014-03-01

219

Design Gabor Filters for Texture Segmentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many texture-segmentation schemes use an elaborate bank of filters to decompose a textured image -into a joint space/spatial-frequency representation. While these schemes show promise and some analytical work has been done, the relationship between textur...

D. F. Dunn W. Higgins A. Maida J. Wakeley

1992-01-01

220

A novel filter bank for biotelemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multichannel biotelemetry system, signals taken from a patient are distributed along the available frequency range (bandwidth)\\u000a of the system through frequency-division-multiplexing, and combined into a single composite signal. Biological signals that\\u000a are limited to low frequencies (below 10 Hz) modulate the frequencies of respective sub-carriers. Other biological signals\\u000a are carried in amplitude-modulated forms. It is recognized that recovering

B. Karagözoglu

2001-01-01

221

Wideband digital filter using FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital filter being developed by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is presented here. The filter is designed using field programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits and has an equivalent clock rate of 4 GHz. The ALMA radio astronomy array being developed by the NRAO in cooperation with several European scientific agencies will consist of up to 64 twelve-meter diameter antennas to be used for observing astronomical sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This instrument is to observe with bandwidths up to 16 GHz per antenna in eight unbroken RF bands of 2 GHz each. Bandwidth-resolution trade-offs are done in ALMA by providing each of the eight 4-Gsample/s digitizers per antenna with a programmable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filter. The filter can be selected to perform 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, . . ., 1/64 band filtering and sample decimation. In the 1/2 band mode, the filter has the equivalent of 128 tap weight multiplications. Tap weights increase by factors of two to the limit of 2048 tap weights when the filter is programmed to be a 1/32 band low-pass or high-pass filter. The filter is designed to process the output of a four-bit digitizer. The filter utilizes RAM look-up tables for tap weight multiplications. The output of the tap weight multiplications drive an adder tree which has 10-bit precision in the early stages and 7-bit precision in latter stages. Output quantizing of the adder tree output is done in look-up table RAM to 2- bit, 4-level precision. The filter is implemented on a 280-mm, 6-U, Euro card using FPGA ICs running with a system clock rate of 125 MHz.

Escoffier, Raymond P.; Webber, John C.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Broadwell, Charles M.

2000-07-01

222

Bioinformatics Activity Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is designed for educators hoping to teach students about the world of biotechnology and bioinformatics, and the lesson plans here are top-notch. The lessons span a variety of topics, including applied mathematics, DNA, and genetics. Visitors can scroll through six sections, including Organisms and Evolution or Proteins and Proteomics. Visitors can scroll through each area, keeping in mind that each activity is categorized by grade level, subject area, and type. For those looking for specific areas, they will find a set of activity filters that can be used to easily identify specific resources. Some of the activity offerings here include "Genetic Disorder Research," "What is Cloning?," and "DNA Detectives: Extract your Own DNA." Finally, visitors can visit In The News to learn more about ongoing activities at the Bioinformatics Activities Bank.

2013-04-30

223

Testing Laminated Swedish Fir in Four Point Bending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laminated Swedish fir has been tested in four point bending. Three different types of specimens were manufactured, one with scarf joints on the outer layers, one with glass fiber weave in between the layers and one with continuous veneers. The three diffe...

M. Poppen

1991-01-01

224

What is the Source of FIR Radiation in Spiral Galaxies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the main source of far infrared radiation (FIR) in normal spiral galaxies in the IRAS wavelength range 40-120 . There are two competing propositions: (a) the radiation comes from dust heated by young massive stars and (b) there is a second component comparable to or exceeding the first one which is associated with HI-related cool dust heated by

L. V. Jones; A. V. Zasov

1995-01-01

225

Bacterial ecology of an old-growth douglas fir canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial populations associated with the major substrates of the canopy of a single 70 m old-growth Douglas fir were studied to determine potential activities. Seasonal samples from bark, foliage, epiphytic moss, lichens, and litter accumulations were collected to: (a) obtain population data, (b) isolate the major groups of microorganisms present, (c) measure enzymatic activities associated with cellulose and xylan degradation,

B. A. Caldwell; C. Hagedorn; W. C. Denison

1979-01-01

226

Douglas-Fir Bark Tannin Decomposition in Two Forest Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Purified Douglas-fir bark tannin equivalent to the amount in a 2-inch bark mulch was added to two widely different soils in the laboratory. About 22 percent of the tannin decomposed in 180 days. Soil microflora generally increased. Nitrate production was ...

W. B. Bollen K. C. Lu

1969-01-01

227

Investigation of combustion characteristics of Douglas fir hogged fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial results are presented of studies of the combustion characteristics of Douglas Fir bark (hogged fuel) as burned in a spreader-stoker experimental test facility. The project was funded by ERDA and attempts to determine combustion characteristics for fuels burned in controlled conditions. Independent variables include wood size, wood moisture content, underfire\\/overfire air ratios, and fuel to air ratios. The

Junge

1978-01-01

228

FIR position profiles using an infinitely continuous kernel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large and fragile systems may require motion trajectories with the highest attainable degree of smoothness. This paper introduces a method to create infinitely continuous motion profiles based on convolving an infinitely continuous FIR kernel with an underlying rate-limited position profile. Conventional motion profiling is limited to blending polynomial between linear segments. Due to the issues of controlling unwanted inflections and

David Bowling; Gregory P. Starr

2009-01-01

229

Douglas-Fir in Eastern Nebraska: A Provenance Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An 11-year field test of rangewide provenances of Douglas-fir in eastern Nebraska revealed that height and growth rate are inversely correlated with latitude of origin. Progeny of seed origins from Arizona and New Mexico grew two to three times faster tha...

R. A. Read J. A. Sprackling

1976-01-01

230

Ultrasensitive TES Bolometers for Space-Based FIR Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of study optical performance of single pixel transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer presented at wavelength band 30-60 are presented. FIR radiation is coupled into a multimode horn with entrance aperture of 450 , length 4.5 mm and exit aperture of 45 , which feeds a metal integrating cavity containing the detector. The radiation band is defined by a pair

D. Morozov; P. D. Mauskopf; P. Ade; M. Ridder; P. Khosropanah; M. Bruijn; J. van der Kuur; H. Hoevers; J.-R. Gao; D. Griffin

2011-01-01

231

Adaptive processing with neural network controlled resonator-banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structurally adaptive processing system that can dynamically change its transfer characteristics as a response to changes in the environment is described. The neural network controlled resonator-bank architecture consists of two main components, a resonator-bank filter structure and a neural network that controls the transfer characteristics of the filter. The architecture offers an attractive alternative for the approximation of time-variant

J. Sztipanovits

1990-01-01

232

Natural regeneration in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Natural regeneration of five conifer species was surveyed in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. The habitat types range from warm, dry (grand fir/white spirea) to mesic (Grand fir/Mountain Maple). Four harvest-regeneration methods and four site preparation techniques were sampled. Recommendations for obtaining natural regeneration vary primarily by habitat type. Conifer seedlings in the warm, dry grand fir white spirea habitat type require site protection for establishment. In the mesic grand fir/mountain maple habitat type, tall shrub potential can reduce the opportunity to establish early seral conifer species.

Geier-Hayes, K.

1994-03-01

233

Adaptive notch filter for removal of coherent noise from infrared scanner data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the use of an adaptive noise canceling technique to eliminate the coherent noise generated in scanner data. The technique is based on a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) adaptive noise canceler. A two-weight FIR filter is used to adaptively learn the characteristics of a sinusoid. This sinusoid is then removed from the data. The least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm is used to converge to the coefficients of the adaptive filter during the learning process. An image corrupted with a single frequency periodic noise is used for investigating the algorithm. It is observed that the efficiency of the algorithm is dependent on the convergence gains and the initial positioning of the weights of the FIR filter. Because of the computational simplicity of the algorithm, it is possible to implement this in real-time mode.

Jaggi, Sandeep

1991-11-01

234

WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION  

SciTech Connect

The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-10

235

Water and Methanol Maser Activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 6 Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s-1 day-1. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Jeong-Eun

2012-11-01

236

Multiresolution Bilateral Filtering for Image Denoising  

PubMed Central

The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that does spatial averaging without smoothing edges; it has shown to be an effective image denoising technique. An important issue with the application of the bilateral filter is the selection of the filter parameters, which affect the results significantly. There are two main contributions of this paper. The first contribution is an empirical study of the optimal bilateral filter parameter selection in image denoising applications. The second contribution is an extension of the bilateral filter: multiresolution bilateral filter, where bilateral filtering is applied to the approximation (low-frequency) subbands of a signal decomposed using a wavelet filter bank. The multiresolution bilateral filter is combined with wavelet thresholding to form a new image denoising framework, which turns out to be very effective in eliminating noise in real noisy images. Experimental results with both simulated and real data are provided.

Zhang, Ming; Gunturk, Bahadir K.

2008-01-01

237

Commercial Bank and Bank Holding Company Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Report of Condition and Income database, provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, contains financial data for all banks regulated by the Federal Reserve System, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Comptroller of the Currency. Merger Data contains information on all "bank acquisitions and mergers since 1985." The Merger Data is available in either ASCII or SAS format. Quarterly Call Report Data contains "income and balance sheet items for all the banks" from the first quarter of 1989. The data are on an individual bank basis and are downloadable in zipped SAS transport data file format.

238

Low-complexity wavelet filter design for image compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image compression algorithms based on the wavelet transform are an increasingly attractive and flexible alternative to other algorithms based on block orthogonal transforms. While the design of orthogonal wavelet filters has been studied in significant depth, the design of nonorthogonal wavelet filters, such as linear-phase (LP) filters, has not yet reached that point. Of particular interest are wavelet transforms with low complexity at the encoder. In this article, we present known and new parameterizations of the two families of LP perfect reconstruction (PR) filters. The first family is that of all PR LP filters with finite impulse response (FIR), with equal complexity at the encoder and decoder. The second family is one of LP PR filters, which are FIR at the encoder and infinite impulse response (IIR) at the decoder, i.e., with controllable encoder complexity. These parameterizations are used to optimize the subband/wavelet transform coding gain, as defined for nonorthogonal wavelet transforms. Optimal LP wavelet filters are given for low levels of encoder complexity, as well as their corresponding integer approximations, to allow for applications limited to using integer arithmetic. These optimal LP filters yield larger coding gains than orthogonal filters with an equivalent complexity. The parameterizations described in this article can be used for the optimization of any other appropriate objective function.

Majani, E.

1994-01-01

239

Are Central Banks necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent studies use history and theory to examine the likely consequences of eliminating government intervention in the provision of money. Such proposals would end the central bank monopoly over note issue and replace it with note issues by competing banks. Supervisory functions of central banks would be dispensed with. Accordingly, the proposals would free banks from all regulations on

Anna J. Schwartz

1993-01-01

240

Central bank Financial Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have

J. Ramon Martinez-Resano

2004-01-01

241

Internet banking versus other banking channels: Young consumers’ view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial institutions offer new banking channels to their customers, as technology adds new dimensions to the classic banking systems. One of the most popular self-service banking technologies is Internet banking. This study examines how young consumers perceive Internet banking in relation to other six banking channels (brick and mortar, automated teller machine (ATM), phone banking, wireless application protocol (WAP), electronic

Fethi Calisir; Cigdem Altin Gumussoy

2008-01-01

242

Wavelet filter evaluation for image compression.  

PubMed

Choice of filter bank in wavelet compression is a critical issue that affects image quality as well as system design. Although regularity is sometimes used in filter evaluation, its success at predicting compression performance is only partial. A more reliable evaluation can be obtained by considering an L-level synthesis/analysis system as a single-input, single-output, linear shift-variant system with a response that varies according to the input location module (2(L),2(L)). By characterizing a filter bank according to its impulse response and step response in addition to regularity, we obtain reliable and relevant (for image coding) filter evaluation metrics. Using this approach, we have evaluated all possible reasonably short (less than 36 taps in the synthesis/analysis pair) minimum-order biorthogonal wavelet filter banks. Of this group of over 4300 candidate filter banks, we have selected and present here the filters best suited to image compression. While some of these filters have been published previously, others are new and have properties that make them attractive in system design. PMID:18291999

Villasenor, J D; Belzer, B; Liao, J

1995-01-01

243

The Magnetic Field Surrounding Serp-FIR1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a 350 micron SHARP/CSO polarization map of the environment surrounding the intermediate-mass YSO Serp-FIR1. These observations are part of a larger program to test the magnetically regulated star formation model using a statistically significant sample of relatively isolated star-forming cores. This model predicts that the magnetic field in these cores will have an hourglass morphology and that the symmetry axis of the magnetic field will be aligned with the outflow axis. We will discuss the results of Serp-FIR1 in terms of this model and compare it to our previously published results. This work is funded by NSF grant AST-0909030.

Chapman, Nicholas L.; Davidson, J. A.; Novak, G.; Matthews, T.; Matthews, B.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Volgenau, N.; Vaillancourt, J.

2012-01-01

244

Efficient iterative methods for FIR least squares identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two iterative methods based on matrix splitting are presented to facilitate the least-squares identification of finite impulse response (FIR) systems. The first method yields an order-recursive solution to a previously proposed fixed-order iterative procedure. The second is a simplified and computationally efficient method and is applicable when the input signals are white, or nonwhite with a correlation coefficient of value

M. Tummala

1990-01-01

245

In situ wood quality assessment in Douglas-fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic control and phenotypic and genotypic correlations among wood density, modulus of elasticity, height, diameter,\\u000a and volume were assessed using 967 trees representing 20 unrelated 32-year-old coastal Douglas-fir full-sib families growing\\u000a on four (spaced and pruned vs. control) comparable test sites. Generally, no significant differences were observed between\\u000a treatments, indicating their limited effect at assessment time. Family effect did

Yoursy A. El-Kassaby; Shawn Mansfield; Fikret Isik; Michael Stoehr

2011-01-01

246

Blind identification and equalization of FIR MIMO channels by BIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm of blind identification and equalization of finite-impulse-response and multiple-input and multiple-output (FIR MIMO) channels driven by colored signals. This algorithm is an improved realization of a concept referred to as blind identification via decorrelating subchannels (BIDS). This BIDS algorithm first constructs a set of decorrelators which decorrelate the output signals of subchannels, and then estimates

Yingbo Hua; Senjian An; Yong Xiang

2001-01-01

247

Fast maximum likelihood for blind identification of multiple FIR channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a fast maximum likelihood method for estimating the impulse responses of multiple FIR channels driven by an arbitrary unknown input. The resulting method consists of two iterative steps, where each step minimizes a quadratic function. The two-step maximum likelihood (TSML) method is shown to be high-SNR efficient, i.e., attaining the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRB) at high SNR.

Yingbo Hua

1996-01-01

248

Prediction and assignment of the FIR spectrum of hydrogen peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Millimeter and submillimeter microwave studies are used to predict and assign the FIR rotational-torsional spectrum of hydrogen peroxide. Special attention is given to the strong Q-branch features that have recently been used by Traub and Chance to place an upper limit on the atmospheric abundance of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, 67 new transitions are reported in the 400-1000 GHz region.

Helminger, P.; Messer, J. K.; De Lucia, F. C.; Bowman, W. C.

1984-01-01

249

Performance Limits of Alphabet Diversities for FIR SISO Channel Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite impulse responses (FIR) of single-input single-output (SISO) channels can be blindly identified from second-order statistics of transformed data, for instance when the channel is excited by binary phase shift keying (BPSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), or quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) inputs. Identifiability conditions are derived by considering that noncircularity induces diversity. Theoretical performance issues are addressed to evaluate

Jean Pierre Delmas; Yann Meurisse; Pierre Comon

2009-01-01

250

Ionising radiation-induced effects in doped germanium FIR photoconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk Ge:Be and Ge:Ga photoconductive devices with a typical crystal size of about 1 mm, are currently the most sensitive detectors for FIR satellite instruments in the wavelength range 40 to 200 micrometers. Due to their high sensitivity and relatively large volume, the performance of these detectors is strongly influenced by ionizing radiation in space. Individual absorption events cause glitches in the data stream which must be rejected; and changes in detector dark current, responsivity and noise arise due to the accumulated ionizing radiation exposure. It is essential to characterize and minimize these effects in order to attain the best overall performance of satellite-borne detectors. Radiation tests in Ge:Be and Ge:Ga (stressed and unstressed) detectors for the ISO (Infrared Space Observatory) Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS), a low background FIR astronomical instrument, and SAFIRE (Spectroscopy of an Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission), a higher background Earth looking instrument, were carried out. The effects of ionizing radiation on the performance parameters of the different detectors types are described and discussed. The effectiveness of curing the detectors by bias boosting is considered, and the implications of the ionizing environment for operation of FIR satellite instruments are outlined.

Price, M. C.; Griffin, M. J.; Church, S. E.; Murray, A. G.; Ade, P. A. R.

1992-12-01

251

Central Banking Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Central Banks of the World is a pointers page to central banks and central bank information for over 45 countries, as well as multilateral financial institutions, research and training establishments, and conference information. To show how little is generally known about the history of central banking in the United States, this site includes an email message sent to the webmaster of the First Bank of the United States, promoting a certain software company's web interactivity applications. Of course, since the First Bank of the United States was closed in 1811, its web site is primarily historical. The Central Banks site lists over 30 Internet directories and pointers pages that list the First Bank of the United States as a functioning financial institution. To help remedy this situation, the site includes a pointer to a brief history of banking in the US.

