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Sample records for fir filter bank

  1. Optimal implementation approach for discrete wavelet transform using FIR filter banks on FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargunaraj, Joe J.; Rao, Sathyanarayana S.

    1998-10-01

    We present a wavelet transform implementation approach using a FIR filter bank that uses a Wallace Tree structure for fast multiplication. VHDL models targeted specifically for synthesize have been written for clocked data registers, adders and the multiplier. Symmetric wavelets like Biorthogonal wavelets can be implemented using this design. By changing the input filter coefficients different wavelet decompositions may be implemented. The design is mapped onto the ORCA series FPGA after synthesis and optimization for timing and area.

  2. System Verilog modelling of FIR filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlus, ?ukasz; Wegrzyn, Marek

    2006-02-01

    In the paper modelling of FIR filters by means of Verilog and SystemVerilog is presented. Hardware/software co-design approach for such systems is applied in the presented design. As a final technology for a FIR filters system implementation, a FPSLIC device is considered. Filters system demonstrates example methods of communication between FPGA and AVR microcontroller in a FPSLIC structure, i.e. the communication through SRAM memory, addressing lines, data bus, interrupts. It also demonstrates how to serve peripheral elements in FPSLIC device by means of DPI interface. FIR filters model contains also interface which implements a FPSLIC cache logic and gives opportunity to a dynamical reconfiguration of FPGA in a FPSLIC structure.

  3. Design of efficient FIR filters with minimal delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estola, K. P.

    A design method for approximately linear phase narrow-band and highpass FIR filters is presented. Also an efficient filter structure is introduced for realizing the designed filters. The structure is based on a cascade of linear and nonlinear phase FIR filters having transfer functions expressable as integer powers of the unit delay. The overall implementation requires significantly less multiplications than conventional direct form FIR filters. Moreover, the delay of the filters is only fractions of what can be attained using pure linear-phase FIR filters. It is shown by means of an example that the design method and realization results in virtually linear phase FIR highpass filters which are computationally efficient and have short response times.

  4. FIR Filter of DS-CDMA UWB Modem Transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyu-Min; Cho, Sang-In; Won, Hui-Chul; Choi, Sang-Sung

    This letter presents low-complexity digital pulse shaping filter structures of a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) ultra wide-band (UWB) modem transmitter with a ternary spreading code. The proposed finite impulse response (FIR) filter structures using a look-up table (LUT) have the effect of saving the amount of memory by about 50% to 80% in comparison to the conventional FIR filter structures, and consequently are suitable for a high-speed parallel data process.

  5. Exact reconstruction analysis/synthesis filter banks with time-varying filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrowood, J. L., Jr.; Smith, M. J. T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines some of the analysis/synthesis issues associated with FIR time-varying filter banks where the filter bank coefficients are allowed to change in response to the input signal. Several issues are identified as being important in order to realize performance gains from time-varying filter banks in image coding applications. These issues relate to the behavior of the filters as transition from one set of filter banks to another occurs. Lattice structure formulations for the time varying filter bank problem are introduced and discussed in terms of their properties and transition characteristics.

  6. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

  7. A novel FIR filter design based on clonal selection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiusheng; Gao, Shaokun; Zhao, Jingpo

    2008-10-01

    FIR filter has some advantages, such as system stability, simple implement, and linear phase. It has been widely used in digital signal processing and other relative fields. Clonal selection algorithm has been applied successfully in solving problems like memory acquisition, multi-modal optimization and traveling salesman problem. This paper proposes a novel FIR filter design method. It combines clonal selection algorithm and window function method to achieve optimization. In the design process, float coding is adopted to increase the convergence precision. Some simulation experiments are carried out to verify the performance of the presented algorithm. The results show that the introduced method is able to design some FIR filter which is difficult for other methods. The filter design approach discussed in this paper is universal and easy to implement.

  8. Synthesis of Band Filters and Equalizers Using Microwav FIR Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Deibele, C.

    2000-01-01

    It is desired to design a passive bandpass filter with both a linear phase and flat magnitude response within the band and also has steep skirts. Using the properties of both coupled lines and elementary FIR (Finite Impulse Response) signal processing techniques can produce a filter of adequate phase response and magnitude control. The design procedure will first be described and then a sample filter will then be synthesized and results shown.

  9. FIR filters for hardware-based real-time multi-band image blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Vladan; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2015-02-01

    Creating panoramic images has become a popular feature in modern smart phones, tablets, and digital cameras. A user can create a 360 degree field-of-view photograph from only several images. Quality of the resulting image is related to the number of source images, their brightness, and the used algorithm for their stitching and blending. One of the algorithms that provides excellent results in terms of background color uniformity and reduction of ghosting artifacts is the multi-band blending. The algorithm relies on decomposition of image into multiple frequency bands using dyadic filter bank. Hence, the results are also highly dependant on the used filter bank. In this paper we analyze performance of the FIR filters used for multi-band blending. We present a set of five filters that showed the best results in both literature and our experiments. The set includes Gaussian filter, biorthogonal wavelets, and custom-designed maximally flat and equiripple FIR filters. The presented results of filter comparison are based on several no-reference metrics for image quality. We conclude that 5/3 biorthogonal wavelet produces the best result in average, especially when its short length is considered. Furthermore, we propose a real-time FPGA implementation of the blending algorithm, using 2D non-separable systolic filtering scheme. Its pipeline architecture does not require hardware multipliers and it is able to achieve very high operating frequencies. The implemented system is able to process 91 fps for 1080p (1920×1080) image resolution.

  10. Boundary implications for frequency response of interval FIR filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that vertex implication results in parameter space apply to interval trigonometric polynomials, which characterize the frequency response of a finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter. A weak result and a strong result are given, and the conclusions are illustrated by examples.

  11. Modelling Subsea Coaxial Cable as FIR Filter on MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanisin, D.; Nordin, M. S.; Hazrul, M. H.; Kumar, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the modelling of subsea coaxial cable as a FIR filter on MATLAB. The subsea coaxial cables are commonly used in telecommunication industry and, oil and gas industry. Furthermore, this cable is unlike a filter circuit, which is a "lumped network" as individual components appear as discrete items. Therefore, a subsea coaxial network can be represented as a digital filter. In overall, the study has been conducted using MATLAB to model the subsea coaxial channel model base on primary and secondary parameters of subsea coaxial cable.

  12. Neural network design approach for equiripple FIR digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; He, Yigang; Fan, Shaosheng; Li, Hong

    2006-11-01

    An equiripple FIR linear-phase digital filters design approach is proposed based on a novel neural network optimization technique. Its goal is to minimize the weight square-error function in the frequency domain. The design solution is presented as a parallel algorithm to approximate the desired frequency response specification, and the weight coefficients are updated according to error function. Thus, the proposed approximation method can avoid the overshoot phenomenon which may happen near the pass-band and stop-band edge of the designed filter, and may make a fast calculation of the filter's coefficients possible. Several optimal design examples are given and the performance comparison between the proposed design approach with some conventional methods, and the results show that the proposed neural network method can easily achieve higher design accuracy.

  13. Design tradeoffs using truncated multipliers in FIR filter implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Eugene G., III; Schulte, Michael J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a general FIR filter architecture utilizing truncated tree multipliers for computation. The average error, maximum error, and variance of error due to truncation are derived for the proposed architecture. A novel technique that reduces the average error of the filter is presented, along with equations for computing the signal-to-noise ratio of the truncation error. A software tool written in Java is described that automatically generates structural VHDL models for specific filters based on this architecture, given parameters such as the number of taps, operand lengths, number of multipliers, and number of truncated columns. We show that a 22.5% reduction in area can be achieved for a 24-tap filter with 16-bit operands, 4 parallel multipliers, and 12 truncated columns. For this implementation, the average reduction error is only 9.18 × 10-5 ulps, and the reduction error SNR is only 2.4 dB less than the roundoff SNR of an equivalent filter without truncation.

  14. The Dual Carrier ABSK System Based on a FIR Bandpass Filter

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhimin; Wu, Lenan; Wang, Jiwu

    2014-01-01

    The special impacting filter (SIF) with IIR structure has been used to demodulate ABSK signals. The key points of SIF, including the resonance circuit's high Q value and the “slope-phase discrimination” character of the filter sideband, are demonstrated in the paper. The FIR narrow-band bandpass filtering system, which can also provide the impact-filtering effect, is proposed. A dual carrier system of ABSK signals is designed with the proposed FIR filter as its receiver. The simulation results show that the FIR filter can work well. Moreover, compared to the traditional SIF, the proposed FIR filter can not only achieve higher spectral efficiency, but also give better demodulation performance. PMID:24658625

  15. Low-cost space-varying FIR filter architecture for computational imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guotong; Shoaib, Mohammed; Schwartz, Edward L.; Dirk Robinson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates the advantage of designing electro-optical imaging systems by jointly optimizing the optical and digital subsystems. The optical systems designed using this joint approach intentionally introduce large and often space-varying optical aberrations that produce blurry optical images. Digital sharpening restores reduced contrast due to these intentional optical aberrations. Computational imaging systems designed in this fashion have several advantages including extended depth-of-field, lower system costs, and improved low-light performance. Currently, most consumer imaging systems lack the necessary computational resources to compensate for these optical systems with large aberrations in the digital processor. Hence, the exploitation of the advantages of the jointly designed computational imaging system requires low-complexity algorithms enabling space-varying sharpening. In this paper, we describe a low-cost algorithmic framework and associated hardware enabling the space-varying finite impulse response (FIR) sharpening required to restore largely aberrated optical images. Our framework leverages the space-varying properties of optical images formed using rotationally-symmetric optical lens elements. First, we describe an approach to leverage the rotational symmetry of the point spread function (PSF) about the optical axis allowing computational savings. Second, we employ a specially designed bank of sharpening filters tuned to the specific radial variation common to optical aberrations. We evaluate the computational efficiency and image quality achieved by using this low-cost space-varying FIR filter architecture.

  16. Boundary implications for frequency response of interval FIR and IIR filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that vertex implication results in parameter space apply to interval trigonometric polynomials. Subsequently, it is shown that the frequency responses of both interval FIR and IIR filters are bounded by the frequency responses of certain extreme filters. The results apply directly in the evaluation of properties of designed filters, especially because it is more realistic to bound the filter coefficients from above and below instead of determining those with infinite precision because of finite arithmetic effects. Illustrative examples are provided to show how the extreme filters might be easily derived in any specific interval FIR or IIR filter design problem.

  17. Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

  18. B-spline design of digital FIR filter using evolutionary computation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Manorama; Panda, Rutuparna

    2011-10-01

    In the forth coming era, digital filters are becoming a true replacement for the analog filter designs. Here in this paper we examine a design method for FIR filter using global search optimization techniques known as Evolutionary computation via genetic algorithm and bacterial foraging, where the filter design considered as an optimization problem. In this paper, an effort is made to design the maximally flat filters using generalized B-spline window. The key to our success is the fact that the bandwidth of the filer response can be modified by changing tuning parameters incorporated well within the B-spline function. This is an optimization problem. Direct approach has been deployed to design B-spline window based FIR digital filters. Four parameters (order, width, length and tuning parameter) have been optimized by using GA and EBFS. It is observed that the desired response can be obtained with lower order FIR filters with optimal width and tuning parameters.

  19. Demonstration of using digital FIR filter and matched filter to increase data rate in visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Feng; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Huang, Po-Yen; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Using digital-filters in time domain are demonstrated to enhance the modulation-speed of 1 MHz bandwidth white LED communication. Digital FIR filter and matched filtering are used to reduce the inter-symbol-interference (ISI). Hence, 20-Mbps is achieved by using 4-ASK modulation.

  20. Efficient and accurate optimal linear phase FIR filter design using opposition-based harmony search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Saha, S K; Dutta, R; Choudhury, R; Kar, R; Mandal, D; Ghoshal, S P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems. PMID:23844390

  1. Noise and Outlier Removal from Jet Engine Health Signals Using Weighted FIR Median Hybrid Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, R.

    2002-11-01

    The removal of noise and outliers from measurement signals is a major problem in jet engine health monitoring. Typical measurement signals found in most jet engines include low rotor speed, high rotor speed, fuel flow and exhaust gas temperature. Deviations in these measurements from a baseline 'good' engine are often called measurement deltas and the health signals used for fault detection, isolation, trending and data mining. Linear filters such as the FIR moving average filter and IIR exponential average filter are used in the industry to remove noise and outliers from the jet engine measurement deltas. However, the use of linear filters can lead to loss of critical features in the signal that can contain information about maintenance and repair events that could be used by fault isolation algorithms to determine engine condition or by data mining algorithms to learn valuable patterns in the data. Non-linear filters such as the median and weighted median hybrid filters offer the opportunity to remove noise and gross outliers from signals while preserving features. In this study, a comparison of traditional linear filters popular in the jet engine industry is made with the median filter and the subfilter weighted FIR median hybrid (SWFMH) filter. Results using simulated data with implanted faults shows that the SWFMH filter results in a noise reduction of over 60 per cent compared to only 20 per cent for FIR filters and 30 per cent for IIR filters. Preprocessing jet engine health signals using the SWFMH filter would greatly improve the accuracy of diagnostic systems.

  2. Iterative design of one- and two-dimensional FIR digital filters. [Finite duration Impulse Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suk, M.; Choi, K.; Algazi, V. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a new iterative technique for designing FIR (finite duration impulse response) digital filters using a frequency weighted least squares approximation. The technique is as easy to implement (via FFT) and as effective in two dimensions as in one dimension, and there are virtually no limitations on the class of filter frequency spectra approximated. An adaptive adjustment of the frequency weight to achieve other types of design approximation such as Chebyshev type design is discussed.

  3. Hybrid method for designing digital FIR filters based on fractional derivative constraints.

    PubMed

    Baderia, Kuldeep; Kumar, Anil; Kumar Singh, Girish

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript, a hybrid approach based on Lagrange multiplier method and cuckoo search (CS) optimization technique is proposed for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters using fractional derivative constraints. In the proposed method, FIR filter is designed by optimizing the integral squares in passband and stopband from ideal response such that the fractional derivatives of designed filter response become zero at a given frequency point. Lagrange multiplier method is exploited for finding the optimized filter coefficients. Optimal value of fractional derivative constraints for optimized filter coefficients are determined by minimizing the objective function constructed using a sum of maximum passband ripple and maximum stopband ripple in frequency domain using CS algorithm. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (?(p)), stopband error (?(s)), stopband attenuation (A(s)), maximum passband ripple (MPR), maximum stopband ripple (MSR) and CPU time. A comparative study of the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) for designing FIR filters using the proposed method is also made. PMID:26142984

  4. Optimized FIR filters for digital pulse compression of biphase codes with low sidelobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanal, M.; Kuloor, R.; Sagayaraj, M. J.

    In miniaturized radars where power, real estate, speed and low cost are tight constraints and Doppler tolerance is not a major concern biphase codes are popular and FIR filter is used for digital pulse compression (DPC) implementation to achieve required range resolution. Disadvantage of low peak to sidelobe ratio (PSR) of biphase codes can be overcome by linear programming for either single stage mismatched filter or two stage approach i.e. matched filter followed by sidelobe suppression filter (SSF) filter. Linear programming (LP) calls for longer filter lengths to obtain desirable PSR. Longer the filter length greater will be the number of multipliers, hence more will be the requirement of logic resources used in the FPGAs and many time becomes design challenge for system on chip (SoC) requirement. This requirement of multipliers can be brought down by clustering the tap weights of the filter by kmeans clustering algorithm at the cost of few dB deterioration in PSR. The cluster centroid as tap weight reduces logic used in FPGA for FIR filters to a great extent by reducing number of weight multipliers. Since k-means clustering is an iterative algorithm, centroid for weights cluster is different in different iterations and causes different clusters. This causes difference in clustering of weights and sometimes even it may happen that lesser number of multiplier and lesser length of filter provide better PSR.

  5. Gain scaling for multirate filter banks

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Eliminating two trivial degrees of freedom corresponding to the lowpass DC response and the highpass Nyquist response in a two-channel multirate filter bank seems simple enough. Nonetheless, the ISO/IEC JPEG 2000 image coding standard manages to make this mundane task look totally mysterious. We reveal the true meaning behind JPEG 2000's arcane specifications for filter bank normalization and point out how the seemingly trivial matter of gain scaling leads to highly nontrivial issues concerning uniqueness of lifting factorizations.

  6. Design of Hilbert transformers with tunable THz bandwidths using a reconfigurable integrated optical FIR filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc; Song, Yufeng; Lin, Bo

    2011-02-01

    We present the design and analysis of a wideband and tunable optical Hilbert transformer (OHT) using a tunable waveguide-based finite-impulse response (FIR) filter structure by using the digital filter design method and the Remez algorithm. The tunable Nth-order waveguide-based FIR filter, which simply consists of N delay lines, N tunable couplers, N tunable phase shifters and a combiner, can be tuned, by thermally adjusting the tunable couplers and tunable phase shifters, to tune the bandwidth of an OHT using silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the simulation results have an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The tunable OHT can function as a wideband and tunable 90° phase shifter and thus has many potential applications. The two unique features of wideband characteristic (up to ~ 2 THz) and tunable bandwidth (THz tuning range) of the proposed OHT cannot be obtained from the existing OHTs.

  7. Optimal Design of CSD Coefficient FIR Filters Subject to Number of Nonzero Digits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Yuichi; Suyama, Kenji

    In a hardware implementation of FIR(Finite Impulse Response) digital filters, it is desired to reduce a total number of nonzero digits used for a representation of filter coefficients. In general, a design problem of FIR filters with CSD(Canonic Signed Digit) representation, which is efficient one for the reduction of numbers of multiplier units, is often considered as one of the 0-1 combinational problems. In such the problem, some difficult constraints make us prevent to linearize the problem. Although many kinds of heuristic approaches have been applied to solve the problem, the solution obtained by such a manner could not guarantee its optimality. In this paper, we attempt to formulate the design problem as the 0-1 mixed integer linear programming problem and solve it by using the branch and bound technique, which is a powerful method for solving integer programming problem. Several design examples are shown to present an efficient performance of the proposed method.

  8. A Design Method for Variable Linear-Phase FIR Filters with Changing Multifactors for Checkweighers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Toma; Aikawa, Naoyuki

    Digital signal processing requires digital filters with variable frequency characteristics. A variable digital filter (VDF) is a filter whose frequency characteristics can be easily and instantaneously changed. In this paper, we present a design method for variable linear-phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters with multiple variable factors and a reduction method for the number of polynomial coefficients. The obtained filter has a high piecewise attenuation in the stopband. The stopband edge and the position and magnitude of the high piecewise stopband attenuation can be varied by changing some parameters. Variable parameters are normalized in this paper. An optimization methodology known as semidefinite programming (SDP) is used to design the filter. In addition, we present that the proposed VDF can be implemented using the Farrow structure, which suitable for real time signal processing. The usefulness of the proposed filter is demonstrated through examples.

  9. Optimized FPGA Implementation of Multi-Rate FIR Filters Through Thread Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Jason Xin; Nguyen, Kayla; He, Yutao

    2010-01-01

    Multirate (decimation/interpolation) filters are among the essential signal processing components in spaceborne instruments where Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters are often used to minimize nonlinear group delay and finite-precision effects. Cascaded (multi-stage) designs of Multi-Rate FIR (MRFIR) filters are further used for large rate change ratio, in order to lower the required throughput while simultaneously achieving comparable or better performance than single-stage designs. Traditional representation and implementation of MRFIR employ polyphase decomposition of the original filter structure, whose main purpose is to compute only the needed output at the lowest possible sampling rate. In this paper, an alternative representation and implementation technique, called TD-MRFIR (Thread Decomposition MRFIR), is presented. The basic idea is to decompose MRFIR into output computational threads, in contrast to a structural decomposition of the original filter as done in the polyphase decomposition. Each thread represents an instance of the finite convolution required to produce a single output of the MRFIR. The filter is thus viewed as a finite collection of concurrent threads. The technical details of TD-MRFIR will be explained, first showing its applicability to the implementation of downsampling, upsampling, and resampling FIR filters, and then describing a general strategy to optimally allocate the number of filter taps. A particular FPGA design of multi-stage TD-MRFIR for the L-band radar of NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) instrument is demonstrated; and its implementation results in several targeted FPGA devices are summarized in terms of the functional (bit width, fixed-point error) and performance (time closure, resource usage, and power estimation) parameters.

  10. Embedded FIR filter design for real-time refocusing using a standard plenoptic video camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar

    2014-03-01

    A novel and low-cost embedded hardware architecture for real-time refocusing based on a standard plenoptic camera is presented in this study. The proposed layout design synthesizes refocusing slices directly from micro images by omitting the process for the commonly used sub-aperture extraction. Therefore, intellectual property cores, containing switch controlled Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, are developed and applied to the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) XC6SLX45 from Xilinx. Enabling the hardware design to work economically, the FIR filters are composed of stored product as well as upsampling and interpolation techniques in order to achieve an ideal relation between image resolution, delay time, power consumption and the demand of logic gates. The video output is transmitted via High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) with a resolution of 720p at a frame rate of 60 fps conforming to the HD ready standard. Examples of the synthesized refocusing slices are presented.

  11. Effect of embedded unbiasedness on discrete-time optimal FIR filtering estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shunyi; Shmaliy, Yuriy S.; Liu, Fei; Ibarra-Manzano, Oscar; Khan, Sanowar H.

    2015-12-01

    Unbiased estimation is an efficient alternative to optimal estimation when the noise statistics are not fully known and/or the model undergoes temporary uncertainties. In this paper, we investigate the effect of embedded unbiasedness (EU) on optimal finite impulse response (OFIR) filtering estimates of linear discrete time-invariant state-space models. A new OFIR-EU filter is derived by minimizing the mean square error (MSE) subject to the unbiasedness constraint. We show that the OFIR-UE filter is equivalent to the minimum variance unbiased FIR (UFIR) filter. Unlike the OFIR filter, the OFIR-EU filter does not require the initial conditions. In terms of accuracy, the OFIR-EU filter occupies an intermediate place between the UFIR and OFIR filters. Contrary to the UFIR filter which MSE is minimized by the optimal horizon of N opt points, the MSEs in the OFIR-EU and OFIR filters diminish with N and these filters are thus full-horizon. Based upon several examples, we show that the OFIR-UE filter has higher immunity against errors in the noise statistics and better robustness against temporary model uncertainties than the OFIR and Kalman filters.

  12. Application of 1D FIR filter methods to 3D polygonal meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, William S.

    2012-03-01

    This paper discusses a procedure of filtering a three dimensional (3-D) polygonal mesh by utilizing the basic methods of finite impulse response (FIR), one dimensional (1-D) filtering. A method of linearizing a 3-D mesh was developed in order to apply the 1-D filter methods. With the development of low cost 3-D scanners, which physically scan and digitize real-world objects, the amount of "noise" that is found on these models has increased. This noise can come from various sources, including unwanted imperfections in the object itself, and from the device being used to scan the object. This newly developed filtering method will provide not only a way to decrease the noise in models, but increase details of the model as well, using low-pass and high-pass filters respectively.

  13. Cat Swarm Optimization algorithm for optimal linear phase FIR filter design.

    PubMed

    Saha, Suman Kumar; Ghoshal, Sakti Prasad; Kar, Rajib; Mandal, Durbadal

    2013-11-01

    In this paper a new meta-heuristic search method, called Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) algorithm is applied to determine the best optimal impulse response coefficients of FIR low pass, high pass, band pass and band stop filters, trying to meet the respective ideal frequency response characteristics. CSO is generated by observing the behaviour of cats and composed of two sub-models. In CSO, one can decide how many cats are used in the iteration. Every cat has its' own position composed of M dimensions, velocities for each dimension, a fitness value which represents the accommodation of the cat to the fitness function, and a flag to identify whether the cat is in seeking mode or tracing mode. The final solution would be the best position of one of the cats. CSO keeps the best solution until it reaches the end of the iteration. The results of the proposed CSO based approach have been compared to those of other well-known optimization methods such as Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RGA), standard Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE). The CSO based results confirm the superiority of the proposed CSO for solving FIR filter design problems. The performances of the CSO based designed FIR filters have proven to be superior as compared to those obtained by RGA, conventional PSO and DE. The simulation results also demonstrate that the CSO is the best optimizer among other relevant techniques, not only in the convergence speed but also in the optimal performances of the designed filters. PMID:23958491

  14. Ultra low power switched current finite impulse response filter banks realized in CMOS 0.18 ?m technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D?ugosz, Rafa?

    2007-05-01

    Ultra low power circuits are in high demand in many applications especially in wireless sensor networks (WSN), where energy is scavenged from environment. WSN systems contain different blocks, such as: sensors, filters, analog-to-digital converters, very often a simple processor and the RF front end block. This paper concerns ultra low power finite impulse response (FIR) filters and filter banks implemented in a switched current (SI) technique. In this paper new SI FIR filter structures and filter banks have been proposed. These circuits operate in the current mode and do not use operational amplifiers, what enables very low power dissipation on the level of several ?W. Proposed filters incorporate transistors working under threshold level for the voltage supply that is in the range 0.5 - 0.7 V. The simulated attenuation in the stopband of the frequency response is limited to about 45 dB, what is due to different nonidealities, but such value is usually sufficient in WSN applications. The SI technique features many interesting mechanisms that simplify realization of analog filter banks. The signal samples that are stored in the delay lane are in SI filters copied to the filter coefficients using current mirrors. As a result, there exists the possibility to connect many sets of filter coefficients to a single delay line without the speed limitation. Ultra low power operation of proposed filters is also possible due to a special structure of the clock generator that only consists from switches and NOT gates.

  15. On the application of under-decimated filter banks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y.-P.; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    Maximally decimated filter banks have been extensively studied in the past. A filter bank is said to be under-decimated if the number of channels is more than the decimation ratio in the subbands. A maximally decimated filter bank is well known for its application in subband coding. Another application of maximally decimated filter banks is in block filtering. Convolution through block filtering has the advantages that parallelism is increased and data are processed at a lower rate. However, the computational complexity is comparable to that of direct convolution. More recently, another type of filter bank convolver has been developed. In this scheme, the convolution is performed in the subbands. Quantization and bit allocation of subband signals are based on signal variance, as in subband coding. Consequently, for a fixed rate, the result of convolution is more accurate than is direct convolution. This type of filter bank convolver also enjoys the advantages of block filtering, parallelism, and a lower working rate. Nevertheless, like block filtering, there is no computational saving. In this article, under-decimated systems are introduced to solve the problem. The new system is decimated only by half the number of channels. Two types of filter banks can be used in the under-decimated system: the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks. They are well known for their low complexity. In both cases, the system is approximately alias free, and the overall response is equivalent to a tunable multilevel filter. Properties of the DFT filter banks and the cosine modulated filter banks can be exploited to simultaneously achieve parallelism, computational saving, and a lower working rate. Furthermore, for both systems, the implementation cost of the analysis or synthesis bank is comparable to that of one prototype filter plus some low-complexity modulation matrices. The individual analysis and synthesis filters have complex coefficients in the DFT filter banks but have real coefficients in the cosine modulated filter banks.

  16. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

  17. Design Techniques for Uniform-DFT, Linear Phase Filter Banks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Honglin; DeLeon, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Uniform-DFT filter banks are an important class of filter banks and their theory is well known. One notable characteristic is their very efficient implementation when using polyphase filters and the FFT. Separately, linear phase filter banks, i.e. filter banks in which the analysis filters have a linear phase are also an important class of filter banks and desired in many applications. Unfortunately, it has been proved that one cannot design critically-sampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks and achieve perfect reconstruction. In this paper, we present a least-squares solution to this problem and in addition prove that oversampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks (which are also useful in many applications) can be constructed for perfect reconstruction. Design examples are included illustrate the methods.

  18. A new approach for designing 2-D quasi-equiripple zero-phase FIR digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiao; Wang, Xiaohua; Li, Tianzan

    2008-10-01

    A batch back-propagation neural networks (BBPNN) approach was presented to design general two-dimensional (2-D) quasi-equripple zero-phase finite-impulse response (FIR) digital filters. By minimizing the frequency-domain weighted error function, the BBPNN design method was obtained. The solution was presented as a parallel algorithm to approximate the desired frequency response specification. Thus, the method makes a fast calculation of the filter's coefficients possible. It is shown that the method leads to an optimal solution for the filter coefficients. The implementation of the approach was described together with some design guidelines, and some optimal design examples were given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Design of FIR Filters with Discrete Coefficients using Ant Colony Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Shuntaro; Suyama, Kenji

    In this paper, we propose a new design method for linear phase FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters with discrete coefficients. In a hardware implementation, filter coefficients must be represented as discrete values. The design problem of digital filters with discrete coefficients is formulated as the integer programming problem. Then, an enormous amount of computational time is required to solve the problem in a strict solver. Recently, ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) which is one heuristic approach, is used widely for solving combinational problem like the traveling salesman problem. In our method, we formulate the design problem as the 0-1 integer programming problem and solve it by using the ACO. Several design examples are shown to present effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Design of Digital FIR Filter Based on Dynamic Distributed Arithmetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneswaran, T.; Subbarami Reddy, P.

    This research presents a method for implementing high speed Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters using just adders, Look Up Tables (LUTs) and shifters. The extensive use of a Dynamic Distributed Arithmetic (DDA) algorithm eliminates the multiplier unit which requires more number of adders. Xilinx Spartan III devices is used for optimization. It is observed that up to 56.75% reduction in the number of slices, upto 75% reduction in flip flops and up to 53.2% reduction in the number of LUTs is achieved. The speed of the DDA is improved by 31%.

  1. Multi-focus image fusion based on batch digital FIR filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yiquan; Liu, Wenwen; He, Xiaoyuan

    2008-11-01

    This paper dedicates to study how to construct a perfect high resolution image from images with few different in-focus locals. Multi-focus technology which grabs images focused on different region in the same scene to rebuild a whole-focus image is adopted to perform this work. However, integrating with the advantages of so many images is a considerable difficult task. In view of this, the paper presents an algorithm for fast realization with high precision. Firstly, a batch of reversible two-dimensional FIR filters is designed to extract useful components from the local focused images. Based on comprehensive consideration, an efficient calculation flow is presented too. Secondly, a detector (PPE, point property evaluation) based on gradient energy is designed to evaluate point property of each channel divided by the FIR filters. According to the evaluation, the components in each channel are synthesized to build corresponding target channel. Finally, a perfect image can be obtained by adding all the target channels. At last, the algorithm is verified by an actual application. In this test, one perfect image is reconstructed from 9 local focalized images photographed with telephoto lens. Besides, other intermediate experiment results also provide support to the ideas adopted in the algorithm.

  2. Recursive time-varying filter banks for subband image coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Mark J. T.; Chung, Wilson C.

    1992-01-01

    Filter banks and wavelet decompositions that employ recursive filters have been considered previously and are recognized for their efficiency in partitioning the frequency spectrum. This paper presents an analysis of a new infinite impulse response (IIR) filter bank in which these computationally efficient filters may be changed adaptively in response to the input. The filter bank is presented and discussed in the context of finite-support signals with the intended application in subband image coding. In the absence of quantization errors, exact reconstruction can be achieved and by the proper choice of an adaptation scheme, it is shown that IIR time-varying filter banks can yield improvement over conventional ones.

  3. Optimized FPGA Implementation of Multi-Rate FIR Filters Through Thread Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Kayla N.; He, Yutao; Zheng, Jason X.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-rate finite impulse response (MRFIR) filters are among the essential signal-processing components in spaceborne instruments where finite impulse response filters are often used to minimize nonlinear group delay and finite precision effects. Cascaded (multistage) designs of MRFIR filters are further used for large rate change ratio in order to lower the required throughput, while simultaneously achieving comparable or better performance than single-stage designs. Traditional representation and implementation of MRFIR employ polyphase decomposition of the original filter structure, whose main purpose is to compute only the needed output at the lowest possible sampling rate. In this innovation, an alternative representation and implementation technique called TD-MRFIR (Thread Decomposition MRFIR) is presented. The basic idea is to decompose MRFIR into output computational threads, in contrast to a structural decomposition of the original filter as done in the polyphase decomposition. A naive implementation of a decimation filter consisting of a full FIR followed by a downsampling stage is very inefficient, as most of the computations performed by the FIR state are discarded through downsampling. In fact, only 1/M of the total computations are useful (M being the decimation factor). Polyphase decomposition provides an alternative view of decimation filters, where the downsampling occurs before the FIR stage, and the outputs are viewed as the sum of M sub-filters with length of N/M taps. Although this approach leads to more efficient filter designs, in general the implementation is not straightforward if the numbers of multipliers need to be minimized. In TD-MRFIR, each thread represents an instance of the finite convolution required to produce a single output of the MRFIR. The filter is thus viewed as a finite collection of concurrent threads. Each of the threads completes when a convolution result (filter output value) is computed, and activated when the first input of the convolution becomes available. Thus, the new threads get spawned at exactly the rate of N/M, where N is the total number of taps, and M is the decimation factor. Existing threads retire at the same rate of N/M. The implementation of an MRFIR is thus transformed into a problem to statically schedule the minimum number of multipliers such that all threads can be completed on time. Solving the static scheduling problem is rather straightforward if one examines the Thread Decomposition Diagram, which is a table-like diagram that has rows representing computation threads and columns representing time. The control logic of the MRFIR can be implemented using simple counters. Instead of decomposing MRFIRs into subfilters as suggested by polyphase decomposition, the thread decomposition diagrams transform the problem into a familiar one of static scheduling, which can be easily solved as the input rate is constant.

  4. Non-maximally decimated filter bank-based single-carrier receiver: a pathway to next-generation wideband communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaofei; harris, fred; Venosa, Elettra; Rao, Bhaskar D.

    2014-12-01

    We present the design of a wideband digital modem based on non-maximally decimated filter bank (NMDFB) with perfect reconstruction (PR) property. The PR-NMDFB contains an analysis filter bank (AFB) and a synthesis filter bank (SFB) whose efficient polyphase forms are named as polyphase analysis channelizer (PAC) and polyphase synthesis channelizer (PSC). The waveform being processed is the legacy square root Nyquist-shaped quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). In contrast to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the shaped QAM transmission has much superior performance properties in throughput, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), and synchronization. We will show the PR-NMDFB is capable of efficiently performing several key tasks of a digital receiver with dramatic workload reduction. This includes digital filtering, carrier recovery, and symbol timing recovery. Moreover, the nature of NMDFB allows the signal processing to operate a significantly reduced sample rate, which is a desired characteristic for replacing current FIR implementation in wideband systems.

  5. Structured Noise Removal By Using A High Flexible 2D Fir Digital Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, R.; Poppl, S. J.

    1982-11-01

    Depending on the adjustment of data acquisition devices, medical images may be degraded by structured noise, which has to be removed before further steps of image processing techniques like contour finding or feature extraction are applied. In the 2D frequency domain of an image, structured noise usually is characterized by a pattern with relatively sharp bounded regions. So, to loose not too much image information by filtering, it is necessary to apply a digital filter, whose bandstop-region has nearly the same pattern as the structured noise region. In this paper, a polynomal approximation algorithm within the scope of the window method of designing 2D Finite-duration Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters is presented, with which it is possible to design lowpass-, highpass-, bandpass-, and bandstop-filters of arbitrary shape, size and position in the 2D frequency domain. The effect of enhancement by this method on a 2D-echocardiogram degraded by ripple structured noise is demonstrated.

  6. Optimal design of a bank of spatio-temporal filters for EEG signal classification.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    The spatial weights for electrodes called common spatial pattern (CSP) are known to be effective in EEG signal classification for motor imagery based brain computer interfaces (MI-BCI). To achieve accurate classification in CSP, the frequency filter should be properly designed. To this end, several methods for designing the filter have been proposed. However, the existing methods cannot consider plural brain activities described with different frequency bands and different spatial patterns such as activities of mu and beta rhythms. In order to efficiently extract these brain activities, we propose a method to design plural filters and spatial weights which extract desired brain activity. The proposed method designs finite impulse response (FIR) filters and the associated spatial weights by optimization of an objective function which is a natural extension of CSP. Moreover, we show by a classification experiment that the bank of FIR filters which are designed by introducing an orthogonality into the objective function can extract good discriminative features. Moreover, the experiment result suggests that the proposed method can automatically detect and extract brain activities related to motor imagery. PMID:22255731

  7. 3-D directional filter banks and surfacelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yue; Do, Minh N.

    2005-08-01

    In 1992, Bamberger and Smith proposed the directional filter bank (DFB) for an efficient directional decomposition of two-dimensional (2-D) signals. Due to the nonseparable nature of the system, extending the DFB to higher dimensions while still retaining its attractive features is a challenging and previously unsolved problem. This paper proposes a new family of filter banks, named 3DDFB, that can achieve the directional decomposition of 3-D signals with a simple and efficient tree-structured construction. The ideal passbands of the proposed 3DDFB are rectangular-based pyramids radiating out from the origin at different orientations and tiling the whole frequency space. The proposed 3DDFB achieves perfect reconstruction. Moreover, the angular resolution of the proposed 3DDFB can be iteratively refined by invoking more levels of decomposition through a simple expansion rule. We also introduce a 3-D directional multiresolution decomposition, named the surfacelet transform, by combining the proposed 3DDFB with the Laplacian pyramid. The 3DDFB has a redundancy factor of 3 and the surfacelet transform has a redundancy factor up to 24/7.

  8. Channel Equalization in Filter Bank Based Multicarrier Modulation for Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihalainen, Tero; Hidalgo Stitz, Tobias; Rinne, Mika; Renfors, Markku

    2006-12-01

    Channel equalization in filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation is addressed. We utilize an efficient oversampled filter bank concept with 2x-oversampled subcarrier signals that can be equalized independently of each other. Due to Nyquist pulse shaping, consecutive symbol waveforms overlap in time, which calls for special means for equalization. Two alternative linear low-complexity subcarrier equalizer structures are developed together with straightforward channel estimation-based methods to calculate the equalizer coefficients using pointwise equalization within each subband (in a frequency-sampled manner). A novel structure, consisting of a linear-phase FIR amplitude equalizer and an allpass filter as phase equalizer, is found to provide enhanced robustness to timing estimation errors. This allows the receiver to be operated without time synchronization before the filter bank. The coded error-rate performance of FBMC with the studied equalization scheme is compared to a cyclic prefix OFDM reference in wireless mobile channel conditions, taking into account issues like spectral regrowth with practical nonlinear transmitters and sensitivity to frequency offsets. It is further emphasized that FBMC provides flexible means for high-quality frequency selective filtering in the receiver to suppress strong interfering spectral components within or close to the used frequency band.

  9. Sensorless jerk monitoring using an adaptive antisymmetric high-order FIR filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Velazquez, Luis; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Alfredo Osornio-Rios, Roque; Cabal-Yepez, Eduardo

    2009-10-01

    In the computerized numerical controllers (CNC) machine-tool processes many finishing and wear problems are related to jerk (derivative of acceleration). Since jerk sensors are expensive and scarce, a sensorless approach is presented as novelty. By taking the incoming signal from a digital incremental encoder included in the standard servo-loop of a CNC machine, the jerk is calculated with a new digital signal processing technique. The contribution of this work focuses on a simple high-order FIR filter with an adaptive algorithm that makes it possible to extract the jerk from the digital position measurement in a sensorless fashion. The algorithm reaches a good approximation to the expected jerk shape by overcoming the intrinsic quantization noise in the digital measurement and the changing dynamical conditions of a real machining process. The algorithm is tested on simulations and over one real CNC machine achieving great similarity between analytical and monitored jerk. It preserves most of the important jerk characteristics like peaks and coarse shape, getting a maximum of 2% of average jerk error on simulations, and 5% of average jerk error on real experiments. This computational efficient algorithm reaches a processing rate up to 760,000 samples per second in an FPGA implementation, which makes it suitable for high speed applications.

  10. Low Power Realization and Synthesis of Higher-Order FIR Filters Using an Improved Common Subexpression Elimination Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, K. G.; Vinod, A. P.

    The complexity of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters is mainly dominated by the number of adders (subtractors) used to implement the coefficient multipliers. It is well known that Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) method based on Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) representation considerably reduces the number of adders in coefficient multipliers. Recently, a binary-based CSE (BSE) technique was proposed, which produced better reduction of adders compared to the CSD-based CSE. In this paper, we propose a new 4-bit binary representation-based CSE (BCSE-4) method which employs 4-bit Common Subexpressions (CSs) for implementing higher order low-power FIR filters. The proposed BCSE-4 offers better reduction of adders by eliminating the redundant 4-bit CSs that exist in the binary representation of filter coefficients. The reduction of adders is achieved with a small increase in critical path length of filter coefficient multipliers. Design examples show that our BCSE-4 gives an average power consumption reduction of 5.2% and 6.1% over the best known CSE method (BSE, NR-SCSE) respectively, when synthesized with TSMC-0.18µm technology. We show that our BCSE-4 offers an overall adder reduction of 6.5% compared to BSE without any increase in critical path length of filter coefficient multipliers.

  11. Real-time evaluation of ventilation filter-bank systems.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Ernest S; Commodore, Michael A; Hayes, Jeffrey L; Fotta, Steven A; Berardinelli, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated two government facility ventilation systems. One was a metropolitan government office complex with a recirculation system where outside air was the makeup air; the other was a NIOSH facility that used 100% outside air with no recirculation. The methodology employed was a modified American Society of Agricultural Engineers standard (S525) for testing total enclosure filtration efficiency, in agricultural tractor cabs, with optical particle counters (OPC). The low-efficiency bag filters were tested when new and after being in the ventilation system for 3 months. The replacement medium-efficiency filters were evaluated for 6 months (the manufacturer's suggested change-out schedule). These eight-chamber, medium-efficiency filters had an increased filter surface area that resulted in increased airflow through the system. Unfortunately, these filters contained electrostatic filter media and lost filtration efficiency rapidly, which was subsequently confirmed in a 30-day study conducted to determine an appropriate change-out schedule for the eight-chamber bag filters. The study determined that less than 6 months' use was justified due to the reduced efficiency of the electrostatic filter media. The NIOSH facility's air handler #8 (100% outside air unit) was upgraded from electrostatic bag filters, which had a suggested 9-month change-out schedule, to V Bank mechanical, wet-laid, glass fiber filters. The results of a 3-year evaluation showed that the V Bank filters had better filter efficiency after 3 years of service than the electrostatic filters had at 9 months. Both studies employed matched OPC instruments to reduce instrument-to-instrument bias. The methodology is adaptable to monitoring the total efficiency of most air filtration systems, and results can help make decisions about upgrading filter performance. PMID:17162482

  12. Canonical Signed Digit Study. Part 2; FIR Digital Filter Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Heechul

    1996-01-01

    Finite Impulse Response digital filter using Canonical Signed-Digit (CSD) number representation for the coefficients has been studied and its computer simulation results are presented here. Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion is employed to optimize filter coefficients into the corresponding CSD numbers. To further improve coefficients optimization process, an extra non-zero bit is added for any filter coefficients exceeding 1/2. This technique improves frequency response of filter without increasing filter complexity almost at all. The simulation results show outstanding performance in bit-error-rate (BER) curve for all CSD implemented digital filters included in this presentation material.

  13. Iterated oversampled filter banks and wavelet frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selesnick, Ivan W.; Sendur, Levent

    2000-12-01

    This paper takes up the design of wavelet tight frames that are analogous to Daubechies orthonormal wavelets - that is, the design of minimal length wavelet filters satisfying certain polynomial properties, but now in the oversampled case. The oversampled dyadic DWT considered in this paper is based on a single scaling function and tow distinct wavelets. Having more wavelets than necessary gives a closer spacing between adjacent wavelets within the same scale. As a result, the transform is nearly shift-invariant, and can be used to improve denoising. Because the associated time- frequency lattice preserves the dyadic structure of the critically sampled DWT it can be used with tree-based denoising algorithms that exploit parent-child correlation.

  14. Optimal and unbiased FIR filtering in discrete time state space with smoothing and predictive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmaliy, Yuriy S.; Ibarra-Manzano, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    We address p-shift finite impulse response optimal (OFIR) and unbiased (UFIR) algorithms for predictive filtering ( p > 0), filtering ( p = 0), and smoothing filtering ( p < 0) at a discrete point n over N neighboring points. The algorithms were designed for linear time-invariant state-space signal models with white Gaussian noise. The OFIR filter self-determines the initial mean square state function by solving the discrete algebraic Riccati equation. The UFIR one represented both in the batch and iterative Kalman-like forms does not require the noise covariances and initial errors. An example of applications is given for smoothing and predictive filtering of a two-state polynomial model. Based upon this example, we show that exact optimality is redundant when N ? 1 and still a nice suboptimal estimate can fairly be provided with a UFIR filter at a much lower cost.

  15. Electroencephalographic compression based on modulated filter banks and wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Bazán-Prieto, Carlos; Cárdenas-Barrera, Julián; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Due to the large volume of information generated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) study, compression is needed for storage, processing or transmission for analysis. In this paper we evaluate and compare two lossy compression techniques applied to EEG signals. It compares the performance of compression schemes with decomposition by filter banks or wavelet Packets transformation, seeking the best value for compression, best quality and more efficient real time implementation. Due to specific properties of EEG signals, we propose a quantization stage adapted to the dynamic range of each band, looking for higher quality. The results show that the compressor with filter bank performs better than transform methods. Quantization adapted to the dynamic range significantly enhances the quality. PMID:22255966

  16. Design of FIR digital filters for pulse shaping and channel equalization using time-domain optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, R. C.; Vaughn, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    Three algorithms are developed for designing finite impulse response digital filters to be used for pulse shaping and channel equalization. The first is the Minimax algorithm which uses linear programming to design a frequency-sampling filter with a pulse shape that approximates the specification in a minimax sense. Design examples are included which accurately approximate a specified impulse response with a maximum error of 0.03 using only six resonators. The second algorithm is an extension of the Minimax algorithm to design preset equalizers for channels with known impulse responses. Both transversal and frequency-sampling equalizer structures are designed to produce a minimax approximation of a specified channel output waveform. Examples of these designs are compared as to the accuracy of the approximation, the resultant intersymbol interference (ISI), and the required transmitted energy. While the transversal designs are slightly more accurate, the frequency-sampling designs using six resonators have smaller ISI and energy values.

  17. High-speed FIR digital filter using residue number arithmetic implemented in multiple-valued logic

    SciTech Connect

    Soderstrand, M.A.; Escott, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    High-speed digital filters are designed using residue number system (RNS) computing hardware implemented in multiple-valued logic (MVL). Two digit MVL moduli of 5, 7, and 8 levels respectively (moduli 25, 49, and 64) yield a 16-bit computational precision suitable for 8-bit input and output signals. The proposed structure is highly pipelined and offers high speed (i.e. 20 mhz throughout) with fewer components and much fewer interconnections when compared with a binary implementation. 7 references.

  18. CMB Science: Opportunities for a Cryogenic Filter-Bank Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartari, A.; Battistelli, E. S.; Piat, M.; Prêle, D.

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral science is experiencing a renewed interest after the impressive result of COBE-FIRAS in the early Nineties. In 2011, the PIXIE proposal contributed to reopen the prospect of measuring deviations from a perfect 2.725 K planckian spectrum. Both COBE-FIRAS and PIXIE are differential Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSes) capable to operate in the null condition across ˜ 2 frequency decades (in the case of PIXIE, the frequency span is 30 GHz-6 THz). We discuss a complementary strategy to observe CMB spectral distortions at frequencies lower than 250 GHz, down to the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the spectrum. The throughput advantage that makes the FTS capable of achieving exquisite sensitivity via multimode operation becomes limited at lower frequencies. We demonstrate that an array of 100 cryogenic planar filter-bank spectrometers coupled to single mode antennas, on a purely statistical ground, can perform better than an FTS between tens of GHz and 200 GHz (a relevant frequency window for cosmology) in the hypothesis that (1) both instruments have the same frequency resolution and (2) both instruments are operated at the photon noise limit (with the FTS frequency band extending from ˜ tens of GHz up to 1 THz). We discuss possible limitations of these hypotheses, and the constraints that have to be fulfilled (mainly in terms of efficiency) in order to operate a cryogenic filter-bank spectrometer close to its ultimate sensitivity limit.

  19. Use of finite wordlength FIR digital filter structures with improved magnitude and phase characteristics for reduction of muscle noise in EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Sadasivan, P K; Dutt, D N

    1995-05-01

    One of the main disturbances in EEG signals is EMG artefacts generated by muscle movements. In the paper, the use of a linear phase FIR digital low-pass filter with finite wordlength precision coefficients is proposed, designed using the compensation procedure, to minimise EMG artefacts in contaminated EEG signals. To make the filtering more effective, different structures are used, i.e. cascading, twicing and sharpening (apart from simple low-pass filtering) of the designed FIR filter. Modifications are proposed to twicing and sharpening structures to regain the linear phase characteristics that are lost in conventional twicing and sharpening operations. The efficacy of all these transformed filters in minimising EMG artefacts is studied, using SNR improvements as a performance measure for simulated signals. Time plots of the signals are also compared. Studies show that the modified sharpening structure is superior in performance to all other proposed methods. These algorithms have also been applied to real or recorded EMG-contaminated EEG signal. Comparison of time plots, and also the output SNR, show that the proposed modified sharpened structure works better in minimising EMG artefacts compared with other methods considered. PMID:7475367

  20. A Filter Bank Approach to Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Men-Andrin; Heaton, Tom; Clinton, John

    2014-05-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a race against time. The longer it takes to detect and characterize an ongoing event, the larger is the blind zone - the region where a warning arrives only after the most damaging ground motion has occurred. The problem is most acute during medium size earthquakes, where damaging ground motion is confined to a small zone around the epicenter. An ideal EEW algorithm which is fast enough to provide relevant alerts for such scenario events would have to produce reliable event characterization based on observations of very short snippets of data recorded at only very few stations. For such a scheme to work, without significant numbers of false alarms (which continue to hamper both single-station and network based approaches today), the real-time information that is available for an earthquake has to be exploited in a more optimal way than what is currently done. Our approach is to fully mine the broadband frequency content of incoming waveforms that contains significant information on the size and epicentral distance of the ongoing event. We propose a filter bank approach with minimum phase delay filters which allows us to use frequency information from each frequency band at each triggered station at the earliest possible time. We have compiled and processed an extensive dataset of near-field earthquake waveforms. In an empirical maximum likelihood scheme, we use the filter bank output from the first seconds after the P-wave onset of each waveform to estimate the most likely magnitude and epicentral distance to have caused this waveform. We show how our single station approach can be integrated into an evolutionary and fully probabilistic network EEW system. We demonstrate that our method can allow sufficiently accurate characterization of an ongoing event with two stations, with consistent characterization of the evolving uncertainty of the location and magnitude.

  1. Filter bank common spatial patterns in mental workload estimation.

    PubMed

    Arvaneh, Mahnaz; Umilta, Alberto; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-08-01

    EEG-based workload estimation technology provides a real time means of assessing mental workload. Such technology can effectively enhance the performance of the human-machine interaction and the learning process. When designing workload estimation algorithms, a crucial signal processing component is the feature extraction step. Despite several studies on this field, the spatial properties of the EEG signals were mostly neglected. Since EEG inherently has a poor spacial resolution, features extracted individually from each EEG channel may not be sufficiently efficient. This problem becomes more pronounced when we use low-cost but convenient EEG sensors with limited stability which is the case in practical scenarios. To address this issue, in this paper, we introduce a filter bank common spatial patterns algorithm combined with a feature selection method to extract spatio-spectral features discriminating different mental workload levels. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we carry out a comparative analysis between two representative types of working memory tasks using data recorded from an Emotiv EPOC headset which is a mobile low-cost EEG recording device. The experimental results showed that the proposed spatial filtering algorithm outperformed the state-of-the algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy. PMID:26737355

  2. A filter bank approach to earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, M.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a race against time. The longer it takes to detect and characterize an ongoing event, the larger is the blind zone - the region where a warning arrives only after the most damaging ground motion has occurred. The problem is most acute during medium size earthquakes, where damaging ground motion is confined to a small zone around the epicenter. An ideal EEW algorithm which is fast enough to provide relevant alerts for such scenario events would have to produce reliable event characterization based on observations of very short snippets of data recorded at only very few stations. For such a scheme to work, without significant numbers of false alarms (which continue to hamper both single-station and network based approaches today), the real-time information that is available for an earthquake has to be exploited in a more optimal way than what is currently done. Our approach is to fully mine the broadband frequency content of incoming waveforms that contains significant information on the size and epicentral distance of the ongoing event. We propose a filter bank approach with minimum phase delay filters which allows us to use frequency information from each frequency band at each triggered station at the earliest possible time. We have compiled and processed an extensive event dataset of near-field earthquake waveforms. In an empirical maximum likelihood scheme, we use the filter bank output from the first seconds after the P-wave onset of each waveform to estimate a) the likelihood that the waveform corresponds to a local seismic event; and b) the most likely magnitude and epicentral distance to have caused this waveform. We show how our single station approach can be integrated into an evolutionary and fully probabilistic network EEW system. This method could be expanded to a Bayesian framework by considering prior information, as proposed in the Virtual Seismologist (Cua and Heaton, 2007). We demonstrate that our method can allow sufficiently accurate characterization of an ongoing event with two stations, with consistent characterization of the evolving uncertainty of the location and magnitude.

  3. Link performance model for filter bank based multicarrier systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Dmitry; Oborina, Alexandra; Giupponi, Lorenza; Stitz, Tobias Hidalgo

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a complete link level abstraction model for link quality estimation on the system level of filter bank multicarrier (FBMC)-based networks. The application of mean mutual information per coded bit (MMIB) approach is validated for the FBMC systems. The considered quality measure of the resource element for the FBMC transmission is the received signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio (SNDR). Simulation results of the proposed link abstraction model show that the proposed approach is capable of estimating the block error rate (BLER) accurately, even when the signal is propagated through the channels with deep and frequent fades, as it is the case for the 3GPP Hilly Terrain (3GPP-HT) and Enhanced Typical Urban (ETU) models. The FBMC-related results of link level simulations are compared with cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CP-OFDM) analogs. Simulation results are also validated through the comparison to reference publicly available results. Finally, the steps of link level abstraction algorithm for FBMC are formulated and its application for system level simulation of a professional mobile radio (PMR) network is discussed.

  4. Parallel digital modem using multirate digital filter banks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin; Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Raphaeli, Dan; Hinedi, Sami

    1994-01-01

    A new class of architectures for an all-digital modem is presented in this report. This architecture, referred to as the parallel receiver (PRX), is based on employing multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to demodulate, track, and detect the received symbol stream. The resulting architecture is derived, and specifications are outlined for designing the DFB for the PRX. The key feature of this approach is a lower processing rate then either the Nyquist rate or the symbol rate, without any degradation in the symbol error rate. Due to the freedom in choosing the processing rate, the designer is able to arbitrarily select and use digital components, independent of the speed of the integrated circuit technology. PRX architecture is particularly suited for high data rate applications, and due to the modular structure of the parallel signal path, expansion to even higher data rates is accommodated with each. Applications of the PRX would include gigabit satellite channels, multiple spacecraft, optical links, interactive cable-TV, telemedicine, code division multiple access (CDMA) communications, and others.

  5. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-10-14

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  6. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-05-20

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  7. Non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks using meta-heuristic algorithms in CSD space.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shaeen; Elias, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient design of non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks (CMFB) using canonic signed digit (CSD) coefficients. CMFB has got an easy and efficient design approach. Non-uniform decomposition can be easily obtained by merging the appropriate filters of a uniform filter bank. Only the prototype filter needs to be designed and optimized. In this paper, the prototype filter is designed using window method, weighted Chebyshev approximation and weighted constrained least square approximation. The coefficients are quantized into CSD, using a look-up-table. The finite precision CSD rounding, deteriorates the filter bank performances. The performances of the filter bank are improved using suitably modified meta-heuristic algorithms. The different meta-heuristic algorithms which are modified and used in this paper are Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Gravitational Search algorithm, Harmony Search algorithm and Genetic algorithm and they result in filter banks with less implementation complexity, power consumption and area requirements when compared with those of the conventional continuous coefficient non-uniform CMFB. PMID:26644921

  8. Non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks using meta-heuristic algorithms in CSD space

    PubMed Central

    Kalathil, Shaeen; Elias, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient design of non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks (CMFB) using canonic signed digit (CSD) coefficients. CMFB has got an easy and efficient design approach. Non-uniform decomposition can be easily obtained by merging the appropriate filters of a uniform filter bank. Only the prototype filter needs to be designed and optimized. In this paper, the prototype filter is designed using window method, weighted Chebyshev approximation and weighted constrained least square approximation. The coefficients are quantized into CSD, using a look-up-table. The finite precision CSD rounding, deteriorates the filter bank performances. The performances of the filter bank are improved using suitably modified meta-heuristic algorithms. The different meta-heuristic algorithms which are modified and used in this paper are Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Gravitational Search algorithm, Harmony Search algorithm and Genetic algorithm and they result in filter banks with less implementation complexity, power consumption and area requirements when compared with those of the conventional continuous coefficient non-uniform CMFB. PMID:26644921

  9. On the Construction of Invertible Filter Banks on the 2-Sphere

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Boon Thye Thomas; Ou, Wanmei; Golland, Polina

    2009-01-01

    The theories of signal sampling, filter banks, wavelets, and “overcomplete wavelets” are well established for the Euclidean spaces and are widely used in the processing and analysis of images. While recent advances have extended some filtering methods to spherical images, many key challenges remain. In this paper, we develop theoretical conditions for the invertibility of filter banks under continuous spherical convolution. Furthermore, we present an analogue of the Papoulis generalized sampling theorem on the 2-Sphere. We use the theoretical results to establish a general framework for the design of invertible filter banks on the sphere and demonstrate the approach with examples of self-invertible spherical wavelets and steerable pyramids. We conclude by examining the use of a self-invertible spherical steerable pyramid in a denoising experiment and discussing the computational complexity of the filtering framework. PMID:18270119

  10. Lifted linear phase filter banks and the polyphase-with-advance representation

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, C. M.; Wohlberg, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    A matrix theory is developed for the noncausal polyphase-with-advance representation that underlies the theory of lifted perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet transforms as developed by Sweldens and Daubechies. This theory provides the fundamental lifting methodology employed in the ISO/IEC JPEG-2000 still image coding standard, which the authors helped to develop. Lifting structures for polyphase-with-advance filter banks are depicted in Figure 1. In the analysis bank of Figure 1(a), the first lifting step updates x{sub 0} with a filtered version of x{sub 1} and the second step updates x{sub 1} with a filtered version of x{sub 0}; gain factors 1/K and K normalize the lowpass- and highpass-filtered output subbands. Each of these steps is inverted by the corresponding operations in the synthesis bank shown in Figure 1(b). Lifting steps correspond to upper- or lower-triangular matrices, S{sub i}(z), in a cascade-form decomposition of the polyphase analysis matrix, H{sub a}(z). Lifting structures can also be implemented reversibly (i.e., losslessly in fixed-precision arithmetic) by rounding the lifting updates to integer values. Our treatment of the polyphase-with-advance representation develops an extensive matrix algebra framework that goes far beyond the results of. Specifically, we focus on analyzing and implementing linear phase two-channel filter banks via linear phase lifting cascade schemes. Whole-sample symmetric (WS) and half-sample symmetric (HS) linear phase filter banks are characterized completely in terms of the polyphase-with-advance representation. The theory benefits significantly from a number of new group-theoretic structures arising in the polyphase-with-advance matrix algebra from the lifting factorization of linear phase filter banks.

  11. Spacecraft precision entry navigation using an adaptive sigma point Kalman filter bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyne, Martin Cornelius

    This work documents the development of a sigma point Kalman filter for the purpose of precision spacecraft navigation during the atmospheric entry, descent and landing phase. The use of the sigma point Kalman filter is driven by the desire to avoid complex partial derivatives associated with the standard extended Kalman filter. The strategy increases the likelihood that the navigation algorithm will be compatible with the Electra. Using Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (MER-A) and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) data, experiments were conducted to validate the proposed navigation concept. Beginning at atmospheric entry interface, the hypersonic entry phase is considered and the navigation architecture performance is quantified. Using the sigma point Kalman filter as the main computational unit, a filter bank for environmental parameter identification is investigated. The focus of the investigation is atmospheric parameter identification. The MER-A mission is used to verify the ability of the filter bank to make appropriate selections. The navigation architecture is implemented on the Electra programmable radio, a flight hardware communication node available on spacecraft build for Mars exploration. The investigations show that the sigma point Kalman filter structure is very applicable to the atmospheric entry navigation problem. When used in conjunction with the filter bank concept, the overall navigation architecture is shown to be able to improve navigation accuracy over standard dead-reckoning, while providing robustness to uncertainties in the atmosphere. The navigation algorithm is successfully hosted on the Electra programmable radio and is capable of processing actual MER inertial measurement data.

  12. The American Meteor Society's filter bank spectroscopy project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gural, P.

    2015-01-01

    The American Meteor Society (AMS) has sponsored the development of an alternative method of meteor spectroscopy that relies on a set of eight very narrow band wavelength filters. The interference filters used are tuned to the dominant meteoric emission lines of Ca+, two Fe line regions, Mg, Na, Si+, the forbidden O line, and atmospheric O777. Discussion will include the design trade-offs, construction of the instrument, first light testing, and initial results.

  13. Non-orthogonal optical multicarrier access based on filter bank and SCMA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun

    2015-10-19

    This paper proposes a novel non-orthogonal optical multicarrier access system based on filter bank and sparse code multiple access (SCMA). It offers released frequency offset and better spectral efficiency for multicarrier access. An experiment of 73.68 Gb/s filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) SCMA system with 60 km single mode fiber link is performed to demonstrate the feasibility. The comparison between fast Fourier transform (FFT) based multicarrier and the proposed scheme is also investigated in the experiment. PMID:26480395

  14. Elaborate analysis and design of filter-bank-based sensing for wideband cognitive radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliatsos, Konstantinos; Adamis, Athanasios; Kanatas, Athanasios G.

    2014-12-01

    The successful operation of a cognitive radio system strongly depends on its ability to sense the radio environment. With the use of spectrum sensing algorithms, the cognitive radio is required to detect co-existing licensed primary transmissions and to protect them from interference. This paper focuses on filter-bank-based sensing and provides a solid theoretical background for the design of these detectors. Optimum detectors based on the Neyman-Pearson theorem are developed for uniform discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and modified DFT filter banks with root-Nyquist filters. The proposed sensing framework does not require frequency alignment between the filter bank of the sensor and the primary signal. Each wideband primary channel is spanned and monitored by several sensor subchannels that analyse it in narrowband signals. Filter-bank-based sensing is proved to be robust and efficient under coloured noise. Moreover, the performance of the weighted energy detector as a sensing technique is evaluated. Finally, based on the Locally Most Powerful and the Generalized Likelihood Ratio test, real-world sensing algorithms that do not require a priori knowledge are proposed and tested.

  15. On the application of optimal wavelet filter banks for ECG signal classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiloucas, S.; Jannah, N.; Hwang, F.; Galvão, R. K. H.

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses ECG signal classification after parametrizing the ECG waveforms in the wavelet domain. Signal decomposition using perfect reconstruction quadrature mirror filter banks can provide a very parsimonious representation of ECG signals. In the current work, the filter parameters are adjusted by a numerical optimization algorithm in order to minimize a cost function associated to the filter cut-off sharpness. The goal consists of achieving a better compromise between frequency selectivity and time resolution at each decomposition level than standard orthogonal filter banks such as those of the Daubechies and Coiflet families. Our aim is to optimally decompose the signals in the wavelet domain so that they can be subsequently used as inputs for training to a neural network classifier.

  16. Flexible Filter Bank Based on an Improved Weighted Overlap-Add Algorithm for Processing Wide Bandwidth Radio Astronomy Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianhai; Meng, Qiao; Han, J. L.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-12-01

    Wideband signals from a radio telescope have to be channelized for spectral observations or for dedispersion for pulsar observations. A polyphase filter bank is designed based on the improved weighted overlap-add (IWOLA) algorithm to achieve channelization. The IWOLA algorithm involves applying an equivalent Hilbert transform to the normal WOLA filter bank by shifting the center frequency of every sub-band by a half of the frequency bin, so that the IWOLA filter bank provides K independently output complex subbands instead of the usual K + 1 sub-bands, reducing the subsequent processing units by one set. Performance of the proposed IWOLA filter bank is analyzed by means of MATLAB simulations. We show how the IWOLA filter bank can be used for a two-stage, high-resolution spectrometer, with a much reduced consumption of FPGA on-chip block RAM.

  17. Hybrid Discrete Wavelet Transform and Gabor Filter Banks Processing for Features Extraction from Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology for automatic feature extraction from biomedical images and subsequent classification is presented. The approach exploits the spatial orientation of high-frequency textural features of the processed image as determined by a two-step process. First, the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to obtain the HH high-frequency subband image. Then, a Gabor filter bank is applied to the latter at different frequencies and spatial orientations to obtain new Gabor-filtered image whose entropy and uniformity are computed. Finally, the obtained statistics are fed to a support vector machine (SVM) binary classifier. The approach was validated on mammograms, retina, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. The obtained classification accuracies show better performance in comparison to common approaches that use only the DWT or Gabor filter banks for feature extraction.

  18. Orthonormal filters for identification in active control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Many active noise and vibration control systems require models of the control paths. When the controlled system changes slightly over time, adaptive digital filters for the identification of the models are useful. This paper aims at the investigation of a special class of adaptive digital filters: orthonormal filter banks possess the robust and simple adaptation of the widely applied finite impulse response (FIR) filters, but at a lower model order, which is important when considering implementation on embedded systems. However, the filter banks require prior knowledge about the resonance frequencies and damping of the structure. This knowledge can be supposed to be of limited precision, since in many practical systems, uncertainties in the structural parameters exist. In this work, a procedure using a number of training systems to find the fixed parameters for the filter banks is applied. The effect of uncertainties in the prior knowledge on the model error is examined both with a basic example and in an experiment. Furthermore, the possibilities to compensate for the imprecise prior knowledge by a higher filter order are investigated. Also comparisons with FIR filters are implemented in order to assess the possible advantages of the orthonormal filter banks. Numerical and experimental investigations show that significantly lower computational effort can be reached by the filter banks under certain conditions.

  19. A blind watermarking scheme using new nontensor product wavelet filter banks.

    PubMed

    You, Xinge; Du, Liang; Cheung, Yiu-Ming; Chen, Qiuhui

    2010-12-01

    As an effective method for copyright protection of digital products against illegal usage, watermarking in wavelet domain has recently received considerable attention due to the desirable multiresolution property of wavelet transform. In general, images can be represented with different resolutions by the wavelet decomposition, analogous to the human visual system (HVS). Usually, human eyes are insensitive to image singularities revealed by different high frequency subbands of wavelet decomposed images. Hence, adding watermarks into these singularities will improve the imperceptibility that is a desired property of a watermarking scheme. That is, the capability for revealing singularities of images plays a key role in designing wavelet-based watermarking algorithms. Unfortunately, the existing wavelets have a limited ability in revealing singularities in different directions. This motivates us to construct new wavelet filter banks that can reveal singularities in all directions. In this paper, we utilize special symmetric matrices to construct the new nontensor product wavelet filter banks, which can capture the singularities in all directions. Empirical studies will show their advantages of revealing singularities in comparison with the existing wavelets. Based upon these new wavelet filter banks, we, therefore, propose a modified significant difference watermarking algorithm. Experimental results show its promising results. PMID:21078567

  20. Current-State Constrained Filter Bank for Wald Testing of Spacecraft Conjunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2012-01-01

    We propose a filter bank consisting of an ordinary current-state extended Kalman filter, and two similar but constrained filters: one is constrained by a null hypothesis that the miss distance between two conjuncting spacecraft is inside their combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one is constrained by an alternative complementary hypothesis. The unconstrained filter is the basis of an initial screening for close approaches of interest. Once the initial screening detects a possibly risky conjunction, the unconstrained filter also governs measurement editing for all three filters, and predicts the time of closest approach. The constrained filters operate only when conjunctions of interest occur. The computed likelihoods of the innovations of the two constrained filters form a ratio for a Wald sequential probability ratio test. The Wald test guides risk mitigation maneuver decisions based on explicit false alarm and missed detection criteria. Since only current-state Kalman filtering is required to compute the innovations for the likelihood ratio, the present approach does not require the mapping of probability density forward to the time of closest approach. Instead, the hard-body constraint manifold is mapped to the filter update time by applying a sigma-point transformation to a projection function. Although many projectors are available, we choose one based on Lambert-style differential correction of the current-state velocity. We have tested our method using a scenario based on the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale mission, scheduled for launch in late 2014. This mission involves formation flight in highly elliptical orbits of four spinning spacecraft equipped with antennas extending 120 meters tip-to-tip. Eccentricities range from 0.82 to 0.91, and close approaches generally occur in the vicinity of perigee, where rapid changes in geometry may occur. Testing the method using two 12,000-case Monte Carlo simulations, we found the method achieved a missed detection rate of 0.1%, and a false alarm rate of 2%.