1996-01-01

252

FIR Zero-Forcing Multiuser Detection and Code Designs for Downlink MC-CDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on multiuser detection for mul- ticarrier code-division multiple-access (MC-CDMA) systems, employing cyclic-prefixed (CP) or zero-padded (ZP) transmission techniques. For both systems, we consider either the classical linear finite-impulse response (L-FIR) receiving structures or, when the transmitted symbols are improper, the recently proposed widely linear FIR (WL-FIR) ones, which process both the received signal and its complex-conjugate version.

Angela Sara Cacciapuoti; Giacinto Gelli; Francesco Verde

2007-01-01

253

Soil properties under young Chinese fir-based agroforestry system in mid-subtropical China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to decrease the soil nutrient loss in young planted Chinese fir (Cunningharnia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) forestland\\u000a and to investigate the impact of young Chinese fir plantation intercropped with crops on soil quality, a field experiment\\u000a was set up in the mid-subtropics of China in 1998. The effects of growing crops in combination with young Chinese fir on soil

Hua Wang; Yu Huang; Huang Huang; Ke M Wang; Shang Y Zhou

2005-01-01

254

The Gaussian sum convolution probability hypothesis density filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multi-target tracking algorithm, termed as the Gaussian sum convolution probability hypothesis density (GSCPHD) filter, is proposed. The filter is calculated by a bank of convolution filters with Gaussian approximations to the predicted and posterior densities. It is shown that the ability to deal with complex observation model, non or small observation noise of the GSCPHD over the Gaussian

Jian Jun Yin; Jian Qiu Zhang; Ze Sen Zhuang

2008-01-01

255

World Bank Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has recently added full-text journal articles to its Website. The World Bank Research Observer is geared towards non-specialist readers who have an interested in bank research. It includes articles on such matters as development economics, new World Bank research, and development policy. The World Bank Economic Review is a professional journal, published three times a year, that focuses on "World Bank-sponsored research that emphasizes empirical applications." Journals are searchable by article and by issue, as well as by author and keyword.

256

User's guide to the douglas-fir beetle impact model. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Douglas-fir beetle occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir. At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precendent conditions for epidemics of Douglas-fir beetle. An impact model has been developed to simulate tree mortality during such epidemics. The model has been linked to the Stand Prognosis Model (Forest Vegetation Simulator). This is a guide for using the model.

Marsden, M.A.; Eav, B.B.; Thompson, M.K.

1994-09-01

257

40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...required under paragraph (a) of this section using either one or a combination of the following: bag filters, bank filtration, cartridge filters, chlorine dioxide, membranes, ozone, or UV, as described in §§ 141.716 through...

2013-07-01

258

Aircraft Fasteners Test Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a bank of test questions on the use of fasteners in the aerospace industry. Eighty three test questions and their correct answers are included in this test bank.

2012-11-23

259

Aircraft Materials Test Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microsoft Word document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a bank of test questions on materials used in the aircraft industry. 35 test questions and their correct answers are included in this test bank.

2012-11-13

260

AAMRL Biodynamics Data Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report traces the development of the Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (AAMRL) Biodynamics Data Bank from the original concept of a National Biomechanics Data Bank proposed by Working Group 87 of the National Research Council. ...

T. S. Abrams I. Kaleps J. W. Brinkley

1988-01-01

261

Disk filter  

DOEpatents

An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09

262

Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

2014-05-01

263

Internet Banking: Developments and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper addresses significant gaps in existing ,knowledge ,about the Internet banking landscape. Using information drawn from a survey of national bank examiners, we find that while only 20 percent of national banks offered Internet banking in Q3 1999, these transactional Internet banks accounted for almost 90 percent of national ,banking system assets and 84 percent of the total

Karen Furst; William W. Lang; Daniel E. Nolle

2002-01-01

264

The Evolution of Central Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1995What have we learned about central banks? The principal factors affecting central bank autonomy in the past two centuries have been prevailing political conditions, a laissez faire environment, and the exchange rate regime (whether fixed or floating).Institutions we know as central banks emerged or were established as commercial banks or government banks. Their evolution into central banks came with

Forrest Capie

1999-01-01

265

A Theory of Bank Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks can create liquidity because their deposits are fragile and prone to runs. Increased uncertainty can make deposits excessively fragile in which case there is a role for outside bank capital. Greater bank capital reduces liquidity creation by the bank but enables the bank to survive more often and avoid distress. A more subtle effect is that banks with different

Douglas W. Diamond; Raghuram G. Rajan

1999-01-01

266

Snow Bank Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Local professors teamed up with a fourth-grade teacher to show students the similarities and differences between sedimentary rock layers and snow banks. Students observed and drew snow banks and explored the effects of melting and salting on the snow banks.

Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

267

What's different among banks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on commercial paper being a nearly perfect substitute for certificates of deposits (CDs) and CD reserve requirements creating a higher cost of funds for banks, Fama shows that the banking industry must have some monopoly power relative to other financial institutions. His analysis does not resolve whether this monopoly power is vested in banks collectively, vis-à-vis other financial institutions,

Thomas F. Cosimano; Bill McDonald

1998-01-01

268

Efficiency in European banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the established literature on modelling the cost characteristics of banking markets by applying the flexible Fourier functional form and stochastic cost frontier methodologies to estimate scale economies, X-inefficiencies and technical change for a large sample of European banks between 1989 and 1997. The results reveal that scale economies are widespread for smallest banks and those in the

Y. Altunba?; E. P. M. Gardener; P. Molyneux; B. Moore

2001-01-01

269

ZPVE correction to the FIR spectrum of propanal isotopomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous articles, the propanal FIR spectra have been studied theoretically using ab initio calculations and they have been compared with experimental results reported in the literature. In the present work, the zero point vibrational energy correction to the energy (ZPVE) is introduced to calculate the simultaneous asymmetric aldehydic and methyl torsion spectra for the propanal deuterated species, for which observed spectra are known. In the case of the aldehydic torsion, the ZPEV correction is essential to reproduce the experimental data. Thus, the fundamentals for the studied species have been found to be close to the corresponding experimental data.

Villa, M.; Senent, M. L.; Dominguez-Gomez, R.

2007-02-01

270

An optically tunable wideband optoelectronic oscillator based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter.  

PubMed

An optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with wideband frequency tunability and stable output based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Realized by cascading a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter together, the tunable bandpass MPF successfully replaces the narrowband electrical bandpass filter in a conventional single-loop OEO and serves as the oscillating frequency selector. The FIR filter is based on a tunable multi-wavelength laser and dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) while the IIR filter is simply based on an optical loop. Utilizing a long length of DCF as the dispersion medium for the FIR filter also provides a long delay line for the OEO feedback cavity and as a result, optical tuning over a wide frequency range can be achieved without sacrificing the quality of the generated signal. By tuning the wavelength spacing of the multi-wavelength laser, the oscillation frequency can be tuned from 6.88 GHz to 12.79 GHz with an average step-size of 0.128 GHz. The maximum frequency drift of the generated 10 GHz signal is observed to be 1.923 kHz over 1 hour and its phase noise reaches the -112 dBc/Hz limit of our measuring equipment at 10 kHz offset frequency. PMID:23938489

Jiang, Fan; Wong, Jia Haur; Lam, Huy Quoc; Zhou, Junqiang; Aditya, Sheel; Lim, Peng Huei; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Shum, Perry Ping; Zhang, Xinliang

2013-07-15

271

Cascaded integrator comb filters with smoothly varying coefficients for reduced delay in synchrotron feedback loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the J-PARC complex in Tokai, Japan, is designed to accelerate a high intensity proton beam from 181 MeV, and later 400 MeV to 3 GeV in 20 ms within the 40 ms machine cycle. The beam power up to 1 MW demands a stable beam control to avoid excessive losses and activation of the accelerator chain. The fully digital control system is based on quadrature modulation and demodulation. In the amplitude control loops standard FIR filters separate the harmonics (h=2) and (h=4) after down conversion. For the phase loops at (h=2) and (h=4), intended to damp synchrotron oscillations, the delay in a FIR filter would limit the loop stability. Cascaded integrator comb filters, also called CIC filters, provide a shorter delay because they filter the longitudinal beam signal only where it is necessary. The notches are located at multiples of the revolution frequency of the proton beam. For fixed frequency accelerator applications, digital comb filters with fixed clock frequency are widely used to improve loop stability. For variable frequency accelerator applications, as in a proton synchrotron, where the frequency swing is larger than the notch width, usually the clock frequency of the comb filter is variable and chosen to be an integer multiple of the particle revolution frequency. At J-PARC RCS, the clock frequency has to be fixed. Tracking the frequency would require a variable noninteger number of filter taps. Here we present a filter, based on the weighted output of 2 CIC filters with variable length, and one tap difference. The filter function looks like a CIC with smoothly varying coefficients, where the notches follow the revolution frequency of the proton beam. The delay of this filter is approximately half of the corresponding FIR filter, so that the phase loops have a higher stability margin.

Schnase, A.; Nomura, M.; Tamura, F.; Yamamoto, M.; Anami, S.; Ezura, E.; Hara, K.; Ohmori, C.; Takagi, A.; Yoshii, M.

2005-12-01

272

Valuing high altitude spruce-fir forest improvements: importance of forest condition and recreation activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

High altitude spruce fir forests are typical around the world and are often subjected to multiple forms of recreational use. In this paper, we use household and recreation group data for a spruce fir forest high in the Appalachian Mountains of the U. S. to evaluate the benefits from forest protection (i. e., from improving the forest condition). Our benefits

Dylan H. Jenkins; Jay Sullivan; Gregory S. Amacher; Niki S. Nicholas; Dixie W. Reaves

2002-01-01

273

Ponderosa Pine-Grand Fir Spacing Study in Central Oregon: Results After 10 Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 10-year growth response from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and grand fir (Abies grandis) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure pine, pure fir,...

K. W. Seidel

1985-01-01

274

Blind equalization and estimation of digital communication FIR channels using cumulant matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of blind estimation and equalization of digital communication FIR (finite impulse response) channels. The channel parameters are estimated by nonlinear batch optimization of a quadratic cumulant matching criterion involving second and fourth order cumulants of the received data. A new algorithm is proposed for (asymptotically) globally convergent, linear estimation of the FIR channel parameters where the

Jitendra K. Tugnait

1995-01-01

275

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

1993-01-01

276

Bahrain's offshore banking center  

SciTech Connect

The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

1983-01-01

277

Bank Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank Information Center (BIC) is a nonprofit, independent, non-governmental organization that "provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)." The organization's Website contains information about BIC's ongoing activities and offers useful publications and toolkits for those interested in and involved with MDBs. The Toolkits for Activists section includes fact sheets that explain the inner workings of the World Bank, covering topics such as basic information about the World Bank, the Country Assistance Strategy, World Bank policy framework, and information on World Bank's lending. Each fact sheet is available in both .pdf and HTML formats. The publications section offers a variety of resources including papers, case studies, and meeting reports, many of which are available online. Also provided are links to other monitoring organizations around the world and several online forums. An information services page will be added soon.

278

Measurements of filter-cake properties  

SciTech Connect

The Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) programs of the U.S. Department of Energy require filtration, at temperatures from about 600 to 900 {degrees}C, of fine particles of coal ash, char, or spent and unreacted sorbent from hot-gas streams. Achieving acceptable filter lifetimes requires solutions to or avoidance of, such problems as incomplete filter cleaning, re-entrainment (i.e., re-filtration) of particles from filter cleaning, and bridging of filter cake between adjacent filters. These and other potential problems may arise from the materials properties of filter cakes, from the filter-bank design, and from the mechanisms of filter cleaning. Avoiding re-entrainment requires that some bonding and agglomeration of particles occur in the cakes (so that the agglomerates from filter cleaning are too large to be re-entrained), but excessive agglomeration can produce poor cleaning or bridging. For both PFBC and IGCC applications, we can form filter cakes at process temperatures, gas compositions, and gas flow rates, and measure the gas-phase permeabilities, porosities, tensile strengths, and deformation coefficients of these filter cakes to determine their dependencies on temperature, reaction time, gas composition, particle compositions, and particle size distributions. Filter-cake shear strengths and flow factors can be measured for powders ``as received,`` for filter cakes that we have heated to process temperatures, or for powders heated in reactive gases to simulate gas-solid reactions in process filter cakes.

Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.J.

1996-12-31

279

High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues  

SciTech Connect

New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong [Centre for Laser, Atomic and Molecular Studies (CLAMS), University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B. [Canadian Light Source, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 101 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada)

2010-02-03

280

Multirate synthesis of reverberators using subband filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an important element in three-dimensional audio reproduction, reverberators serve to enhance the sense of spaciousness by synthesizing the sound reflections and reverberations pertaining to a particular listening environment. However, direct implementation of room responses generally proves impractical due to the extreme complexity of system dynamics. To overcome the difficulties encountered in long convolutions, an efficient multirate signal processing technique is proposed in this paper on the basis of subband filtering scheme. In this method, the frequency dependent property of reverberation time is incorporated into the design procedure. Further simplification follows from the synthesized infinite impulse response (IIR) implementation for each subband. Specifically, the regular IIR filter, the cascaded comb filters and nested allpass filters, and the cascaded comb filter and an FIR filter are developed to implement the subband filters. Genetic algorithms (GA) are employed to optimize the parameters of reverberators. Subjective listening tests are carried out to assess the performance of the proposed techniques. The results demonstrate that the implemented multirate reverberators are capable of delivering natural sensation of room reverberations, as compared to direct measurement.

Bai, Mingsian R.; Ou, Kwuen-Yieng; Zeung, Pingshun

2009-04-01

281

Hardware-efficient distributed arithmetic architecture for high-order digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new memory-efficient distributed arithmetic (DA) architecture for high-order FIR filters. The proposed architecture is based on a memory reduction technique for DA look-up-tables (LUTs); it requires fewer transistors for high-order filters than original LUT-based DA, DA-offset binary coding (DA-OBC), and the LUT-less DA-OBC. Recursive iteration of the memory reduction technique significantly increases the maximum number of

Heejong Yoo; David V. Anderson

2005-01-01

282

Filtering Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electrical filter is described for removing noise from voice communications signals. Filtering is accomplished by adding balanced, with respect to a midpoint sample, spaced pairs of the sampled signal values, and then multiplying each pair by a selecte...

T. R. Edwards H. W. Zeanah

1974-01-01

283

Biological Filters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

Klemetson, S. L.

1978-01-01

284

Smoothing filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The improvement of accuracy in using the smoothing filter instead of the Kalman filter is discussed. Factors of improvement for velocity errors of up to four are shown for position measurements. Smoothing equations are presented, and it is shown that smoothing equations for the smoothing filter appear to be stable.

Lear, W. H.

1980-01-01

285

NOISE AND OUTLIER REMOVAL FROM JET ENGINE HEALTH SIGNALS USING WEIGHTED FIR MEDIAN HYBRID FILTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of noise and outliers from measurement signals is a major problem in jet engine health monitoring. Typical measurement signals found in most jet engines include low rotor speed, high rotor speed, fuel flow and exhaust gas temperature. Deviations in these measurements from a baseline ‘good’ engine are often called measurement deltas and the health signals used for fault

R. Ganguli

2002-01-01

286

Dynamics of Banking Technology Adoption: An Application to Internet Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with examining behaviour of firms (banks) and consumers (banks' customers) in the event of a new technology (internet banking) introduction. The determinants of consumer adoption of internet banking are characterised using survey data from Korea in both static and dynamic framework. I find evidence that adoption of internet banking is influenced by sex, age, marital status,

Yoonhee Tina Chang

2003-01-01

287

Determinants of Internet banking adoption by banks in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The current exploratory study is an attempt to discover the factors affecting a bank's decision to adopt Internet banking in India. Particularly, it seeks to examine the relationship between the bank's adoption decision and various bank and market characteristics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data for this study consist of panel data of 88 banks in India covering the financial

Pooja Malhotra; Balwinder Singh

2007-01-01

288

Experience in internet banking and performance of banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to examine the impact of internet banking on banks' performance and also whether, among banks offering internet banking, those that have offered it for a relatively long time outperformed those that only recently began to offer it. Using the data on financial performance of 82 scheduled commercial banks, during the period of 1998-2007, the univariate analysis indicates

Pooja Malhotra; Balwinder Singh

2010-01-01

289

The Origins of Banking Panics: Models, Facts, and Bank Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banking panics are the central event informing and rationalizing government intervention into the banking industry. In the last decade progress has been made in understanding the origins of panics. This essay reviews recent theoretical and empirical work on the origins of banking panics. New evidence on the causes of banking panics is introduced. Banking panics do not appear to have

Charles W. Calomiris; Gary Gorton

1991-01-01

290

Bank for International Settlements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), a creation of the Hague Conference of 1930, is "a[n international] central banking institution" whose aim is "to promote the co-operation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations." Its web site provides a detailed profile of BIS, along with its basic texts and charters. However, the power of the site is its publication section, a small but growing list of full text publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), highlighted by the quarterly International Banking and Financial Market Developments, a "commentary on recent developments in international banking, securities and global derivatives markets based on partial information available for the [most recent quarter] and on more detailed banking data for [the previous quarter]." The site also contains BIS Review, "a collection of important articles and speeches by senior central bankers."