  1. Real-Time Diagnosis of Faults Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    A new robust method of automated real-time diagnosis of faults in an aircraft engine or a similar complex system involves the use of a bank of Kalman filters. In order to be highly reliable, a diagnostic system must be designed to account for the numerous failure conditions that an aircraft engine may encounter in operation. The method achieves this objective though the utilization of multiple Kalman filters, each of which is uniquely designed based on a specific failure hypothesis. A fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) system, developed based on this method, is able to isolate faults in sensors and actuators while detecting component faults (abrupt degradation in engine component performance). By affording a capability for real-time identification of minor faults before they grow into major ones, the method promises to enhance safety and reduce operating costs. The robustness of this method is further enhanced by incorporating information regarding the aging condition of an engine. In general, real-time fault diagnostic methods use the nominal performance of a "healthy" new engine as a reference condition in the diagnostic process. Such an approach does not account for gradual changes in performance associated with aging of an otherwise healthy engine. By incorporating information on gradual, aging-related changes, the new method makes it possible to retain at least some of the sensitivity and accuracy needed to detect incipient faults while preventing false alarms that could result from erroneous interpretation of symptoms of aging as symptoms of failures. The figure schematically depicts an FDI system according to the new method. The FDI system is integrated with an engine, from which it accepts two sets of input signals: sensor readings and actuator commands. Two main parts of the FDI system are a bank of Kalman filters and a subsystem that implements FDI decision rules. Each Kalman filter is designed to detect a specific sensor or actuator fault. When a sensor or actuator fault occurs, large estimation errors are generated by all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis. By monitoring the residual output of each filter, the specific fault that has occurred can be detected and isolated on the basis of the decision rules. A set of parameters that indicate the performance of the engine components is estimated by the "correct" Kalman filter for use in detecting component faults. To reduce the loss of diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in the face of aging, the FDI system accepts information from a steady-state-condition-monitoring system. This information is used to update the Kalman filters and a data bank of trim values representative of the current aging condition.

  2. Application of a Bank of Kalman Filters for Aircraft Engine Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a bank of Kalman filters is applied to aircraft gas turbine engine sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation (FDI) in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, thereby isolating the specific fault. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The proposed FDI approach is applied to a nonlinear engine simulation at nominal and aged conditions, and the evaluation results for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions are given. The ability of the proposed approach to reliably detect and isolate sensor and actuator faults is demonstrated.

  3. Design and analysis of directional 2D nonseparable perfect reconstruction filter banks for subband coding of images and video signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chang-Lin; Lien, Chen-Chang

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, we develop a directional 2-D non-separable filter bank which can perform the perfect reconstruction of the downsampled subband signals. The filter bank represents a union of two powerful image and video processing tools: directional decomposition and subband decomposition. This subband decomposition is implemented by: (1) shifting the input signal and the subband signals; (2) using a tree-structure diamond shape prefilter followed by downsampling on quincunx grids; and (3) applying four types parallelogram prefilters followed by four different downsampling matrices respectively. This paper addresses the design and implementation of two-channel filter banks for such applications. The two-band subsystem in the tree-structure filter bank is proved and analyzed to be able to provide perfect reconstruction of the downsampled subband signals. Our method is extremely computationally simple in designing the analysis/synthesis subfilters for the filter bank without using any nonlinearly constrained numerical optimization. Finally, we use conventional 1-D analysis/synthesis filters as prototype and then apply McClellan transform for the specific 2-D diamond shape and parallelogram shape sub-filters.

  4. Joint Source-Channel Coding Based on Cosine-Modulated Filter Banks for Erasure-Resilient Signal Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinkovic, Slavica; Guillemot, Christine

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines erasure resilience of oversampled filter bank (OFB) codes, focusing on two families of codes based on cosine-modulated filter banks (CMFB). We first revisit OFBs in light of filter bank and frame theory. The analogy with channel codes is then shown. In particular, for paraunitary filter banks, we show that the signal reconstruction methods derived from the filter bank theory and from coding theory are equivalent, even in the presence of quantization noise. We further discuss frame properties of the considered OFB structures. Perfect reconstruction (PR) for the CMFB-based OFBs with erasures is proven for the case of erasure patterns for which PR depends only on the general structure of the code and not on the prototype filters. For some of these erasure patterns, the expression of the mean-square reconstruction error is also independent of the filter coefficients. It can be expressed in terms of the number of erasures, and of parameters such as the number of channels and the oversampling ratio. The various structures are compared by simulation for the example of an image transmission system.

  5. Gigabit Digital Filter Bank: Digital Backend Subsystem in the VERA Data-Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Kkurayama, Tomoharu; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Kazuyuki

    2005-02-01

    The VERA terminal is a new data-acquisition system developed for the VERA project, which is a project to construct a new Japanese VLBI array dedicated to make a 3-D map of our Milky Way Galaxy in terms of high-precision astrometry. New technology, a gigabit digital filter, was introduced in the development. The importance and advantages of a digital filter for radio astronomy have been studied as follows: (1) the digital filter can realize a variety of observation modes and maintain compatibility with different data-acquisition systems (Kiuchi et al. 1997 and Iguchi et al. 2000a), (2) the folding noise occurring in the sampling process can be reduced by combination with a higher-order sampling technique (Iguchi, Kawaguchi 2002), (3) and an ideal sharp cut-off bandedge and a flat amplitude/phase responses are approached by using a large number of taps available to use LSI of a large number of logic cells (Iguchi et al. 2000a). We developed the custom Finite Impulse Response filter chips and manufactured the Gigabit Digital Filter Banks (GDFBs) as a digital backend subsystem in the VERA terminal. In this paper, the design and development of the GDFB are presented in detail, and the performances and demonstrations of the developed GDFB are shown.

  6. High definition television subband/discrete cosine transform coding using infinite-duration impulse response filter banks: coding strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rashid; Fernandez, Antonio M.; Lee, Sang H.

    1989-11-01

    The results of a study of HDTV subband coding using an Infinite-duration Impulse Response (IIR) filter bank is described. The coding scheme consists of using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coding in the lowest frequency band and runlength/entropy coding in the high frequency bands. Coding strategies in representing the information in the different subbands, and the tradeoffs involved in apportioning the budget of bits among the different subbands are described. Issues in the selection and implementation of the analysis and synthesis filter banks are discussed. The effect of varying the order of the analysis and synthesis filters on the reconstruction of the signal is also examined.

  7. An efficient closed-form design method for nearly perfect reconstruction of non-uniform filter bank.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Pooja, R; Singh, G K

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an efficient closed form method for the design of multi-channel nearly perfect reconstruction of non-uniform filter bank with the prescribed stopband attenuation and channel overlapping is presented. In this method, the design problem of multi-channel non-uniform filter bank (NUFB) is considered as the design of a prototype filter whose magnitude response at quadrature frequency is 0.707, which is exploited for finding the optimum passband edge frequency through empirical formula instead of using single or multivariable optimization technique. Two main attributes used in assessing the performance of filter bank are peak reconstruction error (PRE) and computational time (CPU time). As compared to existing methods, this method is very simple and easy to implement for NUFBs. To implement this algorithm, a Matlab program has been developed, and several examples are presented to illustrate the performance of proposed method. PMID:26861726

  8. Boundary handling mechanism for lifting-based spatial adaptation of filter banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayachandra, D.; Makur, Anamitra

    2012-03-01

    Time/space varying filter banks (FBs) are proved to be useful in building signal adaptive transforms. Lifting factorization of FBs allows to spatially adapt between arbitrary FBs, avoiding the need to design border FBs to complete perfect reconstruction (PR) during the transition. However, lifting based switching between arbitrarily designed FBs induces spurious transients into the resulting subbands during the transition. In this paper we propose a boundary handling mechanism that maintains good frequency response and eliminates the transients during the transition. We successfully show spatial adaptation between JPEG2000 9/7 and 5/3 FBs to reduce the ringing artifacts in images.

  9. A spatial filter bank model of the Veselago-Pendry superlens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Ravi S.; Hor, Yew Li; Hoefer, Wolfgang J. R.

    2015-07-01

    We present a canonical filter bank model that emulates the transmission of both propagating and evanescent electromagnetic fields through a Veselago-Pendry Superlens. The model consists of an array of coupled resonator pairs; each pair transmits one term of the spatial Fourier series of the object field. In addition to emulating the steady-state transfer function of the superlens, the model also approximates its dynamic response. Closed-form expressions for the values of the circuit elements are derived in terms of the geometry and the constitutive parameters of the lens at the frequency of operation in the steady state. Losses can be included by adding dissipative elements to the equivalent circuit. The concept of the Veselago-Pendry superlens as a filter in k-space provides physical insight into the resonant nature of image transmission and may suggest new ways to realize such a device.

  10. Spatiotemporal source tuning filter bank for multiclass EEG based brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Soumyadipta; Mollazadeh, Moshen; Murari, Kartikeya; Thakor, Nitish

    2006-01-01

    Non invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCI) allow people to communicate by modulating features of their electroencephalogram (EEG). Spatiotemporal filtering has a vital role in multi-class, EEG based BCI. In this study, we used a novel combination of principle component analysis, independent component analysis and dipole source localization to design a spatiotemporal multiple source tuning (SPAMSORT) filter bank, each channel of which was tuned to the activity of an underlying dipole source. Changes in the event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) were measured and used to train a linear support vector machine to classify between four classes of motor imagery tasks (left hand, right hand, foot and tongue) for one subject. ERSP values were significantly (p<0.01) different across tasks and better (p<0.01) than conventional spatial filtering methods (large Laplacian and common average reference). Classification resulted in an average accuracy of 82.5%. This approach could lead to promising BCI applications such as control of a prosthesis with multiple degrees of freedom. PMID:17946815

  11. Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  12. Efficient thresholding-based ECG compressors for high quality applications using cosine modulated filter banks.

    PubMed

    Hernando-Ramiro, Carlos; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando; Pedroviejo-Benito, Fatimá

    2011-01-01

    The aim of electrocardiogram (ECG) compression is to achieve as much compression as possible while the significant information is preserved in the reconstructed signal. Lossy thresholding-based compressors have shown good performance needing low computational resources. In this work, two compression schemes that include nearly perfect reconstruction cosine modulated filter banks for the signal decomposition are proposed. They are evaluated for highly reliable applications, where the reconstructed signal must be very similar to the original. The whole MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and suitable metrics are used in the assessment, to obtain representative results. Results show that the proposed compressors yield better performance than discrete wavelet transform-based techniques, when high quality requirements are imposed. PMID:22255969

  13. Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin; Shah, Biren; Hinedi, Sami

    1993-01-01

    A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

  14. Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

  15. Design of two-channel filter bank using nature inspired optimization based fractional derivative constraints.

    PubMed

    Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (?p), stopband error (?s), transition band error (?t), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. PMID:25034647

  16. Dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank with linear-phase individual filters: an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lili; Liu, Han

    2013-12-01

    Dual-tree transforms have recently received much attention for the properties of shift-invariance and directional-selectivity. However, their designs generally encounter fractional-delay constraints, and become more complicated for providing linear-phase (LP) individual filters and flexible directional-selectivity, two important properties in image processing. In this paper, we propose an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform-the dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank (DTCMFB). In the proposed DTCMFB, its primal and dual filter banks are derived by cosine-modulating one LP prototype filter, and thus its design involves no fractional-delay constraints. Meanwhile, the derived modulation technique guarantees each individual filter to be LP and the LP condition is satisfied without any constraint on the prototype filter. By separable operations, the DTCMFB is extended to two-dimensions. The resulting 2D DTCMFB can provide much more flexible directional-selectivity. Finally, several simulations are given to verify the proposed DTCMFB, and the experiments on nonlinear approximation and image denoising are presented to demonstrate its potential in image processing. PMID:24107401

  17. Adaptive Filter-bank Approach to Restoration and Spectral Analysis of Gapped Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Petre; Larsson, Erik G.; Li, Jian

    2000-10-01

    The main topic of this paper is the nonparametric estimation of complex (both amplitude and phase) spectra from gapped data, as well as the restoration of such data. The focus is on the extension of the APES (amplitude and phase estimation) approach to data sequences with gaps. APES, which is one of the most successful existing nonparametric approaches to the spectral analysis of full data sequences, uses a bank of narrowband adaptive (both frequency and data dependent) filters to estimate the spectrum. A recent interpretation of this approach showed that the filterbank used by APES and the resulting spectrum minimize a least-squares (LS) fitting criterion between the filtered sequence and its spectral decomposition. The extended approach, which is called GAPES for somewhat obvious reasons, capitalizes on the aforementioned interpretation: it minimizes the APES-LS fitting criterion with respect to the missing data as well. This should be a sensible thing to do whenever the full data sequence is stationary, and hence the missing data have the same spectral content as the available data. We use both simulated and real data examples to show that GAPES estimated spectra and interpolated data sequences have excellent accuracy. We also show the performance gain achieved by GAPES over two of the most commonly used approaches for gapped-data spectral analysis, viz., the periodogram and the parametric CLEAN method. This work was partly supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research.

  18. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C.; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician’s time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a “texton histogram” of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different “textons” representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  19. Spectro-temporal modulation subspace-spanning filter bank features for robust automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Schädler, Marc René; Meyer, Bernd T; Kollmeier, Birger

    2012-05-01

    In an attempt to increase the robustness of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems, a feature extraction scheme is proposed that takes spectro-temporal modulation frequencies (MF) into account. This physiologically inspired approach uses a two-dimensional filter bank based on Gabor filters, which limits the redundant information between feature components, and also results in physically interpretable features. Robustness against extrinsic variation (different types of additive noise) and intrinsic variability (arising from changes in speaking rate, effort, and style) is quantified in a series of recognition experiments. The results are compared to reference ASR systems using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs), MFCCs with cepstral mean subtraction (CMS) and RASTA-PLP features, respectively. Gabor features are shown to be more robust against extrinsic variation than the baseline systems without CMS, with relative improvements of 28% and 16% for two training conditions (using only clean training samples or a mixture of noisy and clean utterances, respectively). When used in a state-of-the-art system, improvements of 14% are observed when spectro-temporal features are concatenated with MFCCs, indicating the complementarity of those feature types. An analysis of the importance of specific MF shows that temporal MF up to 25 Hz and spectral MF up to 0.25 cycles/channel are beneficial for ASR. PMID:22559385

  20. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-11-20

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician's time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a "texton histogram" of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different "textons" representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  1. FPGA architectures for electronically scanned wide-band RF beams using 3-D FIR/IIR digital filters for rectangular array aperture receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayaratna, Sewwandi; Madanayake, Arjuna; Beall, Brandon D.; Bruton, Len T.

    2014-05-01

    Real-time digital implementation of three-dimensional (3-D) infinite impulse response (IIR) beam filters are discussed. The 3-D IIR filter building blocks have filter coefficients, which are defined using algebraic closed-form expressions that are functions of desired beam personalities, such as the look-direction of the aperture, the bandwidth and sampling frequency of interest, inter antenna spacing, and 3dB beam size. Real-time steering of such 3-D beam filters are obtained by proposed calculation of filter coefficients. Application specific computing units for rapidly calculating the 3-D IIR filter coefficients at nanosecond speed potentially allows fast real-time tracking of low radar cross section (RCS) objects at close range. Proposed design consists of 3-D IIR beam filter with 4 4 antenna grid and the filter coefficient generation block in separate FPGAs. The hardware is designed and co-simulated using a Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T FPGA. The 3-D filter operates over 90 MHz and filter coefficient computing structure can operate at up to 145 MHz.

  2. Separable spectro-temporal Gabor filter bank features: Reducing the complexity of robust features for automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Schädler, Marc René; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-04-01

    To test if simultaneous spectral and temporal processing is required to extract robust features for automatic speech recognition (ASR), the robust spectro-temporal two-dimensional-Gabor filter bank (GBFB) front-end from Schädler, Meyer, and Kollmeier [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 4134-4151 (2012)] was de-composed into a spectral one-dimensional-Gabor filter bank and a temporal one-dimensional-Gabor filter bank. A feature set that is extracted with these separate spectral and temporal modulation filter banks was introduced, the separate Gabor filter bank (SGBFB) features, and evaluated on the CHiME (Computational Hearing in Multisource Environments) keywords-in-noise recognition task. From the perspective of robust ASR, the results showed that spectral and temporal processing can be performed independently and are not required to interact with each other. Using SGBFB features permitted the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to be lowered by 1.2?dB while still performing as well as the GBFB-based reference system, which corresponds to a relative improvement of the word error rate by 12.8%. Additionally, the real time factor of the spectro-temporal processing could be reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Compared to human listeners, the SNR needed to be 13?dB higher when using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient features, 11 dB higher when using GBFB features, and 9?dB higher when using SGBFB features to achieve the same recognition performance. PMID:25920855

  3. Evaluation of an Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for in-flight fault detection and isolation (FDI) of aircraft engine sensors based on a bank of Kalman filters is developed. This approach utilizes multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific fault hypothesis. When the propulsion system experiences a fault, only one Kalman filter with the correct hypothesis is able to maintain the nominal estimation performance. Based on this knowledge, the isolation of faults is achieved. Since the propulsion system may experience component and actuator faults as well, a sensor FDI system must be robust in terms of avoiding misclassifications of any anomalies. The proposed approach utilizes a bank of (m+1) Kalman filters where m is the number of sensors being monitored. One Kalman filter is used for the detection of component and actuator faults while each of the other m filters detects a fault in a specific sensor. With this setup, the overall robustness of the sensor FDI system to anomalies is enhanced. Moreover, numerous component fault events can be accounted for by the FDI system. The sensor FDI system is applied to a commercial aircraft engine simulation, and its performance is evaluated at multiple power settings at a cruise operating point using various fault scenarios.

  4. Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters Developed and Demonstrated for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    In-flight sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is critical to maintaining reliable engine operation during flight. The aircraft engine control system, which computes control commands on the basis of sensor measurements, operates the propulsion systems at the demanded conditions. Any undetected sensor faults, therefore, may cause the control system to drive the engine into an undesirable operating condition. It is critical to detect and isolate failed sensors as soon as possible so that such scenarios can be avoided. A challenging issue in developing reliable sensor FDI systems is to make them robust to changes in engine operating characteristics due to degradation with usage and other faults that can occur during flight. A sensor FDI system that cannot appropriately account for such scenarios may result in false alarms, missed detections, or misclassifications when such faults do occur. To address this issue, an enhanced bank of Kalman filters was developed, and its performance and robustness were demonstrated in a simulation environment. The bank of filters is composed of m + 1 Kalman filters, where m is the number of sensors being used by the control system and, thus, in need of monitoring. Each Kalman filter is designed on the basis of a unique fault hypothesis so that it will be able to maintain its performance if a particular fault scenario, hypothesized by that particular filter, takes place.

  5. Optimized filtering of regional and teleseismic seismograms: results of maximizing SNR measurements from the wavelet transform and filter banks

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, R.R.; Schultz, C.; Dowla, F.

    1997-07-15

    Development of a worldwide network to monitor seismic activity requires deployment of seismic sensors in areas which have not been well studied or may have from available recordings. Development and testing of detection and discrimination algorithms requires a robust representative set of calibrated seismic events for a given region. Utilizing events with poor signal-to-noise (SNR) can add significant numbers to usable data sets, but these events must first be adequately filtered. Source and path effects can make this a difficult task as filtering demands are highly varied as a function of distance, event magnitude, bearing, depth etc. For a given region, conventional methods of filter selection can be quite subjective and may require intensive analysis of many events. In addition, filter parameters are often overly generalized or contain complicated switching. We have developed a method to provide an optimized filter for any regional or teleseismically recorded event. Recorded seismic signals contain arrival energy which is localized in frequency and time. Localized temporal signals whose frequency content is different from the frequency content of the pre-arrival record are identified using rms power measurements. The method is based on the decomposition of a time series into a set of time series signals or scales. Each scale represents a time-frequency band with a constant Q. SNR is calculated for a pre-event noise window and for a window estimated to contain the arrival. Scales with high SNR are used to indicate the band pass limits for the optimized filter.The results offer a significant improvement in SNR particularly for low SNR events. Our method provides a straightforward, optimized filter which can be immediately applied to unknown regions as knowledge of the geophysical characteristics is not required. The filtered signals can be used to map the seismic frequency response of a region and may provide improvements in travel-time picking, bearing estimation regional characterization, and event detection. Results are shown for a set of low SNR events as well as 92 regional and teleseismic events in the Middle East.

  6. MKID development for SuperSpec: an on-chip, mm-wave, filter-bank spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokoff, E.; Barry, P. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Hollister, M. I.; Kovács, A.; McKenney, C.; Leduc, H. G.; Llombart, N.; Marrone, D. P.; Mauskopf, P.; O'Brient, R.; Padin, S.; Reck, T.; Swenson, L. J.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2012-09-01

    SuperSpec is an ultra-compact spectrometer-on-a-chip for millimeter and submillimeter wavelength astronomy. Its very small size, wide spectral bandwidth, and highly multiplexed readout will enable construction of powerful multibeam spectrometers for high-redshift observations. The spectrometer consists of a horn-coupled microstrip feedline, a bank of narrow-band superconducting resonator filters that provide spectral selectivity, and kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) that detect the power admitted by each filter resonator. The design is realized using thin-film lithographic structures on a silicon wafer. The mm-wave microstrip feedline and spectral filters of the first prototype are designed to operate in the band from 195-310 GHz and are fabricated from niobium with at Tc of 9.2K. The KIDs are designed to operate at hundreds of MHz and are fabricated from titanium nitride with a Tc of ~ 2 K. Radiation incident on the horn travels along the mm-wave microstrip, passes through the frequency-selective filter, and is finally absorbed by the corresponding KID where it causes a measurable shift in the resonant frequency. In this proceedings, we present the design of the KIDs employed in SuperSpec and the results of initial laboratory testing of a prototype device. We will also brie describe the ongoing development of a demonstration instrument that will consist of two 500-channel, R=700 spectrometers, one operating in the 1-mm atmospheric window and the other covering the 650 and 850 micron bands.

  7. Region based feature extraction from non-cooperative iris images using triplet half-band filter bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barpanda, Soubhagya Sankar; Majhi, Banshidhar; Sa, Pankaj Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we have proposed energy based features using a multi-resolution analysis (MRA) on iris template. The MRA is based on our suggested triplet half-band filter bank (THFB). The THFB derivation process is discussed in detail. The iris template is divided into six equispaced sub-templates and two level decomposition has been made to each sub-template using THFB except second one. The reason for discarding the second template is due to the fact that it mostly contains the noise due to eyelids, eyelashes, and occlusion due to segmentation failure. Subsequently, energy features are derived from the decomposed coefficients of each sub-template. The proposed feature has been experimented on standard databases like CASIAv3, UBIRISv1, and IITD and mostly on iris images which encounter a segmentation failure. Comparative analysis has been done with existing features based on Gabor transform, Fourier transform, and CDF 9/7 filter bank. The proposed scheme shows superior performance with respect to FAR, GAR and AUC.

  8. Offline Performance of the Filter Bank EEW Algorithm in the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, M. A.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Medium size events like the M6.0 South Napa earthquake are very challenging for EEW: the damage such events produce can be severe, but it is generally confined to relatively small zones around the epicenter and the shaking duration is short. This leaves a very short window for timely EEW alerts. Algorithms that wait for several stations to trigger before sending out EEW alerts are typically not fast enough for these kind of events because their blind zone (the zone where strong ground motions start before the warnings arrive) typically covers all or most of the area that experiences strong ground motions. At the same time, single station algorithms are often too unreliable to provide useful alerts. The filter bank EEW algorithm is a new algorithm that is designed to provide maximally accurate and precise earthquake parameter estimates with minimum data input, with the goal of producing reliable EEW alerts when only a very small number of stations have been reached by the p-wave. It combines the strengths of single station and network based algorithms in that it starts parameter estimates as soon as 0.5 seconds of data are available from the first station, but then perpetually incorporates additional data from the same or from any number of other stations. The algorithm analyzes the time dependent frequency content of real time waveforms with a filter bank. It then uses an extensive training data set to find earthquake records from the past that have had similar frequency content at a given time since the p-wave onset. The source parameters of the most similar events are used to parameterize a likelihood function for the source parameters of the ongoing event, which can then be maximized to find the most likely parameter estimates. Our preliminary results show that the filter bank EEW algorithm correctly estimated the magnitude of the South Napa earthquake to be ~M6 with only 1 second worth of data at the nearest station to the epicenter. This estimate is then confirmed when updates based on more data from stations at farther distances become available. Because these early estimates saturate at ~M6.5, however, the magnitude estimate might have had to be considered a minimum bound.

  9. Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel biorthogonal filter banks for lossy-to-lossless image coding.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Taizo; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2012-07-01

    Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel (M > 2) biorthogonal filter banks (BOFBs) for lossy-to-lossless image coding is presented in this paper. Since the proposed block-lifting structure is more general than the conventional lifting factorizations and does NOT require many restrictions such as paraunitary, number of channels, and McMillan degree in each building block unlike the conventional lifting factorizations, its coding gain is higher than that of the previous methods. Several proposed BOFBs are designed and applied to image coding. Comparing the results with conventional lossy-to-lossless image coding structures, including the 5/3- and 9/7-tap discrete wavelet transforms in JPEG 2000 and a 4 × 8 hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform in JPEG XR, the proposed BOFBs achieve better result in both objective measure and perceptual visual quality for the images with a lot of high-frequency components. PMID:22434801

  10. Filter bank canonical correlation analysis for implementing a high-speed SSVEP-based brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Shangkai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gao, Xiaorong

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recently, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been widely used in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) due to its high efficiency, robustness, and simple implementation. However, a method with which to make use of harmonic SSVEP components to enhance the CCA-based frequency detection has not been well established. Approach. This study proposed a filter bank canonical correlation analysis (FBCCA) method to incorporate fundamental and harmonic frequency components to improve the detection of SSVEPs. A 40-target BCI speller based on frequency coding (frequency range: 8-15.8 Hz, frequency interval: 0.2 Hz) was used for performance evaluation. To optimize the filter bank design, three methods (M1: sub-bands with equally spaced bandwidths; M2: sub-bands corresponding to individual harmonic frequency bands; M3: sub-bands covering multiple harmonic frequency bands) were proposed for comparison. Classification accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) of the three FBCCA methods and the standard CCA method were estimated using an offline dataset from 12 subjects. Furthermore, an online BCI speller adopting the optimal FBCCA method was tested with a group of 10 subjects. Main results. The FBCCA methods significantly outperformed the standard CCA method. The method M3 achieved the highest classification performance. At a spelling rate of ˜33.3 characters/min, the online BCI speller obtained an average ITR of 151.18 ± 20.34 bits min-1. Significance. By incorporating the fundamental and harmonic SSVEP components in target identification, the proposed FBCCA method significantly improves the performance of the SSVEP-based BCI, and thereby facilitates its practical applications such as high-speed spelling.

  11. A nonlinear filter-bank model of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve: Rate responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, Christian J.; O'Mard, Lowel P.; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Meddis, Ray

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study is to produce a functional model of the auditory nerve (AN) response of the guinea-pig that reproduces a wide range of important responses to auditory stimulation. The model is intended for use as an input to larger scale models of auditory processing in the brain-stem. A dual-resonance nonlinear filter architecture is used to reproduce the mechanical tuning of the cochlea. Transduction to the activity on the AN is accomplished with a recently proposed model of the inner-hair-cell. Together, these models have been shown to be able to reproduce the response of high-, medium-, and low-spontaneous rate fibers from the guinea-pig AN at high best frequencies (BFs). In this study we generate parameters that allow us to fit the AN model to data from a wide range of BFs. By varying the characteristics of the mechanical filtering as a function of the BF it was possible to reproduce the BF dependence of frequency-threshold tuning curves, AN rate-intensity functions at and away from BF, compression of the basilar membrane at BF as inferred from AN responses, and AN iso-intensity functions. The model is a convenient computational tool for the simulation of the range of nonlinear tuning and rate-responses found across the length of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve.

  12. Preamble-based frequency-domain joint CFO and STO estimation for OQAM-based filter bank multicarrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caekenberghe, Stijn Van; Bourdoux, André; der Perre, Liesbet Van; Louveaux, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    Filter bank multicarrier systems, similarly to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), are very sensitive to carrier frequency offset (CFO) and symbol timing offset (STO). In this paper, a low-complexity preamble-based joint CFO and STO technique is presented. It is based on a relatively long preamble in order to improve the CFO estimation performance as well as avoid interference coming from the data following this preamble. After CFO and STO correction, the preamble can be reused to estimate the channel. Unlike most current techniques, the CFO and STO estimation occurs in the frequency domain. This allows for a low-complexity estimation with respect to time-domain techniques and, as will be shown by simulations, provide even better performance in a reasonable range. The drawback however is that the estimation range is shorter. Specifically, for large STOs (and to a smaller extent large CFOs), the performance decreases below time-domain estimations. Two versions of the STO estimation technique will be presented, the second one being an approximation of the first one, making it less complex yet also less precise. The performance is assessed by means of computer simulations, testing for both large and small STOs, and compared with existing techniques.

  13. FIR statistics of paired galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, Jack W.

    1990-11-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the effects of interaction on galaxies (see reviews in this volume by Heckman and Kennicutt). Evidence for enhanced emission from galaxies in pairs first emerged in the radio (Sulentic 1976) and optical (Larson and Tinsley 1978) domains. Results in the far infrared (FIR) lagged behind until the advent of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The last five years have seen numerous FIR studies of optical and IR selected samples of interacting galaxies (e.g., Cutri and McAlary 1985; Joseph and Wright 1985; Kennicutt et al. 1987; Haynes and Herter 1988). Despite all of this work, there are still contradictory ideas about the level and, even, the reality of an FIR enhancement in interacting galaxies. Much of the confusion originates in differences between the galaxy samples that were studied (i.e., optical morphology and redshift coverage). Here, the authors report on a study of the FIR detection properties for a large sample of interacting galaxies and a matching control sample. They focus on the distance independent detection fraction (DF) statistics of the sample. The results prove useful in interpreting the previously published work. A clarification of the phenomenology provides valuable clues about the physics of the FIR enhancement in galaxies.

  14. FIR statistics of paired galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulentic, Jack W.

    1990-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the effects of interaction on galaxies (see reviews in this volume by Heckman and Kennicutt). Evidence for enhanced emission from galaxies in pairs first emerged in the radio (Sulentic 1976) and optical (Larson and Tinsley 1978) domains. Results in the far infrared (FIR) lagged behind until the advent of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The last five years have seen numerous FIR studies of optical and IR selected samples of interacting galaxies (e.g., Cutri and McAlary 1985; Joseph and Wright 1985; Kennicutt et al. 1987; Haynes and Herter 1988). Despite all of this work, there are still contradictory ideas about the level and, even, the reality of an FIR enhancement in interacting galaxies. Much of the confusion originates in differences between the galaxy samples that were studied (i.e., optical morphology and redshift coverage). Here, the authors report on a study of the FIR detection properties for a large sample of interacting galaxies and a matching control sample. They focus on the distance independent detection fraction (DF) statistics of the sample. The results prove useful in interpreting the previously published work. A clarification of the phenomenology provides valuable clues about the physics of the FIR enhancement in galaxies.

  15. Growing corkbark fir and subalpine fir for nursery production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This bulletin is largely based on research conducted at the University of Idaho during 2000-2009. Corkbark and subalpine fir have desirable characteristics for Christmas tree and landscape use, including soft, fragrant foliage that ranges from dark green to silvery or bluish-green. Depending on seed...

  16. Design and application of finite impulse response digital filters.

    PubMed

    Miller, T R; Sampathkumaran, K S

    1982-01-01

    The finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter is a spatial domain filter with a frequency domain representation. The theory of the FIR filter is presented and techniques are described for designing FIR filters with known frequency response characteristics. Rational design principles are emphasized based on characterization of the imaging system using the modulation transfer function and physical properties of the imaged objects. Bandpass, Wiener, and low-pass filters were designed and applied to 201Tl myocardial images. The bandpass filter eliminates low-frequency image components that represent background activity and high-frequency components due to noise. The Wiener, or minimum mean square error filter 'sharpens' the image while also reducing noise. The Wiener filter illustrates the power of the FIR technique to design filters with any desired frequency response. The low-pass filter, while of relative limited use, is presented to compare it with a popular elementary 'smoothing' filter. PMID:7060600

  17. Real-time digital filters: infinite impulse response filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bialkowski, S.E.

    1988-03-15

    Real-time digital filters fall into two main classes: finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR). In part one of this series, digital FIR filters were discussed. In this A/C interface the design, operation, and interpretation of digital IIR filters will be discussed. Two main types of digital IIR filters will be examined: the frequency-domain filter, which uses the reiterative estimation process to result in digital filter equivalents of analog frequency-domain filters, and the time-domain IIR filter, which is used for the estimation of signals with known time-domain dependence. This article is by no means comprehensive and will probably only whet the appetite of those who are interested in designing specific IIR filters. IIR filters are indeed difficult to understand. But a little understanding can go a long way in allowing one to design and use this type of filter.

  18. Design of Full-Band and Low-Pass FIR Differentiators: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhnache, C.; Ferdi, Y.; Taleb-Ahmed, A.

    2008-06-01

    Digital differentiators are useful in many fields of sciences and engineering. They can be designed using two approaches, namely, FIR filters design and FIR filters design. This paper is concerned by the first one in which great interest in the design of digital differentiators has encouraged the development of various design methods. The widely used methods for FIR differentiators are those based on criteria L1, L2, L? and that based on Taylor series. A comparison between these methods is carried out in terms of approximation accuracy and computational complexity. Numeric examples are presented to illustrate the performance of each method. It was found that the design results obtained by least squares method for fullband and low-pass differentiators are better than the other ones.

  19. Adaptive filtering approach to spectral estimation and SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Stoica, Peter

    1995-06-01

    We present an adaptive FIR filtering approach, which is referred to as the APES (amplitude and phase estimation of a sinusoid), for complex spectral estimation. We compare the APES algorithm with other FIR filtering approaches including the Welch and Capon methods. We also describe how to apply the FIR filtering approaches to target range signature estimation and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. We show via both numerical and experimental examples that the adaptive FIR filtering approaches such as Capon and APES can yield more accurate spectral estimates with much lower sidelobes and narrower spectral peaks than the FFT method, which is also a special case of the FIR filtering approaches. We show that although the APES algorithnm yields somewhat wider spectral peaks than the Capon method, the former gives more accurate overall spectral estimates and SAR images that the latter and the FFT method.

  20. Automatic detection system for buried explosive hazards in FL-LWIR based on soft feature extraction using a bank of Gabor energy filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stanton R.; Anderson, Derek T.; Luke, Robert H.; Stone, Kevin; Keller, James M.

    2013-06-01

    There is a strong need to develop an automatic buried explosive hazards detection (EHD) system for purposes such as route clearance. In this article, we put forth a new automatic detection system, which consists of keypoint identification, feature extraction, classification and clustering. In particular, we focus on a new soft feature extraction process from forwardlooking long-wave infrared (FL-LWIR) imagery based on the use of an importance map derived from a bank of Gabor energy filters. Experiments are conducted using a variety of target types buried at varying depths at a U.S. Army test site. An uncooled LWIR camera is used and the collected data spans multiple lanes and times of day (due to diurnal temperature variation that occurs in IR). The preliminary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve-based performance presented herein is extremely encouraging for FL-EHD.

  1. Setup for FIR scattering on plasma crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Raensch, Jens; Aschinger, Andreas; Winter, Joerg

    2008-09-07

    We propose a new method for the investigation of plasma crystals. It is equivalent to the X-ray scattering methods of solid state physics but using far infrared (FIR) laser beams with wavelengths comparable to the Debye length of the system. This method could provide information about structure and dynamics of large 3D plasma crystals. Such crystals with up to 1 million particles have been realised in CCP discharges using micron sized Melamin-Formaledhyd (MF) particles. We present the setup of the FIR laser system, scattering arrangement, and plasma chamber. Results are discussed including video analysis of plasma crystals and FIR scattering on test samples.

  2. New demodulation filter in digital phase rotation beamforming.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Fabio Kurt; Yoo, Yang Mo; Agarwal, Anup; Koh, Liang Mong; Kim, Yongmin

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new quadrature demodulation filter to reduce hardware complexity in digital phase rotation beamforming. Due to its low sensitivity to phase delay errors, digital quadrature demodulation is commonly used in ultrasound machines. However, since it requires two lowpass filters for each channel to remove harmonics, the direct use of conventional finite impulse response (FIR) filters in ultrasound machines is computationally expensive and burdensome. In our new method, an efficient multi-stage uniform coefficient (MSUC) filter is utilized to remove harmonic components in phase rotation beamforming. In comparison with the directly implemented FIR (DI-FIR) and the previously-proposed signed-power-of-two FIR (SPOT-FIR) lowpass filters, the proposed MSUC filter reduces the necessary hardware resources by 93.9% and 83.9%, respectively. In simulation, the MSUC filter shows a negligible degradation in image quality. The proposed method resulted in comparable spatial and contrast resolution to the DI-FIR approach in the phantom study. These preliminary results indicate that the proposed quadrature demodulation filtering method could significantly reduce the hardware complexity in phase rotation beamforming while maintaining comparable image quality. PMID:16563453

  3. State-space realizations of fractional-step delay digital filters with applications to array beamforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, S.-H.; Barnes, C. W.

    1984-04-01

    An approach to the design of fractional-step delay (FSD) digital filters based on a state-space formulation applicable to either finite impulse response (FIR) or infinite impulse response (IIR) is presented. FSD filters are single-rate, do not require sample rate changes, and are based on an offset impulse-invariant transformation of an interpolating filter design. Utilization of FIR or IIR FSD filters for beamforming effects spurious sidelobes in the array spatial beam pattern, but an appropriate design of the FSD filters magnitude response can suppress the sidelobes. Since the nonlinear phase characteristics of FSD filters do not influence spatial response of the array, computational efficiency and constraints on temporal phase distortion determine the choice of FIR or IIR implementation. Also determined is that FIR implementation is more efficient for FSD filters derived from interpolating filters with low transition ratios.

  4. FIR Beam Line of MIRRORCLE-20

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ahsa; Miura, Nobuhiro; Yamada, Hironari; Haque, Md. Monirul

    2007-03-30

    The tabletop synchrotron MIRRORCLE-20 has been optimized as an FIR beam source for the life science research. To collect the radiation from whole arc of the orbit, there is a magic mirror and a circular mirror installed within MIRRORCLE-20. There is an FT-IR and a cooled silicon bolometer for FIR. According to the specification of MIRRORCLE-20, the e-beam current is 100mA, the pulse width is 0.1msec, the peak storage current is 3A and the repetition is 100Hz. The power of MIR (wavelength shorter than 50{mu}m) measured by thermopile is about 59mW and that of FIR (wavelength longer than 50{mu}m) estimated by theoretical spectrum is about 8.5mW.

  5. Recursive inversion of externally defined linear systems by FIR filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Baram, Yoram

    1989-01-01

    The approximate inversion of an internally unknown linear system, given by its impulse response sequence, by an inverse system having a finite impulse response, is considered. The recursive least-squares procedure is shown to have an exact initialization, based on the triangular Toeplitz structure of the matrix involved. The proposed approach also suggests solutions to the problem of system identification and compensation.

  6. Optical micro-multi-racetrack resonator filter based on SOI waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, Dror; Cohen, Moshik; Turkiewicz, Jarek; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new design of optical Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter based on combination of multi-racetrack resonators realized with Silicon waveguides. Numerical investigations were carried out on the spectral response of the proposed filters design, in order to obtain FIR band-pass filter around the photonic carrier wavelength of 1.55 ?m. The proposed FIR filter was fabricated using electron beam lithography (EBL). The device was preliminary experimentally examined by a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  7. Design of Microwave Band Pass Filters for the Debuncher Stochastic Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Deibele, C.

    2001-01-01

    The FIR filters designed for the debuncher stochastic cooling system needed improvement. Its bandwidth was too wide, its magnitude was not flat, its phase ripple was too great, and it was difficult to control the characteristics of the filter. A simple microwave technique was employed to have a short time delay, simple robust layout, and small board size. A significant savings was seen over the FIR technique and these filters were installed in the Antiproton Source Debuncher while the FIR filters were removed from the debuncher stochastic cooling entirely.

  8. Some effects of douglas fir terpenes on certain microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Andrews, R E; Parks, L W; Spence, K D

    1980-08-01

    The Douglas fir terpene alpha-pinene was shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria and a yeast. Other terpenes of the Douglas fir, including limonene, camphene, and isobornyl acetate, were also inhibitory to Bacillus thuringiensis. All terpenes were inhibitory at concentrations normally present in the fir needle diet of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae. The presence of such terpenes in the diet of these insects was found to strongly influence the infectivity of B. thuringiensis spores for the Douglas fir tussock moth larvae. The terpene alpha-pinene destroyed the cellular integrity and modified mitochondrial activity in certain microorganisms. PMID:16345609

  9. Some Effects of Douglas Fir Terpenes on Certain Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, R. E.; Parks, L. W.; Spence, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    The Douglas fir terpene ?-pinene was shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria and a yeast. Other terpenes of the Douglas fir, including limonene, camphene, and isobornyl acetate, were also inhibitory to Bacillus thuringiensis. All terpenes were inhibitory at concentrations normally present in the fir needle diet of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae. The presence of such terpenes in the diet of these insects was found to strongly influence the infectivity of B. thuringiensis spores for the Douglas fir tussock moth larvae. The terpene ?-pinene destroyed the cellular integrity and modified mitochondrial activity in certain microorganisms. PMID:16345609

  10. Acquisition of low-frequency signals immersed in noise by random sampling and finite impulse response filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrica, Daniel O.; Petrocelli, Roberto; Benedetti, Mario; Funes, Marcos A.

    2007-04-01

    This article presents a method for digital acquisition of low-frequency signals immersed in high-frequency noise when noise frequency is higher than the sampling one. This method uses no antialiasing filters, but random sampling and filtering instead. Its formulation is developed for JRS (jitter random sampling) and finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The proposed method is experimentally tested on three FIR filters: moving average, windowed linear phase, and constrained least square.

  11. Acquisition of low-frequency signals immersed in noise by random sampling and finite impulse response filters.

    PubMed

    Carrica, Daniel O; Petrocelli, Roberto; Benedetti, Mario; Funes, Marcos A

    2007-04-01

    This article presents a method for digital acquisition of low-frequency signals immersed in high-frequency noise when noise frequency is higher than the sampling one. This method uses no antialiasing filters, but random sampling and filtering instead. Its formulation is developed for JRS (jitter random sampling) and finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The proposed method is experimentally tested on three FIR filters: moving average, windowed linear phase, and constrained least square. PMID:17477686

  12. FIR interferometer and scattering measurements of ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Fockedey, Y.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Bennett, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    A 15-channel far-infrared (FIR) interferometer system has been constructed to measure the electron densities on the ATF plasmas. The system consists of a pair of cw 214-..mu..m difluoromethane (CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/) lasers, optically pumped by separate CO/sub 2/ lasers. The large number of channels is achieved by the use of reflective beam expansion optics to create a beam of 2 cm /times/ 45 cm. After passing through the plasma discharge, the elongated beam produced by the cylindrical mirrors is dissected by an array of 15 off-axis paraboloid reflectors, each of which illuminates a single Schottky-diode detector. The use of the beam expanding optics system reduces the number of optical elements required for the interferometer to approximately 2-3 per channel. The FIR laser beams are transported from the laser room to the experimental area by 25 mm i.d. dielectric waveguides purged with dry nitrogen. The system can also be operated at a wavelength of 119-..mu..m by changing the gas in FIR laser cavities to methanol for high density experiments. Details of the system are described. A study is underway to determine the optimum design of a FIR scattering system for the ATF. This scattering system will be used to investigate density fluctuations with scale lengths from 0.1 cm to the plasma radius. The laser for this scattering system may be operated at wavelengths of 447, 307, 214, 184, and 119 ..mu..m with power levels of 100 to 500 mW. A summary of the study is presented. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Design of optical finite impulse response filter generating arbitrary spectrum output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Kallol; Chakraborty, Ajoy Kumar

    2015-06-01

    In the present communication, a procedure for the synthesis of an optical finite impulse response (FIR) birefringent filter generating arbitrary spectral output is presented. The basic filter consists of a cascaded system of n identical retarders between two polarizers at the two ends. A mathematical model of the optical FIR filter is introduced using the FIR theory of digital filter design. The parameters determined by the synthesis procedure are the angles of the optic axes of the individual crystals and the angle of the output polarizer. Classical FIR filter design method along with the optical backward transfer technique has been used. Two different arbitrarily specified spectral output profiles have been studied. However, the method is equally applicable for any periodic transfer function whose corresponding impulse response is real and causal.

  14. A SYNCHRONIZED FIR/VUV LIGHT SOURCE AT JEFFERSON LAB

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Benson, David Douglas, George Neil, Michelle D. Shinn, Gwyn Williams

    2012-07-01

    We describe a dual free-electron laser (FEL) configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that allows simultaneous lasing at FIR/THz and UV wavelengths. The FIR/THz source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing nearly diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules. The FIR source would use the exhaust beam from a UVFEL. The coherent harmonics in the VUV from the UVFEL are out-coupled through a hole. The FIR source uses a shorter resonator with either hole or edge coupling to provide very high power FIR pulses. Simulations indicate excel-lent spectral brightness in the FIR region with over 100 W/cm-1 output.

  15. Adaptive Mallow's optimization for weighted median filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachuri, Raghu; Rao, Sathyanarayana S.

    2002-05-01

    This work extends the idea of spectral optimization for the design of Weighted Median filters and employ adaptive filtering that updates the coefficients of the FIR filter from which the weights of the median filters are derived. Mallows' theory of non-linear smoothers [1] has proven to be of great theoretical significance providing simple design guidelines for non-linear smoothers. It allows us to find a set of positive weights for a WM filter whose sample selection probabilities (SSP's) are as close as possible to a SSP set predetermined by Mallow's. Sample selection probabilities have been used as a basis for designing stack smoothers as they give a measure of the filter's detail preserving ability and give non-negative filter weights. We will extend this idea to design weighted median filters admitting negative weights. The new method first finds the linear FIR filter coefficients adaptively, which are then used to determine the weights of the median filter. WM filters can be designed to have band-pass, high-pass as well as low-pass frequency characteristics. Unlike the linear filters, however, the weighted median filters are robust in the presence of impulsive noise, as shown by the simulation results.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF EASTERN U.S. SPRUCE-FIR SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    he spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. his chapter will describe the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, includ...

  17. Quantum mechanical features of optically pumped CW FIR lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seligson, D.; Leite, J. R. R.; Sanchez, A.; Feld, M. S.; Ducloy, M.

    1977-01-01

    Quantum mechanical predictions for the gain of an optically pumped CW FIR laser are presented for cases in which one or both of the pump and FIR transitions are pressure or Doppler broadened. The results are compared to those based on the rate equation model. Some of the quantum mechanical predictions are verified in CH3OH.

  18. Centrifugal Barrel Finishing Of Turbine-Blade "Fir Trees"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.

    1990-01-01

    Modified centrifugal barrel-finishing machine imparts desired residual compressive stresses to "fir trees" of turbine blades. Centrifugal forces generate compressive stresses, which are transmitted to turbine blades through abrasive slurries in which suspended. Eliminates need for shot peening, rounding of edges and burrs caused by shot peening and, consequently, need for mass finishing operations to remove burrs. Improves surface finish of "fir trees".

  19. Characterization of eastern US spruce-fir soils. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    The spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. This chapter describes the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, including soil properties that are important in understanding forest function and the consequences of atmospheric deposition to forested ecosystems. Chapter 1 describes the silvical characteristics of the spruce-fir forest. The Spruce-Fir Research Cooperative included six intensive study sites; five were high-elevation research sites located from western North Carolina to New Hampshire, with one low-elevation site in Maine. Information gained from research at these sites, and other relevant research from these regions, provides the basis for this description of eastern U. S. spruce-fir soils.

  20. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3–100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

  1. Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using item banks while providing useful information to those who are considering implementing an item banking project in their school district. The primary advantage of item banking is in test development. Also describes start-up activities in implementing item banking. (SLD)

  2. Nonlinear filtering for robust signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Palmieri, F.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized framework for the description and design of a large class of nonlinear filters is proposed. Such a family includes, among others, the newly defined Ll-estimators, that generalize the order statistic filters (L-filters) and the nonrecursive linear filters (FIR). Such estimators are particularly efficient in filtering signals that do not follow gaussian distributions. They can be designed to restore signals and images corrupted by noise of impulsive type. Such filters are very appealing since they are suitable for being made robust against perturbations on the assumed model, or insensitive to the presence of spurious outliers in the data. The linear part of the filter is used to characterize their essential spectral behavior. It can be constrained to a given shape to obtain nonlinear filters that combine given frequency characteristics and noise immunity. The generalized nonlinear filters can also be used adaptively with the coefficients computed dynamically via LMS or RLS algorithms.

  3. Star Formation Activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-08-01

    The NGC 2024 molecular ridge in Orion B is a filamentary cloud exhibiting various star formation activities. Recent detections of molecular masers and X-ray emission suggest that the NGC 2024 FIR 4 cloud core is an active site of star formation. The nature of FIR 4 is controversial: the luminosity and mass suggest the presence of a low-mass protostar while the methanol 6.7 GHz maser implies an intermediate/high-mass object. We studied the star formation activities in the FIR 4 core by imaging the region in the centimeter continuum and the water maser line. The FIR 4 core contains the centimeter continuum source VLA 9, and it is elongated in the direction consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow. The continuum spectrum in the 6.2-3.6 cm interval is flat. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet and the best indicator of the protostellar position. The spatial distribution of compact objects found in other wavelength bands suggests that the FIR 4 core contains a single low-mass protostar. The methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located at a distance of about 0.2 arcsec from VLA 9. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the maser action, which demonstrates that methanol class II masers are not necessarily excited by high-mass young stellar objects. Three water maser spots were detected in the FIR 4 core, and they are also distributed along the outflow axis. The strongest spot is associated with an X-ray source. The FIR 4 outflow is a rare example of protostellar outflows showing the water maser and X-ray emission together, and further studies are needed to understand the origin of the hard X-ray emission.

  4. Optimal digital filters for long-latency components of the event-related brain potential.

    PubMed

    Farwell, L A; Martinerie, J M; Bashore, T R; Rapp, P E; Goddard, P H

    1993-05-01

    A fundamentally important problem for cognitive psychophysiologists is selection of the appropriate off-line digital filter to extract signal from noise in the event-related brain potential (ERP) recorded at the scalp. Investigators in the field typically use a type of finite impulse response (FIR) filter known as moving average or boxcar filter to achieve this end. However, this type of filter can produce significant amplitude diminution and distortion of the shape of the ERP waveform. Thus, there is a need to identify more appropriate filters. In this paper, we compare the performance of another type of FIR filter that, unlike the boxcar filter, is designed with an optimizing algorithm that reduces signal distortion and maximizes signal extraction (referred to here as an optimal FIR filter). We applied several different filters of both types to ERP data containing the P300 component. This comparison revealed that boxcar filters reduced the contribution of high-frequency noise to the ERP but in so doing produced a substantial attenuation of P300 amplitude and, in some cases, substantial distortions of the shape of the waveform, resulting in significant errors in latency estimation. In contrast, the optimal FIR filters preserved P300 amplitude, morphology, and latency and also eliminated high-frequency noise more effectively than did the boxcar filters. The implications of these results for data acquisition and analysis are discussed. PMID:8497560

  5. Status of the spruce; Fir cooperative research program

    SciTech Connect

    Hertel, G.D.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Arre, T. ); Eager, C. ); Mohnen, V. ); MedLarz, S. )

    1987-01-01

    Aside from the mixed conifer forest in the San Bernadino National Forest near the Los Angeles Basin, the only significant visible decline and mortality of a U.S. forest possibly caused by regional air pollution is found in the high elevation spruce/fir forests of the Appalachians (VA, NC, TN, W VA), Adirondacks (NY), Green Mountains (VT), and the White Mountains (NH). In January, most of the scientists that have or are currently studying Spruce-Fir conditions met in Philadelphia. They came to a consensus on the regional condition of the Spruce-Fir forests. The results of that meeting are summarized.

  6. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Rajasekaran R.; MacDonald, Mason T.

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  7. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir.

    PubMed

    Lada, Rajasekaran R; MacDonald, Mason T

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  8. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  9. [Algorithm of digital demodulation and filtering in MRI spectrometers].

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Yu; Liu, Zheng-Min; Zhou, He-Qin

    2008-07-01

    In the design of RF receiver of the digital MRI spectrometer console, a digital demodulation and filtering algorithm is presented in this thesis. The MR signals are firstly converted to digital signals by the A/D converter, and then quadrature-demodulated from high frequency carrier wave. The CIC filter, half-band filter and linear phase FIR filter are designed to process the cascaded filtering and decimation of the demodulated signals. This method achieves a satisfying processing speed and filtering effect, and also reduces the data size obviously. The experiment based on the permanent magnetism resonance imaging system proves its effectiveness and practicability. PMID:18973037

  10. Dense grid sibling frames with linear phase filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnour, Farras

    2013-09-01

    We introduce new 5-band dyadic sibling frames with dense time-frequency grid. Given a lowpass filter satisfying certain conditions, the remaining filters are obtained using spectral factorization. The analysis and synthesis filterbanks share the same lowpass and bandpass filters but have different and oversampled highpass filters. This leads to wavelets approximating shift-invariance. The filters are FIR, have linear phase, and the resulting wavelets have vanishing moments. The filters are designed using spectral factorization method. The proposed method leads to smooth limit functions with higher approximation order, and computationally stable filterbanks.

  11. Implementation of digital filtering algorithms using pipelined vector processors

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, W.; Mitra, S.K.

    1987-09-01

    The implementation of digital filtering algorithms using pipelined vector processors is investigated. Modeling of vector processors and vectorization methods are explained, and then the performances of several implementation methods are evaluated based on the model. Vector processor implementation of FIR filtering algorithms using the outer product method and the indirect convolution method is evaluated. Recursive and adaptive filtering algorithms, which lead to dependency problems in direct vector processor implementations, are implemented very efficiently using a newly developed vectorization method.

  12. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  13. Development of FIR arrays with integrating amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Erick T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of optimized photoconductor arrays suitable for far infrared space astronomical applications are described. Although the primary impetus is the production of a 16 by 16 element Ge:Ga demonstration array for SIRTF, the extension of this technology to Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is considered. The optimization of Ge:Ga and Ge:Be photoconductor materials is discussed. In collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, measurements of FIR photoconductors with quantum efficiencies greater than 20 percent at 100 micrometers, and dark currents below 300 electrons/s are presented. Integrating J-FET amplifier technology is discussed. The current generation of integrating amplifiers has a demonstrated read noise of less than 20 electrons for an integration time of 100 s. The design is shown for a stackable 16 x n Ge:Ga array that utilizes a 16-channel monolithic version of the J-FET integrator. A part of the design is the use of a thin, thermally insulating substrate that allows the electronics to operate at the optimum temperature of 50 K while maintaining thermal and optical isolation from the detectors at 2 K. The power dissipation for the array is less than 16 mW. The array design may particularly be applicable to high resolution imaging spectrometers for LDR.

  14. Realization of Low Power High-Speed Channel Filters with Stringent Adjacent Channel Attenuation Specifications for Wireless Communication Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jimson; Mahesh, R.; Vinod, A. P.; Lai, Edmund M.-K.

    Finite impulse response (FIR) filtering is the most computationally intensive operation in the channelizer of a wireless communication receiver. Higher order FIR channel filters are needed in the channelizer to meet the stringent adjacent channel attenuation specifications of wireless communications standards. The computational cost of FIR filters is dominated by the complexity of the coefficient multipliers. Even though many methods for reducing the complexity of filter multipliers have been proposed in literature, these works focused on lower order filters. This paper presents a coefficient-partitioning-based binary subexpression elimination method for realizing low power FIR filters. We show that the FIR filters implemented using proposed method consume less power and achieve speed improvement compared to existing filter implementations. Design examples of the channel filters employed in the Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (D-AMPS) and Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) receivers show that the proposed method achieved 23% average reductions of full adder and power consumption and 23.3% reduction of delay over the best existing method. Synthesis results show that the proposed method offers average area reduction of 8% and power reduction of 22% over the best known method in literature.

  15. DNA Banking

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, P.R. )

    1992-11-01

    The author is involved in the ethical, legal, and social issues of banking of DNA and data from DNA analysis. In his attempt to determine the extent of DNA banking in the U.S., the author surveyed some commercial companies performing DNA banking services. This article summarizes the results of that survey, with special emphasis on the procedures the companies use to protect the privacy of individuals. 4 refs.

  16. Fusion of finite impulse response filter and adaptive Kalman filter to suppress angle random walk of fiber optic gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Changhong; Yang, Chuanchuan; Wang, Ziyu

    2012-12-01

    We present a new fusion structure of finite impulse response (FIR) filter and adaptive Kalman filter to suppress the angle random walk (ARW) of the fiber optic gyroscopes (FOGs). In our proposed fusion filter, a low-pass FIR filter first decomposes the discrete-time rotation rate into an approximation part and a detailed part. The detailed part is then put into an adaptive Kalman filter, which generates an increment part to compensate the high-frequency components of the rotation rate suppressed by the FIR filter. Different from the existing adaptive mechanism that modifies the covariance matrix of the error in the predicted estimate to cover model error, our proposal adaptively modifies the state equation of the Kalman filter to give a more accurate model. Therefore, it has the ability to distinguish the high-frequency components of the rotate rate from the high-frequency ARW noise. The new fusion structure integrates the advantages of these two filters. Experiments showed that with this new proposal, the ARW of a specific FOG had been reduced from 0.03741 deg/?{h} to 0.00976 deg/?{h} when the tap order M reached 1000, and the tracking error in dynamic cases was smaller than the digital resolution of the FOG.

  17. Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertschinger, G.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F.

    2008-10-15

    Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

  18. Tracking harmonic notch filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emo, Frederick L.

    1990-07-01

    Disclosed in this patent is an electronic filter for automatically tracking and removing harmonically related interfering electrical signals such as power line interference harmonics without attenuating other signals of interest even though the signals are frequency stable and/or near the interference signal frequencies. The filter comprises a very narrow band electronic commutated capacitor-bank comb-notch filter driven by a counter/decoder circuit which is in turn driven by a phase locked loop. The filter also comprises two narrow band analog filters tuned to the two lowest harmonics of the interfering signal and drives the comb-notch at unit multiples of the fundamental of the interference frequency. This action is continuous such that center frequencies of the notches are automatically adjusted to compensate for small variations in the interference frequency.

  19. Filter method used to eliminate the zero-order image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenwen; Kang, Xin; He, Xiaoyuan

    2008-11-01

    The existence of zero-order image has certain effect on the quality of reconstructed images in off-axis digital holography. For eliminating the zero-order image in off-axis digital holography, a method of zero-order image elimination in off-axis digital holography by using of FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter is proposed in this paper. This method is based on digital image processing. First, by analyzing the spatial spectrum characteristic of off-axis digital hologram and the principle of using FIR filter to eliminate zero-order image, the paper theoretically proved that the zero-order image can be effectively eliminated by the FIR filter method before reconstruction. Then, the digital simulation and experiment recorded holograms were processed in the program with the FIR filter method and reconstruction. Both the theoretical analysis and digital reconstruct results show that it can effectively eliminate the large bright spot in the center of the reconstructed image which caused by zero-order image, and improve the image quality significantly, give better contrast of the reconstructed image. This method is very simple and convenient for free of phase modulator or any extra optical element and needing only one time record.

  20. Simulations of a FIR Oscillator with Large Slippage parameter at Jefferson Lab for FIR/UV pump-probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Stephen V.; Campbell, L. T.; McNeil, B.W.T.; Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Williams, Gwyn P.

    2014-03-01

    We previously proposed a dual FEL configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that would allow simultaneous lasing at FIR and UV wavelengths. The FIR source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules, using the exhaust beam from a UVFEL as the input electron beam. Since the UV FEL requires very short pulses, the input to the FIR FEL is extremely short compared to a slippage length and the usual Slowly Varying Envelope Approximation (SVEA) does not apply. We use a non-SVEA code to simulate this system both with a small energy spread (UV laser off) and with large energy spread (UV laser on).

  1. The ISS Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR): a Summary of Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gati, F.; Hill, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user scientific research facility that will fly in the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR will be one of the two racks that will make up the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) - the other being the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The ISS will provide the FCF with the necessary resources, such as power and cooling. While the ISS crew will be available for experiment operations, their time will be limited. The FCF is, therefore, being designed for autonomous operations and remote control operations. Control of the FCF will be primarily through the Telescience Support Center (TSC) at the Glenn Research Center. The FCF is being designed to accommodate a wide range of combustion and fluids physics experiments within the ISS resources and constraints. The primary mission of the FIR, however, is to accommodate experiments from four major fluids physics disciplines: Complex Fluids; Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Interfacial Phenomena; and Dynamics and Stability. The design of the FIR is flexible enough to accommodate experiments from other science disciplines such as Biotechnology. The FIR flexibility is a result of the large volume dedicated for experimental hardware, easily re-configurable diagnostics that allow for unique experiment configurations, and it's customizable software. The FIR will utilize six major subsystems to accommodate this broad scope of fluids physics experiments. The major subsystems are: structural, environmental, electrical, gaseous, command and data management, and imagers and illumination. Within the rack, the FIR's structural subsystem provides an optics bench type mechanical interface for the precise mounting of experimental hardware; including optical components. The back of the bench is populated with FIR avionics packages and light sources. The interior of the rack is isolated from the cabin through two rack doors that are hinged near the top and bottom of the rack. Transmission of micro-gravity disturbances to and from the rack is minimized through the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). The environmental subsystem will utilize air and water to remove heat generated by facility and experimental hardware. The air will be circulated throughout the rack and will be cooled by an air-water heat exchanger. Water will be used directly to cool some of the FIR components and will also be available to cool experiment hardware as required. The electrical subsystem includes the Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU), which provides 28 VDC and 120 VDC power to the facility and the experiment hardware. The EPCU will also provide power management and control functions, as well as fault protection capabilities. The FIR will provide access to the ISS gaseous nitrogen and vacuum systems. These systems are available to support experiment operations such as the purging of experimental cells, creating flows within experimental cells and providing dry conditions where needed. The FIR Command and Data Management subsystem (CDMS) provides command and data handling for both facility and experiment hardware. The Input Output Processor (IOP) provides the overall command and data management functions for the rack including downlinking or writing data to removable drives. The IOP will also monitor the health and status of the rack subsystems. The Image Processing and Storage Units (IPSU) will perform diagnostic control and image data acquisition functions. An IPSU will be able to control a digital camera, receive image data from that camera and process/ compress image data as necessary. The Fluids Science and Avionics Package (FSAP) will provide the primary control over an experiment. The FSAP contains various computer boards/cards that will perform data and control functions. To support the imaging needs, cameras and illumination sources will be available to the investigator. Both color analog and black and white digital cameras with lenses are expected. These cameras will be capable of high resolution and, separately

  2. GROWTH-TREND DECLINES OF SPRUCE AND FIR IN MID-APPALACHIAN SUBALPINE FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dendroecological analysis of 258 increment growth cores collected from red spruce, balsam fir, and Fraser fir in central West Virginia and western Virginia indicates marked declines in growth-trend during the past 20 years similar to that reported for spruce and fir in high-eleva...

  3. Adaptive filtering with the self-organizing map: a performance comparison.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Guilherme A; Souza, Luís Gustavo M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we provide an in-depth evaluation of the SOM as a feasible tool for nonlinear adaptive filtering. A comprehensive survey of existing SOM-based and related architectures for learning input-output mappings is carried out and the application of these architectures to nonlinear adaptive filtering is formulated. Then, we introduce two simple procedures for building RBF-based nonlinear filters using the Vector-Quantized Temporal Associative Memory (VQTAM), a recently proposed method for learning dynamical input-output mappings using the SOM. The aforementioned SOM-based adaptive filters are compared with standard FIR/LMS and FIR/LMS-Newton linear transversal filters, as well as with powerful MLP-based filters in nonlinear channel equalization and inverse modeling tasks. The obtained results in both tasks indicate that SOM-based filters can consistently outperform powerful MLP-based ones. PMID:16809020

  4. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  5. FIR signature verification system characterizing dynamics of handwriting features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumwarin, Pitak; Pernwong, Jitawat; Matsuura, Takenobu

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes an online signature verification method based on the finite impulse response (FIR) system characterizing time-frequency characteristics of dynamic handwriting features. First, the barycenter determined from both the center point of signature and two adjacent pen-point positions in the signing process, instead of one pen-point position, is used to reduce the fluctuation of handwriting motion. In this paper, among the available dynamic handwriting features, motion pressure and area pressure are employed to investigate handwriting behavior. Thus, the stable dynamic handwriting features can be described by the relation of the time-frequency characteristics of the dynamic handwriting features. In this study, the aforesaid relation can be represented by the FIR system with the wavelet coefficients of the dynamic handwriting features as both input and output of the system. The impulse response of the FIR system is used as the individual feature for a particular signature. In short, the signature can be verified by evaluating the difference between the impulse responses of the FIR systems for a reference signature and the signature to be verified. The signature verification experiments in this paper were conducted using the SUBCORPUS MCYT-100 signature database consisting of 5,000 signatures from 100 signers. The proposed method yielded equal error rate (EER) of 3.21% on skilled forgeries.

  6. The Wolf, the Moose, and the Fir Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a case study for upper grade levels and undergraduate students that is designed to increase students' ability to read and comprehend scientific information. Discusses ecological parameters and evaluates trophic level interactions. Questions the fluctuations in the moose and wolf populations and the growth rates of balsam firs. Includes…

  7. Anomalous dispersion and the pumping of far infrared (FIR) lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the anomalous dispersion at the pump transition in molecular far-infrared lasers (FIR) can lead to sizable focusing and defocusing effects. Criteria for beam spreading and trapping are considered with CH2F as an example.

  8. Quantifying the FIR interaction enhancement in paired galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Cong; Sulentic, Jack W.

    1990-01-01

    The Catalog of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere, by Karachentsev (1972), was studied and a well-matched comparison sample taken from the Catalog of Isolated Galaxies, by Karachentseva (1973), in order to quantify the enhanced FIR emission properties of interacting galaxies.

  9. Natural regeneration in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Geier-Hayes, K.

    1994-03-01

    Natural regeneration of five conifer species was surveyed in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. The habitat types range from warm, dry (grand fir/white spirea) to mesic (Grand fir/Mountain Maple). Four harvest-regeneration methods and four site preparation techniques were sampled. Recommendations for obtaining natural regeneration vary primarily by habitat type. Conifer seedlings in the warm, dry grand fir white spirea habitat type require site protection for establishment. In the mesic grand fir/mountain maple habitat type, tall shrub potential can reduce the opportunity to establish early seral conifer species.

  10. WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2012-11-10

    The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

  11. Silicon photonics non-resonant wavelength filters: comparison between AWGs, echelle gratings, and cascaded Mach-Zehnder filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, Wim; Pathak, Shibnath; Ruocco, Alfonso; Dwivedi, Sarvagya

    2015-02-01

    We present a comparison of different silicon photonics-based wavelength filters for different design criteria (e.g. channel spacing, number of channels, ...) and different performance metrics (e.g. insertion loss or crosstalk ). In this paper we compare only non-resonant filters, or finite-impulse response (FIR) filters, such as Arrayed Waveguide Gratings, Echelle Gratings and higher-order cascades of Mach-Zehnder filters. We derive the strengths and weaknesses from their operational principles and confirm those with experimental data from fabricated devices and extrapolated simulations.

  12. Computer-aided design of high-throughput digital filters and testing of iterative logic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chengwen.

    1987-01-01

    Application-specific computer-aided design (ASCAD) tools are developed for producing very high-throughput FIR and IRR filters. This dissertation gives a detailed description of the CAD tools and presents algorithmic and architectural insight into the digital filters studied. Block pipelined algorithms designed for these filters are implemented with bit-level systolic architectures, which guarantee high throughput rates, and high regularity of circuit layout. Regular circuit layout makes cell placement and wire routing simple. Because the tools are application-specific, they are very high level CAD tools. For an FIR filter, an engineer only needs to specify the filter order N, and the input and output word sizes. Using this information, the CAD tool generates mask layout description files in Caltech Intermediate Form (CIF) for a filter system that can process 10N million samples per second. For an IIR filter, as a cascade of second-order sections, an engineer only needs to specify the word size w, the block size B, and each second-order section's coefficients. The CAD tool generates CIF files for a filter system that can process 5B/w million samples per second. The ASCAD tools reduce the costs of producing very high-throughput FIR and IIR filters with respect to design, fabrication, and operation. Testing the filter circuits also is discussed.

  13. Investigation of microwave photonic filter based on multiple longitudinal modes fiber laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng; Feng, Xinhuan; Lu, Chao; Guan, Bai-ou; Wai, P. K. A.

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically study the transfer function of a finite impulse response microwave photonic filter (FIR-MPF) system using a multi-wavelength fiber laser source by considering multiple longitudinal modes in each wavelength. The full response function with the response from longitudinal mode taps is obtained. We also discussed the influence of the longitudinal mode envelope and mode spacing on the performance of FIR-MPF. The response function of the longitudinal mode taps is fully discussed and the contribution is compared with the response of the carrier suppression factor for double sideband (DSB) modulation. The multiple longitudinal modes structure in the wavelength taps can be utilized to engineer the response of the FIR-MPF such that desirable features such as high side lode suppression ratio can be realized. The analysis provides a guideline for designing incoherent FIR-MPF systems.