1997-01-01

291

Is Central Bank Transparency Desirable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I analyse central bank transparency when the central bank's objective function is its private information. Non-transparency exists when the public does not observe the action of the central bank and an unobservable component of the inflation-control error keeps the public from using its observation of inflation to infer perfectly the central bank's action, and hence, the central bank's objective. The

Anne C. Sibert

2006-01-01

292

Cooperative Banks and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative banks are an important, and growing, part of many financial systems. This paper empirically analyzes the role of cooperative banks in financial stability. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, we find that cooperative banks are more stable than commercial banks. This finding is due to the lower volatility of the cooperative banks' returns, which more than offsets their

Martin Cihák; Heiko Hesse

2007-01-01

293

Banking Scope and Financial Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the implications of financial system design for financial innovation. We begin with assumptions about the investment opportunities of firms, their observable attributes, and the roles of commercial banks, investment banks, and the financial market. We examine the borrower's choice between bank and financial market funding, the commercial bank's choice of monitoring capacity, and the investment bank's choice of

Arnoud W A Boot; Anjan V Thakor

1997-01-01

294

A Theory of Bank Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks can create liquidity precisely because deposits are fragile and prone to runs. Increased uncertainty makes deposits excessively fragile, creating a role for outside bank capital. Greater bank capital reduces the probability of financial distress but also reduces liquidity creation. The quantity of capital influences the amount that banks can induce borrowers to pay. Optimal bank capital structure trades off

Douglas W. Diamond; Raghuram G. Rajan

2000-01-01

295

Bank Director Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created for directors of financial companies, Bank Director Magazine is a quarterly publication that examines issues of importance to bank directors. The online publication includes the complete table of contents, as well as a selection of articles from the current issue. The site also features a directory of names, addresses, and phone numbers of M&A investment banking and law firms, consulting firms, and technology and retail delivery companies.

296

Development News: World Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Development News, or DevNews, is the World Bank's daily Web-based newsletter. Available in English, French, and Spanish, DevNews offers feature stories on recent advances and challenges in world development. The newsletter also links to a daily summary of approved loans, speeches given by World Bank officials, an events calendar, and World Bank press releases. Articles from February 1999 to the present can be found in the free archive.

297

Quantitative characterization of the interactions among c-myc transcriptional regulators FUSE, FBP, and FIR.  

PubMed

Human c-myc is critical for cell homeostasis and growth but is a potent oncogenic factor if improperly regulated. The c-myc far-upstream element (FUSE) melts into single-stranded DNA upon active transcription, and the noncoding strand FUSE recruits an activator [the FUSE-binding protein (FBP)] and a repressor [the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR)] to fine-tune c-myc transcription in a real-time manner. Despite detailed biological experiments describing this unique mode of transcriptional regulation, quantitative measurements of the physical constants regulating the protein-DNA interactions remain lacking. Here, we first demonstrate that the two FUSE strands adopt different conformations upon melting, with the noncoding strand DNA in an extended, linear form. FBP binds to the linear noncoding FUSE with a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. FIR binds to FUSE more weakly, having its modest dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. FIR is monomeric under near-physiological conditions but upon binding of FUSE dimerizes into a 2:1 FIR(2)-FUSE complex mediated by the RRMs. In the tripartite interaction, our analysis suggests a stepwise addition of FIR onto an activating FBP-FUSE complex to form a quaternary FIR(2)-FBP-FUSE inhibitory complex. Our quantitative characterization enhances understanding of DNA strand preference and the mechanism of the stepwise complex formation in the FUSE-FBP-FIR regulatory system. PMID:20420426

Hsiao, Hsin-Hao; Nath, Abhinav; Lin, Chi-Yen; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa J; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Braddock, Demetrios T

2010-06-01

298

Global Systems for Mobile Position Tracking Using Kalman and Lainiotis Filters  

PubMed Central

We present two time invariant models for Global Systems for Mobile (GSM) position tracking, which describe the movement in x-axis and y-axis simultaneously or separately. We present the time invariant filters as well as the steady state filters: the classical Kalman filter and Lainiotis Filter and the Join Kalman Lainiotis Filter, which consists of the parallel usage of the two classical filters. Various implementations are proposed and compared with respect to their behavior and to their computational burden: all time invariant and steady state filters have the same behavior using both proposed models but have different computational burden. Finally, we propose a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) implementation of the Steady State Kalman, and Lainiotis filters, which does not require previous estimations but requires a well-defined set of previous measurements.

Assimakis, Nicholas

2014-01-01

299

Global systems for mobile position tracking using Kalman and Lainiotis filters.  

PubMed

We present two time invariant models for Global Systems for Mobile (GSM) position tracking, which describe the movement in x-axis and y-axis simultaneously or separately. We present the time invariant filters as well as the steady state filters: the classical Kalman filter and Lainiotis Filter and the Join Kalman Lainiotis Filter, which consists of the parallel usage of the two classical filters. Various implementations are proposed and compared with respect to their behavior and to their computational burden: all time invariant and steady state filters have the same behavior using both proposed models but have different computational burden. Finally, we propose a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) implementation of the Steady State Kalman, and Lainiotis filters, which does not require previous estimations but requires a well-defined set of previous measurements. PMID:24883349

Assimakis, Nicholas; Adam, Maria

2014-01-01

300

Observing and Calibration Strategies for FIR Imaging with SIRTF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present data from a 16×32 array of unstressed Ge:Ga detectors, showing the long time constant responses and hook effect characteristic of these devices. This array is half the size of the 70 ?m imaging array planned for MIPS, the Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF. We present simulations of the FIR (far infrared) sky as viewed by a MIPS array, including realistic noise effects and extraction of point sources with a standard photometry package, showing that the photometric goals of MIPS are attainable with the current array performance and using standard analysis techniques. Previous calculations by Heim et al. (1998) had determined that MIPS would achieve 5-? detections of <=1 mJy at 70 ?m in 2000 s; the simulations presented here obtain results consistent with those calculations.

Engelbracht, C. W.; Young, E. T.; Rieke, G. H.; lis, G. Riv; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.

2000-08-01

301

Localisation and mobility of trace metal in silver fir needles.  

PubMed

Trace metals (TM: Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) as well as Al, Mn, and Fe content was measured in needles of a remote silver fir stand in the south of France. TM localisation and behaviour in needles was evaluated by measuring total and internal content of needles of different ages. Measured concentrations fell within background values. Al, Fe, Co, and Pb were trapped in wax following atmospheric particulate deposition. Contrasting accumulation and migration behaviours of the different elements studied were observed. The wax contained less than 10% Mn, Al, Ni, Co, and Zn and 15-45% Fe, Cu, and Cd in the young needles. Lead was mostly located in the wax (50-80%), and this proportion decreased with needle age. Only the internal content of Pb and Fe increased significantly with needle age. Finally, due to atmospheric deposition accumulation, higher input fluxes of Fe, Cu, Cd, and Pb can be expected in forest soil. PMID:22221667

Gandois, L; Probst, A

2012-04-01

302

An FIR cooled grating spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a liquid-He-cooled spectrometer being developed for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) to study FIR lines originating in the interstellar medium are discussed. Currently, the spectrometer contains six Ge:Ga photoconductor detectors mounted in integrating cavities and cooled to about 3 K; the collimator focal plane has space for 39 such detectors. The instrument achieves a maximum resolving power of 6000 by means of a 45-cm long echelle grating and is optically capable of operating in the spectral range 25-300 microns. A laboratory spectrum of water vapor, an atmospheric water absorption feature measured from the KAO with Mars as a source, and the forbidden O(2+) emission from W51-IRS1 are shown.

Erickson, E. F.; Haas, M. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Simpson, J. P.; Augason, G. C.; Houck, J. R.; Harwit, M. O.; Rank, D. M.

1985-01-01

303

Tradeoffs in the design of wavelet filters for image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the problem of joint optimization of wavelet transform, quantization, and data rate allocation according to mathematical criteria for high compression efficiency of image coding algorithms. The relevancy of some filter bank properties for compression purposes is evaluated. Using lattice structures, a large number of orthogonal and biorthogonal wavelet filter banks, with different properties of regularity, coding gain, phase linearity, and cross-correlation between adjacent bands are designed. Scalar and lattice vector quantization is then optimized adaptively to filter bank characteristics and to signal statistics. An appropriate choice of transition bandwidth, decreasing the energy around the Nyquist frequency without constraints of `zeros' in (omega) equals (pi) , provides by the maximum selectivity criterion filter banks close in performance to filters that we found optimum, and designed to satisfy either the maximum coding gain or minimum cross-correlation criterion. For a lower transition bandwidth, the increased regularity has for effect to increase the coding gain, to reach a maximum coding gain for maximally regular Daubechies filters. When comparing results of coding with the optimal orthogonal wavelet filter bank with those provided by a maximally frequency selective biorthogonal solution with same regularity it is observed that for a comparable peak SNR the contours are better reconstructed with biorthogonal solutions.

Onno, Patrice; Guillemot, Christine M.

1993-10-01

304

Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.  

PubMed

Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline. PMID:15091853

Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J

1993-01-01

305

Eye Bank Association of America  

MedlinePLUS

... to content Skip to Navigation Find an Eye Bank Near You MEMBER LOGIN ALERT (April 11, 2014): ... is the nationally-recognized accrediting body for eye banks. Since 1961, EBAA member banks have restored sight ...

306

Comparative International Characteristics of Banking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper compares key characteristics of banking systems across countries. A basic premise underlying our review is that the increasing globalization of banking and finance mandate a broad, cross-country perspective on banking issues. Indeed, cross-coun...

D. E. Nolle G. Caprio J. R. Barth

2004-01-01

307

FDIC Banking Review, October 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC's monthly publication Banking Review includes the article "Financially Distressed Banks: How Effective Are Enforcement Actions in the Supervision Process?" which looks at some effects of bank examinations.

308

Comparison of Wavelet Packets With Cosine-Modulated Pseudo-QMF Bank for ECG Compression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electrocardiogram (ECG) compression technique based on subband coding has been developed in this paper to compare with compression techniques based on Wavelet Packets (WP). The filter bank designed is a cosine-modulated pseudo-QMF bank using the Kaiser...

M. Blanco-Velasco F. Cruz-Roldan F. Lopez-Ferreras P. Martin-Martin

2001-01-01

309

A new method for fabrication of diamond-dust blocking filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal embedding of diamond dust onto a polyethylene-coated Al plate has been used to make a blocking filter for FIR applications. The Al plate is sandwiched between two Mylar 'blankets' and the air between the layers is removed by means of a small vacuum pump. After the polyethylene is heated and softened, the diamond dust is applied to the polyethylene coating using a brush. The optimum diamond dust grain sizes corresponding to polyethylene layer thicknesses of 9-12 microns are given in a table, and the application of the blocking filter to spectrometric measurements in the FIR is described. An exploded view diagram of the layered structure of the blocking filter is provided.

Collard, H. R.; Hogan, R. C.

1986-01-01

310

Filter validation.  

PubMed

Validation of a sterilizing filtration process is critical since it is impossible with currently available technology to measure the sterility of each filled container; therefore, sterility assurance of the filtered product must be achieved through validation of the filtration process. Validating a pharmaceutical sterile filtration process involves three things: determining the effect of the liquid on the filter, determining the effect of the filter on the liquid, and demonstrating that the filter removes all microorganisms from the liquid under actual processing conditions. PMID:16570864

Madsen, Russell E

2006-01-01

311

Banks, markets, and efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the question whether increasing households' financial market access improves welfare in a financial system in which there is intense competition among banks for private households' funds. Following earlier work by Diamond and by Fecht, we use a model in which the degree of liquidity insurance offered to households through banks' deposit contracts is restrained by

Falko Fecht; Antoine Martin

2005-01-01

312

Banks, Markets, and Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Diamond (1997) and Fecht (2004) we use a model in which financial market access of households restrains the efficiency of the liquidity insurance that banks' deposit contracts provide to households that are subject to idiosyncratic liquidity shocks. But in contrast to these approaches we assume spacial monopolistic competition among banks. Since monopoly rents are assumed to bring about inefficiencies,

Falko Fecht; Antoine Martin

2005-01-01

313

Banks, Markets, and Eciency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Diamond (1997) and Fecht (2004) we use a model in which financial market access of households restrains the eciency of the liquidity insurance that banks' deposit contracts provide to households that are subject to idiosyncratic liquidity shocks. But in contrast to these approaches we assume spacial monopolistic competition among banks. Since monopoly rents are assumed to bring about ineciencies,

Falko Fecht; Deutsche Bundesbank; Antoine Martin

2005-01-01

314

Banks, markets, and efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Diamond (1997) and Fecht (2004) we use a model in which financial market access of households restrains the efficiency of the liquidity insurance that banks' deposit contracts provide to households that are subject to idiosyncratic liquidity shocks. But in contrast to these approaches we assume spacial monopolistic competition among banks. Since monopoly rents are assumed to bring about inefficiencies,

Falko Fecht; Antoine Martin

2005-01-01

315

Overflowing the Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will teach students about levees and how they are designed to hold a river in its bank. They will construct a model of a river bank and explore how levees can cause water levels to back up into smaller streams and tributaries, causing floods.

316

Banking (Conservatively) with Optimists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial banks frequently encounter optimistic entrepreneurs whose perceptions are biased by wishful thinking. Bankers are left with a difficult screening problem: separating realistic entrepreneurs from optimists who may be clever, knowledgeable, and completely sincere. We build a game-theoretic model of the screening process. We show that although entrepreneurs may practice self-restraint to signal realism, competition may lead banks to be

Michael Manove; A. Jorge Padilla

1999-01-01

317

iBank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

2012-01-01

318

Banking on Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank

Roach, Ronald

2010-01-01

319

Volunteer Community Language Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

320

Method and system for training dynamic nonlinear adaptive filters which have embedded memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described herein is a method and system for training nonlinear adaptive filters (or neural networks) which have embedded memory. Such memory can arise in a multi-layer finite impulse response (FIR) architecture, or an infinite impulse response (IIR) architecture. We focus on filter architectures with separate linear dynamic components and static nonlinear components. Such filters can be structured so as to restrict their degrees of computational freedom based on a priori knowledge about the dynamic operation to be emulated. The method is detailed for an FIR architecture which consists of linear FIR filters together with nonlinear generalized single layer subnets. For the IIR case, we extend the methodology to a general nonlinear architecture which uses feedback. For these dynamic architectures, we describe how one can apply optimization techniques which make updates closer to the Newton direction than those of a steepest descent method, such as backpropagation. We detail a novel adaptive modified Gauss-Newton optimization technique, which uses an adaptive learning rate to determine both the magnitude and direction of update steps. For a wide range of adaptive filtering applications, the new training algorithm converges faster and to a smaller value of cost than both steepest-descent methods such as backpropagation-through-time, and standard quasi-Newton methods. We apply the algorithm to modeling the inverse of a nonlinear dynamic tracking system 5, as well as a nonlinear amplifier 6.

Rabinowitz, Matthew (Inventor)

2002-01-01

321

75 FR 67731 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System,...

2010-11-03

322

75 FR 69444 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System,...

2010-11-12

323

Nearest matched filter classification of spatiotemporal patterns.  

PubMed

Recent advances in massively parallel optical and electronic neural network processing technology have made it plausible to consider the use of matched filter banks containing large numbers of individual filters as pattern classifiers for complex spatiotemporal pattern environments such as speech, sonar, radar, and advanced communications. This paper begins with an overview of how neural networks can be used to approximately implement such multidimensional matched filter banks. The nearest matched filter classifier is then formally defined. This definition is then reformulated to show that the classifier is equivalent to a nearest neighbor classifier in a separable infinite-dimensional metric space that specifies the local-in-time behavior of spatiotemporal patterns. The result of Cover and Hart is then applied to show that, given a statistically comprehensive set of filter templates, the nearest matched filter classifier will have near-Bayesian performance for spatiotemporal patterns. The combination of near-Bayesian classifier performance with the excellent performance of matched filtering in noise yields a powerful new classification technique. This result adds additional interest to Grossberg's hypothesis that the mammalian cerebral cortex carries out local-in-time nearest matched filter classification of both auditory and visual sensory inputs as an initial step in sensory pattern recognition-which may help explain the almost instantaneous pattern recognition capabilities of animals. PMID:20454418

Hecht-Nielsen, R

1987-05-15

324

Exploring the FIR-Radio Correlation With Continuous Spectra from the ATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the correlation between the far infrared (FIR) and radio emission of starforming (SF) galaxies is well-supported observationally, a detailed understanding of this relationship remains elusive. The \\

Peter K. G. Williams; G. C. Bower

2009-01-01

325

Managing for Biodiversity in Young Douglas-Fir Forests of Western Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project addressed potential contributions of forest thinning to enhancing biodiversity and accelerating development of old-growth characteristics in relatively young Douglas-fir forests typical of those managed according to the Northwest Forest Plan....

P. S. Muir R. L. Mattingly J. C. Tappeiner J. D. Bailey W. E. Elliott J. C. Hagar J. C. Miller E. B. Peterson E. E. Starkey

2002-01-01

326

12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL...

2012-01-01

327

12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL...

2013-01-01

328

Iris Recognition Using Circular Symmetric Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new method for personal identification based on iris recognition. The method consists of three major components: image preprocessing, feature extraction and classifier design. A bank of circular symmetric filters is used to capture local iris characteristics to form a fixed length feature vector. In iris matching, an efficient approach called nearest feature line (NFL) is used.

Li Ma; Yunhong Wang; Tieniu Tan

2002-01-01

329

Design of FIR precoders and equalizers for broadband MIMO wireless channels with power constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the optimum design of FIR precoders or equalizers for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-selective wireless channels. The matrix Bezout identity (S.Y. Kung, et al., 2002) can be employed to design a FIR MIMO precoder\\/equalizer for a left\\/right coprime channel. Unfortunately, Bezout precoders\\/equalizers usually increase the transmit\\/noise power in order to compensate for the deep frequency fades in channels.