  14. Effects of digital filtering on the parameters of sinusoidal tracking eye movements.

    PubMed

    Juhola, M

    1995-08-01

    In the present study linear nonrecursive (FIR) filters designed with the Hamming window and hybrid median filters were examined in connection with computer analysis of sinusoidal tracking eye movements. It is important that digital filters which do not distort sensitive properties of eye movement signals are employed in order to prevent changes caused by too strict filtering in average parameter values of eye movement signals, indicators of some otoneurological disorders. It turned out that within reasonable limits these filters are valid in filtering of sinusoidal tracking eye movement signals. PMID:8549120

  15. Lumber recovery and deterioration of beetle-killed douglas-fir and grand fir in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, D.L.; Filip, G.M.; Willits, S.A.; Parks, C.G.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time since death over a 4-year period on the amount of usable product volume and value, and to determine the species of fungi associated with wood deterioration in the stems of Douglas-fir and grand fir trees killed by bark beetles in northeastern Oregon.

  16. Optical to FIR SED of Lyα Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteo, I.; Bongiovanni, A.; Pérez García, A. M.; Cepa, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Pep Team

    2011-10-01

    We present an optical and FIR analysis of a sample of 65 Lyα emitters at 2.0˜FIR counterparts and are (U)LIRGs candidates, being, therefore, dusty objects despite that they show Lyα in emission and with large equivalent widths.

  17. Improving suppression ratio of microwave photonic filters using high-precision spectral shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Li, Shangyuan; Liao, Jinxin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2015-05-01

    The main-to-sidelobe suppression ratio (MSSR) is significant to filters. The tap weight errors worsen the MSSR of the finite impulse response (FIR) microwave photonic filters (MPFs). The MSSR can be improved by shaping the multicarrier optical source spectra with high precision. By compensating the errors with an iteration method, the sidelobes of the amplitude response can be optimized to increase the MSSR. Such a method is simple, effective, and compatible with all FIR MPF approaches. In the experiment, optical spectra of Gaussian profiles were taken as an example, and an MSSR improvement from 50 to 63 dB was demonstrated.

  18. Clock recovering characteristics of adaptive finite-impulse-response filters in digital coherent optical receivers.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2011-03-14

    We analyze the clock-recovery process based on adaptive finite-impulse-response (FIR) filtering in digital coherent optical receivers. When the clock frequency is synchronized between the transmitter and the receiver, only five taps in half-symbol-spaced FIR filters can adjust the sampling phase of analog-to-digital conversion optimally, enabling bit-error rate performance independent of the initial sampling phase. Even if the clock frequency is not synchronized between them, the clock-frequency misalignment can be adjusted within an appropriate block interval; thus, we can achieve an asynchronous clock mode of operation of digital coherent receivers with block processing of the symbol sequence. PMID:21445201

  19. Effects of digital filtering on the parameters of impulse-like eye movements.

    PubMed

    Juhola, M; Aalto, H; Hirvonen, T

    2000-01-01

    Influence of two filtering modes were researched with electro-oculographically recorded impulse-like eye movements. Linear finite impulse response (FIR) and non-linear hybrid median filters were explored by considering gain and latency parameters that yield the most important information in the case of these eye movements. It is stated that carefully selected lowpass filtering can securely be run without considerable changes in parameter values in order to discard noise stemming from physiological or other reasons. PMID:12578076

  20. Low-complexity wavelet filter design for image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majani, E.

    1994-01-01

    Image compression algorithms based on the wavelet transform are an increasingly attractive and flexible alternative to other algorithms based on block orthogonal transforms. While the design of orthogonal wavelet filters has been studied in significant depth, the design of nonorthogonal wavelet filters, such as linear-phase (LP) filters, has not yet reached that point. Of particular interest are wavelet transforms with low complexity at the encoder. In this article, we present known and new parameterizations of the two families of LP perfect reconstruction (PR) filters. The first family is that of all PR LP filters with finite impulse response (FIR), with equal complexity at the encoder and decoder. The second family is one of LP PR filters, which are FIR at the encoder and infinite impulse response (IIR) at the decoder, i.e., with controllable encoder complexity. These parameterizations are used to optimize the subband/wavelet transform coding gain, as defined for nonorthogonal wavelet transforms. Optimal LP wavelet filters are given for low levels of encoder complexity, as well as their corresponding integer approximations, to allow for applications limited to using integer arithmetic. These optimal LP filters yield larger coding gains than orthogonal filters with an equivalent complexity. The parameterizations described in this article can be used for the optimization of any other appropriate objective function.

  1. Prediction and assignment of the FIR spectrum of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helminger, P.; Messer, J. K.; De Lucia, F. C.; Bowman, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter microwave studies are used to predict and assign the FIR rotational-torsional spectrum of hydrogen peroxide. Special attention is given to the strong Q-branch features that have recently been used by Traub and Chance to place an upper limit on the atmospheric abundance of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, 67 new transitions are reported in the 400-1000 GHz region.

  2. The relation between FIR and H I emission in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    This project explored the relationship between the global far-infrared and neutral hydrogen (H I) emission from galaxies, based on data from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) and published radio data. 100 and 60 micron IRAS fluxes were used to establish a temperature corrected measure of the cold dust emission, and H I fluxes were drawn from the literature with the greatest possible consistency. The degree of correlation between the FIR and H I fluxes was found to be better than in previous studies, comparable to the correlation previously found between FIR and CO fluxes. The improvement was obtained largely by (1) separating 'stripped' from 'unstripped' galaxies, and (2) using compatible sources of H I data. Stripping occurs in clusters of galaxies and is probably caused by ram-pressure effects as a galaxy travels through the intergalactic medium. Our results suggest that stripped galaxies have had their outer-disk gas removed (approximately 80% of their total H I) while retaining most of their 100-micron-emitting dust. This strongly shifts the ratio of their 100-micron-to-H I fluxes. The second problem, arising from diverse sources of data, arises because differing telescopes and observational techniques give rise to substantial disagreement in the measured H I flux, and this degrades the correlation of the FIR and H I fluxes.

  3. Development of super-broadband interferometer in FIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Izumi S.; Hattori, Makoto; Matsuo, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    We are developing the super broad band interferometer by applying the Fourier Transform Spectrometer(FTS) to aperture synthesis system in mm and sub-mm bands. We have constructed a compact system based on the Martin and Puplett type Fourier Transform spectrometer (MP-FT). We call this equipment Multi-Fourier Transform interferometer (MuFT). The band width of the system can be extended as large as one wants contrary to the severely limited band width of the usual interferometer due to the speed of the AD converter. The direct detectors, e.g. bolometer, SIS video detector, can be used as the focal plane detectors. This type of detectors have a great advantage in FIR band since they are free from the quantum limit of the noise which limits the sensitivity of the heterodyne detectors used in the usual interferometers. Further, the direct detectors are able to make a large format array contrary to the heterodyne detectors for which construction of a large format array is practically difficult. These three characteristics make one be possible to develop high sensitive super broad band FIR interferometer with wide field of view. In the laboratory experiments, we have succeeded in measuring the spectroscopically resolved 2D image of the source in 150GHz-900GHz band. The future application of this technique to the observations from the space could open new interesting possibilities in FIR astronomy.

  4. Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, A. C.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Mittal, R.; Allen, S. W.; Baum, S. A.; Böhringer, H.; Bregman, J. N.; Bremer, M. N.; Combes, F.; Crawford, C. S.; Donahue, M.; Egami, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Ferland, G. J.; Hamer, S. L.; Hatch, N. A.; Jaffe, W.; Johnstone, R. M.; McNamara, B. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Popesso, P.; Quillen, A. C.; Salomé, P.; Sarazin, C. L.; Voit, G. M.; Wilman, R. J.; Wise, M. W.

    2010-07-01

    The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [Cii], [Oi] and [Nii] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel-PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (> 109 M_⊙) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed by the cooling of gas in the cores of the most compact clusters and provide important diagnostics of the temperature and density of the dense clouds this gas resides in. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. BONE BANKS

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista; Vieira, Inácio Facó Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Bone banks are necessary for providing biological material for a series of orthopedic procedures. The growing need for musculoskeletal tissues for transplantation has been due to the development of new surgical techniques, and this has led to a situation in which a variety of hospital services have been willing to have their own source of tissue for transplantation. To increase the safety of transplanted tissues, standards for bone bank operation have been imposed by the government, which has limited the number of authorized institutions. The good performance in a bone bank depends on strict control over all stages, including: formation of well-trained harvesting teams; donor selection; conducting various tests on the tissues obtained; and strict control over the processing techniques used. Combination of these factors enables greater scope of use and numbers of recipient patients, while the incidence of tissue contamination becomes statistically insignificant, and there is traceability between donors and recipients. This paper describes technical considerations relating to how a bone bank functions, the use of grafts and orthopedic applications, the ethical issues and the main obstacles encountered.

  6. Bank Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

  7. Multiresolution Bilateral Filtering for Image Denoising

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Gunturk, Bahadir K.

    2008-01-01

    The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that does spatial averaging without smoothing edges; it has shown to be an effective image denoising technique. An important issue with the application of the bilateral filter is the selection of the filter parameters, which affect the results significantly. There are two main contributions of this paper. The first contribution is an empirical study of the optimal bilateral filter parameter selection in image denoising applications. The second contribution is an extension of the bilateral filter: multiresolution bilateral filter, where bilateral filtering is applied to the approximation (low-frequency) subbands of a signal decomposed using a wavelet filter bank. The multiresolution bilateral filter is combined with wavelet thresholding to form a new image denoising framework, which turns out to be very effective in eliminating noise in real noisy images. Experimental results with both simulated and real data are provided. PMID:19004705

  8. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  9. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  10. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  11. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  12. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  13. HI and FIR emission from S0 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Pogge, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    A large body of work has accumulated in recent years which throws into disarray the traditional assumption that S0 systems are inert, non-starforming galaxies with uniform, old stellar populations. The copious 21-cm data have been recently reviewed and assessed by Wardle and Knapp (1986). This work showed that roughly a third of the several hundred observed S0's contain detectable amounts of neutral hydrogen (HI). More recently, Pogge and Eskridge (1987) have shown that a significant fraction of HI-rich systems also exhibit H alpha emission. Thronson et al. (1989) report detection of CO line emission from two thirds of the S0's in their sample. Both of these last papers, however, report on fairly small data sets (approx. 20 objects each). From co-added Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, Knapp et al. (1989) report that roughly two thirds of a sample of several hundred S0's are detected at 60 and 100 microns. Work by Bally and Thronson (1989) and Walsh et al. (1989) has shown that, while a large number of S0's follow a relation between radio continuum and far infrared radiation (FIR) emission similar to that found for spirals, significant numbers of both radio-bright, and FIR-bright S0's exist. Clearly, a large number of factors are involved in determining the state of the interstellar medium in S0 galaxies. The class is probably heterogeneous, suggesting that large data samples are required to sort out various sorts of objects. The 21 cm and FIR samples are the two largest currently available. It is therefore of interest to compare the two and see where this leads. The following results are already clear: HI and FIR flux data can be used to isolate strong candidates for systems which have gained their HI gas via accretion; a rough power-law relationship exists for galaxies which are undergoing relatively normal star-forming activity; a heterogeneous class of galaxies with strong FIR emission compared to their HI emission exists. Further work is required to determine the various physical processes responsible for this last class.

  14. [Community stability for spruce-fir forest at different succession stages in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-tao; Zhang, Qing; Kang, Xin-gang; Yang, Ying-jun; Xu, Guang; Zhang, Li-xin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the analysis of three forest communities (polar-birch secondary forest, spruce-fir mixed forest, spruce-fir near pristine forest) in Changbai Mountains, a total of 22 factors of 5 indices, including the population regeneration, soil fertility (soil moisture and soli nutrient), woodland productivity and species diversity that reflected community characteristics were used to evaluate the stability of forest community succession at different stages by calculating subordinate function values of a model based on fuzzy mathematics. The results that the indices of population regeneration, soli nutrient, woodland productivity and species diversity were the highest in the spruce-fir mixed forest, and the indices of soil moisture were the highest in the spruce-fir near-pristine forest. The stability of three forest communities was in order of natural spruce-fir mixed forest > spruce-fir near pristine forest > polar-birch secondary forest. PMID:26572010

  15. User's guide to the douglas-fir beetle impact model. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, M.A.; Eav, B.B.; Thompson, M.K.

    1994-09-01

    Douglas-fir beetle occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir. At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precendent conditions for epidemics of Douglas-fir beetle. An impact model has been developed to simulate tree mortality during such epidemics. The model has been linked to the Stand Prognosis Model (Forest Vegetation Simulator). This is a guide for using the model.

  16. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  17. Cyclic block filtered multitone modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonello, Andrea M.; Girotto, Mauro

    2014-12-01

    A filter bank modulation transceiver is presented. The idea is to obtain good sub-channel frequency confinement as it is done by the family of exponentially modulated filter banks that is typically referred to as filtered multitone (FMT) modulation. However, differently from conventional FMT, the linear convolutions are replaced with circular convolutions. Since transmission occurs in blocks, the scheme is referred to as cyclic block FMT (CB-FMT). This paper focuses on the principles, design, and implementation of CB-FMT. In particular, it is shown that an efficient realization of both the transmitter and the receiver is possible in the frequency domain (FD), and it is based on the concatenation of an inner discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and a bank of outer DFTs. Such an implementation suggests a simple sub-channel FD equalizer. The overall required implementation complexity is lower than in FMT. Furthermore, the orthogonal filter bank design is simplified. The sub-channel frequency confinement in CB-FMT yields compact power spectrum and lower peak-to-average power ratio than in OFDM. Furthermore, the FD equalization allows the exploitation of the transmission medium time and frequency diversity; thus, it potentially yields lower symbol error rate and higher achievable rate in time-variant frequency-selective fading.

  18. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  19. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  20. Flat microwave photonic filter based on hybrid of two filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chunhui; Pei, Li; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Gao, Song

    2010-05-01

    A new microwave photonic filter (MPF) hybrid of two filters that can realize both multiple taps and a flat bandpass or bandstop response is presented. Based on the phase character of a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), a two taps finite impulse response (FIR) filter is obtained as the first part. The second part is obtained by taking full advantage of the wavelength selectivity of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the gain of a erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Combining the two filters, the flat bandpass or bandstop response is realized by changing the coupler's factor k, the reflectivity of FBG1 R1 or the gain of the EDF g. Optimizing the system parameters, a flat bandpass response with amplitude depth of more than 45 dB is obtained at k = 0.5, R1 = 0.33, g = 10, and a flat bandstop response is also obtained at k = 0.4, R1 = 0.5, g = 2. In addition, the free-spectral range (FSR) can be controlled by changing the length of the EDF and the length difference between two MZMs. The method is proved feasible by some experiments. Such a method offers realistic solutions to support future radio-frequency (RF) optical communication systems.

  1. Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

  2. [Simultaneous implantation of cava filters].

    PubMed

    Kokov, L S; Kalashnikov, S V

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to show a possibility of simultaneous implantation of Russian-made cava filters into the vena cava inferior (VCI) and vena cava superior in thrombosis of the respective venous beds. Thrombotic processes (usually seen in oncological patients) requiring insertion of filters into the both above-mentioned veins have not at all been described in Russian medical literature, with only few such cases being sporadically reported in foreign literature. The authors present herein the clinical pattern, findings of examination and treatment of a patient with an inoperable tumour of the pancreatic head with hepatic metastases, who, on postoperative day 9, was diagnosed with thrombosis of veins of the left lower limb and thrombosis of the right upper extremity veins with a floating thrombus in the VCS. The patient was therefore subjected to simultaneous implantation of Russian-made cava filters "Zontik" (umbrella) and "Yolka" (fir) into the VCI and VCS, respectively. The postoperative period included but was not limited to comprehensive anticoagulation and disaggregant therapy. The patient was discharged two weeks after implantation of the cava filters, with manifestations of partial re-canalization of thrombus-affected venous beds. PMID:15622405

  3. Allelochemicals and activities in a replanted Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) tree ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kong, C H; Chen, L C; Xu, X H; Wang, P; Wang, S L

    2008-12-24

    Autotoxicity is a major reason for replant problems in managed tree ecosystems. Studies have related phenolics-based allelochemicals to autotoxicity. We selected a 20-year-old replanted Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lancealata (Lamb.) Hook] tree ecosystem to isolate, identify, determine the biological activity of, and quantify soil phytotoxins. Eight common phenolics (coumarin, vanillin, isovanillin, and p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, benzoic, cinnamic, and ferulic acids), friedelin, and a novel cyclic dipeptide (6-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-8-nonadecyl-[1,4]-diazocane-2,5-diketone) were obtained by using the bioassay-guided isolation technique from toxic soil of the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem. Chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic means, including 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. High concentrations of soil phenolics and friedelin were observed in the natural evergreen broadleaf forest (CK) rather than in the Chinese fir tree ecosystem. The phenolics and friedelin were not phytotoxic to Chinese fir trees. However, the cyclic dipeptide inhibited Chinese fir growth at soil concentrations determined in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem. There was a significantly higher soil concentration of cyclic dipeptide in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem than in a fresh Chinese fir tree ecosystem. The results suggest that phenolics and friedelin are not key allelochemicals since they are weakly phytotoxic and are detected in low concentrations in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem, while cyclic dipeptide is a highly active allelochemical with a phytotoxic effect that limits offspring growth in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem. The discovery of cyclic dipeptide, as well as a further understanding of its potential action mechanism in the replanted Chinese fir tree ecosystem, may contribute to solving the replant problems in managed tree ecosystems. PMID:19053367

  4. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  5. Low power adder based auditory filter architecture.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, P F Khaleelur; Jayanthi, V S

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65?nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%. PMID:25506073

  6. Low Power Adder Based Auditory Filter Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65 nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%. PMID:25506073

  7. Conversion of SPORL pretreated Douglas-fir forest residues into microbial lipids with oleaginous yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrol...

  8. Nutrient Availability from Douglas Fir Bark in Response to Substrate pH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to determine the influence of substrate pH on nutrient availability in douglas fir bark (DFB). Douglas fir bark was amended with either calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] at 13 rates to generate substrates with low to high pH. A non-amended control ...

  9. Simulated Performance of an FIR-Based Feedback System to Control the Electron Cloud Single-Bunch Transverse Instabilities in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Secondo, R.; Vay, J. L.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J. D.; Rivetta, C. H.; Hofle, W.

    2011-03-28

    The operation at high current of high-energy proton machines like the SPS at CERN is affected by transverse single-bunch instabilities due to the Electron Cloud effect [1]. As a first step toward modeling a realistic feedback control system to stabilize the bunch dynamics, we investigate the use of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter to represent the processing channel. The effect of the processing channel on the bunch dynamics is analyzed using the macro-particle simulation package Wart-Posinst. We discuss the basic features of the feedback model, report on simulation results, and present our plans for further development of the numerical model.

  10. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

  11. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Spera, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. ); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. )

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  12. High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong; Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B.

    2010-02-03

    New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

  13. An optically tunable wideband optoelectronic oscillator based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Wong, Jia Haur; Lam, Huy Quoc; Zhou, Junqiang; Aditya, Sheel; Lim, Peng Huei; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Shum, Perry Ping; Zhang, Xinliang

    2013-07-15

    An optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with wideband frequency tunability and stable output based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Realized by cascading a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter together, the tunable bandpass MPF successfully replaces the narrowband electrical bandpass filter in a conventional single-loop OEO and serves as the oscillating frequency selector. The FIR filter is based on a tunable multi-wavelength laser and dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) while the IIR filter is simply based on an optical loop. Utilizing a long length of DCF as the dispersion medium for the FIR filter also provides a long delay line for the OEO feedback cavity and as a result, optical tuning over a wide frequency range can be achieved without sacrificing the quality of the generated signal. By tuning the wavelength spacing of the multi-wavelength laser, the oscillation frequency can be tuned from 6.88 GHz to 12.79 GHz with an average step-size of 0.128 GHz. The maximum frequency drift of the generated 10 GHz signal is observed to be 1.923 kHz over 1 hour and its phase noise reaches the -112 dBc/Hz limit of our measuring equipment at 10 kHz offset frequency. PMID:23938489

  14. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Metallic Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Filtration technology originated in a mid 1960's NASA study. The results were distributed to the filter industry, an HR Textron responded, using the study as a departure for the development of 421 Filter Media. The HR system is composed of ultrafine steel fibers metallurgically bonded and compressed so that the pore structure is locked in place. The filters are used to filter polyesters, plastics, to remove hydrocarbon streams, etc. Several major companies use the product in chemical applications, pollution control, etc.

  16. Cascaded integrator comb filters with smoothly varying coefficients for reduced delay in synchrotron feedback loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnase, A.; Nomura, M.; Tamura, F.; Yamamoto, M.; Anami, S.; Ezura, E.; Hara, K.; Ohmori, C.; Takagi, A.; Yoshii, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the J-PARC complex in Tokai, Japan, is designed to accelerate a high intensity proton beam from 181 MeV, and later 400 MeV to 3 GeV in 20 ms within the 40 ms machine cycle. The beam power up to 1 MW demands a stable beam control to avoid excessive losses and activation of the accelerator chain. The fully digital control system is based on quadrature modulation and demodulation. In the amplitude control loops standard FIR filters separate the harmonics (h=2) and (h=4) after down conversion. For the phase loops at (h=2) and (h=4), intended to damp synchrotron oscillations, the delay in a FIR filter would limit the loop stability. Cascaded integrator comb filters, also called CIC filters, provide a shorter delay because they filter the longitudinal beam signal only where it is necessary. The notches are located at multiples of the revolution frequency of the proton beam. For fixed frequency accelerator applications, digital comb filters with fixed clock frequency are widely used to improve loop stability. For variable frequency accelerator applications, as in a proton synchrotron, where the frequency swing is larger than the notch width, usually the clock frequency of the comb filter is variable and chosen to be an integer multiple of the particle revolution frequency. At J-PARC RCS, the clock frequency has to be fixed. Tracking the frequency would require a variable noninteger number of filter taps. Here we present a filter, based on the weighted output of 2 CIC filters with variable length, and one tap difference. The filter function looks like a CIC with smoothly varying coefficients, where the notches follow the revolution frequency of the proton beam. The delay of this filter is approximately half of the corresponding FIR filter, so that the phase loops have a higher stability margin.

  17. Fast fringe pattern phase demodulation using FIR Hilbert transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gdeisat, Munther; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests the use of FIR Hilbert transformers to extract the phase of fringe patterns. This method is computationally faster than any known spatial method that produces wrapped phase maps. Also, the algorithm does not require any parameters to be adjusted which are dependent upon the specific fringe pattern that is being processed, or upon the particular setup of the optical fringe projection system that is being used. It is therefore particularly suitable for full algorithmic automation. The accuracy and validity of the suggested method has been tested using both computer-generated and real fringe patterns. This novel algorithm has been proposed for its advantages in terms of computational processing speed as it is the fastest available method to extract the wrapped phase information from a fringe pattern.

  18. A HIRES analysis of the FIR emission of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong

    1994-01-01

    The high resolution (HiRes) algorithm has been used to analyze the far infrared emission of shocked gas and dust in supernova remnants. In the case of supernova remnant IC 443, we find a very good match between the resolved features in the deconvolved images and the emissions of shocked gas mapped in other wavelengths (lines of H2, CO, HCO+, and HI). Dust emission is also found to be surrounding hot bubbles of supernova remnants which are seen in soft X-ray maps. Optical spectroscopy on the emission of the shocked gas suggests a close correlation between the FIR color and local shock speed, which is a strong function of the ambient (preshock) gas density. These provide a potentially effective way to identify regions of strong shock interaction, and thus facilitate studies of kinematics and energetics in the interstellar medium.

  19. C-band microwave scattering from small balsam fir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Saatchi, Sasan S.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment to examine the C-band backscattering characteristics of conifer trees was conducted using a truck-mounted scatterometer. Small (1 m tall) balsam fir (Abies balsamea) were arranged at various equidistant spacings on a platform to present canopies of varying density to the radar. C-band backscattering measurements of a range of canopy densities were acquired under different polarizations and incidence angles. The measured backscattering coefficient from the tree canopies increased with increasing biomass, but approached a maximum at a LAI of 2.5 and fresh biomass of 3.3 kg/sq m. A backscatter model was implemented using measured canopy attributes and showed close agreement with scatterometer measurements over the range of canopy densities. Model results indicated that branches were the prime scatterers of the radar while needles were found to only slightly attenuate the radar signal.

  20. An FIR cooled grating spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Haas, M. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Simpson, J. P.; Augason, G. C.; Houck, J. R.; Harwit, M. O.; Rank, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The design and performance of a liquid-He-cooled spectrometer being developed for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) to study FIR lines originating in the interstellar medium are discussed. Currently, the spectrometer contains six Ge:Ga photoconductor detectors mounted in integrating cavities and cooled to about 3 K; the collimator focal plane has space for 39 such detectors. The instrument achieves a maximum resolving power of 6000 by means of a 45-cm long echelle grating and is optically capable of operating in the spectral range 25-300 microns. A laboratory spectrum of water vapor, an atmospheric water absorption feature measured from the KAO with Mars as a source, and the forbidden O(2+) emission from W51-IRS1 are shown.

  1. Sydowia polyspora associated with current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on true fir (Abies spp.).

    PubMed

    Talgø, Venche; Chastagner, Gary; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Cech, Thomas; Riley, Kathy; Lange, Kurt; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Stensvand, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Current season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25y. Approximately 2-4 weeks after bud break, needles develop chlorotic spots or bands that later turn necrotic. The symptoms have been observed on noble fir (Abies procera), Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana) and grand fir (A. grandis) on both continents. CSNN was reported as a physiological disorder with unknown aetiology from USA, Denmark, and Ireland, but was associated with the fungus Kabatina abietis in Germany, Austria and Norway. In 2007, a fungus that morphologically resembled K. abietis was isolated from symptomatic needle samples from Nordmann fir from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and USA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of these cultures, plus a K. abietis reference culture from Germany (CBS 248.93), resulted in Hormonema dematioides, the imperfect stage of Sydowia polyspora, and thus the taxonomy is further discussed. Inoculation tests on Nordmann fir seedlings and transplants with isolates of S. polyspora from all five countries resulted in the development of CSNN symptoms. In 2009, S. polyspora was also isolated from symptomatic needles from Nordmann fir collected in Slovakia. PMID:20943166

  2. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.

    2013-06-01

    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 μbar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 μbar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (ν_2 to ν_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Müller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  3. A 600-MHz median-type digital filter on GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vainjo, Olli; Sundaram, Mani; Long, Stephen I.; Neuvo, Yrjo

    1992-01-01

    A single-chip GaAs implementation of an FIR-median hybrid filter is presented. The very high-speed digital filter combines linear averaging structures to a median selector. The filter operates on 5-b samples with ECL-compatible I/O interfaces. The 1500-transistor LSI device with 3.6-sq mm chip size was processed with a 1.0-micron GaAs depletion-mode (D-mode) MESFET process. The filter demonstrates 600-MHz sample rate when operated in test mode utilizing special built-in feedback.

  4. A multiprocessor architecture for two-dimensional digital filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.H.; Alexander, W.E.

    1987-07-01

    In this paper, a generic computational primitive is developed for the implementation of any arbitrary order one-dimensional or two-dimensional FIR or IIR digital filter. This computational primitive can form the basis for a single chip processor for one-dimensional and two-dimensional digital signal processing. A multiprocessor architecture for real-time implementation of spatial domain filters is developed with each processing unit in the network implementing the computational primitive. This multiprocessor system has a simple control scheme, a simple interconnection network, a very high efficiency, and low data transfers and storage requirements. Thus, it avoids the bottlenecks associated with traditional parallel computers and multiprocessor systems.

  5. Persistent changes in the fir spectrum of KI: NO 2- produced by IR vibrational hole burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, W. P.; Sievers, A. J.

    1988-06-01

    A new combination of spectroscopic techniques is used to characterize the NO 2- -defect-induced gap modes in KI at 1.5 K. Tunable infrared (IR) diode lasers are used to burn persistent spectral holes in the IR vibrational spectrum and simultaneously high-resolution far-infrared (FIR) interferometry is used to probe the resulting FIR spectral changes. The results show that persistent changes are induced in three polarized FIR absorption lines, the number of IR-active local modes expected for a C 2v molecule in a cubic site.

  6. Thresholds for perception of ripple depth in the passband of a low-pass filter.

    PubMed

    Amir, Noam; Milhim, Makram; Radai, Liron

    2005-01-01

    Filters are often used in research related to speech and tone perception. Idealized filters with flat pass-bands, flat stop-bands, and infinitely steep rolloff are impossible to implement, thus practical filters often have a frequency response curve that has a certain degree of ripple, and always have finite rolloff. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature concerning the sensitivity of the ear to such artifacts. In the current study we examined the threshold of sensitivity to ripple depth in the pass-band of a digital low pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter. FIR filters are often used due to their lack of phase distortion, and due to the fact that their ripple depth can be closely controlled. Using an adaptive threshold detection paradigm, we found the threshold of noticeable ripple depth to be 2.7 dB (SD = 1.45) for filtered noise, and 4.89 dB (SD = 2.09) for a filtered chirp signal. This is significantly larger than the difference limen in intensity (DLI) for noise or pure tones. Notably, the threshold for filtered noise is significantly lower and more uniform across subjects, compared to the threshold for a filtered chirp signal. We conclude that these issues must be addressed when the necessity for filtering arises, though they cannot be considered independently of the signals themselves. PMID:16285469

  7. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

    1992-09-01

    A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

  8. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Monroeville, PA); Dilmore, William J. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

  9. The singular value filter: a general filter design strategy for PCA-based signal separation in medical ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, F William; Lin, Dan; Hossack, John A

    2011-11-01

    A general filtering method, called the singular value filter (SVF), is presented as a framework for principal component analysis (PCA) based filter design in medical ultrasound imaging. The SVF approach operates by projecting the original data onto a new set of bases determined from PCA using singular value decomposition (SVD). The shape of the SVF weighting function, which relates the singular value spectrum of the input data to the filtering coefficients assigned to each basis function, is designed in accordance with a signal model and statistical assumptions regarding the underlying source signals. In this paper, we applied SVF for the specific application of clutter artifact rejection in diagnostic ultrasound imaging. SVF was compared to a conventional PCA-based filtering technique, which we refer to as the blind source separation (BSS) method, as well as a simple frequency-based finite impulse response (FIR) filter used as a baseline for comparison. The performance of each filter was quantified in simulated lesion images as well as experimental cardiac ultrasound data. SVF was demonstrated in both simulation and experimental results, over a wide range of imaging conditions, to outperform the BSS and FIR filtering methods in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and motion tracking performance. In experimental mouse heart data, SVF provided excellent artifact suppression with an average CNR improvement of 1.8 dB with over 40% reduction in displacement tracking error. It was further demonstrated from simulation and experimental results that SVF provided superior clutter rejection, as reflected in larger CNR values, when filtering was achieved using complex pulse-echo received data and non-binary filter coefficients. PMID:21693416

  10. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  11. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  12. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  13. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  14. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...

  15. Lattice form adaptive infinite impulse response filtering algorithm for active noise control.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Shen, Chunhua; Qiu, Xiaojun; Xu, Boling

    2003-01-01

    In some situations of active noise control, infinite impulse response (IIR) filters are more suitable than finite impulse response (FIR) filters owing to the poles in the transfer function. A number of algorithms have been derived for applying IIR filters in active noise control; however, most of them use the direct form IIR filter structure, which faces the difficulties of checking stability and relatively slow convergence speed for noise composed of narrow-band components with large power disparity. To overcome these difficulties along with using the direct form IIR filters, a new adaptive algorithm is proposed in this paper, which uses and updates the lattice form adaptive IIR filter in an active noise control system. Full mathematical derivations of the proposed algorithm are presented, and the comparison between the proposed algorithm and the commonly used filtered-u LMS and filtered-v LMS algorithms shows the superiority of the proposed algorithm. PMID:12558272

  16. Global Systems for Mobile Position Tracking Using Kalman and Lainiotis Filters

    PubMed Central

    Assimakis, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    We present two time invariant models for Global Systems for Mobile (GSM) position tracking, which describe the movement in x-axis and y-axis simultaneously or separately. We present the time invariant filters as well as the steady state filters: the classical Kalman filter and Lainiotis Filter and the Join Kalman Lainiotis Filter, which consists of the parallel usage of the two classical filters. Various implementations are proposed and compared with respect to their behavior and to their computational burden: all time invariant and steady state filters have the same behavior using both proposed models but have different computational burden. Finally, we propose a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) implementation of the Steady State Kalman, and Lainiotis filters, which does not require previous estimations but requires a well-defined set of previous measurements. PMID:24883349

  17. Digital filtering for data compression in telemetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.M.

    1994-08-01

    There are many obstacles to using data compression in a telemetry system. Non-linear quantization is often too lossy, and the data is too highly structured to make variable-length entropy codes practical. This paper describes a lossless telemetry data compression system that was built using digital FIR filters. The method of compression takes advantage of the fact that the optimal Nyquist sampling rate is rarely achievable due to two factors: (1) Sensor/transducers are not bandlimited to the frequencies of interest, and (2) Accurate, high-order analog filters are not available to perform effective band limiting and prevent aliasing. Real-time digital filtering can enhance the performance of a typical sampling system so that it approaches Nyquist sampling rates, effectively compressing the amount of data and reducing transmission bandwidth. The system that was built reduced the sampling rate of 14 high-frequency vibration channels by a factor of two, and reduced the bandwidth of the-data link from 1.8 Mbps to 1.28 Mbps. The entire circuit uses seven function-specific, digital-filter DSP`s operating in parallel (two 128-tap FIR filters can be implemented on each Motorola DSP56200), one EPROM and a Programmable Logic Device as the controller.

  18. CCD filter and transform techniques for interference excision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsuk, G. M.; Dewitt, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical and some experimental results of a study aimed at applying CCD filter and transform techniques to the problem of interference excision within communications channels were presented. Adaptive noise (interference) suppression was achieved by the modification of received signals such that they were orthogonal to the recently measured noise field. CCD techniques were examined to develop real-time noise excision processing. They were recursive filters, circulating filter banks, transversal filter banks, an optical implementation of the chirp Z transform, and a CCD analog FFT.

  19. 76 FR 16236 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 RIN 2120-AJ93 Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action prohibits flight...