Yongfang Guo; Bernard C. Levy

2003-01-01

330

Belowground competition from overstory trees influences Douglas-fir sapling morphology in thinned stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated effects of belowground competition on morphology of naturally established coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings in 60- to 80-year-old thinned Douglas-fir stands in southwestern Washington. We separately quantified\\u000a belowground competition from overstory and understory sources using trenching and understory removal. In this light-limited\\u000a environment of 26 ± 16% (std. dev.) full sunlight, 2-year exclusion of tree root

Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington

2009-01-01

331

Classification of grand fir mosaic habitats. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Five habitat types, an elevation range, and plant indicator species were used to develop a key to Grand Fir Mosaic habitats. These habitats have a slow rate of secondary succession to woody vegetation. Successful management begins with proper identification, which will then allow land managers to prescribe appropriate practices. This paper discusses the process of developing the key and provides supporting information to confirm sites that are part of the Grand Fir Mosaic.

Ferguson, D.E.; Johnson, F.D.

1996-05-01

332

Time-varying FIR decision feedback equalization of doubly-selective channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a minimum mean-square error (MMSE) time-varying (TV) finite impulse response (FIR) decision feedback equalizer (DFE) for doubly-selective (time- and frequency-selective) channels. We use the basis expansion model (BEM) to approximate the doubly-selective channel and to design the TV FIR DFE. This allows us to turn a large design problem into an equivalent small design problem, containing only the

Imad Barhumi; Geert Leus; Marc Moonen

2003-01-01

333

Water Filter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective. Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

334

Filtering Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how CCD cameras use color filters to create astronomical images in this Moveable Museum unit. The four-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity notes, and step-by-step directions. Students look at black-and-white photos to understand gray scale and construct simple red and green cellophane filters and observe magazine images through them.

335

Compact Micromachined Bandpass Filters for Infrared Planetary Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal instrument strawman payload of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter on the Europa Jupiter Science Mission will map out thermal anomalies, the structure, and atmospheric conditions of Europa and Jupiter within the 7-100 micron spectral range. One key requirement for the payload is that the mass cannot exceed 3.7 kg. Consequently, a new generation of light-weight miniaturized spectrometers needs to be developed. On the path toward developing these spectrometers is development of ancillary miniaturized spectroscopic components. In this paper, we present a strategy for making radiation hard and low mass FIR band pass metal mesh filters. Our strategy involves using MEMS-based fabrication techniques, which will permit the quasi-optical filter structures to be made with micron-scale precision. This will enable us to achieve tight control over both the pass band of the filter and the micromachined silicon support structure architecture, which will facilitate integration of the filters for a variety of applications.

Brown, Ari D.; Aslam, Shahid; Chervenak, James A.; Huang, Wei-Chung; Merrell, Willie; Quijada, Manuel

2011-01-01

336

Fluoroscopic filtering  

SciTech Connect

A radiation source emits a beam of penetrating radiation toward an examination object. A protective filter, fabricated of yttrium foil attached to a bakelite card, is positioned in the path of the radiation beam between the source and the examination object. The yttrium filter has a preselected critical absorption edge operable to obstruct from the beam photon energy below 20 keV and permit a filtered beam having a photon energy above 20 keV to pass through the examination object. The filtered radiation emerging from the examination object is detected by preselected means, such as illuminated film, an X-ray intensifier, a CT scanner, or the like. The detector generates an output signal corresponding to the intensity of the emerging filtered radiation. An image processor converts the output signals to a radiographic image displaying the examination object.

Hartwell, G.

1985-02-12

337

Dimerization of FIR upon FUSE DNA binding suggests a mechanism of c-myc inhibition.  

PubMed

c-myc is essential for cell homeostasis and growth but lethal if improperly regulated. Transcription of this oncogene is governed by the counterbalancing forces of two proteins on TFIIH--the FUSE binding protein (FBP) and the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR). FBP and FIR recognize single-stranded DNA upstream of the P1 promoter, known as FUSE, and influence transcription by oppositely regulating TFIIH at the promoter site. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with light scattering reveals that an FIR dimer binds one molecule of single-stranded DNA. The crystal structure confirms that FIR binds FUSE as a dimer, and only the N-terminal RRM domain participates in nucleic acid recognition. Site-directed mutations of conserved residues in the first RRM domain reduce FIR's affinity for FUSE, while analogous mutations in the second RRM domain either destabilize the protein or have no effect on DNA binding. Oppositely oriented DNA on parallel binding sites of the FIR dimer results in spooling of a single strand of bound DNA, and suggests a mechanism for c-myc transcriptional control. PMID:18059478

Crichlow, Gregg V; Zhou, Hongwen; Hsiao, Hsin-hao; Frederick, Kendra B; Debrosse, Maxime; Yang, Yuande; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa J; Chung, Hye-Jung; Fan, Chengpeng; De la Cruz, Enrique M; Levens, David; Lolis, Elias; Braddock, Demetrios

2008-01-01

338

Dimerization of FIR upon FUSE DNA binding suggests a mechanism of c-myc inhibition  

PubMed Central

c-myc is essential for cell homeostasis and growth but lethal if improperly regulated. Transcription of this oncogene is governed by the counterbalancing forces of two proteins on TFIIH—the FUSE binding protein (FBP) and the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR). FBP and FIR recognize single-stranded DNA upstream of the P1 promoter, known as FUSE, and influence transcription by oppositely regulating TFIIH at the promoter site. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with light scattering reveals that an FIR dimer binds one molecule of single-stranded DNA. The crystal structure confirms that FIR binds FUSE as a dimer, and only the N-terminal RRM domain participates in nucleic acid recognition. Site-directed mutations of conserved residues in the first RRM domain reduce FIR's affinity for FUSE, while analogous mutations in the second RRM domain either destabilize the protein or have no effect on DNA binding. Oppositely oriented DNA on parallel binding sites of the FIR dimer results in spooling of a single strand of bound DNA, and suggests a mechanism for c-myc transcriptional control.

Crichlow, Gregg V; Zhou, Hongwen; Hsiao, Hsin-hao; Frederick, Kendra B; Debrosse, Maxime; Yang, Yuande; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa J; Chung, Hye-Jung; Fan, Chengpeng; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Levens, David; Lolis, Elias; Braddock, Demetrios

2008-01-01

339

Automated Sensing of Douglas Fir Bud-Burst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of plant biological events such as budburst in the spring can have major impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem carbon balance. While research efforts that address the timing of events is gaining considerable momentum, the technology available for sensing and recording the timing of events is limited, especially for trees. Thus, researchers often perform manual measurements, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This has resulted in efforts such as Project BudBurst, a network of professional and volunteer observers across the United States that monitor plants as seasons change. Access to forest trees can be difficult during periods of greatest interest, such as when buds open in the spring. For example, high elevation, snow, and melting snow during the spring hamper access to trees in alpine regions. Researchers at Oregon State University and The University of Iowa are developing instrumentation for automating sensing of budburst in Douglas firs. While the instrumentation targets Douglas firs, it can find application in studying budburst in other species. We present an initial bud-burst sensor that uses optical techniques to sense bud opening. An optical fiber illuminates a target bud with modulated light, a second fiber detects, and guides reflect light to a photodetector and signal processing electronics. Changes in the reflected light indicate the budburst. The instrumentation exploits advances in microelectronics, particularly miniaturization and low power consumption, and uses advanced signal processing techniques such as lock-in detection. The instrumentation records the reflected light every 15 minutes on high-capacity, non-volatile Flash media. Power consumption is very low and sensors have an extrapolated, continuous operating time more than 9 months, suggesting their deployment in the fall, and retrieval in the following spring. We believe the sensor will enable a caliber of research not yet achievable owing to the difficulty of phenological data collection. We aim to make the sensor cost-effective and ultimately deployable in a wireless network. We envision its application in various disciplines and sectors including forestry, agriculture, climate change research, and genomics.

Lintz, H. E.; Kruger, A.; Wagner, D. A.; Tenney, I. J.

2011-12-01

340

FIR polarimetry diagnostic for the C-Mod tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-chord polarimeter on Alcator C-Mod will make measurements of the poloidal magnetic field and plasma fluctuations. The beams from two frequency-offset, 200 mW, FIR lasers operating at 117.73 ?m are combined to produce collinear, counter-rotating, circularly polarized beams. The beams are divided into three chords which are directed into the plasma at one toroidal location. Corner cube retro-reflectors mounted on the inside wall return the beam for a double pass. The mixing product of the two beams is detected both before (reference) and after (signal) the plasma using polarization sensitive detectors that produce a beat signal at ~ 4 MHz. During the plasma discharge, the phase delay of the signal mixer, which depends on the Faraday effect, is evaluated with respect to the reference and produces line-integrated information on the poloidal magnetic field. Measurements on C-Mod require the phase error to be at the 0.1 degree level, and great care in the design of optical mounts, polarizers, beam-splitters, focusing optics, and acoustic and magnetic shielding was required. Development of new planar diode Schottky detectors was necessary to provide high sensitivity for a diagnostic that will eventually have at least six chords. Absorption of the FIR laser light by water vapor requires that the entire beam path be purged with dry air. Six retro-reflectors on the inner wall arranged in an ITER-like configuration provide poloidally viewing chords from near the mid-plane to well into the plasma scrape off layer. A pneumatically controlled shutter protects the in-vessel optics during boronizations and during limited discharges that might accelerate damage to the retro-reflector surfaces. Tests indicate there is no measurable signal contamination from the toroidal magnetic field due to the Cotton-Mouton effect. Polarization sensitivity of the wire mesh beamsplitters necessitated system calibration. Good agreement to EFIT reconstructions has been observed along with plasma fluctuations up to 400 kHz.

Irby, J. H.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Marmar, E. S.; Xu, P.

2012-02-01

341

World Bank Experts Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with reporters and editors in mind, the World Bank Experts Guide provides World Bank experts that are available to comment on to the media on a wide variety of topics. The list of experts may be viewed by name of expert or by subject. Each expert is given his or her own Webpage, which includes a short biography, expertise, and languages spoken, along with a photograph and related links. For ease of use, several "hot topics" are highlighted including AIDS/HIV and debt relief. This site gives an awe-inspiring look at the variety of experts working for the World Bank.

342

Internet Banking: Developments and Prospects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses significant gaps in existing knowledge about the Internet banking landscape. Using information drawn from a survey of national bank examiners, we find that while only 20 percent of national banks offered Internet banking in Q3 1999, t...

D. E. Nolle K. Furst W. W. Lang

2000-01-01

343

Banking Panics and Business Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a century of newly constructed data, competing theories explaining banking panics are tested. The evidence shows that banking panics during the U.S. national banking era (1865-1914) were the products of revisions in the perceived risk of the banking system based on the arrival of new information. Panics were triggered by a leading indicator of recession. Whenever this variable reached

Gary Gorton

1988-01-01

344

Seed parasitism redirects ovule development in Douglas fir  

PubMed Central

Many parasitic species of insects complete their entire development in seeds. They feed off storage reserves within the ovule. These reserves only normally accumulate in fertilized ovules. Consequently, female insects that oviposit their eggs directly into the plant ovule need to be able to select correctly, as unfertilized ovules of conifers normally become so-called empty seed. We provide clear evidence that in conifers, seed-parasitizing insects do not need to discriminate between fertilized and unfertilized plant ovules when ovipositing their eggs. A host-specific insect, the chalcid Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), lays its eggs in ovules of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) before fertilization has taken place in the plant. Oviposition not only prevents the expected degeneration and death of unfertilized ovules, but it induces energy reserve accumulation. Ovules that would otherwise develop as empty seed are redirected in their development by the insect to provide food for the developing larvae. Instead of the insect exploiting normal events during seed development, the insect manipulates seed development for its own reproductive advantage.

von Aderkas, Patrick; Rouault, Gaelle; Wagner, Rebecca; Rohr, Rene; Roques, Alain

2005-01-01

345

Response of birds to thinning young Douglas-fir forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a result of recent fire history and decades of even-aged forest management, many coniferous forests in western Oregon are composed of young (20-50 yrs), densely stocked Douglas-fir stands. Often these stands are structurally simple - a single canopy layer with one or two overstory tree species - and have a relatively sparse understory. The lack of structural complexity in these stands may limit the availability of key habitat components for several species of vertebrates, including birds. Thinning may increase structural diversity by reducing competition among overstory trees and increasing the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor, thereby increasing development of understory vegetation. Existing old-growth forests may have developed under lower densities than is typical of contemporary plantations. Thus, thinning also may be a tool for accelerating the development of late-successional forest conditions in some circumstances. In addition to the potential increases in structural and biological diversity, thinning frequently is used to optimize wood fiber production and to generate timber revenue.

Hayes, John P.; Weikel, Jennifer M.; Huso, Manuela; Erickson, Janet L.

2003-01-01

346

Performance evaluation of FIR sensor systems applied to pedestrian detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides resolution, an important performance parameter of a FIR camera is the sensitivity. It depends on the sensitivity of the detector array itself and the characteristics of the optic. The effects of the optic are considerably driven by the f-number, with high values resulting in decreased sensitivity, but providing the possibility for simple lens design and cheaper production costs. In this contribution 4 different sensor setups with different optics are evaluated for their impact on the performance of trained pedestrian classifiers. To overcome the expensive and time consuming process of ground truth generation for multiple sensors, an approach for reusing available high sensitivity reference data is presented. Classifiers are trained on specially transformed reference data with characteristics of sensors with degraded sensitivity. For the evaluation of the classifiers, data of real world road scenarios is collected simultaneously with the target sensors mounted in parallel in a test vehicle, following a detailed script for recording a pedestrian scene test catalogue. This allows for a direct analysis and comparison of the different sensors and their impact on the detection performance.

Franz, S.; Schweiger, R.; Loehlein, O.; Willersinn, D.; Kroschel, K.

2010-04-01

347

FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 ?m spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter ? < 2 in low metallicity, active systems. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by Principal Investigator consortia. It is open for proposals for observing time from the worldwide astronomical community.

Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bock, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Bradford, M.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.; Corbelli, E.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J.; de Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Gear, W.; Giovanardi, C.; Glenn, J.; Gomez, H.; Griffin, M.; Grossi, M.; Hony, S.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L.; Isaak, K.; Jones, A.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Madden, S. C.; O'Halloran, B.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Rangwala, N.; Rigby, E.; Roussel, H.; Rykala, A.; Sabatini, S.; Sacchi, N.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Schirm, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Stevens, J.; Sundar, S.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Verstappen, J.; Vigroux, L.; Vlahakis, C.; Wilson, C.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zeilinger, W.; Zibetti, S.

2010-07-01

348

Nonseparable extensions of quadrature mirror filters to multiple dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized non-separable extensions of quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks to two and three dimensions, in which the orientation specificity of the high-pass filters is greatly improved, are described. In particular, extensions to two dimensions with hexagonal symmetry, and 3-D spatiotemporal extensions with rhombic-dodecahedral symmetry, are discussed. Although these filters are conceived and designed on nonstandard sampling lattices, they can be

E. P. Simoncelli; E. H. Adelson

1990-01-01

349

Gabor Filter-Based Fingerprint Anti-spoofing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Gabor filter-based method to detect spoof fingerprint attacks in fingerprint biometric systems. It is\\u000a based on the observation that, real and spoof fingerprints exhibit different textural characteristics. Textural measures based\\u000a on Gabor energy and co-occurrence texture features are used to characterize fingerprint texture. Fingerprint image is filtered\\u000a using a bank of four Gabor filters, and then a

Shankar Bhausaheb Nikam; Suneeta Agarwal

2008-01-01

350

Statistics on Banking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC Statistics on Banking is a "quarterly publication that provides aggregate financial and structure information on FDIC-insured institutions, with summary totals by state and charter type." The latest figures for third quarter 1997 are now available.

351

Protein Data Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Protein Data Bank is the international depository for the results of structural studies of biological macromolecules. At present, some 1200 biological macromolecules are reported to have been crystallized, of which approximately 350 have structures de...

E. E. Abola F. C. Bernstein T. F. Koetzle

1984-01-01

352

National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video describes the development of an environmental specimen bank project. It highlights a number of minitoring programs involving human liver specimens, marine sediments and tissues, Alaskan marine mammal tissues, and total human diet specimens. Prim...

1994-01-01

353

World Bank: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people are familiar with the World Bank's work in the areas of international finance and economic development, but they may not be aware of their work in the area of biodiversity. The World Bank happens to be the world's largest financier of biodiversity, and their work includes supporting the sustainable use of biodiversity outside protected areas, eradication of alien species, and land conservation. First-time visitors may wish to start their journey through the site by clicking on the "What's New" area. Here they will find reports on biodiversity, the role of indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation, and a review of the World Bank's conservation projects during the past twenty years. Another way to look through the materials on the site is by using the drop-down menus that read "Topic", "Country", and "Region/Income". Visitors can also read overview statements that cover the Bank's work on biodiversity and poverty, biosafety, and mountain ecosystems.

354

Banking Data and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article on free banking data and research, created by Ruth Kobylecky Humphrey for the American Library Association, includes an index of annotations on a wide range of federal and association Websites that offer financial information and help for their members. The index is broken into several sections including Federal Agencies, The Federal Reserve System, International Banking, and the Secondary Market. Within each section, the entries are arranged in alphabetical order and carefully annotated.

Humphrey, Ruth K.