  20. EuroFIR quality approach for managing food composition data; where are we in 2014?

    PubMed

    Westenbrink, Susanne; Roe, Mark; Oseredczuk, Marine; Castanheira, Isabel; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    A EuroFIR quality management framework was developed to assure data quality of food composition data, incorporating several recommendations developed or improved during the EuroFIR projects. A flow chart of the compilation process with standard operating procedures to assure critical steps was the starting point. Recommendations for food description, component identification, value documentation, recipe calculation, quality evaluation of values, guidelines to assess analytical methods, document and data repositories and training opportunities were harmonized as elements of the quality framework. European food composition database organizations reached consensus on the EuroFIR quality framework and started implementation. Peer reviews of the European compiler organizations were organized to evaluate the quality framework, focusing on what was achieved and on improvements needed. The reviews demonstrated that European food database compilers have made good use of standards and guidelines produced by EuroFIR, as well as a common understanding that a quality framework is essential to assure food composition data quality. PMID:26433289

  1. Laboratory and field ecophysiological studies on the impact of air pollution on red spruce and Fraser fir

    SciTech Connect

    Tyszko, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    In the first study, red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir.) seedlings were submitted to long-term multiple growing cycle intermittent ozone fumigations. No effect of ozone exposure on growth and gas exchange of the seedlings was found. Net photosynthesis at saturating light intensity was reduced in both species and the light compensation point was shifted upwards in spruce when exposed to ozone. Fraser fir seedlings showed inconsistent responses of CO{sub 2} curve parameters to ozone exposure. In the second study, the impact of summer exposure to ambient pollutants on winter hardiness in red spruce seedlings was examined. The seedlings were subjected to the following summertime treatments while kept in exclusion chambers on the top of Whitetop Mountain (Virginia): ambient air and clouds, ambient air with clouds excluded, charcoal filtered air, and chamberless control treatment. During the following winter the seedlings were placed in Blacksburg (Virginia), in two locations: in the open and in a shadehouse. A number of conducted tests indicated that there were significant differences in winter damage between the chamber treatments and chamberless control, as well as between the winter exposure locations. Among the summer chamber exposure regimes, the treatment excluding clouds seemed to perform the best. In the third study, the physiology of red spruce trees of various sizes growing on two sites on the top of Whitetop Mtn., was compared and related to ambient ozone concentration. Some seedlings were treated with an antioxidant EDU, to help evaluate the impact of ozone on their physiology.

  2. Non-Causal Final Impulse Response Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyka, A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon this assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the ``best'' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduced by the {ITALIC a priori} known filter. The best results were obtained for the impulse response given by the Pascal triangle and the family of symmetric power triangles, both for the case of trading with, and without the transaction fee. It was found that the transaction fee dramatically reduces a possible net return, and therefore should not be omitted in market analyzes.

  3. A new method for fabrication of diamond-dust blocking filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, H. R.; Hogan, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal embedding of diamond dust onto a polyethylene-coated Al plate has been used to make a blocking filter for FIR applications. The Al plate is sandwiched between two Mylar 'blankets' and the air between the layers is removed by means of a small vacuum pump. After the polyethylene is heated and softened, the diamond dust is applied to the polyethylene coating using a brush. The optimum diamond dust grain sizes corresponding to polyethylene layer thicknesses of 9-12 microns are given in a table, and the application of the blocking filter to spectrometric measurements in the FIR is described. An exploded view diagram of the layered structure of the blocking filter is provided.

  4. Multidimensional digital filters for point-target detection in cluttered infrared scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Hugh L.

    2014-11-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) spatiotemporal prediction-error filter (PEF) is used to enhance foreground/background contrast in (real and simulated) sensor image sequences. Relative velocity is utilized to extract point targets that would otherwise be indistinguishable with spatial frequency alone. An optical-flow field is generated using local estimates of the 3-D autocorrelation function via the application of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse FFT. Velocity estimates are then used to tune in a background-whitening PEF that is matched to the motion and texture of the local background. Finite impulse response (FIR) filters are designed and implemented in the frequency domain. An analytical expression for the frequency response of velocity-tuned FIR filters, of odd or even dimension with an arbitrary delay in each dimension, is derived.

  5. Least squares acceleration filtering for the estimation of signal derivatives and sharpness at extrema.

    PubMed

    Frei, M G; Davidchack, R L; Osorio, I

    1999-08-01

    A family of finite impulse-response (FIR) filters is derived which estimate the second derivative or "acceleration" of a digitized signal. The acceleration is obtained from parabolas that are continuously fit to the signal using a least squares optimization criterion. A closed-form solution for the filter coefficients is obtained. The general approach is computationally simple, can be performed in real-time, and is robust in the presence of noise. An important application of the method, that of measuring sharpness in biologic signals, is presented using the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (EKG) signals as examples. Furthermore, the design method is extended to derive FIR filters for estimating derivatives of arbitrary order in digital signals of biologic or other origins. PMID:10431462

  6. Method and system for training dynamic nonlinear adaptive filters which have embedded memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabinowitz, Matthew (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Described herein is a method and system for training nonlinear adaptive filters (or neural networks) which have embedded memory. Such memory can arise in a multi-layer finite impulse response (FIR) architecture, or an infinite impulse response (IIR) architecture. We focus on filter architectures with separate linear dynamic components and static nonlinear components. Such filters can be structured so as to restrict their degrees of computational freedom based on a priori knowledge about the dynamic operation to be emulated. The method is detailed for an FIR architecture which consists of linear FIR filters together with nonlinear generalized single layer subnets. For the IIR case, we extend the methodology to a general nonlinear architecture which uses feedback. For these dynamic architectures, we describe how one can apply optimization techniques which make updates closer to the Newton direction than those of a steepest descent method, such as backpropagation. We detail a novel adaptive modified Gauss-Newton optimization technique, which uses an adaptive learning rate to determine both the magnitude and direction of update steps. For a wide range of adaptive filtering applications, the new training algorithm converges faster and to a smaller value of cost than both steepest-descent methods such as backpropagation-through-time, and standard quasi-Newton methods. We apply the algorithm to modeling the inverse of a nonlinear dynamic tracking system 5, as well as a nonlinear amplifier 6.

  7. FIR polarimetry diagnostic for the C-Mod tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irby, J. H.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Marmar, E. S.; Xu, P.

    2012-02-01

    A three-chord polarimeter on Alcator C-Mod will make measurements of the poloidal magnetic field and plasma fluctuations. The beams from two frequency-offset, 200 mW, FIR lasers operating at 117.73 μm are combined to produce collinear, counter-rotating, circularly polarized beams. The beams are divided into three chords which are directed into the plasma at one toroidal location. Corner cube retro-reflectors mounted on the inside wall return the beam for a double pass. The mixing product of the two beams is detected both before (reference) and after (signal) the plasma using polarization sensitive detectors that produce a beat signal at ~ 4 MHz. During the plasma discharge, the phase delay of the signal mixer, which depends on the Faraday effect, is evaluated with respect to the reference and produces line-integrated information on the poloidal magnetic field. Measurements on C-Mod require the phase error to be at the 0.1 degree level, and great care in the design of optical mounts, polarizers, beam-splitters, focusing optics, and acoustic and magnetic shielding was required. Development of new planar diode Schottky detectors was necessary to provide high sensitivity for a diagnostic that will eventually have at least six chords. Absorption of the FIR laser light by water vapor requires that the entire beam path be purged with dry air. Six retro-reflectors on the inner wall arranged in an ITER-like configuration provide poloidally viewing chords from near the mid-plane to well into the plasma scrape off layer. A pneumatically controlled shutter protects the in-vessel optics during boronizations and during limited discharges that might accelerate damage to the retro-reflector surfaces. Tests indicate there is no measurable signal contamination from the toroidal magnetic field due to the Cotton-Mouton effect. Polarization sensitivity of the wire mesh beamsplitters necessitated system calibration. Good agreement to EFIT reconstructions has been observed along with plasma fluctuations up to 400 kHz.

  8. An analysis of the FIR/RADIO continuum correlation in the small Magellanic cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverenz, Howard; Filipović, Miroslav D.

    2013-01-01

    The local correlation between far-infrared (FIR) emission and radio-continuum (RC) emission for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is investigated over scales from 3 kpc to 0.01 kpc. Here, we report good FIR/RC correlation down to ˜15 pc. The reciprocal slope of the FIR/RC emission correlation (RC/FIR) in the SMC is shown to be greatest in the most active star forming regions with a power law slope of ˜1.14 indicating that the RC emission increases faster than the FIR emission. The slope of the other regions and the SMC are much flatter and in the range of 0.63-0.85. The slopes tend to follow the thermal fractions of the regions which range from 0.5 to 0.95. The thermal fraction of the RC emission alone can provide the expected FIR/RC correlation. The results are consistent with a common source for ultraviolet (UV) photons heating dust and Cosmic Ray electrons (CRe-s) diffusing away from the star forming regions. Since the CRe-s appear to escape the SMC so readily, the results here may not provide support for coupling between the local gas density and the magnetic field intensity.

  9. Dimerization of FIR Upon FUSE DNA Binding Suggests Mechanism of c-myc Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Crichlow,G.; Zhou, H.; Hsiao, H.; Frederick, K.; Debrosse, M.; Yang, Y.; Folta-Stogniew, E.; Chung, H.; Fan, C.; et al

    2008-01-01

    c-myc is essential for cell homeostasis and growth but lethal if improperly regulated. Transcription of this oncogene is governed by the counterbalancing forces of two proteins on TFIIH--the FUSE binding protein (FBP) and the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR). FBP and FIR recognize single-stranded DNA upstream of the P1 promoter, known as FUSE, and influence transcription by oppositely regulating TFIIH at the promoter site. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with light scattering reveals that an FIR dimer binds one molecule of single-stranded DNA. The crystal structure confirms that FIR binds FUSE as a dimer, and only the N-terminal RRM domain participates in nucleic acid recognition. Site-directed mutations of conserved residues in the first RRM domain reduce FIR's affinity for FUSE, while analogous mutations in the second RRM domain either destabilize the protein or have no effect on DNA binding. Oppositely oriented DNA on parallel binding sites of the FIR dimer results in spooling of a single strand of bound DNA, and suggests a mechanism for c-myc transcriptional control.

  10. Random filtering structure-based compressive sensing radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jindong; Ban, YangYang; Zhu, Daiyin; Zhang, Gong

    2014-12-01

    Recently with an emerging theory of `compressive sensing' (CS), a radically new concept of compressive sensing radar (CSR) has been proposed in which the time-frequency plane is discretized into a grid. Random filtering is an interesting technique for efficiently acquiring signals in CS theory and can be seen as a linear time-invariant filter followed by decimation. In this paper, random filtering structure-based CSR system is investigated. Note that the sparse representation and sensing matrices are required to be as incoherent as possible; the methods for optimizing the transmit waveform and the FIR filter in the sensing matrix separately and simultaneously are presented to decrease the coherence between different target responses. Simulation results show that our optimized results lead to smaller coherence, with higher sparsity and better recovery accuracy observed in the CSR system than the nonoptimized transmit waveform and sensing matrix.

  11. A matched filter algorithm for acoustic signal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, D. W.

    1985-06-01

    This thesis is a presentation of several alternative acoustic filter designs which allow Space Shuttle payload experiment initiation prior to launch. This initiation is accomplished independently of any spacecraft services by means of a matched band-pass filter tuned to the acoustic signal characteristic of the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) which is brought up to operating RPM's approximately five minutes prior to launch. These alternative designs include an analog filter built around operational amplifiers, a digital IIR design implemented with an INTEL 2920 Signal Processor, and an Adaptive FIR Weiner design. Working prototypes of the first two filters are developed and a discussion of the advantage of the 2920 digital design is presented.

  12. Compact Micromachined Bandpass Filters for Infrared Planetary Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari D.; Aslam, Shahid; Chervenak, James A.; Huang, Wei-Chung; Merrell, Willie; Quijada, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The thermal instrument strawman payload of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter on the Europa Jupiter Science Mission will map out thermal anomalies, the structure, and atmospheric conditions of Europa and Jupiter within the 7-100 micron spectral range. One key requirement for the payload is that the mass cannot exceed 3.7 kg. Consequently, a new generation of light-weight miniaturized spectrometers needs to be developed. On the path toward developing these spectrometers is development of ancillary miniaturized spectroscopic components. In this paper, we present a strategy for making radiation hard and low mass FIR band pass metal mesh filters. Our strategy involves using MEMS-based fabrication techniques, which will permit the quasi-optical filter structures to be made with micron-scale precision. This will enable us to achieve tight control over both the pass band of the filter and the micromachined silicon support structure architecture, which will facilitate integration of the filters for a variety of applications.

  13. Digital IIR Filter Design Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaboga, Nurhan

    2005-12-01

    Any digital signal processing algorithm or processor can be reasonably described as a digital filter. The main advantage of an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter is that it can provide a much better performance than the finite impulse response (FIR) filter having the same number of coefficients. However, they might have a multimodal error surface. Differential evolution (DE) algorithm is a new heuristic approach mainly having three advantages; finding the true global minimum of a multimodal search space regardless of the initial parameter values, fast convergence, and using a few control parameters. In this work, DE algorithm has been applied to the design of digital IIR filters and its performance has been compared to that of a genetic algorithm.

  14. Response of birds to thinning young Douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, John P.; Weikel, Jennifer M.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Erickson, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of recent fire history and decades of even-aged forest management, many coniferous forests in western Oregon are composed of young (20-50 yrs), densely stocked Douglas-fir stands. Often these stands are structurally simple - a single canopy layer with one or two overstory tree species - and have a relatively sparse understory. The lack of structural complexity in these stands may limit the availability of key habitat components for several species of vertebrates, including birds. Thinning may increase structural diversity by reducing competition among overstory trees and increasing the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor, thereby increasing development of understory vegetation. Existing old-growth forests may have developed under lower densities than is typical of contemporary plantations. Thus, thinning also may be a tool for accelerating the development of late-successional forest conditions in some circumstances. In addition to the potential increases in structural and biological diversity, thinning frequently is used to optimize wood fiber production and to generate timber revenue.

  15. Nitrogen leaching from Douglas-fir forests after urea fertilization.

    PubMed

    Flint, Cynthia M; Harrison, Rob B; Strahm, Brian D; Adams, A B

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) after forest fertilization has the potential to pollute ground and surface water. The purpose of this study was to quantify N leaching through the primary rooting zone of N-limited Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forests the year after fertilization (224 kg N ha(-1) as urea) and to calculate changes in the N pools of the overstory trees, understory vegetation, and soil. At six sites on production forests in the Hood Canal watershed, Washington, tension lysimeters and estimates of the soil water flux were used to quantify the mobilization and leaching of NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, and dissolved organic nitrogen below the observed rooting depth. Soil and vegetation samples were collected before fertilization and 1 and 6 mo after fertilization. In the year after fertilization, the total leaching beyond the primary rooting zone in excess of control plots was 4.2 kg N ha(-1) (p = 0.03), which was equal to 2% of the total N applied. The peak NO(3)-N concentration that leached beyond the rooting zone of fertilized plots was 0.2 mg NO(3)-N L(-1). Six months after fertilization, 26% of the applied N was accounted for in the overstory, and 27% was accounted for in the O+A horizon of the soil. The results of this study indicate that forest fertilization can lead to small N leaching fluxes out of the primary rooting zone during the first year after urea application. PMID:18689739

  16. Fresh-stem bending of silver fir and Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Tor; Stoffel, Markus; Stöckli, Veronika

    2008-03-01

    The bending and growth characteristics of large fresh stems from four silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and three Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were studied. Twenty logs taken from different stem heights were subjected to four-point bending tests. From the bending test records, we calculated stress-strain curves, which accounted for detailed log taper, shear deformation and self weight. From these curves we determined, among other parameters, the modulus of elasticity (MOE), the modulus of rupture (MOR) and the work absorbed in bending (W). No significant differences were found between species for the wood properties examined. Values of MOE, MOR and W generally decreased with stem height, with MOR in the range of 43 to 59 MPa and MOE ranging from 10.6 to 15.6 GPa. These MOE values are twice or more those reported for stems of young Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) trees. Based on the radial growth properties measured in discs from the logs, we calculated predicted values of MOE and MOR for the stem cross section. The predictions of MOE were precise, whereas those of MOR were approximate because of a complex combination of different failure mechanisms. Methods to test and calculate MOE, MOR and W for the stems of living trees are discussed with the aim of improving analyses of tree biomechanics and assessments of forest stability protection. PMID:18171659

  17. FIR line profiles as probes of warm gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the shapes, velocities, and intensities of FIR lines all help to probe the dynamics, physical associations, and excitation conditions of warm gas in molecular clouds. With this in mind, we have observed the J=9-8, 12-11,14-13, and 16-15 lines of (12)CO and the 158 micron line of C II in a number of positions in 4 selected clouds. The data were obtained with a laser heterodyne spectrometer aboard NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Line measurements at 0.6 km/s resolution allow us to resolve the profiles completely, and thereby to distinguish between UV-and shock-heating mechanisms for the high-excitation gas. For CO, the high-J linewidths lie in the range of 4-20 km/s (FWHM), similar to those observed for low-J (J less than 4) transitions in these sources. This correspondence suggests that the hotter gas (T = 200-600 K) is dynamically linked to the quiescent gas component, perhaps by association with the UV-heated peripheries of the numerous cloud clumps. Much of the C II emission is thought to emanate from these cloud peripheries, but the line profiles generally do not match those seen in CO. None of the observed sources show any evidence in high-J (12)CO emission for shock-excitation (i.e., linewidths greater than 30 km/s).

  18. A test setup for the characterization of far-infrared filters under cryogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkmann, Stephan M.; Grözinger, Ulrich; Stegmaier, Jutta; Krause, Oliver; Pitz, Eckhard; Lemke, Dietrich

    2006-06-01

    The characterization and calibration of far-infrared (FIR) detectors is a delicate task that requires good knowledge of the incident flux and its spectral composition. In many test setups the FIR flux to the detectors is provided by means of an external or internal black body and a set of cold attenuation, band pass, and blocking filters. For scientific instruments (e.g. PACS aboard ESA's Herschel satellite) band pass and blocking filters are used to achieve the desired spectral throughput either as order sorting filters in spectrometers or for selecting a wavelength range in imaging cameras. In all cases a detailed knowledge of the spectral transmittance of the used filters is mandatory for an accurate calibration of the system. We have build a test platform that allows to measure the transmission of cold (T ~ 4K) filters in the far-infrared. The setup uses a dual grating monochromator with excellent spectral purity and a resolution up to 800, which is operated under a dry nitrogen atmosphere to eliminate water vapor absorption bands. An Si-bolometer is used as detector and is read out by a cryogenic low noise trans-impedance amplifier circuit with common mode rejection and a warm electronics using a lock-in amplifier and a 22 bit analog-to-digital converter. A cryogenic filter slider in the setup allows for differential measurements between filters and the use of cold order sorting filters. We present initial results for FIR cut-on and attenuation filters, demonstrating that our setup is suited to measure transmissions as low as 10 -4 over the covered wavelength range.

  19. Banking on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  20. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  1. Equalization of Loudspeaker and Room Responses Using Kautz Filters: Direct Least Squares Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjalainen, Matti; Paatero, Tuomas

    2006-12-01

    DSP-based correction of loudspeaker and room responses is becoming an important part of improving sound reproduction. Such response equalization (EQ) is based on using a digital filter in cascade with the reproduction channel to counteract the response errors introduced by loudspeakers and room acoustics. Several FIR and IIR filter design techniques have been proposed for equalization purposes. In this paper we investigate Kautz filters, an interesting class of IIR filters, from the point of view of direct least squares EQ design. Kautz filters can be seen as generalizations of FIR filters and their frequency-warped counterparts. They provide a flexible means to obtain desired frequency resolution behavior, which allows low filter orders even for complex corrections. Kautz filters have also the desirable property to avoid inverting dips in transfer function to sharp and long-ringing resonances in the equalizer. Furthermore, the direct least squares design is applicable to nonminimum-phase EQ design and allows using a desired target response. The proposed method is demonstrated by case examples with measured and synthetic loudspeaker and room responses.

  2. Banking on the past: seed banks as a reservoir for rare and native species in restored vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Faist, Akasha M.; Ferrenberg, Scott; Collinge, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    Soil seed banks serve as reservoirs for future plant communities, and when diverse and abundant can buffer vegetation communities against environmental fluctuations. Sparse seed banks, however, may lead to future declines of already rare species. Seed banks in wetland communities are often robust and can persist over long time periods making wetlands model systems for studying the spatial and temporal links between above- and belowground communities. Using collected soils and germination trials, we assessed species diversity and density in the seed banks of restored, ephemeral wetlands (vernal pools) in California's Central Valley, USA. Using long-term vegetation surveys, we compared the community structure of seed banks to that of aboveground vegetation and assessed the temporal links between below- and aboveground communities. We also compared the proportional abundances of different cover classes as well as the abundance of native plants in seed banks to aboveground communities. The proportional abundances of both rare and native species were greater in seed bank samples than in aboveground samples, yet the seed bank had lower species richness than aboveground vegetation. However, the seed bank had greater levels of differentiation among pools (beta diversity; ?) than aboveground samples. Additionally, the seed bank was more similar to the earlier (2003–06) aboveground community than the more recent (2007–10) aboveground community. The correlation of species composition in the current seed bank to an earlier aboveground community suggests that seed banks exhibit storage effects while aboveground species composition in this system is not driven by seed bank composition, but is perhaps due to environmental filtering. We conclude that the seed bank of these pools is neither prone to the same temporal rates of invasion as the aboveground community, nor is seed abundance presently a limiting factor in the aboveground frequency of native species or a promoting factor in plant invasions of these restored habitats.

  3. A SNP resource for Douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauca) are native to North America, the coastal variety is also widely planted for timber production in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Our main goal was to develop a SNP resource large enough to facilitate genomic selection in Douglas-fir breeding programs. To accomplish this, we developed a 454-based reference transcriptome for coastal Douglas-fir, annotated and evaluated the quality of the reference, identified putative SNPs, and then validated a sample of those SNPs using the Illumina Infinium genotyping platform. Results We assembled a reference transcriptome consisting of 25,002 isogroups (unique gene models) and 102,623 singletons from 2.76 million 454 and Sanger cDNA sequences from coastal Douglas-fir. We identified 278,979 unique SNPs by mapping the 454 and Sanger sequences to the reference, and by mapping four datasets of Illumina cDNA sequences from multiple seed sources, genotypes, and tissues. The Illumina datasets represented coastal Douglas-fir (64.00 and 13.41 million reads), interior Douglas-fir (80.45 million reads), and a Yakima population similar to interior Douglas-fir (8.99 million reads). We assayed 8067 SNPs on 260 trees using an Illumina Infinium SNP genotyping array. Of these SNPs, 5847 (72.5%) were called successfully and were polymorphic. Conclusions Based on our validation efficiency, our SNP database may contain as many as ~200,000 true SNPs, and as many as ~69,000 SNPs that could be genotyped at ~20,000 gene loci using an Infinium II array—more SNPs than are needed to use genomic selection in tree breeding programs. Ultimately, these genomic resources will enhance Douglas-fir breeding and allow us to better understand landscape-scale patterns of genetic variation and potential responses to climate change. PMID:23445355

  4. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  5. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruiyang; Wu, Bo; Zheng, Huiquan; Hu, Dehuo; Wang, Xinjie; Duan, Hongjing; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir. PMID:26154763

  6. THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 5 DENSE CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Felipe O.; Girart, Josep M.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Rao, Ramprasad; Zhang, Qizhou E-mail: girart@ice.cat E-mail: rrao@sma.hawaii.edu

    2011-01-10

    We used the Submillimeter Array to observe the thermal polarized dust emission from the protostellar source NGC 2024 FIR 5. The polarized emission outlines a partial hourglass morphology for the plane-of-sky component of the core magnetic field. Our data are consistent with previous BIMA maps, and the overall magnetic field geometries obtained with both instruments are similar. We resolve the main core into two components, FIR 5A and FIR 5B. A possible explanation for the asymmetrical field lies in depolarization effects due to the lack of internal heating from the FIR 5B source, which may be in a prestellar evolutionary state. The field strength was estimated to be 2.2 mG, in agreement with previous BIMA data. We discuss the influence of a nearby H II region over the field lines at scales of {approx}0.01 pc. Although the hot component is probably compressing the molecular gas where the dust core is embedded, it is unlikely that the radiation pressure exceeds the magnetic tension. Finally, a complex outflow morphology is observed in CO (3 {yields} 2) maps. Unlike previous maps, several features associated with dust condensations other than FIR 5 are detected.

  7. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ruiyang; Wu, Bo; Zheng, Huiquan; Hu, Dehuo; Wang, Xinjie; Duan, Hongjing; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, followed by rewatering under controlled environmental conditions. Based on observed morphological changes, plantlets experienced mild, moderate, or severe water stress before rehydration. Transcriptome analysis of plantlets, representing control and mild, moderate, and severe drought-stress treatments, and the rewatered plantlets, identified several thousand genes whose expression was altered in response to drought stress. Many genes whose expression was tightly coupled to the levels of drought stress were identified, suggesting involvement in Chinese fir drought adaptation responses. These genes were associated with transcription factors, signal transport, stress kinases, phytohormone signalling, and defence/stress response. The present study provides the most comprehensive transcriptome resource and the first dynamic transcriptome profiles of Chinese fir under drought stress. The drought-responsive genes identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Chinese fir. PMID:26154763

  8. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  9. Sigma Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balgovind, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The GLA Fourth-Order model is needed to smooth the topography. This is to remove the Gibbs phenomenon. The Gibbs phenomenon occurs whenever we truncate a Fourier Series. The Sigma factors were introduced to reduce the Gibbs phenomenon. It is found that the smooth Fourier series is nothing but the original Fourier series with its coefficients multiplied by corresponding sigma factors. This operator can be applied many times to obtain high order sigma filtered field and is easily applicable using FFT. It is found that this filter is beneficial in deriving the topography.

  10. Phosphorus Filter

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Tom Kehler, fishery biologist at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania, checks the flow rate of water leaving a phosphorus filter column. The USGS has pioneered a new use for acid mine drainage residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, usi...

  11. Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution by Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. Subsp. nordmanniana) leaves.

    PubMed

    Serencam, H; Gundogdu, A; Uygur, Y; Kemer, B; Bulut, V N; Duran, C; Soylak, M; Tufekci, M

    2008-04-01

    The utility of Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. Subsp. nordmanniana) leaves from Eastern Black Sea region for the removal (sorption) of metal ions from aqueous solutions was investigated. For this, the optimum values of pH, time, metal concentration, leaf concentration, leaf particle size and adsorption capacity were determined. Also the recovery conditions of the metals from leaves were studied. Cd metal was selected because of its toxic properties. Freundlich isotherm model was used to describe the adsorption behaviour and the experimental results obtained for Cd(2+) adsorption, followed this model well. The utility of Nordmann fir leaves to remove toxic metals from aqueous solutions was proved. Hence, this study showed that the leaves of Nordmann fir can provide cheap source as biosorbents for toxic metal removal from natural or wastewaters. PMID:17475482

  12. Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Ichikawa, San’ei; Kubota, Masahide; Hoshino, Junko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Yoschenko, Vasyl I.; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) in March 2011, much attention has been paid to the biological consequences of the released radionuclides into the surrounding area. We investigated the morphological changes in Japanese fir, a Japanese endemic native conifer, at locations near the F1NPP. Japanese fir populations near the F1NPP showed a significantly increased number of morphological defects, involving deletions of leader shoots of the main axis, compared to a control population far from the F1NPP. The frequency of the defects corresponded to the radioactive contamination levels of the observation sites. A significant increase in deletions of the leader shoots became apparent in those that elongated after the spring of 2012, a year after the accident. These results suggest possibility that the contamination by radionuclides contributed to the morphological defects in Japanese fir trees in the area near the F1NPP. PMID:26314382

  13. Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Hoshino, Junko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) in March 2011, much attention has been paid to the biological consequences of the released radionuclides into the surrounding area. We investigated the morphological changes in Japanese fir, a Japanese endemic native conifer, at locations near the F1NPP. Japanese fir populations near the F1NPP showed a significantly increased number of morphological defects, involving deletions of leader shoots of the main axis, compared to a control population far from the F1NPP. The frequency of the defects corresponded to the radioactive contamination levels of the observation sites. A significant increase in deletions of the leader shoots became apparent in those that elongated after the spring of 2012, a year after the accident. These results suggest possibility that the contamination by radionuclides contributed to the morphological defects in Japanese fir trees in the area near the F1NPP. PMID:26314382

  14. Sun angle, view angle, and background effects on spectral response of simulated balsam fir canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment is described that examines the effects of solar zenith angle and background reflectance on the composite scene reflectance of small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) arranged in different densities. In this study, the shape, density, and, consequently, the needle area index and phytomass of the canopies, as well as the background reflectance, were controlled. The effects of sun angle, view angle, and background reflectance on the multispectral response of small balsam fir trees were significant. Regression models relating spectral vegetation indices (i.e., normalized difference (ND) and greenness (GR) to phytomass) showed very poor relationships for balsam fir canopies with a grass background. However, strong linear relationships were found for ND and GR with phytomass for a background that simulated the reflectance of snow. Changing solar zenith angle significantly affected the models relating ND to phytomass for the snow background, but was not significant in the model relating GR to phytomass for the snow background

  15. Alignment and Polarization Sensitivity Study on the Cassini: CIRS FIR Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooke, Julie; Hagopian, John

    1998-01-01

    The Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument flying on the Cassini spacecraft to Saturn is a cryogenic spectrometer with far-infrared (FIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) channels. The CIRS FIR channel is a polarizing interferometer that contains three polarizing grid components. These components are an input polarizer, a polarizing beamsplitter, and an output polarizer/analyzer. They consist of a 1.5 micron thick mylar substrate with 2 microns wide copper wires, with 2 microns spacing (4 microns pitch) photolithographically deposited on the substrate. This paper details the alignment sensitivity studies performed on the polarizing beamsplitter, and the polarization sensitivity studies performed on all three polarizing components in the FIR interferometer.

  16. Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, R. E.; Spence, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passage through the insects, with two new terpenes being detected in the feces. One of these was identified as isoborneol. The relative significance of the insect and gut microflora with respect to terpene modification is unresolved. The well-established toxicity of terpenes may account for the near absence of common gut microflora in the insects. Images PMID:16345660

  17. Leaching of cell wall components caused by acid deposition on fir needles and trees.

    PubMed

    Shigihara, Ado; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Sakurai, Naoki; Igawa, Manabu

    2008-07-15

    Virgin fir forests have been declining since the 1960s at Mt. Oyama, which is located at the eastern edge of the Tanzawa Mountains and adjacent to the Kanto plain in Japan. An acid fog frequently occurs in the mountains. We collected throughfall and stemflow under fir trees and rainfall every week during January-December 2004 at Mt. Oyama to clarify the influence of acid fog on the decline of fir (Abies firma) needles. In relation to throughfall and stemflow, D-mannose, D-galactose, and D-glucose are the major neutral sugar components; only D-glucose is a major component of rainfall. The correlation coefficient between the total neutral sugars and uronic acid (as D-galacturonic acid), which is a key component of the cross-linking between pectic polysaccharides, was high except for rainfall. The leached amount of calcium ion, neutral sugars, uronic acid, and boron is related to the nitrate ion concentration in throughfall. Results of a laboratory exposure experiment using artificial fog water simulating the average composition of fog water observed at Mt. Oyama (simulated acid fog: SAF) on the fir seedling needles also shows a large leaching of these components from the cell walls of fir needles. The leaching amount increased concomitantly with decreasing pH of the SAF solution. We also observed that a dimeric rhamnogalacturonan II-borate complex (dRG-II-B) that exists in the cell wall as pectic polysaccharide was converted to monomeric RG-II (mRG-II) by the leaching of calcium ion and boron. Results not only of field observations but also those of laboratory experiments indicate a large effect of acid depositions on fir needles. PMID:18452971

  18. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to temperature, water, and Swiss needle cast in western Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC ...

  19. Survival, frost susceptibility, growth, and disease resistance of corkbark and subalpine fir grown for landscape and Christmas trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho Sandpoint Research and Extension Center (SREC) and two commercial nurseries in Idaho and Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest...

  20. Efficient realization of adaptive digital filters in the time and frequency domains

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Parker, S.R.; Mitra, S.K.

    1982-01-22

    A unified approach to the efficient realization of FIR adaptive digital filters in both the time and frequency domains is presented. It is shown that previously published frequency domain implementations are contained within this unified approach. It is further shown tht various combinations of implementations are possible, and that in working with data streams, care must be taken in using overlap-save and overlap-add sectioning procedures for proper frequency domain implementations.

  1. Bank Record Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  2. Banking: shop and compare.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors. PMID:25108982

  3. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  4. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  5. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  6. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  7. 12 CFR 917.10 - Bank bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...

  8. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, D A; Boguski, M; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J

    1996-01-01

    The GenBank sequence database continues to expand its data coverage, quality control, annotation content and retrieval services. GenBank is comprised of DNA sequences submitted directly by authors as well as sequences from the other major public databases. An integrated retrieval system, known as Entrez, contains data from GenBank and from the major protein sequence and structural databases, as well as related MEDLINE abstracts. Users may access GenBank over the Internet through the World Wide Web and through special client-server programs for text and sequence similarity searching. FTP, CD-ROM and e-mail servers are alternate means of access. PMID:8594554

  9. Plasmonic filters.

    SciTech Connect

    Passmore, Brandon Scott; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

    2009-09-01

    Metal films perforated with subwavelength hole arrays have been show to demonstrate an effect known as Extraordinary Transmission (EOT). In EOT devices, optical transmission passbands arise that can have up to 90% transmission and a bandwidth that is only a few percent of the designed center wavelength. By placing a tunable dielectric in proximity to the EOT mesh, one can tune the center frequency of the passband. We have demonstrated over 1 micron of passive tuning in structures designed for an 11 micron center wavelength. If a suitable midwave (3-5 micron) tunable dielectric (perhaps BaTiO{sub 3}) were integrated with an EOT mesh designed for midwave operation, it is possible that a fast, voltage tunable, low temperature filter solution could be demonstrated with a several hundred nanometer passband. Such an element could, for example, replace certain components in a filter wheel solution.

  10. Water Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  11. Eyeglass Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

  12. Low-complexity digital filter geometry for spherical coded imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guotong; Shoaib, Mohammed; Robinson, M. D.

    2009-08-01

    Recent research in the area of electro-optical system design identified the benefits of spherical aberration for extending the depth-of-field of electro-optical imaging systems. In such imaging systems, spherical aberration is deliberately introduced by the optical system lowering system modulation transfer function (MTF) and then subsequently corrected using digital processing. Previous research, however, requires complex digital postprocessing algorithms severely limiting its applicability to only expensive systems. In this paper, we examine the ability of low-cost spatially invariant finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters to restore system MTF degraded by spherical aberration. We introduce an analytical model for choosing the minimum, and hence cheapest, FIR filter size capable of providing the critical level sharpening to render artifact-free images. We identify a robust quality criterion based on the post-processed MTF for developing this model. We demonstrate the reliability of the estimated model by showing simulated spherical coded imaging results. We also evaluate the hardware complexity of the FIR filters implemented for various spherical aberrations on a low-end Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform.

  13. 17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR FILTERS ARE VISIBLE TO THE SIDES OF THE DOORS. THE BUILDING WAS DIVIDED INTO ZONES BY AIRLOCK DOORS AND AIR FILTERS. AIR PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS WERE MAINTAINED IN THE ZONES, SUCH THAT AIRFLOW WAS PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION. (9/24/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Modeling acoustic attenuation of soft tissue with a minimum-phase filter.

    PubMed

    Kuc, R

    1984-01-01

    Soft biological tissue has been observed to exhibit an acoustic attenuation log-magnitude characteristic which increases as an approximately linear function of frequency. This paper describes the implementation of a finite-impulse-response (FIR) digital filter model for simulating this behavior on a digital computer. To insure that the filter is causal, the minimum-phase constraint is imposed. For minimum-phase filters, the log-magnitude and phase characteristics form a Hilbert Transform pair. The discrete-time Hilbert Transform of the linear log-magnitude characteristic was evaluated to determine the phase of the filter. The inverse Fourier Transform of the resulting real and imaginary components of the frequency transform produces the finite-duration unit-sample response of the digital filter model. Experimental results using plexiglas material, which has a linear-with-frequency loss characteristic, indicate that the minimum-phase model is more accurate than the linear-phase model, resulting in a rms error between predicted and observed time waveforms that is 3 times smaller. The effects of varying the sampling period and the size of the FIR filter are discussed. A FORTRAN program to calculate the minimum-phase unit-sample response from the slope of the log-magnitude characteristic is included in the Appendix. PMID:6548058

  15. A novel approach to speckle noise filtering based on Artificial Bee Colony algorithm: an ultrasound image application.

    PubMed

    Latifo?lu, Fatma

    2013-09-01

    In this study a novel approach based on 2D FIR filters is presented for denoising digital images. In this approach the filter coefficients of 2D FIR filters were optimized using the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. To obtain the best filter design, the filter coefficients were tested with different numbers (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, 11×11) and connection types (cascade and parallel) during optimization. First, the speckle noise with variances of 1, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.2 respectively was added to the synthetic test image. Later, these noisy images were denoised with both the proposed approach and other well-known filter types such as Gaussian, mean and average filters. For image quality determination metrics such as mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were used. Even in the case of noise having maximum variance (the most noisy), the proposed approach performed better than other filtering methods did on the noisy test images. In addition to test images, speckle noise with a variance of 1 was added to a fetal ultrasound image, and this noisy image was denoised with very high PSNR and SNR values. The performance of the proposed approach was also tested on several clinical ultrasound images such as those obtained from ovarian, abdomen and liver tissues. The results of this study showed that the 2D FIR filters designed based on ABC optimization can eliminate speckle noise quite well on noise added test images and intrinsically noisy ultrasound images. PMID:23806680

  16. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2016-01-01

    GenBank(®) (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 340 000 formally described species. Recent developments include a new starting page for submitters, a shift toward using accession.version identifiers rather than GI numbers, a wizard for submitting 16S rRNA sequences, and an Identical Protein Report to address growing issues of data redundancy. GenBank organizes the sequence data received from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects into 18 divisions, and GenBank staff assign unique accession.version identifiers upon data receipt. Most submitters use the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the nuccore, nucest, and nucgss databases of the Entrez retrieval system, which integrates these records with a variety of other data including taxonomy nodes, genomes, protein structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:26590407

  17. Bank Community Development Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Commerce and Community Affairs, Springfield.

    This handbook provides a brief overview of bank and bank holding company community development corporations (CDCs), the types of activities for which they can be used, the legal requirements in establishing such an entity, and how they are organized and operated. Case studies, including studies of the Shorebank Corporation of Chicago, the First…

  18. Educational Opportunity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Science Advisory Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report presents a proposal for the establishment of the Educational Opportunity Bank as an agency of the Federal Government, authorized to borrow money at going government rates, and to lend money to postsecondary students regardless of the student's resources. The Bank is to recoup the loans through annual payments collected in conjunction…

  19. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  20. iBank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

    2012-01-01

    iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

  1. Banking on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  2. GenBank: update

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

    2004-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 140 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin program and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in the UK and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI’s retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI home page at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:14681350

  3. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

    2003-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive sequence database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 119 000 different organisms, obtained primarily through the submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in the UK and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI home page at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:12519940

  4. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 340 000 formally described species. Recent developments include a new starting page for submitters, a shift toward using accession.version identifiers rather than GI numbers, a wizard for submitting 16S rRNA sequences, and an Identical Protein Report to address growing issues of data redundancy. GenBank organizes the sequence data received from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects into 18 divisions, and GenBank staff assign unique accession.version identifiers upon data receipt. Most submitters use the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the nuccore, nucest, and nucgss databases of the Entrez retrieval system, which integrates these records with a variety of other data including taxonomy nodes, genomes, protein structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:26590407

  5. Components and controls of water flux in an old growth Douglas Fir/western Hemlock ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report measurements of rates of sap flow in dominant trees, changes in soil moisture, and evaporation from coarse woody debris in an old-growth Douglas-fir / western hemlock ecosystem at Wind River, Washington during dry periods in summer. The measurements are compared with eddy covariance measu...

  6. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  7. SAPWOOD MOISTURE IN DOUGLAS-FIR BOLES AND SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large conifers, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. Menziesii), purportedly draw on water stored in their boles during periods of summer drought. The relation of seasonal changes in soil moisture to sapwood water content was evaluated in four forest st...

  8. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  9. EFFECTS OF CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND MORTALITY IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the effects of global climate change on the production and mortality of fine roots. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir fine ( 2 mm in diameter) roots. The study was conducted in sun-lit cont...

  10. Douglas-Fir Seedlings Exhibit Metabolic Responses to Increased Temperature and Atmospheric Drought

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Kirstin; Du, Baoguo; Kayler, Zachary; Siegwolf, Rolf; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kammerer, Bernd; Jaeger, Carsten; Schaub, Marcus; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves) will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i) plant biomass, (ii) carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii) apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv) the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought). Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions. PMID:25436455

  11. Substrate pH Affects Nutrient Availability in Fertilized Douglas Fir Bark Substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine how pH and nutrient availability in Douglas fir bark substrates respond to lime and sulfur (S) rates. The treatment design was a two by nine factorial arrangement with two substrate types and nine pH-altering amendments. The two substrates were 100% DFB or ...

  12. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  13. SPATIAL EFFECTS OF RETENTION TREES ON MYCORRHIZAS OF DOUGLAS-FIR SEEDLINGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention forestry places seedlings in proximity to residual trees, exposing seedlings to additional sources of ectomycorrhizal fungus (EMF) inoculum. To investigate this, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were planted near (2-6 m) and far (16-30 m) from 44- to 72-year-ol...

  14. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

  15. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT IN FRASER FIR PLANTATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1999, 19 plots of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) with a disease focus were established in commercial plantings grown for Christmas tree production in the mountains of five western North Carolina counties. Progress of Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi as estimated by mortality wa...

  16. Formation of Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizae on California white fir in an eastern Sierra Nevada minesoil

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F. )

    1990-03-01

    A recent report disclosed P. tinctorius occurring in ectomycorrhizal association with Jeffrey pine and Sierra lodgepole pine on spoils of the Leviathan Mine in Alpine County, California. Located on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada at an elevation of 2,200 m and consisting of approximately 100 ha, this open-pit sulfur mine has been inactive since 1962. The average annual precipitation of approximately 50 cm is primarily snowfall, and the minesoil has a pH of 4.0 to 4.5, a deficiency of plant-available N, and a potentially phytotoxic concentration of Al. Walker's report concerning examinations made in September 1988 of the probable hosts of P. tinctorius in Leviathan Mine noted that basidiocarps of this symbiont were absent in the immediate vicinity of the latter four tree species. Reexamination of Leviathan Mine spoils in August and September 1989, however, revealed numerous P. tinctorius basidiocarps near seedlings and saplings of California white fir. Typically, one or two dark yellow to brown basidiocarps, matching the description of Coker and Couch (1928), were observed around solitary white fir seedlings, while as many as five encircled individual white fir saplings. Stipitate, substipitate, and sessile forms were observed, varying in size from 9 to 17 cm in length and from 3 to 7 cm in diameter. Approximately 100 basidiocarps were found associated with white fir, and these were rarely more than 2 m from the host.

  17. Explicit formulas for weighting coefficients of maximally flat tunable FIR delayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanowicz, E.

    1992-09-01

    The paper derives explicit formulas for the weighting coefficients of maximally flat tunable FIR delayers based on the design of Ko and Lim (1988), and demonstrates a link with another existing method for this purpose. A scheme is also presented for evaluating these coefficients with the minimum possible computation.

  18. BOLE WATER CONTENT SHOWS LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATION IN CENTURY-OLD DOUGLAS-FIR TREES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purportedly, large Douglas-fir trees in the American Pacific Northwest use water stored in bole tissues to ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought, the water content of bole tissues being drawn down over the summer months and replenished during the winter. Continuous mo...

  19. Stratospheric spectroscopy with the far-infrared spectrometer (FIRS-2) - Overview and recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Chance, Kelly V.; Johnson, David G.; Jucks, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's program of balloon-borne stratospheric spectroscopic measurements is described, including instrumentation, recent scientific results, and future plans. The design and operation of the FIRS-2 far-infrared spectrometer is discussed. The current status of our efforts to recover mixing-ratio profiles with about 1 percent precision is presented. Representative recent results are shown giving mixing-ratio profiles from 20 to 50 km, selected from the suite HOCl, HCl, HF, NO2, N2O, HNO3, OH, HO2, H2O2, H2O (and isotopes), O2 (and isotopes), O3 (and isotopes), and CO2 (and isotopes). The utility of O2 and CO2 spectral lines for information on view angle or temperature and pressure is discussed. Future plans are mentioned, including the use of FIRS-2 on a balloon platform for UARS correlative measurements, the use of FIRS-2 on the NASA DC-8 platform for polar measurements, and the potential benefits of a FIRS instrument on a Shuttle platform.

  20. Efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings. This effort was conducted as part of the IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture program to evaluate fungicides and biopesticides for management of root, crown and stem rot of ornamental plants ca...

  1. Velocity-resolved [CII] Emission and [CII]/FIR Mapping along Orion with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Teyssier, D.; Etxaluze, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Black, J. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Cuadrado, S.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Hacar, A.; Lis, D. C.; Marcelino, N.; Melnick, G. J.; Müller, H. S. P.; Persson, C.; Pety, J.; Röllig, M.; Schilke, P.; Simon, R.; Snell, R. L.; Stutzki, J.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first ˜7.?5 × 11.?5 velocity-resolved (˜0.2 km s-1) map of the [C ii] 158 ?m line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel/HIFI instrument. In combination with far-IR (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41? hydrogen recombination and CO J = 2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/photodissociation region (PDR)/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (˜85%) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud (G0 > 500, {n}{{H}} \\gt 5 × 103 cm-3) and from dense PDRs ({G}0 ? 104, {n}{{H}} ? 105 cm-3) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ˜15% of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without a CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [13C ii]), and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L[C ii]/{L}{FIR} and {L}{FIR}/{M}{Gas} ratios and show that L[C ii]/{L}{FIR} decreases from the extended cloud component (˜10-2-10-3) to the more opaque star-forming cores (˜10{}-3-10-4). The lowest values are reminiscent of the “[C ii] deficit” seen in local ultraluminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L[C ii]/{L}{FIR} ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with {L}{FIR}/{M}{Gas}. We conclude that the [C ii]-emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L[C ii]/{L}{FIR} variations through the cloud. Uses observations obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  2. Effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in Chinese fir forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A; Jiang, Hong; Kimmins, J P Hamish

    2012-02-01

    Nitrogen deposition and its ecological effects on forest ecosystems have received global attention. We used the ecosystem model FORECAST to assess the effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in Chinese fir planted forests in SE China. This topic is important as China is intensifying its reforestation efforts to increase forest carbon sequestration for combating climate change impacts, using Chinese fir as the most important plantation species. A series of scenarios including seven N deposition levels (1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50kg ha(-1)y(-1)), three management regime (rotation lengths of 15, 30 and 50 years) and two site qualities (nutrient poor and fertile sites) were defined for the simulations. Our results showed that N deposition increased carbon sequestration in Chinese fir forests, but the efficiency of the increasing effect is reduced as N deposition levels increase. When N deposition levels exceeded 20-30kg ha(-1)y(-1), the incremental effects of N deposition on forest C pools were marginal. This suggests that N deposition levels above 20-30kg ha(-1)y(-1) could lead to N saturation in Chinese fir forest soils. Any additional amounts of N input from deposition would likely be leached out. Total above-ground C was more sensitive to N deposition than to rotation length and site quality. It was also estimated that the contributions of N deposition to C sequestration in all Chinese fir forests in South-East China are 7.4×10(6)MgCy(-1) under the current N deposition levels (5 to 10kg ha(-1)y(-1)) and could reach up to 16×10(6)MgCy(-1) if N deposition continues increasing and reaches levels of 7.5 to 15kg N ha(-1)y(-1). PMID:22225819

  3. Possible breaking of the FIR-radio correlation in tidally interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donevski, D.; Prodanovi?, T.

    2015-10-01

    Far-infrared (FIR)-radio correlation is a well-established empirical connection between continuum radio and dust emission of star-forming galaxies, often used as a tool in determining star formation rates. Here we expand the point made by Murphy that in the case of some interacting star-forming galaxies there is a non-thermal emission from the gas bridge in between them, which might cause a dispersion in this correlation. Galactic interactions and mergers have been known to give rise to tidal shocks and disrupt morphologies especially in the smaller of the interacting components. Here we point out that these shocks can also heat the gas and dust and will inevitably accelerate particles and result in a tidal cosmic ray population in addition to standard galactic cosmic rays in the galaxy itself. This would result in a non-thermal emission not only from the gas bridges of interacting systems, but from interacting galaxies as a whole in general. Thus both tidal heating and additional non-thermal radiation will obviously affect the FIR-radio correlation of these systems, the only question is how much. In this scenario the FIR-radio correlation is not stable in interacting galaxies, but rather evolves as the interaction/merger progresses. To test this hypothesis and probe the possible impact of tidal cosmic ray population, we have analysed a sample of 43 infrared-bright star-forming interacting galaxies at different merger stages. We have found that their FIR-radio correlation parameter and radio emission spectral index vary noticeably over different merger stages and behave as it would be expected from our tidal-shock scenario. Important implications of departure of interacting galaxies from the FIR-radio correlation are discussed.

  4. Fiber Bragg grating interrogation using a micro-ring resonator tunable filter with peak wavelength detection enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, German

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a demodulation technique using a silicon micro-ring resonator that extracts wavelength information from a FBG sensor. The device implements an interrogation system employing a signal processing technique that translates the peak wavelength position of a FBG spectral line into a time interval measurement. To determine the peaks, three techniques were applied. One was based on a simple maximum detection algorithm, the other two, enhanced the detected signal by applying a finite impulse filter (FIR) and a smoothing filter. Results show an improvement of the wavelength measurement using the filtering technique compared to the maximum peak detection.

  5. Rocket noise filtering system using digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauritzen, David

    1990-01-01

    A set of digital filters is designed to filter rocket noise to various bandwidths. The filters are designed to have constant group delay and are implemented in software on a general purpose computer. The Parks-McClellan algorithm is used. Preliminary tests are performed to verify the design and implementation. An analog filter which was previously employed is also simulated.

  6. RADIO IMAGING OF THE NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 REGION: A HYPERCOMPACT H II REGION CANDIDATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2012-03-10

    The NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 region was observed in the 6.9 mm continuum with an angular resolution of about 1.5 arcsec. The 6.9 mm continuum map shows four compact sources, FIR 5w, 5e, 6c, and 6n, as well as an extended structure of the ionization front associated with the optical nebulosity. FIR 6c has a source size of about 0.4 arcsec or 150 AU. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of FIR 6c is peculiar: rising steeply around 6.9 mm and flat around 1 mm. The possibility of a hypercompact H II region is explored. If the millimeter flux of FIR 6c comes from hot ionized gas heated by a single object at the center, the central object may be a B1 star of about 5800 solar luminosities and about 13 solar masses. The 6.9 mm continuum of FIR 6n may be a mixture of free-free emission and dust continuum emission. Archival data show that both FIR 6n and 6c exhibit water maser activity, suggesting the existence of shocked gas around them. The 6.9 mm continuum emission from FIR 5w has a size of about 1.8 arcsec or 760 AU. The SEDs suggest that the 6.9 mm emission of FIR 5w and 5e comes from dust, and the masses of the dense molecular gas are about 0.6 and 0.5 solar masses, respectively.

  7. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    GenBank® (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 300 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:25414350

  8. Using GenBank.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Eric W; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene

    2016-01-01

    GenBank(®) is a comprehensive database of publicly available DNA sequences for 300,000 named organisms, more than 110,000 within the embryophyta, obtained through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, as well as the biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. GenBank usage scenarios ranging from local analyses of the data available via FTP to online analyses supported by the NCBI web-based tools are discussed. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov . PMID:26519398

  9. 12 CFR 7.2024 - Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board. 7.2024 Section 7.2024 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2024 Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board....

  10. 12 CFR 7.2024 - Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board. 7.2024 Section 7.2024 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2024 Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board....

  11. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lists both public and private blood banks by geographic location The National Marrow Donor Program ( www.bethematch.org ), with information on registered cord-blood facilities that accept donations ...

  12. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  13. Banking on technology.

    PubMed

    Bolster, Carole J

    2007-04-01

    New technology is being used by banks to help providers improve their revenue cycle through: Digital lockbox service. Remote deposit. Web-based payment. Automated payment processing at the point of service. PMID:17427461

  14. A spatial filtering approach to electronic wideband beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Morgan, Dennis R.

    2011-06-01

    In wideband beam steering, when we need to change the beam direction frequently, the most convenient and flexible way is through digital circuits via FIR/IIR filtering. However this becomes infeasible when the signal frequency and bandwidth are extremely high. To solve this problem, instead of sampling the signals in the temporal domain for digital processing, we sample the signals spatially with more sensors positioned behind the original array of sensors. The spatially sampled signals are then processed using simple analogue circuits (variable gain amplifiers) to form the required steering delays. The delay between the spatially sampled signals is dependent on the sensor spacing and the directions of the designed beams, and is not limited by signal frequency. Design examples are provided to show that different delays can be effectively realised by a spatial filtering system to steer a nominal beam to required directions.

  15. Digital filtering implementations for the detection of broad spectral features by direct analysis of passive Fourier transform infrared interferograms.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Toshiyasu; Small, Gary W; Combs, Roger J; Kroutil, Robert T

    2004-04-01

    Finite impulse response (FIR) filters and finite impulse response matrix (FIRM) filters are evaluated for use in the detection of volatile organic compounds with wide spectral bands by direct analysis of interferogram data obtained from passive Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements. Short segments of filtered interferogram points are classified by support vector machines (SVMs) to implement the automated detection of heated plumes of the target analyte, ethanol. The interferograms employed in this study were acquired with a downward-looking passive FT-IR spectrometer mounted on a fixed-wing aircraft. Classifiers are trained with data collected on the ground and subsequently used for the airborne detection. The success of the automated detection depends on the effective removal of background contributions from the interferogram segments. Removing the background signature is complicated when the analyte spectral bands are broad because there is significant overlap between the interferogram representations of the analyte and background. Methods to implement the FIR and FIRM filters while excluding background contributions are explored in this work. When properly optimized, both filtering procedures provide satisfactory classification results for the airborne data. Missed detection rates of 8% or smaller for ethanol and false positive rates of at most 0.8% are realized. The optimization of filter design parameters, the starting interferogram point for filtering, and the length of the interferogram segments used in the pattern recognition is discussed. PMID:17140493

  16. Lead in vegetation, forest floor material, and soils of the spruce-fir zone, Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.; Turner, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a survey during 1982, lead concentrations in vegetation, litter and soils of the spruce-fir zone of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park are generally less than values reported for similar sites in the northeastern United States and western Europe. As expected, lead concentrations increased with increasing age of spruce and fir foliage, and with increasing degree of decomposition of litter. Fir bole wood was higher in lead than spruce bole wood, but both species were far below acutely phytotoxic levels. Although the results of this study indicated no immediate cause for concern, periodic monitoring of lead and other metals in the spruce-fir zone should be continued to provide early detection of significant changes. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  17. Synchrotron FT-FIR spectroscopy of nitro-derivatives vapors: new spectroscopic signatures of explosive taggants and degradation products.

    PubMed

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Gruet, Sébastien; Pirali, Olivier; Chamaillé, Thierry; Mouret, Gaël

    2014-11-11

    We report on the first successful rovibrational study of gas phase mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene in the TeraHertz/Far-Infrared (THz/FIR) spectral domain. Using the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier Transform spectrometer connected to multipass cells, the low-energy vibrational cross-sections of the different isomers of mononitrotoluene have been measured and compared to calculated spectra with the density functional theory including the anharmonic contribution. The active FIR modes of 2,4 and 2,6 dinitrotoluene have been assigned to the vibrational bands measured by Fourier Transform FIR spectroscopy of the gas-phase molecular cloud produced in an evaporating/recondensating system. This study highlights the selectivity of gas phase THz/FIR spectroscopy allowing an unambiguous recognition and discrimination of nitro-aromatic compounds used as explosive taggants. PMID:24975521

  18. A Landsat Thematic Mapper investigation of the geobotanical relationships in the northern spruce-fir forest, Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torcoletti, Paul J.; Birnie, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    This investigation, in the northern spruce-fir forest at Mt. Moosilauke, NH, indicates that Landsat TM data can be used to distinguish between and map major vegetation zones. Principal components analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the TM data; and in this simpler spectral space, it is easier to visualize the discrimination between major vegetation zones: the northern hardwoods zone, spruce-fir zone, fir zone, and alpine tundra zone. The moisture stress index highlights areas of heavy forest damage (fir waves), but does not correlate with low levels of damage in the mixed, background forest at Mt. Moosilauke. Care must be taken to avoid confusion between high-elevation climatically-stressed vegetation (normal krummholz forest) and damaged lower elevation forests, both of which have similar TM5/TM4 ratio values.

  19. 13C AND 15N IN MICROARTHROPODS REVEAL LITTLE RESPONSE OF DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under global change requires experiments maintaining natural interactions among soil structure, soil communities, nutrient availability, and plant growth. In model Douglas-fir ecosystems maintained for five growing seaso...

  20. Novel configuration of finite-impulse-response filters tolerant to carrier-phase fluctuations in digital coherent optical receivers for higher-order quadrature amplitude modulation signals.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yojiro; Zhang, Chao; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2012-11-19

    We propose a novel configuration of the finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter adapted by the phase-dependent decision-directed least-mean-square (DD-LMS) algorithm in digital coherent optical receivers. Since fast carrier-phase fluctuations are removed from the error signal which updates tap coefficients of the FIR filter, we can achieve stable adaptation of filter-tap coefficients for higher-order quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signals. Computer simulations show that our proposed scheme is much more tolerant to the phase noise and the frequency offset than the conventional DD-LMS scheme. Such theoretical predictions are also validated experimentally by using a 10-Gsymbol/s dual-polarization 16-QAM signal. PMID:23187478

  1. 77 FR 1490 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... shares of Biscayne Bancshares, Inc. and its subsidiary bank, Biscayne Bank, both of Coconut...

  2. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations, Federal land credit associations, production credit associations, and agricultural credit associations. 614.4070 Section 614.4070 Banks and Banking FARM...

  3. Filter apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Zahedi, K.; Alexander, J. C.; Zieve, P. B.

    1985-03-19

    Electrified filter bed apparatus includes inner and outer cylindrical bed-retaining structures for confining a granular bed therebetween. The inner cylindrical structure may comprise a cage of superposed frusto-conical louvers and the outer structure may comprise a similar cage or a perforated cylindrical, liquid-drainage sheet. A cylindrical bed electrode for electrically charging the bed granules is suspended between the retaining structures. The tubular bed surrounds an internal gas passage from which polluted gas flows through the bed from the inside out. Gas enters the internal passage from above through an ionizer section of the apparatus. The ionizer section may include a disc-type ionizer assembly in an ionizer tube. The tube may form an extension of the inner louver cage. A corona discharge may be formed between the disc and the ionizer tube by providing electric current to the discs, whereby the corona discharge electrically charges particulate material within the gas stream. The discs may carry radially protruding needles defining circumferential corona discharge points. A blowdown system may be provided for cleaning the ionizer discs and the tube wall in the region of the discs. The apparatus may include means for avoiding blowout of bed granules from between the outer louvers, and a system for washing pollutant-coated bed granules.

  4. Soil-mediated effects of atmospheric deposition on eastern US spruce-fir forests. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Fernandez, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    The coincident observation of Waldsterben in Germany and red spruce decline in the northeastern U.S. has naturally led to some speculation that similar mechanisms may be involved. In the German situation, soil-mediated hypotheses played (and still play) a major role; namely, soil acidification and aluminum toxicity and base cation deficiencies. In the red spruce case, there has been much concern that cation deficiencies and/or aluminum toxicity may also play a major role. The purpose of this chapter is to: (1) review some of the basic properties of soils, nutrition, and nutrient cycling in spruce-fir and fir ecosystems, both in the polluted and in the relatively unpolluted regions of the U.S. and Canada, and (2) to evaluate several soil acidity-related hypotheses for red spruce decline.

  5. Double-layered nitrocellulose membrane sample holding technique for THz and FIR spectroscopic measurements.

    PubMed

    Png, Gretel M; Fischer, Bernd M; Appadoo, Dominique; Plathe, Ruth; Abbott, Derek

    2015-02-23

    In terahertz (THz) and far-infrared (FIR) spectroscopic measurements, weak absorption spectral features due to small quantities of test sample can be masked by undesirable etalon fringe artifacts caused by multiple reflections within a pellet or a rigid sample holder. A double-layered nitrocellulose (NC) membrane structure is proposed in this paper as an alternative holder for small quantities of either dry or wet pure (no added polyethylene powder) samples with significantly reduced etalon artifacts. Utilizing a THz time-domain spectroscopy system and a synchrotron source, we demonstrate the performance of the NC structure across the THz/FIR spectrum, benchmarking against pellets holding similarly small quantities of ?-lactose powder either with or without different grades of polyethylene powder. With only pure samples to consider, scattering can be mitigated effectively in NC-derived spectra to reduce their baselines. PMID:25836535

  6. History of the spruce-fir forest in the Catskill Mountains of New York.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) were present by 13,700 years B.C.E. in the Catskills Mountains of southeastern New York State. These conifers were, and still are, largely confined to the eastern and far western portions of the region. A gap in the distribution exists between these populations. Both species are absent from the intervening East Branch Delaware River watershed. No red spruce macrofossils were found in this watershed, suggesting that this conifer never colonized the gap postglacially. Rare macrofossils of balsam fir were found in only three of the 24 peatlands in this watershed, the conifer having disappeared between 11,300 and 8,200 years B.C.E. PMID:25098490

  7. Pioneer exotic tree search for the douglas-fir region. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Silen, R.R.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-03-01

    After three-quarters of a century of introduction of 152 conifer and broadleaf species, no promising candidate exotic was found for the Douglas-fir region. Growth curves spanning 50 years or longer are figured for many species. Firs, pines, larches, spruces, hemlocks, and cedars orginating in northwestern North America had superior growth rates to those from other forest regions. The probable basis for these differences is discussed. The record highlights a general failure of introduced hardwoods, the slow decline of most introduced conifers, the long time needed to express failures, dramatic effects of climatic extremes or introduced pests, failure of native species of continental origin at Wind River, striking similarities of growth rate for the species originating in each country, and many important contrasts between results from early reports and long-term conclusions.

  8. ALMA WILL DETERMINE THE SPECTROSCOPIC REDSHIFT z > 8 WITH FIR [O III] EMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, A. K.; Shimizu, I.; Tamura, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Okamoto, T.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the potential use of nebular emission lines in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) for determining spectroscopic redshift of z > 8 galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). After making a line emissivity model as a function of metallicity, especially for the [O III] 88 ?m line which is likely to be the strongest FIR line from H II regions, we predict the line fluxes from high-z galaxies based on a cosmological hydrodynamics simulation of galaxy formation. Since the metallicity of galaxies reaches at ?0.2 Z {sub ?} even at z > 8 in our simulation, we expect the [O III] 88 ?m line as strong as 1.3 mJy for 27 AB objects, which is detectable at a high significance by <1 hr integration with ALMA. Therefore, the [O III] 88 ?m line would be the best tool to confirm the spectroscopic redshifts beyond z = 8.

  9. Present Status of MIRRORCLE-20 for MIR and FIR Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ahsa; Miura, Nobuhiro; Kikuzawa, Takeshi; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-01-19

    The tabletop synchrotron MIRRORCLE-20 is optimized as MIR and FIR beam source for the life science research. To collect the whole radiation, we have installed a magic mirror and a circular mirror within MIRRORCLE-20. There are two application beam lines in MIRRORCLE-20. One is mid IR beam line, and another is far IR beam line. We have grating spectrometer and cooled MCT detector for MIR, and FT-TR and cooled silicon bolometer for FIR. According to the specification of MIRRORCLE-20, the e-beam current is 80mA, the pulse width is 0.1 msec, the peak storage current is 2.4A, and the repetition is 100Hz. The MIR power measured with MCT detector and thermopile is found to be about 50 mW.

  10. The protostar OMC-2 FIR 4: Results from the CHESS Herschel/HIFI spectral survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kama, Mihkel; Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Dominik, Carsten; Caux, Emmanuel; Fuente, Asuncion

    2013-07-01

    The intermediate-mass protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 in Orion is the focus of several ongoing studies, including a CHESS key programme Herschel/HIFI spectral survey. In this poster, we review recent CHESS results on this source, including the properties of the central hot core, the presence of a compact outflow, the spatial variation of the chemical composition, and the discovery of a tenuous foreground cloud. The HIFI spectrum of FIR 4 contains 719 lines from 40 species and isotopologs. Cooling by lines detectable with our sensitivity contributes 2% of the total in the 480 to 1900 GHz range. The total line flux is dominated by CO, followed by H2O and CH3OH. Initial comparisons with spectral surveys of other sources will also be presented.

  11. A new approach to the analysis of nystagmus: an application for order-statistic filters.

    PubMed

    Engelken, E J; Stevens, K W

    1990-09-01

    A computer program has been designed for the analysis of nystagmus. This program employs a class of nonlinear digital filters called order-statistic (OS) filters. Two OS filters and one linear filter are used. First, the eye-movement signal is smoothed using a predictive finite-impulse response (FIR), median hybrid filter. Then the smoothed signal is processed by a linear band-limited differentiating filter to calculate eye velocity. And finally, the slow-phase velocity (SPV) envelope is extracted from the eye-velocity signal using an adaptive asymmetrically trimmed-mean filter. This approach yields an evenly sampled SPV estimate without resorting to the various interpolation or extrapolation schemes generally used. The adaptive filter estimates SPV based on the local statistical properties of the eye-velocity signal. The adaptive strategy works under the assumption that, on the average, the eyes spend more time in slow-phase than in fast-phase. No assumptions are made about the direction of the nystagmus or the nature of the stimulus used to elicit the nystagmus. This method eliminates all the usual threshold tests and decision logic common to other nystagmus analysis programs. The robust performance of OS filters and the use of adaptive filter structures totally eliminates the need to custom "tune" the program parameters for atypical data sets. PMID:2241755

  12. Host and habitat filtering in seedling root-associated fungal communities: taxonomic and functional diversity are altered in 'novel' soils.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Brian J; Gorzelak, Monika A; Green, D Scott; Egger, Keith N; Massicotte, Hugues B

    2015-10-01

    Climatic and land use changes have significant consequences for the distribution of tree species, both through natural dispersal processes and following management prescriptions. Responses to these changes will be expressed most strongly in seedlings near current species range boundaries. In northern temperate forest ecosystems, where changes are already being observed, ectomycorrhizal fungi contribute significantly to successful tree establishment. We hypothesised that communities of fungal symbionts might therefore play a role in facilitating, or limiting, host seedling range expansion. To test this hypothesis, ectomycorrhizal communities of interior Douglas-fir and interior lodgepole pine seedlings were analysed in a common greenhouse environment following growth in five soils collected along an ecosystem gradient. Currently, Douglas-fir's natural distribution encompasses three of the five soils, whereas lodgepole pine's extends much further north. Host filtering was evident amongst the 29 fungal species encountered: 7 were shared, 9 exclusive to Douglas-fir and 13 exclusive to lodgepole pine. Seedlings of both host species formed symbioses with each soil fungal community, thus Douglas-fir did so even where those soils came from outside its current distribution. However, these latter communities displayed significant taxonomic and functional differences to those found within the host distribution, indicative of habitat filtering. In contrast, lodgepole pine fungal communities displayed high functional similarity across the soil gradient. Taxonomic and/or functional shifts in Douglas-fir fungal communities may prove ecologically significant during the predicted northward migration of this species; especially in combination with changes in climate and management operations, such as seed transfer across geographical regions for forestry purposes. PMID:25694036

  13. Genetic evaluation of alternative silvicultural systems in coastal montane forests: western hemlock and amabilis fir.

    PubMed

    El-Kassaby, Y A; Dunsworth, B G; Krakowski, J

    2003-08-01

    Genetic diversity and mating system were quantified for shelterwood, patch cut and green tree-retention silvicultural systems, and compared to adjacent old-growth. This is a component of a larger study conducted in montane old-growth forests of coastal British Columbia to evaluate the feasibility and ecological consequences of alternative silvicultural systems. The experiment includes replicated treatments representing a range of overstory removal adjacent to old-growth and clearcut areas. Based on 22 electrophoretically assayed loci, the effects of silvicultural systems on genetic parameters of amabilis fir (Abies amabilis and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla were assessed by comparing an average number of alleles per locus, the percent polymorphic loci, and observed and expected heterozygosity between parental populations and naturally regenerated progeny as well as among treatments. Genetic variation in natural regeneration was greater than in parental populations, especially for low-frequency alleles. Silvicultural treatments caused no significant differences in amabilis fir genetic-diversity parameters, while the shelterwood system resulted in lower observed and expected heterozygosity in western hemlock. Nei's genetic distance revealed that all parental populations were extremely similar. The two species had contrasting mating system dynamics with amabilis fir producing higher levels of correlated paternity and inbreeding with wider variation among individual tree outcrossing-rate estimates. Western hemlock had significant levels of correlated paternity only for the green tree and shelterwood treatments demonstrating family structuring inversely related to stand density. Inbreeding in western hemlock was significant but lower than that observed for amabilis fir with a J-shaped distribution for individual tree multilocus outcrossing-rate estimates. The pollination and dispersal mechanisms of the two species represent the most-likely factors causing these differences. Artificial regeneration may be utilized to augment the genetic resources of natural ingress. PMID:12750773

  14. Competitive relations between Douglas-fir and Pacific madrone on shallow soils in a Mediterranean climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Zheng Q.; Newton, M.; Tappeiner, J. C., II

    1995-01-01

    A large area of Pacific Coast forests is characterized by shallow soil, with negligible rainfall in the growing season. This study explores water-seeking strategy on such a site. We studied availability of bedrock water and its effects on growth and ecophysiology of 11-yr-old planted Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) and sprouting Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh). The study was carried out at three regulated densities of madrone sprouts on shallow ( 0.05) among three densities of madrone. However, cover in plots with the highest density of madrone (1322 sprout clumps/ha) depleted 50 mm of water from the 1.5 m layer by June, whereas vegetation on lower density treatments withdrew 15-28 mm by June, with later withdrawal distributed more uniformly through the growing season. Madrone density significantly affected basal diameter (P a?? 0.0001) and height growth (P a?? 0.002) of Douglas-fir. Madrone was consistently taller than Douglas-fir in all plots. The height of 11-yr-old madrone sprout clumps (424-465 cm) did not differ significantly among densities. Madrone leaf area index and biomass were higher at the high density of madrone than at medium density (P a?? 0.045, LAI; P a?? 0.001, biomass). Physiological advantages and rooting habits of madrone give it a competitive advantage over Douglas-fir in this area that it might not have if bedrock did not provide the principal water reservoir for summer growth.