355

Effect of Swiss needle cast on Douglas-fir stem ethanol and monoterpene concentrations, oleoresin flow, and host selection by the Douglas-fir beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglas-fir growing on the western slopes of the Oregon Coast Range are experiencing an unprecedented outbreak of Swiss needle cast (SNC) caused by the fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. SNC can produce substantial physiological stress in host trees by reducing needle gas exchange and enhancing premature needle abscission, resulting in slower growth. Based on the frequent link between stressed trees and insect

Rick G. Kelsey; Daniel K. Manter

2004-01-01

356

Gaussian mixtures proposal density in particle filter for track-before-detect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with state estimation for the track-before-detect approach using the particle filter. The focus is aimed at the track initiation proposal density of the particle filter which considerably affects estimate quality. The goal of the paper is to design a proposal based on a Gaussian mixture using a bank of extended Kalman filters. This leads to root mean

O. Straka; M. Simandl; J. Dunik

2009-01-01

357

A SNP resource for Douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation  

PubMed Central

Background Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauca) are native to North America, the coastal variety is also widely planted for timber production in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Our main goal was to develop a SNP resource large enough to facilitate genomic selection in Douglas-fir breeding programs. To accomplish this, we developed a 454-based reference transcriptome for coastal Douglas-fir, annotated and evaluated the quality of the reference, identified putative SNPs, and then validated a sample of those SNPs using the Illumina Infinium genotyping platform. Results We assembled a reference transcriptome consisting of 25,002 isogroups (unique gene models) and 102,623 singletons from 2.76 million 454 and Sanger cDNA sequences from coastal Douglas-fir. We identified 278,979 unique SNPs by mapping the 454 and Sanger sequences to the reference, and by mapping four datasets of Illumina cDNA sequences from multiple seed sources, genotypes, and tissues. The Illumina datasets represented coastal Douglas-fir (64.00 and 13.41 million reads), interior Douglas-fir (80.45 million reads), and a Yakima population similar to interior Douglas-fir (8.99 million reads). We assayed 8067 SNPs on 260 trees using an Illumina Infinium SNP genotyping array. Of these SNPs, 5847 (72.5%) were called successfully and were polymorphic. Conclusions Based on our validation efficiency, our SNP database may contain as many as ~200,000 true SNPs, and as many as ~69,000 SNPs that could be genotyped at ~20,000 gene loci using an Infinium II array—more SNPs than are needed to use genomic selection in tree breeding programs. Ultimately, these genomic resources will enhance Douglas-fir breeding and allow us to better understand landscape-scale patterns of genetic variation and potential responses to climate change.

2013-01-01

358

12 CFR 1261.13 - Ineligible Bank directors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ineligible Bank directors. 1261.13 Section 1261.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK...

2012-01-01

359

12 CFR 1261.13 - Ineligible Bank directors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ineligible Bank directors. 1261.13 Section 1261.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK...

2013-01-01

360

12 CFR 1261.14 - Vacant Bank directorships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacant Bank directorships. 1261.14 Section 1261.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK...

2013-01-01

361

THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 5 DENSE CORE  

SciTech Connect

We used the Submillimeter Array to observe the thermal polarized dust emission from the protostellar source NGC 2024 FIR 5. The polarized emission outlines a partial hourglass morphology for the plane-of-sky component of the core magnetic field. Our data are consistent with previous BIMA maps, and the overall magnetic field geometries obtained with both instruments are similar. We resolve the main core into two components, FIR 5A and FIR 5B. A possible explanation for the asymmetrical field lies in depolarization effects due to the lack of internal heating from the FIR 5B source, which may be in a prestellar evolutionary state. The field strength was estimated to be 2.2 mG, in agreement with previous BIMA data. We discuss the influence of a nearby H II region over the field lines at scales of {approx}0.01 pc. Although the hot component is probably compressing the molecular gas where the dust core is embedded, it is unlikely that the radiation pressure exceeds the magnetic tension. Finally, a complex outflow morphology is observed in CO (3 {yields} 2) maps. Unlike previous maps, several features associated with dust condensations other than FIR 5 are detected.

Alves, Felipe O.; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, 08193, Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Lai, Shih-Ping [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Rao, Ramprasad [Submillimeter Array, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 645 North Aohoku Place, HI 9672 (United States); Zhang, Qizhou, E-mail: oliveira@ice.cat, E-mail: girart@ice.cat, E-mail: slai@phys.nthu.edu.t, E-mail: rrao@sma.hawaii.edu, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-01-10

362

[Genetic variability of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) inferred from AFLP markers].  

PubMed

Genetic variability of AFLP markers was studied in 20 populations of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica (Pinaceae) and in two populations of Far-Eastern Manchurian fir A. nephrolepis and Sakhalin fir A. sachalinensis each. Four pairs of selective primers were used. In total, 168 samples from three fir species were genotyped for 117 polymorphic loci. According to the AMOVA results, the variability proportion characterizing the differences between three Abies species was several times higher (F(CT) = 0.53) than that accounting for among-population differences within the species (F(SC) = 0.125). Differentiation of the A. sibirica populations based on AFLP markers exceeded 14% (F(ST) = 0.141). Significant correlation between the genetic distances calculated from the AFLP data and the geographic distances between populations was found. The results of AFLP variability analysis supported and supplemented the conclusions inferred previously from allozyme and cpSSR data: several genetically similar geographic groups of Siberian fir were identified. These groups differ both in allele frequencies and in the levels of genetic variation. PMID:21516799

Semerikova, S A; Semerikov, V L

2011-02-01

363

12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.  

...and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND...

2014-01-01

364

Electronic Banking: Enhancing Federal Oversight of Internet Banking Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As you requested, this report discusses federal oversight of depository institutions' Internet banking activities. Internet banking involves individuals' use of personal computers connected to their depository institutions over the Internet to transfer fu...

1999-01-01

365

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

1988-01-01

366

IR-excess radio-quiet AGN: deviations from the radio-FIR correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By stacking radio data at the position of 24 micron sources, Boyle et al. (2007) showed that the radio-FIR correlation extended down to 1 microJy, but caused some controversy by claiming a different quotient of the radio-FIR correlation from other authors. We now recognise that this is caused by a hitherto unrecognised population of infrared-excess objects which are picked up by the Boyle et al stacking technique, but are omitted from conventional radio-selected studies of the radio-FIR correlation. We suggest that these objects are radio-quiet AGN in which the IR excess is caused by dust heated by the AGN, and here we propose sensitive high-resolution observations using CABB at 6 and 3 cm to test this hypothesis.

Norris, Ray; Middelberg, Enno; Hopkins, Andrew; Boyle, Brian; Mao, Minnie

2009-07-01

367

Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes  

PubMed Central

A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passage through the insects, with two new terpenes being detected in the feces. One of these was identified as isoborneol. The relative significance of the insect and gut microflora with respect to terpene modification is unresolved. The well-established toxicity of terpenes may account for the near absence of common gut microflora in the insects. Images

Andrews, R. E.; Spence, K. D.

1980-01-01

368

Mozilla Digital Memory Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for History and New Media at George Mason University doesn't shy away from provocative digital archive projects, and the Mozilla Digital Memory Bank is certainly one such work. Drawing on support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mozilla Foundation this site serves as a permanent, open, peer-produced digital archive of Mozilla history. Users are welcome to start by browsing the "Memory Bank" section, which includes blogs, interviews, documents, testimonials, and press releases. For those with a geographical bent, there is the "Mozilla Map", which lets users find out where in the world Mozilla developers and users are located. And for those who can't make up their mind about where to start, they can just click on over to the "Featured Bank Deposit" and start reading.

369

World Bank Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has a number of specialized units designed to perform research in order to allow the organization to make informed policy decisions throughout the world. This website happens to provide information on the World Bank Institute, which effectively serves as the capacity development arm of the Bank and also "helps countries share and apply global and local knowledge to meet development challenges". On the Institute's site, visitors can find out about its various programs, which include work on preventing HIV/AIDS risk in the Balkans and scholarships designed to promote knowledge sharing and capacity building in the developing world. Visitors will want to pay close attention to the Publications area, as they may view or download working papers from a wide range of topics, including energy policy, labor force development, and development economics.

370

Simultaneous Reactive-Power and Frequency Estimations Using Simple Recursive WLS Algorithm and Adaptive Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new simple approach to the design of digital algo- rithm for simultaneous reactive-power and frequency estimations of local system is presented. The algorithm is derived using the weighted-least-square method. During the algorithm derivation, a pure sinusoidal voltage model was assumed. Cascade finite- impulse-response (FIR) comb digital filters are used to minimize the noise effect and to eliminate the presence

Miodrag D. Kušljevi? Kusljevic; Predrag D. Poljak

2011-01-01

371

Leaching of cell wall components caused by acid deposition on fir needles and trees.  

PubMed

Virgin fir forests have been declining since the 1960s at Mt. Oyama, which is located at the eastern edge of the Tanzawa Mountains and adjacent to the Kanto plain in Japan. An acid fog frequently occurs in the mountains. We collected throughfall and stemflow under fir trees and rainfall every week during January-December 2004 at Mt. Oyama to clarify the influence of acid fog on the decline of fir (Abies firma) needles. In relation to throughfall and stemflow, D-mannose, D-galactose, and D-glucose are the major neutral sugar components; only D-glucose is a major component of rainfall. The correlation coefficient between the total neutral sugars and uronic acid (as D-galacturonic acid), which is a key component of the cross-linking between pectic polysaccharides, was high except for rainfall. The leached amount of calcium ion, neutral sugars, uronic acid, and boron is related to the nitrate ion concentration in throughfall. Results of a laboratory exposure experiment using artificial fog water simulating the average composition of fog water observed at Mt. Oyama (simulated acid fog: SAF) on the fir seedling needles also shows a large leaching of these components from the cell walls of fir needles. The leaching amount increased concomitantly with decreasing pH of the SAF solution. We also observed that a dimeric rhamnogalacturonan II-borate complex (dRG-II-B) that exists in the cell wall as pectic polysaccharide was converted to monomeric RG-II (mRG-II) by the leaching of calcium ion and boron. Results not only of field observations but also those of laboratory experiments indicate a large effect of acid depositions on fir needles. PMID:18452971

Shigihara, Ado; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Sakurai, Naoki; Igawa, Manabu

2008-07-15

372

MANAGING DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY — INTERNET BANKING VENTURES FOR TRADITIONAL BANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the perception of the nature of technological change for Internet Banking by proposing and testing a model of the strategic management of online banking by traditional banks. Specifically, this empirical study uses a stratified sample of the FDIC database to address how perception of the technology and the environmental context (knowledge of cause-effect relations and crystallized outcome

STEPHEN K. CALLAWAY; ROBERT D. HAMILTON

2008-01-01

373

A Model of Competition in Banking: Bank Capital vs Expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of competition in the banking industry based upon the interplay of two factors: the level of capitalization of banks and their ability to monitor different types of projects (i.e., their expertise). In a setting of moral hazard with limited liability, banks must receive some rents to induce them to monitor projects diligently. The rents are

Andres Almazan

2002-01-01

374

Foreign Bank Presence, Domestic Bank Performance and Financial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the relationship between foreign bank presence and the performance of the domestic banking sector and takes into account the role of the level of development of the financial sector of the recipient country. We use data of 982 banks in 48 countries for 1990-96. We find support for the hypothesis that financial development does matter. In particular,

Niels Hermes; Robert Lensink

2004-01-01

375

Seigniorage Earnings of Commercial Banks and State Bank of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the trend of seigniorage earnings by State Bank of Pakistan and commercial banks. It is found that seigniorage revenue of the SBP has declined overtime which indicates autonomy of the central bank as well as less reliance of the government on SBP’s resources for budget financing. In general, a direct relationship has been observed between seigniorage and

M. Farooq Arby

2006-01-01

376

A Stoma from the Scale of a Female Cone of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A stoma from the scale of a female cone of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca). Magnification = 6800x. Photosynthesis and respiration of male and female cones of Douglas-fir may have significant effects on whole-tree physiology.

Kevin Hultine (University of Idaho;Department of Forest Resources ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

377

Mutations in firA, encoding the second acyltransferase in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, affect multiple steps in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.  

PubMed Central

The product of the firA (ssc) gene is essential for growth and for the integrity of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Recently, Kelly and coworkers (T. M. Kelly, S. A. Stachula, C. R. H. Raetz, and M. S. Anderson, J. Biol. Chem., 268:19866-19874, 1993) identified firA as the gene encoding UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, the third step in lipid A biosynthesis. We studied the effects of six different mutations in firA on lipopolysaccharide synthesis. All of the firA mutants of both E. coli and S. typhimurium examined had a decreased lipopolysaccharide synthesis rate. E. coli and S. typhimurium strains defective in firA produced a lipid A that contains a seventh fatty acid, a hexadecanoic acid, when grown at the nonpermissive temperature. Analysis of the enzymatic activity of other enzymes involved in lipid A biosynthesis revealed that the firA mutations pleiotropically affect lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. In addition to that of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, the enzymatic activity of the lipid A 4' kinase (the sixth step of lipid A biosynthesis) was decreased in strains with each of the firA mutations examined. However, overproduction of FirA was not accompanied by overexpression of the lipid A 4' kinase. Images

Roy, A M; Coleman, J

1994-01-01

378

Estimating Decay in 40- to 90-Year-Old Grand Fir Stands in the Clearwater Region in Northern Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fir decay equation for Oregon and Washington was used to predict stem decay in 12 grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) stands in the Clearwater region of northern Idaho. The 12 stands represented a range in geographic and stand characte...

G. M. Filip J. W. Schwandt S. K. Hagle

1990-01-01

379

Duke Data Bank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA computerized image processing techniques are an integral part of a cardiovascular data bank at Duke University Medical Center. Developed by Dr. C. F. Starmer and colleagues at Duke, the data bank documents the Center's clinical experience with more than 4,000 heart patients as an aid to diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Data is stored in a computerized system that allows a physician to summon detailed records of former patients whose medical profiles are similar to those of a new patient. A video display (photo) and printed report shows prognostic information for the new patient based on similar past experience.

1979-01-01

380

MolBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MolBank, an interesting resource for chemists, "is an electronic journal where very short notes of searchable experimental data records for individual molecules are published." Affiliated with the magazine Molecules and Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), MolBank is particularly interested in unconventional, experimental data such as starting materials and synthetic intermediates. Adhering to a single page, single structure format, the up-to-date, refereed papers are searchable by substructure or chemical and physical characteristics. Submission guidelines are also available at the site.

2007-06-07

381

BANKING, RISK AND FINANCIAL MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the question of financial risk in the relation between the banks and the firms: a problem of great significance for Euroland, a recent monetary union largely dominated by banking (\\

Pasquale Lucio Scandizzo

382

American Association of Tissue Banks  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter Registration now open! Webinar: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Survey of Tissue Banking Date: June ... 2014 09:50:19 Webinar: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Survey of Tissue Banking 04 Jun ...

383

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

384

Notch filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A notch filter for the selective attenuation of a narrow band of frequencies out of a larger band was developed. A helical resonator is connected to an input circuit and an output circuit through discrete and equal capacitors, and a resistor is connected between the input and the output circuits.

Shelton, G. B. (inventor)

1977-01-01

385

Identification and characterization of small non-coding RNAs from Chinese fir by high throughput sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play key roles in plant development, growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. At least four classes of sRNAs have been well characterized in plants, including repeat-associated siRNAs (rasiRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) and natural antisense transcript-derived siRNAs. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is one of the most important coniferous evergreen tree species in China. No sRNA from Chinese fir has been described to date. Results To obtain sRNAs in Chinese fir, we sequenced a sRNA library generated from seeds, seedlings, leaves, stems and calli, using Illumina high throughput sequencing technology. A comprehensive set of sRNAs were acquired, including conserved and novel miRNAs, rasiRNAs and tasiRNAs. With BLASTN and MIREAP we identified a total of 115 conserved miRNAs comprising 40 miRNA families and one novel miRNA with precursor sequence. The expressions of 16 conserved and one novel miRNAs and one tasiRNA were detected by RT-PCR. Utilizing real time RT-PCR, we revealed that four conserved and one novel miRNAs displayed developmental stage-specific expression patterns in Chinese fir. In addition, 209 unigenes were predicted to be targets of 30 Chinese fir miRNA families, of which five target genes were experimentally verified by 5' RACE, including a squamosa promoter-binding protein gene, a pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein gene, a BolA-like family protein gene, AGO1 and a gene of unknown function. We also demonstrated that the DCL3-dependent rasiRNA biogenesis pathway, which had been considered absent in conifers, existed in Chinese fir. Furthermore, the miR390-TAS3-ARF regulatory pathway was elucidated. Conclusions We unveiled a complex population of sRNAs in Chinese fir through high throughput sequencing. This provides an insight into the composition and function of sRNAs in Chinese fir and sheds new light on land plant sRNA evolution.

2012-01-01

386

In vitro pollen tube growth and penetration of female gametophyte in Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen tube and female gametophyte interactions in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga \\u000a menziesii) were examined in vitro. Formation of pollen tubes in Douglas fir occurred on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium in which\\u000a concentrations of H3BO3 and Ca(NO3)2 were altered and supplemented with sucrose and polyethylene glycol. Addition of 100 ?g\\/ml H3BO3 and 300 ?g\\/ml Ca(NO3)2 resulted in optimum pollen viability.

Danilo D. Fernando; John N. Owens; Patrick von Aderkas; Tokushiro Takaso

1997-01-01

387

A FIR Photometer for Ground-Based Astronomical Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description is given of a photometer which is suitable for astronomical observations through millimetric atmospheric windows. It consists of a Ge-Ga bolometer operating at 1.0 K, with a throughput AW = 0.3 cm2 sr and a NET = 1 mK Hz-1/2. Two metallic mesh filters set the windows at about 10 and 5 cm-1.

Ceccarelli, C.; dall'Oglio, G.; Ferri, G.; Pietranera, L.; Radford, S.; Xie, G. Z.

1984-11-01

388

The Informative Contents of Bank Debt Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the concentration of corporate bank debt. In an economy with asymmetric information, we show that the bank debt concentration with a main bank possessing informational monopoly is a reliable signal of the firm's quality for the secondary banks. Precisely, the firm's choice of the parts lent by the main bank and the secondary banks allows use

Frederic Lobez; Jean-Christophe Statnik

2003-01-01

389

A theory of banking structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a theory to analyze the specialization of banking activities based upon the different functions that banks perform when rendering a variety of financial services. The functional difference in the services performed by banks is based upon two dimensions: the degree of information asymmetry involved in providing the service, and the degree of verifiability of the value of

Sanjiv R. Das; Ashish Nanda

1999-01-01

390

Do Banks Provide Financial Slack?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the decision to choose bank debt rather than public securities in a firm's marginal financing choice. Using a sample of 500 firms over the 1980 to 1993 time period, we find that firms are relatively more likely to choose bank loans when variables that measure asymmetric information problems are elevated. The sensitivity of the likelihood of choosing bank

Charles J. Hadlock; Christopher M. James

2002-01-01

391

Liquidity Shortages and Banking Crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show in this article that bank failures can be contagious. Unlike earlier work where contagion stems from depositor panics or contractual links between banks, we argue that bank failures can shrink the common pool of liquidity, creating, or exacerbating aggregate liquidity shortages. This could lead to a contagion of failures and a total meltdown of the system. Given the

DOUGLAS W. DIAMOND; RAGHURAM G. RAJAN

2005-01-01

392

A class of fast Gaussian binomial filters for speech and image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an efficient, in-place algorithm for the batch processing of linear data arrays. These algorithms are efficient, easily scaled, and have no multiply operations. They are suitable as front-end filters for a bank of quadrature mirror filters and for pyramid coding of images. In the latter application, the binomial filter was used as the low-pass filter in pyramid

Richard A. Haddad; Ali N. Akansu

1991-01-01

393

A novel approach to speckle noise filtering based on Artificial Bee Colony algorithm: an ultrasound image application.  

PubMed

In this study a novel approach based on 2D FIR filters is presented for denoising digital images. In this approach the filter coefficients of 2D FIR filters were optimized using the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. To obtain the best filter design, the filter coefficients were tested with different numbers (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, 11×11) and connection types (cascade and parallel) during optimization. First, the speckle noise with variances of 1, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.2 respectively was added to the synthetic test image. Later, these noisy images were denoised with both the proposed approach and other well-known filter types such as Gaussian, mean and average filters. For image quality determination metrics such as mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were used. Even in the case of noise having maximum variance (the most noisy), the proposed approach performed better than other filtering methods did on the noisy test images. In addition to test images, speckle noise with a variance of 1 was added to a fetal ultrasound image, and this noisy image was denoised with very high PSNR and SNR values. The performance of the proposed approach was also tested on several clinical ultrasound images such as those obtained from ovarian, abdomen and liver tissues. The results of this study showed that the 2D FIR filters designed based on ABC optimization can eliminate speckle noise quite well on noise added test images and intrinsically noisy ultrasound images. PMID:23806680

Latifo?lu, Fatma

2013-09-01

394

The Green Bank Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

Richard M. Prestage; Kim T. Constantikes; Todd R. Hunter; Lee J. King; Richard J. Lacasse; Felix J. Lockman; Roger D. Norrod

2009-01-01

395

Money with Bank Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We allow banks to choose between two networks in a simple version of the Cavalcanti and Wallace (1999) model of inside money. Members of a network have access to credit but must redeem banknotes issued by other members in random meetings. We find equilibria in which members of a particular network issue more valuable notes, but face the same ex-ante

Ricardo de Oliveira Cavalcanti; Henrique Dezemone Forno

2004-01-01

396

World Data Bank I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World Data Bank I (WDB I) is a digital representation of the coastlines and boundaries of the world for use in automated mapping systems. The first two files consist of 100,000 individual coordinate points arranged sequentially to describe each linear fea...

1972-01-01

397

Janus Serum Bank  

Cancer.gov

The Janus Serum bank was established in order to collect and store blood samples from presumably healthy individuals for future use in cancer research. The intention was to obtain information on factors important in the pathogenesis and etiology of cancer by examining blood samples obtained during the preclinical stage or latent period before the tumor has developed.

398

Cord-Blood Banking  

MedlinePLUS

... private: How financially stable is the cord-blood bank? (Financial stability means a reduced chance that you will have to transfer your sample if the facility closes.) How many samples are processed in the facility? (A larger number of samples usually means that there are more collection ...

399

Crowdfunding: disintermediated investment banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces crowdfunding as a concept and model for the evolution of investment banking. Crowdfunding, an application of crowdsourcing, is defined as one party’s attempt to finance a project by offering three types of investment opportunities to potential investors. The investment opportunities are donations, passive investments, and active investments. From this foundation I develop a model in which interdependent

Brian J Rubinton

2011-01-01

400

Academic Interventions Bank Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes development of a bank of interventions in response to individual student needs identified by Student Study Teams (SSTs) in the Horry County (South Carolina) school district. It also describes the training of SST members in the selection, application, and monitoring of each intervention. Following a survey that identified basic…

Jenkins, Tom; Torrens, Meg

401

Blood Bank Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially, blood banks are facilities which procure, store, process, and dispense blood. To operate effectively in the face of both random supply and random demand, sizable buffer stocks of blood are maintained. The resulting inventory control problem is an extremely complex one for several reasons: (1) both supply and demand are random; (2) approximately 50 percent of all bloods demanded,

John B. Jennings

1973-01-01

402

SpeciesBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SpeciesBank is a growing library of digital information about the biological species of Canada. It includes high-quality photographs, distribution maps, identification guidance, and a host of other information including links to monographs and species-specific information elsewhere on the Internet. The site is divided into sections that cover butterflies, brassicaceae, poisonous plants, moths, and noctuoidea.

403

National Trade Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

404

HPCwire Job Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HPCwire Job Bank has become the matchmaker site of choice for bringing together the best talent and the leading employers in HPC commercial computing, research, academia, and the entire ecosystem of suppliers and users of HPC systems and technology, representing career opportunities in hardware, software, middleware, sales, marketing, consulting, design, development, engineering, research, testing, customer support and production.

405

Snow Bank Detectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

406

The Protein Data Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http:\\/\\/www.rcsb.org\\/pdb\\/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource.

Helen M. Berman; John D. Westbrook; Zukang Feng; Gary Gilliland; Talapady N. Bhat; Helge Weissig; Ilya N. Shindyalov; Philip E. Bourne

2000-01-01

407

Banking & Financial Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for high school business teachers, outlines the plan for a course in which students gain hands-on experience in operating a bank in which students actually deposit money. The document begins with a brief course description, rationale, and list of 11 course objectives. Presented next is background information about…

Warren, Brenda; Sorrell, Lisa

408

Optimally smooth symmetric quadrature mirror filters for image coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symmetric quadrature mirror filters (QMFs) offer several advantages for wavelet-based image coding. Symmetry and odd-length contribute to efficient boundary handling and preservation of edge detail. Symmetric QMFs can be obtained by mildly relaxing the filter bank orthogonality conditions. We describe a computational algorithm for these filter banks which is also symmetric in the sense that the analysis and synthesis operations have identical implementations, up to a delay. The essence of a wavelet transform is its multiresolution decomposition, obtained by iterating the lowpass filter. This allows one to introduce a new design criterion, smoothness (good behavior) of the lowpass filter under iteration. This design constraint can be expressed solely in terms of the lowpass filter tap values (via the eigenvalue decomposition of a certain finite-dimensional matrix). Our innovation is to design near- orthogonal QMFs with linear-phase symmetry which are optimized for smoothness under iteration, not for stopband rejection. The new class of optimally smooth QMF filter banks yields high performance in a practical image compression system.

Heller, Peter N.; Shapiro, Jerome M.; Wells, Raymond O., Jr.

1995-04-01

409

Eyeglass Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

1987-01-01

410

Long-term effects of forest management on nutrient cycling in spruce-fir forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient dynamics and soil disturbance have been monitored since 1979 on paired control and intensively managed watersheds in central Maine, USA. The mature spruce-fir stand was harvested by whole-tree clearcutting in 1981. Triclopyr was aerially applied to most of the same watershed 4 years after harvest to control hardwoods competing with conifer regeneration. In 1991, a series of plots on

R. D Briggs; J. W Hornbeck; C. T Smith; R. C Lemin; M. L McCormack

2000-01-01

411

Stratospheric spectroscopy with the far-infrared spectrometer (FIRS-2) - Overview and recent results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's program of balloon-borne stratospheric spectroscopic measurements is described, including instrumentation, recent scientific results, and future plans. The design and operation of the FIRS-2 far-infrared spectrometer is discussed. The current status of our efforts to recover mixing-ratio profiles with about 1 percent precision is presented. Representative recent results are shown giving mixing-ratio profiles from 20 to 50 km, selected from the suite HOCl, HCl, HF, NO2, N2O, HNO3, OH, HO2, H2O2, H2O (and isotopes), O2 (and isotopes), O3 (and isotopes), and CO2 (and isotopes). The utility of O2 and CO2 spectral lines for information on view angle or temperature and pressure is discussed. Future plans are mentioned, including the use of FIRS-2 on a balloon platform for UARS correlative measurements, the use of FIRS-2 on the NASA DC-8 platform for polar measurements, and the potential benefits of a FIRS instrument on a Shuttle platform.

Traub, Wesley A.; Chance, Kelly V.; Johnson, David G.; Jucks, Kenneth W.

1991-09-01

412

Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

2013-01-01

413

Literature on Timber Measurement Problems in the Douglas-Fir Region: Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography on timber measurements was prepared as part of an analysis of measurement problems in the Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington. It includes publications on the subject of tree or log measurement in this region with the exception of...

D. Bruce

1968-01-01

414

Change in the dendrochemistry of sacred fir close to Mexico City over the past 100 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry of the tree-rings of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) growing in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, close to Mexico City was measured in 5 year increments dating back to 1897. Surface soil beneath sampled trees had elevated concentrations of trace metals, especially Pb, Cd and Zn, compared with a reference site at San Pablo 45

S. A. Watmough; T. C. Hutchinson

1999-01-01

415

Genetic Structure of Heterobasidion annosum in White Fir Mortality Centers in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

the roots and the bole sapwood of white fir trees, and no significant in- fections of other tree species were observed. Each mortality center was characterized by the presence of several fungal genotypes, all belonging to the S intersterility group. Both homokaryotic and heterokaryotic strains were present in all sites. Multiple genotypes were retrieved in individual trees or stumps. Out

Matteo Garbelotto; Fields W. Cobb; T. D. Bruns; William J. Otrosina; Tina Popenuck; Garey Slaughter

1999-01-01

416

Analysis of fracture failure of fir-tree serrations of stage II turbine disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of fracture failure of fir-tree serrations in stage II turbine disks in a certain type of engine. On the basis of statistical analysis, basic fracture features and fracture mechanisms of stage II turbine disk serrations have been summarized. The reasons for the serration fracture failure are: (a) the first order bending resonance k=5 in the

M. L Xie; P. D Zhong; N. S Xi; Y Zhang; C. H Tao

2000-01-01

417

New precoding for intersymbol interference cancellation using nonmaximally decimated multirate filterbanks with ideal FIR equalizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new precoding method for intersymbol interference (ISI) cancellation by using non-maximally decimated multirate filterbanks. Unlike the existing preceding methods, such as the TH and trellis precodings, the new preceding (i) may be independent of the ISI channel; (ii) is linear and does not have to implement any modulo operation; (iii) gives the ideal FIR

Xiang-Gen Xia

1997-01-01

418

EFFECTS OF CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND MORTALITY IN DOUGLAS FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Little is known about the effects of global climate change on the production and mortality of fine roots. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir fine ( 2 mm in diameter) roots. The study was conducted in sun-lit cont...

419

EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

420

Regeneration of Douglas-fir in the Klamath Mountains Region, California and Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the regeneration of Douglas-fir, one of the most valuable timber species in the United States, is summarized, from seed production to care of young stands. General recommendations are given to guide the practitioner. Seed production can be ...

R. O. Strothmann D. F. Roy

1984-01-01

421

Foliar elemental composition of spruce-fir in the southern blue ridge province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented for what we believe to be the first assessment of the elemental foliar status of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir.] trees in the high elevation forests of the southern Appalachian mountans.

W. P. Robarge; J. M. Pye; R. I. Bruck

1989-01-01

422

Microclimatology of treeline spruce-fir forests in mountains of the northeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to characterize the temporal and altitudinal variation in microclimate of high elevation spruce-fir ( Picea rubens-Abies balsamea) forests in three major mountain ranges of the northeastern United States. Mean lapse rates of air temperature were comparable to those previously reported for this region, but lapse rates varied considerably in relation to diurnal (and, to

Andrew D. Richardsona; Xuhui Lee; Andrew J. Friedland

2004-01-01

423

Douglas-Fir Seedlings Planted by Four Methods...Results after 10 Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bare-root Douglas-fir seedlings were planted by four methods in late February and late March on a hot, south-facing slope in northwestern California. The four techniques were: Standard planting, deep planting at two different depths, and shading of the lo...

R. O. Strothmann

1976-01-01

424

Net primary production of Chinese fir plantation ecosystems and its relationship to climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article focuses on the relationship between the net primary production (NPP) of Chinese fir and the climate. Spatial-temporal NPP pattern in the potential distribution area of Chinese fir from 2000 to 2010 was characterized utilizing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. The results showed that the production of Chinese fir was higher in southern and eastern regions than in northern and western areas, which was consistent with the spatial pattern of temperature and precipitation. The relationship between NPP of Chinese fir and climate variables was analyzed comprehensively on three scales: regional scale, zonal gradients and pixel scale. On the regional scale, precipitation showed higher correlation coefficients with NPP than did temperature. When scaling to pixels, the spatial variability pattern indicated that temperature was more important in central and eastern regions, while precipitation was crucial in the northern part. Negative correlations between NPP and precipitation and temperature were found in the southern region. The zonal analysis revealed that the impact of precipitation on the production was more complicated than that of temperature. When compared to natural forests, plantations appear to be more sensitive to the mode of precipitation, which indicates their higher vulnerability under climate change which could potentially lead to increasing variability in rainfall. Temporally, NPP values decreased despite of increasing temperatures, and more in plantations than among other vegetation types, which draws attention to carbon sequestration potential by plantations under current climate change.

Wang, L.; Duan, B.; Zhang, Y.; Berninger, F.

2014-04-01

425

Comparison of standing wave and traveling wave resonators for an FIR laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output powers of various linear and folded configurations of standing wave and traveling wave ring resonators for a FIR laser are compared. Output powers were measured for a linear standing wave laser and a ring laser of the same gain length and mode size, and for a folded standing wave laser and a figure-eight ring laser of the same

Y. C. Nii

1980-01-01

426

Effect of Western Spruce Budworm on Douglas-Fir Cone Production in Western Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Douglas-fir cone production in stands of heavy or light western spruce budworm defoliation conditions was examined at 12 western Montana study sites on 72 trees. Average cone production was usually higher on sites where budworm defoliation was light compa...

A. B. Chrisman, G. M. Blake, R. C. Shearer

1983-01-01

427

Stratospheric spectroscopy with the far-infrared spectrometer (FIRS-2) - Overview and recent results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's program of balloon-borne stratospheric spectroscopic measurements is described, including instrumentation, recent scientific results, and future plans. The design and operation of the FIRS-2 far-infrared spectrometer is discussed. The current status of our efforts to recover mixing-ratio profiles with about 1 percent precision is presented. Representative recent results are shown giving mixing-ratio profiles from 20 to 50 km, selected from the suite HOCl, HCl, HF, NO2, N2O, HNO3, OH, HO2, H2O2, H2O (and isotopes), O2 (and isotopes), O3 (and isotopes), and CO2 (and isotopes). The utility of O2 and CO2 spectral lines for information on view angle or temperature and pressure is discussed. Future plans are mentioned, including the use of FIRS-2 on a balloon platform for UARS correlative measurements, the use of FIRS-2 on the NASA DC-8 platform for polar measurements, and the potential benefits of a FIRS instrument on a Shuttle platform.

Traub, Wesley A.; Chance, Kelly V.; Johnson, David G.; Jucks, Kenneth W.

1991-01-01

428

Douglas-Fir/Ninebark Habitat Type in Central Idaho: Succession and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A succession classification system for the Douglas-fir/ninebark habitat type is presented. It is based on reconnaissance sampling of 152 stands: 27 old-growth sites, 31 pairs of old-growth versus disturbance sites, and 63 additional disturbed sites. A tot...

R. Steele K. Geier-Hayes

1989-01-01

429

Response of Thinned White Fir Stands to Fertilization with Nitrogen Plus Sulphur.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A single application of 200 pounds nitrogen (N) plus 33 pounds of sulphur (S) per acre to white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glen.) Lindl.) increased periodic annual increments of basal area and volume by 1.7 sq ft/acre/year and 43 to 68 cu ft/acre/year r...

P. H. Cochran

1991-01-01

430

Effects of nitrogen form on nutrient uptake and physiology of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shade-tolerant conifer species are generally thought to prefer NH4 + as a source of inorganic N and may perform poorly on recently disturbed sites or agricultural soils with high rates of nitrification. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) is a highly shade-tolerant climax species characteristic of acidic forest soils that is now planted on a wide range of soils for Christmas tree

David E. Rothstein; Bert M. Cregg

2005-01-01

431

On the Nature of the Deeply Embedded Protostar OMC-2 FIR 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 ?m, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 ?m. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 ?m, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L ?, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L ?. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L ?. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L ?, while the luminosity of the colder (~20 K) extended core could be around 100 L ?, with a mass of about 27 M ?. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L ?. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

Furlan, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Osorio, M.; Stutz, A. M.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Stanke, T.; Manoj, P.; Adams, J. D.; Tobin, J. J.

2014-05-01

432

Effects of Defoliation by Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth on Timing and Quantity of Streamflow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Streamflow data from three watersheds in the Blue Mountains of Oregon were tested for changes in annual runoff, summer runoff, and peak discharge following the defoliation in 1972 and 1973 caused by the Douglas-fir tussock moth. Annual runoff from the Uma...

J. D. Helvey A. R. Tiedemann

1978-01-01

433

Estimation of Genetic-Gain Multipliers for Modeling Douglas-Fir Height and Diameter Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods were developed to calculate genetic-gain multipliers for use in individual-tree models that predict periodic height and diameter growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Pacific Northwest. Genetic-gain multipliers are used in growth models that are typically based on extensive measurements of unimproved or \\

Peter Gould; Randy Johnson; David Marshall; Greg Johnson

2008-01-01

434

Precise adaptive photonic rf filters realized with adaptive Bragg gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for higher data capacity and reduced levels of interference in the communications arena are driving dtat links toward high carrier frequencies and wider modulation bandwidths. Circuitry for performing intermediate frequency processing over these more demanding ranges is needed to provide complex signal processing. We have demonstrated photonics technologies utilizing Bragg Grating Signal Processing (BGSP), which can be used to perform a variety of RF filter functions. The desirable benefits of multiple-tap adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filters, infinite impulse response (IIR) filters, and equalizers are well known; however, they are usually the province of digital signal processing and demand preprocessor sample rates that require high system power consumption. BGSPs provide these functions with discrete optical taps and digital controls while only requiring bandwidths easily provided by conventional RF circuitry. This is because the actual signal processing of the large information bandwidths is performed in the optical regime, while control functions are performed at RF frequencies compatible with integrated circuit technologies. To realize the performance benefits of photonic processing, the Bragg grating reflectors must be stabilized against environmental without unduly taxing the RF control circuitry. We have implemented a orthogonally coded tap modulation technique which stabilizes the transfer function of the signal processor and enables significant adaptive IF signal processing to be obtained with very low size, weight, and power. Our demonstration of a photonic proof-of-concept architecture is a reconfigurable, multiple-tap FIR filter that is dynamically controlled to implement low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-stop, and tunable filters operating over bandwidths of 3 Ghz.

Wickham, Michael G.; Upton, Eric L.

2000-09-01

435

Multiple Bank Relationships and the Main Bank System: Evidence from a Matched Sample of Japanese Small Firms and Main Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Based on a matched sample of Japanese small firms and main banks we investigate the bank-firm relationships in the early 2000s.\\u000a We obtain new findings. First, even small firms with a main bank relation have multiple bank relationships. Second, firms\\u000a tied with a financially weak main bank increase the number of bank relations. Third, longer duration of a main bank

Kazuo Ogawa; Elmer Sterken; Ichiro Tokutsu

2007-01-01

436

12 CFR 1266.8 - Banks as secured creditors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Banks as secured creditors. 1266.8 Section 1266.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances to Members...

2012-01-01

437

12 CFR 1281.23 - Bank data integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank data integrity. 1281.23 Section 1281.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING...

2013-01-01

438

12 CFR 1278.6 - Ratification by Bank Members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ratification by Bank Members. 1278.6 Section 1278.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS VOLUNTARY MERGERS OF FEDERAL...

2013-01-01

439

12 CFR 1278.6 - Ratification by Bank members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ratification by Bank members. 1278.6 Section 1278.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS VOLUNTARY MERGERS OF FEDERAL...

2012-01-01

440

12 CFR 1266.8 - Banks as secured creditors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Banks as secured creditors. 1266.8 Section 1266.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS ADVANCES Advances to Members...

2013-01-01

441

12 CFR 1281.23 - Bank data integrity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank data integrity. 1281.23 Section 1281.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING...

2012-01-01

442

The quest for quality blood banking program in the new millennium the American way  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an industry to succeed and satisfy its customers, “QUALITY” must be a primary goal. Quality has been central to blood\\u000a banking from its inception, with the evolution of a Quality Program since the opening of the first blood bank in U.S. at the\\u000a Cook County Hospital in 1937. Over the ensuing decades, continuous scientific progress in blood preservation, filters,

Dae Un Kim

2002-01-01

443

Performance of a wavelet matched filter with optimized dilation designed using simulated annealing algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We outline a method, using simulated annealing algorithm, to optimize the dilation factor of the wavelet function, from a number of images. The optimized dilation factor has been used to obtain wavelet matched filters (WMFs) for different fingerprint images. A single WMF instead of a bank of filters can be used for identifying each image. The filter performance was tested in terms of discrimination ratio, peak-to-correlation plane energy ratio, peak-to-sidelobe ratio and average similarity measure with digitally degraded fingerprints. The performance has been compared with that of a classical matched filter and a phase only filter. The filter performance has also been tested for noisy images.

Pohit, M.; Singh, K.

2001-01-01

444

GenBank  

PubMed Central

The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 85,000,000 nucleotides in 67,000 entries from a total of 3,000 organisms. The input stream of data coming into the database is primarily as direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media, with little or no data being keyboarded from the printed page by the databank staff. The data are maintained in a relational database management system and are made available in flatfile form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. The data are also distributed in relational form through satellite copies at a number of institutions in the U.S. and elsewhere. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service.

Burks, Christian; Cinkosky, Michael J.; Fischer, William M.; Gilna, Paul; Hayden, Jamie E.-D.; Keen, Gifford M.; Kelly, Michael; Kristofferson, David; Lawrence, Julie

1992-01-01

445

World Bank: Global Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank works to combat poverty and to increase development opportunities around the world, but they also have selected six strategic themes that focus in on global development. First-time visitors to the site can listen to World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick talk about these themes, and they may also wish to follow along with the accompanying slideshow. Themes include global public goods, the Arab world, and middle-income countries. By clicking on one of these themes, visitors can read comprehensive reports, working papers, or take a look at presentations that explore these areas in greater detail. Many of these information sources are contained within a "Highlights" area. Visitors with a penchant for economic development, international political economy, or international affairs will find this site very useful. It's also easy to see how these materials might be used in a classroom setting to spark discussion or debate about some of these very timely matters.

446

RADIO IMAGING OF THE NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 REGION: A HYPERCOMPACT H II REGION CANDIDATE IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

The NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 region was observed in the 6.9 mm continuum with an angular resolution of about 1.5 arcsec. The 6.9 mm continuum map shows four compact sources, FIR 5w, 5e, 6c, and 6n, as well as an extended structure of the ionization front associated with the optical nebulosity. FIR 6c has a source size of about 0.4 arcsec or 150 AU. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of FIR 6c is peculiar: rising steeply around 6.9 mm and flat around 1 mm. The possibility of a hypercompact H II region is explored. If the millimeter flux of FIR 6c comes from hot ionized gas heated by a single object at the center, the central object may be a B1 star of about 5800 solar luminosities and about 13 solar masses. The 6.9 mm continuum of FIR 6n may be a mixture of free-free emission and dust continuum emission. Archival data show that both FIR 6n and 6c exhibit water maser activity, suggesting the existence of shocked gas around them. The 6.9 mm continuum emission from FIR 5w has a size of about 1.8 arcsec or 760 AU. The SEDs suggest that the 6.9 mm emission of FIR 5w and 5e comes from dust, and the masses of the dense molecular gas are about 0.6 and 0.5 solar masses, respectively.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-10

447

12 CFR 615.5452 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding...  

...obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation; rights...person against Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation. 615...615.5452 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

2014-01-01

448

Secure Internet Banking Authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes current authentication threats and two proposed solutions as well as how these solutions can be extended in the face of more complex future attacks. This work falls in line with recent federal regulator initia-tives (see www. ffiec. gov\\/press\\/pr101205.htm and www. info. gov. hk\\/hkma\\/eng\\/press\\/2005\\/20050530e3 _ index. htm) requiring, or at least expecting, banks to rapidly adopt two-factor authentication

Alain P. Hiltgen; Thorsten Kramp; Thomas Weigold

2006-01-01

449

Real-Time Evaluation of Ventilation Filter-Bank Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated two government facility ventilation systems. One was a metropolitan government office complex with a recirculation system where outside air was the makeup air; the other was a NIOSH facility that used 100% outside air with no recirculation. The methodology employed was a modified American Society of Agricultural Engineers standard (S525) for testing total enclosure filtration efficiency, in

Ernest S. Moyer; Michael A. Commodore; Jeffrey L. Hayes; Steven A. Fotta; Stephen P. Berardinelli Jr

2007-01-01

450

DMT systems, DWMT systems and digital filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multicarrier modulation system called discrete multitone (DMT) was chosen by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as a working standard for asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) signaling. The DMT system uses the inverse and forward discrete Fourier transform (DFT) for modulation and demodulation. An alternative to the classic DMT system is to substitute a discrete wavelet transform in place

M. A. Tzannes; M. C. Tzannes; J. G. Proakis; P. N. Heller

1994-01-01

451

FFT and filter bank based spectrum sensing for WLAN signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

As wireless communication devices have increased rapidly, much attention has been paid to the spectrum resources. Cognitive Radio (CR) technology has received increasing attention as a potential approach to utilize more effectively the radio frequency bands. CRs need to dynamically and reliably determine spectral holes which could be used for secondary transmissions. In this study, wideband multichannel spectrum sensing techniques

Sener Dikmese; Markku Renfors; Hasan Dincer

2011-01-01

452

Multi-resolution filter banks for enhanced SAR imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAR finds applications in many of NASA's earth science fields such as deformation, ecosystem structure, and dynamics of ice, snow and cold land processes, and surface water and ocean topography. Traditionally, standard methods such as Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT) and Inverse Fast-Fourier Transform (IFFT) have been used to extract images from SAR radar data. Due to non-parametric features of these methods

Ehsan O. Sheybani; Giti Javidi

2012-01-01

453

World Bank: Anticorruption [pdf[  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its many different guises, corruption around the world tends to affect the poor, who are often the most reliant on the provision of public services, and are also least likely to be able to pay the extra costs associated with bribery and fraud. The World Bank has identified corruption as "the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development," and thusly has set up this anticorruption website to serve as an online resource for policy-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other interested parties. On the site, the World Bank lays out its strategy for combating corruption, which includes increasing political accountability, strengthening civil society participation, and improving public sector management. The site also contains a number of helpful resources, such as toolkits for assessing government performance in this area, and information and reports on various regional and country-based approaches to dealing with corruption. The site is rounded out by a calendar of events and key strategy documents, such as "Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance, A World Bank Strategy."

454

Virtual blood bank  

PubMed Central

Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

Wong, Kit Fai

2011-01-01

455

Capacitor bank for electrical generator  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A capacitor bank for an electrical power generator comprises: a positive assembly having a positive electrical terminal; a negative assembly having a negative electrical terminal; at least one capacitor sandwiched between and electrically coupled to the positive and negative assemblies; and electrical interconnects coupled to each of the terminals and for coupling to a load or to another capacitor bank. The positive and negative assemblies of the capacitor bank are each stackable on the positive and negative assemblies of another capacitor bank. When two capacitor banks are stacked with their positive assemblies facing each other, the interconnects couple the capacitor banks in series, and when two capacitor banks are stacked with a positive assembly facing a negative assembly, the interconnects couple the capacitor banks in parallel. A plurality of such capacitor banks can be electrically connected in series and/or in parallel in a number of different configurations, thereby providing a highly customizable capacitor bank assembly to suit the particular needs of the electrical power generator.

2009-01-13

456

Seigniorage Earnings of Commercial Banks and State Bank of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The paper reviews the trend of seigniorage earningsby State Bank of Pakistan and commercial,banks. It is found that seigniorage revenue of the SBP has declined overtime which indicates autonomy,of the central bank as well as less reliance of the government,on SBP’s resources for budget financing. In general, a direct relationship has been observed between seigniorage and inflation in Pakistan.

M. Farooq

2007-01-01

457

Adaptive wavelet Wiener filtering of ECG signals.  

PubMed

In this study, we focused on the reduction of broadband myopotentials (EMG) in ECG signals using the wavelet Wiener filtering with noise-free signal estimation. We used the dyadic stationary wavelet transform (SWT) in the Wiener filter as well as in estimating the noise-free signal. Our goal was to find a suitable filter bank and to choose other parameters of the Wiener filter with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained. Testing was performed on artificially noised signals from the standard CSE database sampled at 500 Hz. When creating an artificial interference, we started from the generated white Gaussian noise, whose power spectrum was modified according to a model of the power spectrum of an EMG signal. To improve the filtering performance, we used adaptive setting parameters of filtering according to the level of interference in the input signal. We were able to increase the average SNR of the whole test database by about 10.6 dB. The proposed algorithm provides better results than the classic wavelet Wiener filter. PMID:23192472

Smital, Lukáš; Vítek, Martin; Kozumplík, Ji?í; Provazník, Ivo

2013-02-01

458

A new Half-overlap Filtered Multitone Modulation based on CIC filter in the context of Cognitive Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an analysis of multicarrier (MC) communication technique in the context of Cognitive Radio is realized. The features of alternative modulation based on filter bank-non-overlap and Half-overlap subchannel Filtered MultiTone (FMT) will be mentioned. However, half-overlap FMT system proposed in [6] introduces intercarrier interference (ICI) due to the loss of orthogonality which may reduce system performance. In order

Xugang Liu; Hao Liu

2010-01-01

459

Backwash filter system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A backwash filter system includes a filter array comprising a plurality of filter units each having a housing, a filter element unit and a process liquid inlet port and a filtered liquid outlet port connected respectively with process liquid inlet and filtered liquid outlet sides of the filter element unit for filtering process liquid. A process liquid inlet header connects to the process liquid inlet ports of the filter units. A filtered liquid outlet header connects to the filtered liquid outlet ports of the filter units. A first valve unit on the process liquid inlet header is switchable for connecting same alternatively to a process liquid source and a backwash liquid drain. The filtered liquid outlet header can communicate with a filtered liquid receiver.

1998-08-11

460

Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum in bank filtration systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a leading cause of waterborne disease. Many surface water systems therefore depend on filtration systems, including bank filtration systems, for the removal of the pathogenic oocysts. To better understand the effectiveness, e.g., of bank filtration systems, we have implemented a series of columns studies under various environmental conditions (column length: 10 cm - 60 cm, flow rates: 0.7 m/d - 30 m/d, ionic strength: 0.01 - 100 mM, filter grain size: 0.2 - 2 mm, various solution chemistry). We show that classic colloid filtration theory is a reasonable tool for predicting the initial breakthrough of C. parvum in pulsed injections of the oocyst through sand columns, although the model does not account for the significant tailing that occurs in C. parvum transport. Application of colloid filtration theory to bank filtration system is further limited by the intrinsic heterogeneity of the geologic systems used for bank filtration. We couple filtration theory with a stochastic subsurface transport approach and with percolation theory to account for the effects of intrinsic heterogeneity. We find that a 1-log removal can be achieved even under relatively adverse conditions (low collision efficiency, high velocity) if 85% - 90% of the sedimentary hydrofacies located within the bank filtration system or of the coarsest known hydrofacies connecting the riverbed with the extraction system has a grain-size distribution with a 10% passing diameter equal to 1 mm. One millimeter is a standard sieve size in sediment analysis.

Harter, T.; Atwill, E. R.; Hou, L. L.

2003-04-01

461

12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.  

... 2014-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND...

2014-01-01

462

Novel configuration of finite-impulse-response filters tolerant to carrier-phase fluctuations in digital coherent optical receivers for higher-order quadrature amplitude modulation signals.  

PubMed

We propose a novel configuration of the finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter adapted by the phase-dependent decision-directed least-mean-square (DD-LMS) algorithm in digital coherent optical receivers. Since fast carrier-phase fluctuations are removed from the error signal which updates tap coefficients of the FIR filter, we can achieve stable adaptation of filter-tap coefficients for higher-order quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signals. Computer simulations show that our proposed scheme is much more tolerant to the phase noise and the frequency offset than the conventional DD-LMS scheme. Such theoretical predictions are also validated experimentally by using a 10-Gsymbol/s dual-polarization 16-QAM signal. PMID:23187478

Mori, Yojiro; Zhang, Chao; Kikuchi, Kazuro

2012-11-19

463

Tunable birefringent filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article reviews the types and capabilities of birefringent filters. The general operating principles of Lyot (perfect polarizers), partial polarizing, and Solc (no internal polarizers) filters are introduced. Appropriate techniques for tuning each filter type are presented. Field of view of birefringent filters is discussed and is compared to Fabry-Perot and interference filters. The transmission and throughput advantages of birefringent filters are shown. Finally, the current state of the art in practical filters is reviewed.

Title, A. M.; Rosenberg, W. J.

1981-01-01

464

Human Milk Banking in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 30 milk banks existed in the early 1980s in the United States, whereas seven banks currently exist in the United States and one in Canada. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in human milk banks as evidenced by the number of institutions in various stages of developing new human milk banks. During 2003, North American milk banks

Kim Updegrove

2005-01-01

465

Conduct in a Banking Monopoly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extending previous empirical work on concentrated markets, this paper appliesa Rosse–Panzar revenue test to quarterly data from a monopoly bank. The testrejects the hypotheses of static monopoly pricing or perfectly contestablepricing. Other tests suggest that the bank was in long-run equilibrium duringthe sample period and did not exhibit particular forms of expense-preferencebehavior. Possible interpretations of the bank's conduct include limit

Sherrill Shaffer

2002-01-01

466

Bank Competition and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the traditional “competition-fragility” view, more bank competition erodes market power, decreases profit margins, and\\u000a results in reduced franchise value that encourages bank risk taking. Under the alternative “competition-stability” view, more\\u000a market power in the loan market may result in higher bank risk as the higher interest rates charged to loan customers make\\u000a it harder to repay loans, and exacerbate

Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Rima Turk-Ariss

2009-01-01

467

A class of gradient-adaptive step size algorithms for complex-valued nonlinear neural adaptive filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of variable step-size algorithms for complex-valued nonlinear neural adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filters realised as a dynamical perceptron is proposed. The adaptive step-size is updated using gradient descent to give variable step-size complex-valued nonlinear gradient descent (VSCNGD) algorithms. These algorithms are shown to be capable of tracking signals with rich and unknown dynamics, and exhibit faster convergence

Su Lee Goh; Danilo P. Mandic

2005-01-01

468

Stochastic Gradient-Adaptive Complex-Valued Nonlinear Neural Adaptive Filters With a Gradient-Adaptive Step Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of variable step-size learning algorithms for complex-valued nonlinear adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filters is proposed. To achieve this, first a general complex-valued nonlinear gradient-descent (CNGD) algorithm with a fully complex nonlinear activation function is derived. To improve the convergence and robustness of CNGD, we further introduce a gradient-adaptive step size to give a class of variable step-size

Su Lee Goh; Danilo P. Mandic

2007-01-01

469

12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations, Federal land credit associations, production credit associations, and agricultural credit...

2014-01-01

470

Calibration and Modification for the Pacific Northwest of the New Zealand Douglas-Fir Silvicultural Growth Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a growth model for young plantations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growing in the Pacific Northwest. The overall model has three major components. The first is a yield model for diameter and height distribution...

D. D. Marshall J. W. Flewelling

2008-01-01

471

13C AND 15N IN MICROARTHROPODS REVEAL LITTLE RESPONSE OF DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under global change requires experiments maintaining natural interactions among soil structure, soil communities, nutrient availability, and plant growth. In model Douglas-fir ecosystems maintained for five growing seaso...

472

Synchrotron FT-FIR spectroscopy of nitro-derivatives vapors: New spectroscopic signatures of explosive taggants and degradation products.  

PubMed

We report on the first successful rovibrational study of gas phase mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene in the TeraHertz/Far-Infrared (THz/FIR) spectral domain. Using the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier Transform spectrometer connected to multipass cells, the low-energy vibrational cross-sections of the different isomers of mononitrotoluene have been measured and compared to calculated spectra with the density functional theory including the anharmonic contribution. The active FIR modes of 2,4 and 2,6 dinitrotoluene have been assigned to the vibrational bands measured by Fourier Transform FIR spectroscopy of the gas-phase molecular cloud produced in an evaporating/recondensating system. This study highlights the selectivity of gas phase THz/FIR spectroscopy allowing an unambiguous recognition and discrimination of nitro-aromatic compounds used as explosive taggants. PMID:24975521

Cuisset, Arnaud; Gruet, Sébastien; Pirali, Olivier; Chamaillé, Thierry; Mouret, Gaël

2014-11-11

473

A Landsat Thematic Mapper investigation of the geobotanical relationships in the northern spruce-fir forest, Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation, in the northern spruce-fir forest at Mt. Moosilauke, NH, indicates that Landsat TM data can be used to distinguish between and map major vegetation zones. Principal components analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the TM data; and in this simpler spectral space, it is easier to visualize the discrimination between major vegetation zones: the northern hardwoods zone, spruce-fir zone, fir zone, and alpine tundra zone. The moisture stress index highlights areas of heavy forest damage (fir waves), but does not correlate with low levels of damage in the mixed, background forest at Mt. Moosilauke. Care must be taken to avoid confusion between high-elevation climatically-stressed vegetation (normal krummholz forest) and damaged lower elevation forests, both of which have similar TM5/TM4 ratio values.

Torcoletti, Paul J.; Birnie, Richard W.

1988-01-01

474

THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES EXTENSION IN BANKING: THE CASE OF E BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new technologies in the banking services are part of rapid changes in the way of life and thinking. The banks are aware these new changes are fundamental for their performance improvement. The banks of Romania have rapidly growing and developing e-banking services, especially the Internet information and home and mobile banking. The sites of banks provide specific information, particularly

Danciu Victor

475

Optimal Hybrid Power Filter Compensator Design Using Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a novel discrete search optimization and approach to solve the problem of the hybrid power filter compensator with design a C-type filter and fixed capacitor bank using discrete multi objective particle swarm optimization MOPSO method. This is to ensure both loss reduction and harmonic current mitigation on electrical utility grid. This novel optimization approach, a multi objective

Adel M. Sharaf; Adel A. A. El-Gammal

2009-01-01

476

The impact of bank regulations, supervision, market structure, and bank characteristics on individual bank ratings: A cross-country analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use country level data and bank level data from 71 countries and 857 banks to investigate the impact of bank regulations,\\u000a supervision, market structure, and bank characteristics on individual bank ratings. The results indicate that less cost efficient\\u000a banks, with higher than average levels of provisions relatively to their income, and lower liquidity tend to have lower ratings.\\u000a Larger

Fotios Pasiouras; Chrysovalantis Gaganis; Constantin Zopounidis

2006-01-01

477

Idea Bank: Changing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During student-centered learning activities, students actively engage in their own learning based on individual prior understandings. It can be difficult for a teacher to know if students fully understand the concepts being presented, especially if they do not comment or ask questions because they are shy or afraid of getting something wrong. Teachers may not know students' true ideas until they express themselves on a written summative exam, and then it is often too late to correct them before rushing off to the next topic. Therefore, the author uses pretests, daily learning logs, and posttests to assess student learning and change misconceptions. She shares her strategy in this month's Idea Bank.

Holzmiller, Tara

2008-12-01

478

Properties of resorcinol–tannin–formaldehyde copolymer resins prepared from the bark extracts of Taiwan acacia and China fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resorcinol–tannin–formaldehyde copolymer resins (RTF) were prepared by using the bark extracts of Taiwan acacia (Acacia confusa) and China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) to substitute part of the resorcinol. From the results, the content of reactive phenolic materials in Taiwan acacia and China fir bark extracts were 51.6% and 46.5%, respectively. Aromatic compounds were the main components in the bark extracts showed

Wen-Jau Lee; Wei-Chuan Lan

2006-01-01

479

A Structural Evaluation of Fir Powder in the Graphitization Process with Iron Oxide at a Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic graphitization of fir powder with iron oxide was investigated to fabricate high crystalline carbon between 900°C and 1600°C under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of the catalyst concentration and the heat treatment temperature on the graphitization process of fir carbon were investigated, and the structural evaluation in the graphitization process was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM),

Dexin Tan; Tiejun Shi; Zhong Li

2012-01-01

480

Post-germination-induced and hormonally dependent expression of low-molecular-weight heat shock protein genes in Douglas fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated and sequenced two cDNA clones (PM 18.2A;PM 18.2B) from Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) which encode for the low-molecular-weight heat shock proteins (LMW HSPs) of 18.2 kDa. The predicted amino acid sequences of the two Douglas fir proteins are 97.5% identical. A phylogenetic tree of class I LMW HSPs showed that the PM LMW HSPs are

Karia H. Kaukinen; Timothy J. Tranbarger; Santosh Misra

1996-01-01

481

Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

482

Bank Insolvency: Bad Luck, Bad Policy, or Bad Banking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article examines the causesand effects of these crises and how governments have responded. It finds that bothmacroeconomic and microeconomic factors have figured in bank crises and that, based onthe criteria developed here, few governments have responded well to these episodes. To bettermanage insolvencies, policymakers must develop a regulatory framework that allows banks torespond more robustly to shocks and ensures

Gerard Caprio

1996-01-01

483

73. The Metals Bank Building (now the State Savings Bank) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. The Metals Bank Building (now the State Savings Bank) was designed by Cass Gilbert and built in 1906, under the suoervision of Link had Haire, Architects. The structure is L-shaped, with oak and tile finishes on the interior. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

484

Australian Item Bank Program: Social Science Item Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After vigorous review, editing, and trial testing, this item bank was compiled to help secondary school teachers construct objective tests in the social sciences. Anthropology, economics, ethnic and cultural studies, geography, history, legal studies, politics, and sociology are among the topics represented. The bank consists of multiple choice…

Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

485

The protostar OMC-2 FIR 4: Results from the CHESS Herschel/HIFI spectral survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intermediate-mass protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 in Orion is the focus of several ongoing studies, including a CHESS key programme Herschel/HIFI spectral survey. In this poster, we review recent CHESS results on this source, including the properties of the central hot core, the presence of a compact outflow, the spatial variation of the chemical composition, and the discovery of a tenuous foreground cloud. The HIFI spectrum of FIR 4 contains 719 lines from 40 species and isotopologs. Cooling by lines detectable with our sensitivity contributes 2% of the total in the 480 to 1900 GHz range. The total line flux is dominated by CO, followed by H2O and CH3OH. Initial comparisons with spectral surveys of other sources will also be presented.

Kama, Mihkel; Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Dominik, Carsten; Caux, Emmanuel; Fuente, Asuncion

2013-07-01

486

Modelling and prediction for chaotic fir laser attractor using rational function neural network.  

PubMed

Many real-world systems such as irregular ECG signal, volatility of currency exchange rate and heated fluid reaction exhibit highly complex nonlinear characteristic known as chaos. These chaotic systems cannot be retreated satisfactorily using linear system theory due to its high dimensionality and irregularity. This research focuses on prediction and modelling of chaotic FIR (Far InfraRed) laser system for which the underlying equations are not given. This paper proposed a method for prediction and modelling a chaotic FIR laser time series using rational function neural network. Three network architectures, TDNN (Time Delayed Neural Network), RBF (radial basis function) network and the RF (rational function) network, are also presented. Comparisons between these networks performance show the improvements introduced by the RF network in terms of a decrement in network complexity and better ability of predictability. PMID:11310557

Cho, S

2001-02-01

487

Stress-wave nondestructive evaluation of green veneer: southern yellow pine and Douglas fir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of using stress wave nondestructive evaluation techniques to sort green southern yellow pine and DOuglas fir veneer into stress grades was evaluated. Stress wave nondestructive evaluation was used to separate green veneer into several grades for use in manufacturing engineered wood composites, most notably laminated veneer lumber. The effect of moisture content and preservative treatment on stress wave determined properties of green (wet) southern yellow pine and Douglas fir veneer was investigated during the preliminary stages of the project. A digital oscilloscope and a commercial stress wave timer were used to measure the transit time it took for an induced stress wave to travel the longitudinal length of each veneer. Stress wave transit times were measured in each piece in the wet condition, during drying, and at a dry equilibrated moisture content of approximately 10 percent. Strong correlative relationships exist between stress wave velocity measured in untreated and preservative treated green (wet) and dry veneer.

Brashaw, Brian K.; Ross, Robert J.; Pellerin, Roy F.

1996-11-01

488

[Lichens on branches of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb) as indicators of atmospheric pollution in forests].  

PubMed

The abundance distribution of different ecological groups of lichens depending on bark pH has been studied on 1- to 24-year shoots of Siberian fir in the mountains of southern Siberia. Along with acidophytic lichens commonly found on the Siberian fir (Usnea sp., Bryoria sp., etc.), its young shoots are also colonized by nitrophytic species (Physcia tenella, Melanelia exasperatula, etc.), which is evidence for the increasing pH of shoot bark. The proportion of thalli of nitrophytic lichen species shows a significant positive correlation with the pH of the upper (dusted) bark layer and is greater in the Eastern Sayan (at bark pH averaging 5.4) than in the Western Sayan (pH 4.7). The trends revealed in this study may be used for indication of pollution and ecological monitoring of forest ecosystems. PMID:18771033

Otniukova, T N; Sekretenko, O P

2008-01-01

489

75 FR 73983 - Assessments, Large Bank Pricing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 3064-AD66 Assessments, Large Bank Pricing AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...2010, regarding Assessments, Large Bank Pricing. This correction clarifies that the comment period for the Assessments, Large Bank Pricing ends January 3, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

2010-11-30

490

46 CFR Sec. 2 - Bank account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bank account. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping ...TRANSACTIONS UNDER AGENCY AGREEMENTS Accounts Sec. 2 Bank account. A separate joint bank account will be maintained in a...

2013-10-01

491

Blind source estimation of FIR channels for binary sources: a grouping decision approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel grouping decision approach for blind source estimation of FIR (finite impulse response) channels with binary sources. First, solvability is discussed for single-input systems and multi-input systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions for recoverability are derived. For single-input systems, a new deterministic algorithm based on grouping and decision is proposed to recover the source up to a

Yuanqing Li; Andrzej Cichocki; Liqing Zhang

2004-01-01

492

Influence of soil properties on the mortality of silver fir in Tuscany, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  With regard to the high mortality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Italy, pathological and climatic causes are considered crucial, while soil properties are usually neglected. Two\\u000a of the largest Tuscan forests of this species, the one of Vallombrosa and the other of Mount Amiata, are seriously affected\\u000a byHeter obasidion annosum, a fungus causing root rot. However, in spite

Giacomo Certini; Giuseppe Corti; Fiorenzo C. Ugolini

2000-01-01

493

Spectral response and spatial pattern of Fraser fir mortality and regeneration, Great Smoky Mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

High elevation Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) forests of the Southern Appalachians have undergone widespread mortality since the introduction of the balsam woolly adelgid in the 1950s. Resulting changes in ecosystem pattern and process (e.g., stand dynamic processes) have greatly affected floral and faunal communities. In this project, we integrated field observations, geographic information system topographic models, and 1988–1998 satellite imagery

Thomas R. Allen; John A. Kupfer

2001-01-01

494

Internal element cycles of an old-growth Douglas-fir ecosystem in western Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on primary production, decomposition, hydrology, and element cycling was intergrated in annual budgets of accumulation and flux among components of a mature Douglas-fir forest ecosystem. Annual N input in precipitation and dust was 2.0 kg\\/ha, and an estimated 2.8 kg\\/ha were fixed by cyanophycophilous lichens in the canopy. Annual N loss to groundwater was 1.5 kg\\/ha. Microparticulate litterfall provided

P. Sollins; C. C. Grier; F. M. McCorison; K. Jr. Cromack; R. Fogel; R. L. Fedriksen

1980-01-01

495

Evaluation of transpiration in a Douglas-fir stand by means of sap flow measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transpiration of a Douglas-fir (Pseudorsuga menziesii (Mirb.) France) stand was evaluated by sap flow measurements during a 4-month period. Between-tree variation in sap flow depended on crown class. On a sunny day, total transpiration was 1.6, 8.0 and 22.0 liters day-' for suppressed, codomi- nant and dominant trees, respectively. Transpiration estimated by sap How fell below potential evapotranspiration when available

A. GRANIER

1987-01-01

496

Viewing the Evolution of Massive Star Formation through FIR\\/Sub-mm\\/mm Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an overview of our method of constructing a family of models for the far-infrared, sub-millimeter, and millimeter (FIR\\/sub-mm\\/mm) line emission of molecular and atomic gas surrounding massive star formation in starburst galaxies. We show the results of a case study, an expanding supershell centered around a massive star cluster with a particular set of input

Lihong Yao; E. R. Seaquist

2006-01-01

497

A hybrid model for intensively managed Douglas-fir plantations in the Pacific Northwest, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in traditional forest growth models have been achieved by linking growth predictions to key ecophysiological\\u000a processes in a hybrid approach that combines the strengths of both empirical and process-based models. A hybrid model was\\u000a constructed for intensively managed Douglas-fir plantations in the Pacific Northwest, USA, by embedding components representing\\u000a fundamental physiological processes and detailed tree allometrics into an

Aaron R. Weiskittel; Douglas A. Maguire; Robert A. Monserud; Gregory P. Johnson

2010-01-01

498

Combustion characteristics of hogged Douglas-fir bark in spreader stoker boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial results are summarized of studies of combustion characteristics of Douglas-fir bark (hogged fuel) as burned in a spreader stoker experimental test facility. Attempts were made to determine combustion characteristics for fuels burned in controlled conditions. Independent variables include wood size and MC, underfire\\/overfire air ratios, and fuel-to-air ratios. The work is presently under way at Oregon State University in

Junge

1977-01-01

499

Review of Subterahertz and Terahertz Gyrodevices at IAP RAS and FIR FU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximal frequency of radiation higher than 1 THz has been recently obtained in pulse gyrotrons both at IAP (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and FIR (Fukui, Japan). CW generation at a 2.2-kW power level is radiated from a 300-GHz gyrotron and used for technological applications. New gyrotrons demonstrate single-mode operation at the second cyclotron harmonic with a frequency of 395 GHz

Vladimir Bratman; Mikhail Glyavin; Toshitaka Idehara; Yuri Kalynov; Alexey Luchinin; Vladimir Manuilov; Seitaro Mitsudo; Isamu Ogawa; Teruo Saito; Yoshinori Tatematsu; Vladimir Zapevalov

2009-01-01

500

Density-dependent eÄects on tree survival in an old- growth Douglas fir forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 We mapped the locations of live and dead trees in a large forest plot dominated by pioneer Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) with an understorey of the invading late-successional species western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata) on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, to test for intra- and interspecific density-dependent eÄects on tree survival. 2 We

FANGLIANG HE; RICHARD P. DUNCAN