  15. Glacial populations and postglacial migration of Douglas-fir based on fossil pollen and macrofossil evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugger, Paul F.; Sugita, Shinya

    2010-08-01

    To understand how temperate forests might respond to future episodes of global warming, it is important to study the effects of large-scale climate change brought about by rapid postglacial warming. Compilations of fossil evidence have provided the best evidence of past plant range shifts, especially in eastern North America and Europe, and provide a context for interpreting new molecular datasets from modern forests. In western North America, however, such reviews have lagged even for common, widespread taxa. Here, we synthesize fossil evidence for Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) from nearly 550 fossil pollen, sedimentary macrofossil, and packrat midden macrofossil sites to develop hypotheses about the species' late Quaternary history that can be tested with molecular phylogeographic studies. For both the coastal and interior varieties, we identified alternative hypotheses on the number of glacial populations and postglacial migration patterns that can be characterized as single-population versus multiple-population hypotheses. Coastal Douglas-fir may have been subdivided into two populations at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and colonized British Columbia from populations in Washington and Oregon. Interior Douglas-fir could have been subdivided along major topographic barriers into at least three LGM populations and colonized British Columbia and Alberta from populations in northwest Wyoming and/or northeast Utah. For both varieties, we calculated migration rates lower than previous studies, which could have been as high as 100-220 m/yr if Douglas-fir reached its modern distribution 9000 cal yr BP, or as low as 50 m/yr if it reached its modern range at present. The elevational range of populations in California and the southern Rockies shifted upslope by 700-1000 m. If there were multiple LGM populations, these elevational shifts suggest that those populations did not contribute to the colonization of Canada. Our findings emphasize the possibility of low-density northern LGM populations and that populations within species react individualistically in response to large-scale climate change.

  16. Influence of ultrasounds on some mechanical properties of fir wood (Abies alba Mill). Microscopic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parpala, V.; Pastirnac, A.; Paraschiv, N.

    1974-01-01

    It was found that as a result of ultrasonic treatment fir wood (Abies alba Mill) shows the effects of homogenization, and the modulus of elasticity for static flexure drops on an average by 50% for 45 min of treatment. The drop is more pronounced for test pieces with 8 to 12 annual rings. Study of microscopic sections disclosed that early wood with one annual ring undergoes the most powerful effect.

  17. On the nature of the deeply embedded protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    SciTech Connect

    Furlan, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Fischer, W. J.; Osorio, M.; Stutz, A. M.; Ali, B.; Manoj, P.; Adams, J. D.; Tobin, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 ?m, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 ?m. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 ?m, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L {sub ?}, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L {sub ?}. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L {sub ?}. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L {sub ?}, while the luminosity of the colder (?20 K) extended core could be around 100 L {sub ?}, with a mass of about 27 M {sub ?}. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L {sub ?}. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

  18. Multi-wavelength Spectropolarimetry Of A Sunspot Superpenumbra With Firs And Ibis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Thomas A.; Tritschler, A.; Penn, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    Extending nearly radially from magnetic field concentrations like sunspot umbrae or pores, threadlike fibrils observed in the chromosphere and transition region host a variety of dynamic behavior and have long been considered local tracers for the magnetic field. Morphologically, fibrils are similar to spicules seen on the limb. The connectivity of fibrils outside of the magnetic field concentrations with the photosphere and/or corona is not well understood, and probing the magnetic field in these features remains challenging. In this contribution we describe multi-wavelength spectropolarimetric observations from the Dunn Solar Telescope in New Mexico using the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) and the Interferometric BiDimensional Spectropolarimeter (IBIS). FIRS performs high resolution slit spectropolarimetry in the He I triplet at 1083 nm, which is a promising diagnostic of chromospheric vector fields. Significant progress has been made to boost the accuracy and sensitivity of these measurements. Here we present measurements of an active region sunspot at a spatial resolution of 0.3 arcsec and an RMS noise in Stokes Q,U,V spectra down to 0.0003 in units of the local continuum (SNR > 3300). We perform full inversions of these spectra taking into account both Zeeman and Hanle effects. Initial results lend support for field-aligned fibrils near the penumbral boundary of a sunspot. Jointly with the FIRS observations, we use IBIS to observe the Stokes vectors of Ca II 854.2 nm and Fe I 617.3 nm and the intensity spectrum of H-alpha 656.3 nm. As a spectral imaging instrument, IBIS rapidly scans through the three spectral lines over a 45'' by 95'' FOV at an overall cadence of 50 seconds, allowing a much better description the dynamics of fibrils observed by both FIRS and IBIS.

  19. Adaptive high temperature superconducting filters for interference rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Raihn, K.F.; Fenzi, N.O.; Hey-Shipton, G.L.; Saito, E.R.; Loung, P.V.; Aidnik, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    An optically switched high temperature superconducting (HTS) band-reject filter bank is presented. Fast low loss switching of high quality (Q) factor HTS filter elements enables digital selection of arbitrary pass-bands and stop-bands. Patterned pieces of GaAs and silicon are used in the manufacture of the photosensitive switches. Fiber optic cabling is used to transfer the optical energy from an LED to the switch. The fiber optic cable minimizes the thermal loading of the filter package and de-couples the switch`s power source from the RF circuit. This paper will discuss the development of a computer-controlled HTS bank of optically switchable, narrow band, high Q bandstop filters which incorporates a cryocooler to maintain the 77 K operating temperature of the HTS microwave circuit.

  20. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  1. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  2. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  3. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or...

  4. Needle anatomy changes with increasing tree age in Douglas-fir.

    PubMed

    Apple, Martha; Tiekotter, Ken; Snow, Michael; Young, James; Soeldner, Al; Phillips, Donald; Tingey, David; Bond, Barbara J

    2002-02-01

    Morphological differences between old-growth trees and saplings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross sections of previous-year needles of old-growth Douglas-fir trees and saplings at the Wind River Canopy Crane site in Washington and at three sites in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. We also compared needle anatomy across a chronosequence of 10-, 20-, 40- and 450-year-old Douglas-fir trees from the Wind River site. Anatomy differed significantly between needles of old-growth trees and saplings at all sites, suggesting a developmental change in needle anatomy with increasing tree age. Compared with needles of old-growth trees, needles of saplings were longer and had proportionately smaller vascular cylinders, larger resin canals and few hypodermal cells. Astrosclereids, which sequester lignin in their secondary cell walls and occupy space otherwise filled by photosynthetic cells, were scarce in needles of saplings but abundant in needles of old-growth trees. Needles of old-growth trees had an average of 11% less photosynthetic mesophyll area than needles of saplings. The percentage of non-photosynthetic area in needles increased significantly with increasing tree age from the chronosequence of 10-, 20-, 40- and 450-year-old trees at the Wind River site. This reduction in photosynthetic area may contribute to decreased growth rates in old trees. PMID:11830409

  5. Douglas-fir plantations in Europe: a retrospective test of assisted migration to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Isaac-Renton, Miriam G; Roberts, David R; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2014-08-01

    We evaluate genetic test plantations of North American Douglas-fir provenances in Europe to quantify how tree populations respond when subjected to climate regime shifts, and we examined whether bioclimate envelope models developed for North America to guide assisted migration under climate change can retrospectively predict the success of these provenance transfers to Europe. The meta-analysis is based on long-term growth data of 2800 provenances transferred to 120 European test sites. The model was generally well suited to predict the best performing provenances along north-south gradients in Western Europe, but failed to predict superior performance of coastal North American populations under continental climate conditions in Eastern Europe. However, model projections appear appropriate when considering additional information regarding adaptation of Douglas-fir provenances to withstand frost and drought, even though the model partially fails in a validation against growth traits alone. We conclude by applying the partially validated model to climate change scenarios for Europe, demonstrating that climate trends observed over the last three decades warrant changes to current use of Douglas-fir provenances in plantation forestry throughout Western and Central Europe. PMID:24737595

  6. FIR: An Effective Scheme for Extracting Useful Metadata from Social Media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media. PMID:26330225

  7. A Design Study of a FIR/THz-FEL for High Magnetic Field Research

    SciTech Connect

    Tecimer, M; Brunel, L C; Tol, J van; Neil, G

    2006-09-01

    Presently a conceptual design work for a NIR-FIR FEL system at the NHMFL/FSU is being undertaken. The system is intended to combine high magnetic field research with an intense, tuneable photon source, spanning the spectral region ~2–1000 microns. Here, we present a design study involving the FIR/THz part of the NHMFL FEL design proposal. The suggested long-wavelength FEL encompasses in the first phase a thermionic injector (similar to that in use at the Forschungszentrum-Rossendorf ELBE facility) with a planned ~2 mA average current and a ~10 MeV superconducting rf linac module operating at 1.3 GHz. The broadband outcoupling over the envisaged FIR/THz spectral range (100–1100 microns) is accomplished by adopting a single (variable height slot) outcoupler in a waveguided cavity. Besides the performance predictions of the suggested long-wavelength FEL, techniques for the generation of high peak power, nanoseconds long THz pulses (for magnetic resonance applications) are also reported.

  8. Removal of dc-offset in current waveforms using digital mimic filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Benmouyal, G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the capability of popular digital filters used in relaying applications to suppress DC offset in current waveforms over a broad range of time constants as encountered on real power systems. First, three mathematical performance indices are introduced to be able to compare filters on the same basis. Then the concept of the FIR type of digital mimic filter is described. It is shown that, for filters exhibiting a null response at frequency zero on their frequency response, the addition of a digital mimic circuit, tuned to the middle of the range of time constants to be suppressed, will almost completely eliminate the effect of an exponentially decaying component. Moreover, this is possible without sacrificing the original response speed, although it increases susceptibility to noisy components.

  9. Development of tissue bank

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  10. Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

  11. Interactions between Seagrass Complexity, Hydrodynamic Flow and Biomixing Alter Food Availability for Associated Filter-Feeding Organisms

    PubMed Central

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

  12. Comparison of sugar content for ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of affordable woody biomass feedstocks represents a significant opportunity in the development of cellulosic biofuels. Primary woodchips produced by forest mills are considered an ideal feedstock, but the prices they command on the market are currently too expensive for biorefineries. In comparison, forestry residues represent a potential low-cost input but are considered a more challenging feedstock for sugar production due to complexities in composition and potential contamination arising from soil that may be present. We compare the sugar yields, changes in composition in Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues after pretreatment using ionic liquids and enzymatic saccharification in order to determine if this approach can efficiently liberate fermentable sugars. Results These samples were either mechanically milled through a 2 mm mesh or pretreated as received with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc] at 120°C and 160°C. IL pretreatment of Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues resulted in approximately 71-92% glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the pretreated cellulose was less crystalline after IL pretreatment as compared to untreated control samples. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) revealed changes in lignin and hemicellulose structure and composition as a function of pretreatment. Mass balances of sugar and lignin streams for both the Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues throughout the pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification processes are presented. Conclusions While the highest sugar yields were observed with the Douglas-fir woodchips, reasonably high sugar yields were obtained from forestry residues after ionic liquid pretreatment. Structural changes to lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in the woodchips and forestry residues of Douglas-fir after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment are analyzed by XRD and 2D-NMR, and indicate that significant changes occurred. Irrespective of the particle sizes used in this study, ionic liquid pretreatment successfully allowed high glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. These results indicate that forestry residues may be a more viable feedstock than previously thought for the production of biofuels. PMID:23635001

  13. High-angular resolution observations towards OMC-2 FIR 4: Dissecting an intermediate-mass protocluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sepulcre, A.; Taquet, V.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dominik, C.; Kama, M.; Caux, E.; Fontani, F.; Fuente, A.; Ho, P. T. P.; Neri, R.; Shimajiri, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Intermediate-mass stars are an important ingredient of our Galaxy and a key to understanding how high- and low-mass stars form in clusters. One of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters is OMC-2 FIR 4, which is located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of the few where the complete 500-2000 GHz spectrum has been observed with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board the Herschel satellite, and unbiased spectral surveys at 0.8, 1, 2, and 3 mm have been obtained with the JCMT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. Aims: We aim to disentangle the core multiplicity, to investigate the morphology of this region in order to study the formation of a low- and intermediate-mass protostar cluster, and to aid in interpretation of the single-dish line profiles already in our hands. Methods: We used the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to image OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 2-mm continuum emission, as well as in DCO+(2-1), DCN(2-1), C34S(3-2), and several CH3OH lines. In addition, we analysed observations of the NH3(1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion transitions that used the Very Large Array of the NRAO. The resulting maps have an angular resolution that allows us to resolve structures of 5?, which is equivalent to ~2000 AU. Results: Our observations reveal three spatially resolved sources within OMC-2 FIR 4, of one or several solar masses each, with hints of further unresolved substructure within them. Two of these sources have elongated shapes and are associated with dust continuum emission peaks, thus likely containing at least one molecular core each. One of them also displays radio continuum emission, which may be attributed to a young B3-B4 star that dominates the overall luminosity output of the region. The third identified source displays a DCO+(2-1) emission peak and weak dust continuum emission. Its higher abundance of DCO+ relative to the other two regions suggests a lower temperature, hence its possible association with either a younger low-mass protostar or a starless core. It may alternatively be part of the colder envelope of OMC-2 FIR 4. Conclusions: Our interferometric observations show the complexity of the intermediate-mass protocluster OMC-2 FIR 4, where multiple cores, chemical differentiation, and an ionised region all coexist within an area of only 10 000 AU. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by the INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  14. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, D A; Boguski, M; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J

    1994-09-01

    The GenBank sequence database continues to expand its data coverage, quality control, annotation content and retrieval services for the scientific community. Besides handling direct submissions of sequence data from authors, GenBank also incorporates DNA sequences from all available public sources; an integrated retrieval system, known as Entrez, also makes available data from the major protein sequence and structural databases, and from U.S. and European patents. MIDLINE abstracts from published articles describing the sequences are also included as an additional source of biological annotation for sequence entries. GenBank supports distribution of the data via FTP, CD-ROM, and E-mail servers. Network server-client programs provide access to an integrated database for literature retrieval and sequence similarity searching. PMID:7937042

  15. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  16. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  17. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or state bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a national...

  18. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or state bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a national...

  19. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or state bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a national...

  20. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  1. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  2. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  3. 12 CFR 552.2-7 - Conversion to National banking association or State bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...

  4. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  5. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  6. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Christian; Cassidy, Maxxwell; Cinkosky, Michael J.; Cumella, Karen E.; Gilna, Paul; Hayden, Jamie E.-D.; Keen, Gifford M.; Kelley, Tom A.; Kelly, Michael; Kristofferson, David; Ryals, Julie

    1991-01-01

    The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 56,000,000 nucleotides in 45,000 entries. The input stream of data coming into the database has largely been shifted to direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media. The data have been installed in a relational database management system and are made available in this form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service. PMID:2041806

  7. Duke Data Bank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    NASA computerized image processing techniques are an integral part of a cardiovascular data bank at Duke University Medical Center. Developed by Dr. C. F. Starmer and colleagues at Duke, the data bank documents the Center's clinical experience with more than 4,000 heart patients as an aid to diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Data is stored in a computerized system that allows a physician to summon detailed records of former patients whose medical profiles are similar to those of a new patient. A video display (photo) and printed report shows prognostic information for the new patient based on similar past experience.

  8. Serological responses to Cryptosporidium antigens among women using riverbank-filtered water, conventionally filtered surface water and groundwater in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Frost, Floyd; Craun, Gunther; Mihály, Kádár; György, Berencsi; Calderon, Rebecca; Muller, Tm

    2005-03-01

    We compared serological responses to Cryptosporidium parvum antigens using surplus sera from females undergoing routine screening for pregnancy from three counties in Hungary where bank-filtered surface water, conventionally filtered and disinfected surface water, and groundwater from either a karst or confined aquifer are commonly used for drinking water. The primary purpose was to determine whether the prevalence and intensity of serological responses, indicators of prior Cryptosporidium infection were similar for these populations. Women using groundwater from a confined aquifer had significantly lower mean serological responses for both the 15/17-kDa and 27-kDa (p < 0.0001) antigen groups than women using conventionally filtered and disinfected surface water or karst well water. This is suggestive of less frequent infections. Women using bank-filtered water also had lower mean responses for both antigen groups. Among women using bank-filtered water, the mean intensity of response for both antigen groups was almost one-third of the mean response observed for women using conventionally filtered and disinfected surface water. These findings suggest that riverbank filtration may be an effective alternative to conventional treatment for reducing Cryptosporidium exposures and infection from surface drinking water sources. PMID:15952455

  9. Evaluation of adaptive/nonadaptive filtering and wavelet transform techniques for noise reduction in EMG mobile acquisition equipment.

    PubMed

    Ortolan, Rodrigo Lício; Mori, Ricardo Naoki; Pereira, Roberto R Júnior; Cabral, Cristina M N; Pereira, José Carlos; Cliquet, Alberto Júnior

    2003-03-01

    The myoelectric signal can be used to control many rehabilitation systems, for instance, prostheses and artificial neuromuscular electrical stimulation toward restoring movement to spinal cord injured subjects. These mobile systems are usually used in different environments and thus are being exposed to different noise levels with characteristics not completely known. In this article, three main techniques for noise reduction were evaluated: wavelet transform (WT), adaptive digital filters, and nonadaptive digital filters. The WT was used to reconstruct the signal with the components without noise information. Adaptive filters were designed using least mean square (LMS) and recursive least square (RLS) algorithms. Finite-impulse response (FIR) and infinite-impulse response (IIR) nonadaptive filters were used for comparison to both the adaptive filters and the signal reconstruction through the WT. PMID:12797727

  10. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  11. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  12. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  13. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  14. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  15. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

  16. 76 FR 76412 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... acquire control of First Federal Savings and Loan Bank, both in Olathe, Kansas. Board of Governors of...

  17. 78 FR 36189 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 78 FR 26368 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 76 FR 28435 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 78 FR 35032 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank ] or bank holding company. The...

  1. 77 FR 67816 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 78 FR 5442 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 75 FR 65484 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 77 FR 26280 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 77 FR 14368 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 77 FR 29347 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 75 FR 32779 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  8. 78 FR 70300 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 78 FR 33092 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 78 FR 43203 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 78 FR 20643 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 78 FR 22879 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 77 FR 40058 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....

  14. 77 FR 35386 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 75 FR 17142 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  16. 77 FR 74482 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 75 FR 63183 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 77 FR 31855 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 75 FR 66762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 ] CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 78 FR 59689 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  1. 77 FR 29643 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 78 FR 67146 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 78 FR 46583 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 75 FR 32778 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  5. 76 FR 40365 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 78 FR 55716 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 78 FR 41063 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  8. 75 FR 26961 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  9. 77 FR 24491 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 75 FR 78705 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 77 FR 32637 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 77 FR 56209 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 76 FR 11781 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....

  14. 78 FR 42522 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 78 FR 25273 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  16. 78 FR 61960 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  17. 77 FR 12584 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  18. 77 FR 4560 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  19. 78 FR 2273 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  20. 75 FR 57023 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  1. 77 FR 49795 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  2. 78 FR 50056 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  3. 76 FR 38178 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  4. 75 FR 1621 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  5. 75 FR 70004 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 75 FR 17407 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  7. 78 FR 23565 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank ] or bank holding company. The...

  8. 78 FR 37222 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 76 FR 41259 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 77 FR 53887 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 77 FR 71793 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. 77 FR 63832 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  13. 77 FR 28597 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  14. 77 FR 69454 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  15. 76 FR 39105 - [Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company] The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... Co., and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of Kirkwood Bank and Trust Company, both...

  16. 77 FR 65190 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... 30309: 1. Moishe Gubin, Hillside, Illinois; to acquire additional voting shares of OptimumBank...

  17. 76 FR 10363 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... shares of Cascade Bancorp, and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of Bank of the Cascades, both...

  18. 76 FR 144 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... of the voting shares of Northern Wisconsin Bank Holding Company, Inc., and thereby indirectly...

  19. 77 FR 73466 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... shares of BSA Financial Services, Inc. and thereby indirectly acquire additional voting shares of Bank...

  20. Haploinsufficiency of the c-myc transcriptional repressor FIR, as a dominant negative-alternative splicing model, promoted p53-dependent T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression by activating Notch1.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Kouichi; Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Tanaka, Nobuko; Ishige, Takayuki; Satoh, Mamoru; Hoshino, Tyuji; Miyagi, Satoru; Mori, Takeshi; Itoga, Sakae; Shimada, Hideaki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Kito, Minoru; Nakajima-Takagi, Yaeko; Kubo, Shuji; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Hatano, Masahiko; Miki, Takashi; Matsuo, Masafumi; Fukuyo, Masaki; Kaneda, Atsushi; Iwama, Atsushi; Nomura, Fumio

    2015-03-10

    FUSE-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor (FIR) is a c-myc transcriptional suppressor. A splice variant of FIR that lacks exon 2 in the transcriptional repressor domain (FIR?exon2) upregulates c-myc transcription by inactivating wild-type FIR. The ratio of FIR?exon2/FIR mRNA was increased in human colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Because FIR?exon2 is considered to be a dominant negative regulator of FIR, FIR heterozygous knockout (FIR?/?) C57BL6 mice were generated. FIR complete knockout (FIR?/?) was embryonic lethal before E9.5; therefore, it is essential for embryogenesis. This strongly suggests that insufficiency of FIR is crucial for carcinogenesis. FIR?/? mice exhibited prominent c-myc mRNA upregulation, particularly in the peripheral blood (PB), without any significant pathogenic phenotype. Furthermore, elevated FIR?exon2/FIR mRNA expression was detected in human leukemia samples and cell lines. Because the single knockout of TP53 generates thymic lymphoma, FIR?/?TP53?/? generated T-cell type acute lymphocytic/lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with increased organ or bone marrow invasion with poor prognosis. RNA-sequencing analysis of sorted thymic lymphoma cells revealed that the Notch signaling pathway was activated significantly in FIR?/?TP53?/? compared with that in FIR?/?TP53?/? mice. Notch1 mRNA expression in sorted thymic lymphoma cells was confirmed using qRT-PCR. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that c-myc mRNA was negatively correlated with FIR but positively correlated with Notch1 in sorted T-ALL/thymic lymphoma cells. Moreover, the knockdown of TP53 or c-myc using siRNA decreased Notch1 expression in cancer cells. In addition, an adenovirus vector encoding FIR?exon2 cDNA increased bleomycin-induced DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggest that the altered expression of FIR?exon2 increased Notch1 at least partially by activating c-Myc via a TP53-independent pathway. In conclusion, the alternative splicing of FIR, which generates FIR?exon2, may contribute to both colorectal carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis. PMID:25671302

  1. Bank-a-Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Doris; Jordan, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    The article gives procedures for consumer foods teachers to use to actively involve students in making independent food purchasing decisions according to the school foods lab budget and food buying principles. Included are forms used to keep records for each lab: unit bank account, meat lab evaluation, and market order. (MF)

  2. Academic Interventions Bank Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Tom; Torrens, Meg

    This paper describes development of a bank of interventions in response to individual student needs identified by Student Study Teams (SSTs) in the Horry County (South Carolina) school district. It also describes the training of SST members in the selection, application, and monitoring of each intervention. Following a survey that identified basic…

  3. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

  4. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

  5. Banking on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  6. Banking & Financial Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Brenda; Sorrell, Lisa

    This document, which is intended for high school business teachers, outlines the plan for a course in which students gain hands-on experience in operating a bank in which students actually deposit money. The document begins with a brief course description, rationale, and list of 11 course objectives. Presented next is background information about…

  7. Banking on Child Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Margaret; McBride, Andrea M.; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    1997-01-01

    The child-care facility is rapidly growing into the role of gatekeeper on food intake for children. This article describes guidelines for children's nutritional needs, what children are actually eating, how to make menus more nutritious (including recipes), how to strengthen menus and keep food costs low, and the use of food banks. (EV)

  8. Replacing America's Job Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  9. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  10. Banking on women's spirit.

    PubMed

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife. PMID:12318521

  11. Adaptive clutter rejection filters for airborne Doppler weather radar applied to the detection of low altitude windshear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.

    1989-01-01

    An optimum adaptive clutter rejection filter for use with airborne Doppler weather radar is presented. The radar system is being designed to operate at low-altitudes for the detection of windshear in an airport terminal area where ground clutter returns may mask the weather return. The coefficients of the adaptive clutter rejection filter are obtained using a complex form of a square root normalized recursive least squares lattice estimation algorithm which models the clutter return data as an autoregressive process. The normalized lattice structure implementation of the adaptive modeling process for determining the filter coefficients assures that the resulting coefficients will yield a stable filter and offers possible fixed point implementation. A 10th order FIR clutter rejection filter indexed by geographical location is designed through autoregressive modeling of simulated clutter data. Filtered data, containing simulated dry microburst and clutter return, are analyzed using pulse-pair estimation techniques. To measure the ability of the clutter rejection filters to remove the clutter, results are compared to pulse-pair estimates of windspeed within a simulated dry microburst without clutter. In the filter evaluation process, post-filtered pulse-pair width estimates and power levels are also used to measure the effectiveness of the filters. The results support the use of an adaptive clutter rejection filter for reducing the clutter induced bias in pulse-pair estimates of windspeed.

  12. Little change in the fir tree-line position on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau after 200 years of warming.

    PubMed

    Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Yafeng; Eckstein, Dieter; Luo, Tianxiang

    2011-05-01

    • As one of the world's highest natural tree lines, the Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii) tree line on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is expected to vary as a function of climate warming. However, the spatial patterns and dynamics of the Smith fir tree line are not yet well understood. • Three rectangular plots (30 m × 150 m) were established in the natural alpine tree-line ecotone on two north-facing (Plot N1, 4390 m asl; Plot N2, 4380 m asl) and one east-facing (Plot E1, 4360 m asl) slope. Dendroecological methods were used to monitor the tree-line patterns and dynamics over a 50-yr interval. • The three study plots showed a similar pattern of regeneration dynamics, characterized by increased recruitment after the 1950s and an abrupt increase in the 1970s. Smith fir recruitment was significantly positively correlated with both summer and winter temperatures. However, Smith fir tree lines do not show a significant upward movement, despite warming on the Tibetan Plateau. • The warming in the past 200 yr is already having a significant impact on the population density of the trees, but not on the position of the Smith fir tree line. PMID:21288245

  13. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.121 Bankers' banks. (a)(1) The Federal Reserve Act, as amended by the...

  14. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.121 Bankers' banks. (a)(1) The Federal Reserve Act, as amended by the...

  15. Effects of an Experimental Drought on Balsam Fir Xylogenesis in the Eastern Canada Boreal Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Côté, B.; Houle, D.; Morin, H.

    2014-12-01

    A 20-40% reduction in soil moisture is projected for the boreal forest of Eastern Canada for the period 2070-99 relative to 1971-2000. In order to better predict the effects of a reduced water supply on the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), a dominant tree species of the boreal forest, we simulated 2 consecutive years of summer droughts (starting in July) by means of throughfall exclusion. Four 100-m2 plots were established in 2010 with polyethylene sheets maintained 1.3-2 m aboveground and redirecting the water outside the plots. Wood microcores were extracted weekly from mature trees from April to October 2011 to analyse the time dynamics of wood formation in that year. The number of tracheids formed during and before treatment and their anatomical characteristics were determined through microscopic analyses. The growth of lateral and terminal branches and the water potential of balsam fir seedlings were also monitored. Throughfall exclusion significantly reduced soil water content by 5.8% in 2010 and 10.5% in 2011. Xylogenesis was affected significantly by the treatment. Tracheids were 16.1% smaller in diameter and their cell wall was 14.1% thicker during both years. The treatment delayed by more than a week the start of the tracheid differentiation process in the second year with a concomitant decrease (26%) in the number of tracheids produced. The seedlings displayed a 32% reduction in growth and a 40% reduction in leaf water potential. Our results suggest that a future regime of increased frequency and intensity of droughts could have nega­tive effects on the duration of xylogenesis and the amount of carbon sequestrated in balsam fir.

  16. A multiwavelength analysis of the clumpy FIR-bright sources in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natale, G.; Foyle, K.; Wilson, C. D.; Kuno, N.

    2014-06-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of a sample of far-infrared (FIR) sources detected on the Herschel broad-band maps of the nearby galaxy M33. We perform source photometry on the FIR maps as well as mid-infrared (MIR), H?, far-ultraviolet and integrated H I and CO line emission maps. By fitting MIR/FIR dust emission spectra, the source dust masses, temperatures and luminosities are inferred. The sources are classified based on their H? morphology (sub-structured versus not-substructured) and on whether they have a significant CO detection (S/N > 3?). We find that the sources have dust masses in the range 102-104 M? and that they present significant differences in their inferred dust/star formation/gas parameters depending on their H? morphology and CO detection classification. The results suggests differences in the evolutionary states or in the number of embedded H II regions between the sub-samples. The source background-subtracted dust emission seems to be predominantly powered by local star formation, as indicated by a strong correlation between the dust luminosity and the dust-corrected H? luminosity and the fact that the extrapolated young stellar luminosity is high enough to account for the observed dust emission. Finally, we do not find a strong correlation between the dust-corrected H? luminosity and the dust mass of the sources, consistent with previous results on the breakdown of simple scaling relations at sub-kpc scales. However, the scatter in the relation is significantly reduced by correcting the H? luminosity for the age of the young stellar populations in the star-forming regions.

  17. Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S.; Stone, A.; Wimmer, R.; Joslin, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

  18. Pansharpening of multispectral images using filtering in Fourier domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoguz, Alper; Kurt, Burak; Pinar, Sedef K.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, there is examined filtering based pansharpening methods which means of using several 2D FIR filters in Fourier domain which implies that the filters are applied after taking 2D Discrete Fourier Transform of both multispectral and panchromatic image and after the pansharpening process in Fourier domain, the resulting pansharpened image is obtained with an inverse 2D DFT. In addition, these methods are compared with commonly used fusion methods which are combined as modulation based and component substitution based methods. The algorithms are applied to SPOT 6 co-registered image couples that were acquired simultaneously. Couples are chosen for three different regions which are a city image (Gebze/Turkey), a forest image (Istanbul/Turkey) and an agriculture field image (Sanliurfa/Turkey) in order to analyse the methods in different regional characteristics. These methods are compared by the fusion quality assessments that have common acceptance in community. The results of these quality assessments shows the filtering based methods had the best scores among the traditional methods.

  19. Dosimetric comparison at FiR 1 using microdosimetry, ionisation chambers and computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Uusi-Simola, J; Serén, T; Seppälä, T; Kosunen, A; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S

    2004-11-01

    Tissue equivalent proportional counter microdosimetry has been applied in the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams as they can provide an independent and accurate method to determine gamma ray and neutron absorbed doses. Dosimetric comparison has been performed using a tissue equivalent proportional counter, dual ionisation chambers and DORT computer code at FiR 1 boron neutron capture therapy facility in Espoo, Finland. The three methods were applied to determine neutron and gamma ray absorbed doses at 25, 40, 60 and 120 mm depths along the beam centerline in a water-filled PMMA phantom. The determined absorbed doses were found to agree within the limits of the estimated uncertainties. PMID:15308155

  20. Submillimeter and FIR CO and H2O line emission from collapsing protostellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Hollenbach, David J.; Tielens, G. G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Computed far infrared (FIR) CO and H2O line spectra from collapsing envelopes around low mass protostars are presented. It is shown how high resolution observations of the CO and H2O rotational lines in the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) wavelength range can be used to demonstrate the presence of infall, and to measure the central mass of the protostar. Selected H2O lines can be used to provide estimates of the mass accretion rate, and of the amount of water evaporated from the ice mantles and injected in the gas phase.

  1. ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS

    DOEpatents

    Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

    1957-08-27

    An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

  2. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  3. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  4. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  5. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE DETECTION OF POLARIZATION-DEPENDENT H I ABSORPTION AND H I OUTFLOWS IN LOCAL ULIRGs AND QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a 21 cm H I survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub 8{sub -{sub 1000{sub {mu}m}}}} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of H I absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with H I detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km s{sup -1} in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent H I absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground H I clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the {approx}10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into ''mature'' radio galaxies.

  6. Green Bank Telescope Detection of Polarization-dependent H I Absorption and H I Outflows in Local ULIRGs and Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of a 21 cm H I survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L 8 - 1000 ?m > 1012 L ?) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of H I absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with H I detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km s-1 in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent H I absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground H I clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the ~10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into "mature" radio galaxies.

  7. Rigid porous filter

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Dennis, Richard A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  8. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  9. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  10. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  11. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  12. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  13. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... properties used wholly or substantially by any subsidiary bank, is to be read and interpreted, like section 4(c)(5), as applying to shares owned indirectly by a bank holding company through a banking subsidiary... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company's subsidiary banks...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or agricultural credit banks boards of directors ownership investment may be made in...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or agricultural credit banks boards of directors ownership investment may be made in...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or agricultural credit banks boards of directors ownership investment may be made in...

  17. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or agricultural credit banks boards of directors ownership investment may be made in...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit....5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. As may be authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or agricultural credit banks boards of directors ownership investment may be made in...

  19. Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon douglas-fir plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Obermeyer, E.L.

    1996-03-01

    Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying the authors established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various portions of the remaining six plots were sprayed. Herbicide reduced number and size of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), increased number and size of planted Douglas-fir, damaged terminal shoots of Douglas-fir resulting in more abnormal boles and branching, and increased number of volunteer conifers. Fifteen of the eighteen plots were thinned, in the subsequent 6 years, thinned plots that had received full release at age 4 averaged 9 percent more volume growth (all species) than plots not released.

  20. Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Miley, Harry S.; Thompson, Robert C.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Perkins, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, whereafter the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant.