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1

Optimum FIR array filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimum finite impulse response (FIR) filter bank is derived that recovers a desired signal from an array of sensors in the presence of random sensor noise and one or more coherent interfering noise sources. The required filter order is determined by the relative delays between the signal and coherent noise at each sensor, and is independent of the time duration of either the signal or coherent noise. Usually, the presence of only three sensors is sufficient to be able to eliminate the effect of coherent noise sources provided the filter order M is sufficiently large.

Williamson, Darrell; Musumeci, Phillip C.; Teo, Kok Lay

1988-08-01

2

DESIGN OF BIORTHOGONAL MULTI-BAND FIR FILTER BANKS GIVEN SEVERAL OF THE ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

/synthesis systems (ASS) where the synthesis filters are simple time-reversed versions of the analysis ones [12]. For nonorthogonal PR ASS however, this becomes an impor- tant issue, especially in applications like wavelet design of whether one can build an N-band biorthogonal ASS with 1 K

Regalia, Phillip A.

3

Maximally decimated perfect-reconstruction FIR filter banks with pairwise mirror-image analysis (and synthesis) frequency responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structures are presented for the perfect-reconstruction quadrature mirror filter bank that are based on lossless building blocks. These structures ensure that the frequency responses of the analysis (and synthesis) filters have pairwise symmetry with respect to ?\\/2 and require fewer parameters than recently reported structures (also based on lossless building blocks). The design time for the proposed structures is correspondingly

T. Q. Nguyen; P. P. Vaidyanathan

1988-01-01

4

Analysis and Simulation of Reduced FIR Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High order FIR filters employ model reduction techniques, in order to decrease power consumption and time delay. During reduction high order FIR filters are converted into low order IIR filters preserving stability and phase linearity as main features. Matlab simulations of an audio system with these reduced filters are presented. Furthermore, the influence of order on power consumption is discussed.

Radic, Lj.; Mathis, W.

2005-05-01

5

On the Design of Nearly-PR and PR FIR Cosine Modulated Filter Banks Having Approximate Cosine-Rolloff Transition Band  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an efficient method for designing nearly perfect reconstruction (NPR) and perfect reconstruction (PR) cosine modulated filter banks (CMFBs) with prototype filters having an approximate cosine-rolloff (CR) transition band. It is shown that the flatness condition required for an NPR CMFB can be automatically satisfied by using a prototype filter with a CR transition band. The design problem

S. S. Yin; S. C. Chan; K. M. Tsui

2008-01-01

6

Two-channel linear phase FIR QMF bank minimax design via global nonconvex optimization programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this correspondence, a two-channel linear phase finite-impulse-response (FIR) quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank minimax design problem is formulated as a nonconvex optimization problem so that a weighted sum of the maximum amplitude distortion of the filter bank, the maximum passband ripple magnitude and the maximum stopband ripple magnitude of the prototype filter is minimized subject to specifications on these

Charlotte Yuk-Fan Ho; Bingo Wing-Kuen Ling; Lamia Benmesbah; Ted Chi-Wah Kok; Wan-Chi Siu; Kok-Lay Teo

2010-01-01

7

Building Custom FIR Filters Using System Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

System Generator is a high level design tool well suited to creating custom DSP data paths in FPGAs. While providing a high level abstraction of an FPGA circuit, it can be used to build designs comparable to hand crafted imple- mentations in terms of area and performance. In this paper we use a MAC-based FIR filter design example to demonstrate

James Hwang; Jonathan Ballagh

2002-01-01

8

Design of FIR filters with flatness constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We treat the problem of designing lowpass FIR digital filters that are very flat at zero frequency, smooth in the passband, and minimax in the stopband. The cases of lowpass and lowpass-differentiator are studied in particular. An effective design algorithm is described based on linear programming with a single equality constraint on the first derivative at the origin plus a

J. Kaiser; K. Steiglitz

1983-01-01

9

Exact reconstruction analysis/synthesis filter banks with time-varying filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines some of the analysis/synthesis issues associated with FIR time-varying filter banks where the filter bank coefficients are allowed to change in response to the input signal. Several issues are identified as being important in order to realize performance gains from time-varying filter banks in image coding applications. These issues relate to the behavior of the filters as transition from one set of filter banks to another occurs. Lattice structure formulations for the time varying filter bank problem are introduced and discussed in terms of their properties and transition characteristics.

Arrowood, J. L., Jr.; Smith, M. J. T.

1993-01-01

10

Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

11

Some Results in the Theory Modulated Filter Banks and Modulated Wavelet Tight Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfect reconstruction (PR) FIR filter banks, obtained by modulation of a linear-phase, lowpass, prototype filter and of length 2Mm are well known. Recently, PR modulated filter banks (MFBs) with the analysis and synthesis banks obtained from different prototypes have been reported. This paper describes a general form of modulation that includes modulations used in the literature. This modulation depends on

R. A. Gopinath; C. S. Burrus

1995-01-01

12

Adaptive IIR filter initialization via hybrid FIR\\/IIR adaptive filter combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hybrid adaptive FIR\\/IIR filter configuration is presented. The aim is to reduce the main obstacles limiting the use of adaptive IIR filters: namely convergence and stability. The hybrid scheme attempts to exploit the good qualities of both system adaptive FIR filters (good convergence and stability) and those for adaptive IIR filters (sharp transition bands, lower order, and complexity).

Lorenzo Pasquato; Z. Kale

2001-01-01

13

Linear Phase Cosine Modulated Maximally Decimated Filter Banks with Perfect Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel way to design maximally deci- mated FIR cosine modulated filter banks, in which each analysis and synthesis filter has linear phase. The system can be designed to have either the approximate reconstruction property (pseudo- QMF system) or perfect reconstruction property (PR system). In the PR case, the system is a paraunitary filter bank. As in earlier

Yuan-pei Lin; P. P. Vaidyanathan

1994-01-01

14

Optimal design of FIR digital filters with monotone passband response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of linear programming to the design of FIR digital filters with constraints on the derivative of the frequency response is described. Numerical considerations in the implementation are discussed and a program is given with examples for the design of filters with optional monotone response in passbands. The method provides the user with an additional degree of flexibility over

K. Steiglitz

1979-01-01

15

FIR filter design via semidefinite programming and spectral factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a semidefinite programming approach to FIR filter design with arbitrary upper and lower bounds on the frequency response magnitude. It is shown that the constraints can be expressed as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and hence they can be easily handled by interior-point methods. Using this LMI formulation, we can cast several interesting filter design problems as convex or

Shao-Po Wu; Stephen Boyd; Lieven Vandenberghe

1996-01-01

16

Finite precision design of linear-phase FIR filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques for designing finite impulse response (FIR) filters with finitely precise coefficients are presented, and a bound on the attainable stopband attenuation is derived. Mixed-integer programming algorithms are presented to select finitely precise coefficients for a filter that best approximates an arbitrary magnitude characteristic in the minimax sense. The present method generates a number of possible solutions, including that of simple rounding or truncation, and then selects the best finitely precise coefficients from this set. In this way, significant improvement in the filter performance is gained over methods that simply round or truncate the infinitely precise coefficients.

Lawrence, V. B.; Salazar, A. C.

1980-11-01

17

Modelling Subsea Coaxial Cable as FIR Filter on MATLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the modelling of subsea coaxial cable as a FIR filter on MATLAB. The subsea coaxial cables are commonly used in telecommunication industry and, oil and gas industry. Furthermore, this cable is unlike a filter circuit, which is a "lumped network" as individual components appear as discrete items. Therefore, a subsea coaxial network can be represented as a digital filter. In overall, the study has been conducted using MATLAB to model the subsea coaxial channel model base on primary and secondary parameters of subsea coaxial cable.

Kanisin, D.; Nordin, M. S.; Hazrul, M. H.; Kumar, E. A.

2011-05-01

18

FIR filter optimization for video processing on FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional finite impulse response (FIR) filters are an important component in many image and video processing systems. The processing of complex video applications in real time requires high computational power, which can be provided using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) due to their inherent parallelism. The most resource-intensive components in computing FIR filters are the multiplications of the folding operation. This work proposes two optimization techniques for high-speed implementations of the required multiplications with the least possible number of FPGA components. Both methods use integer linear programming formulations which can be optimally solved by standard solvers. In the first method, a formulation for the pipelined multiple constant multiplication problem is presented. In the second method, also multiplication structures based on look-up tables are taken into account. Due to the low coefficient word size in video processing filters of typically 8 to 12 bits, an optimal solution is found for most of the filters in the benchmark used. A complexity reduction of 8.5% for a Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGA could be achieved compared to state-of-the-art heuristics.

Kumm, Martin; Fanghänel, Diana; Möller, Konrad; Zipf, Peter; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

2013-12-01

19

Sidelobe reduction via adaptive FIR filtering in SAR imagery.  

PubMed

The paper describes a class of adaptive weighting functions that greatly reduce sidelobes, interference, and noise in Fourier transform data. By restricting the class of adaptive weighting functions, the adaptively weighted Fourier transform data can be represented as the convolution of the unweighted Fourier transform with a data adaptive FIR filter where one selects the FIR filter coefficients to maximize signal-to-interference ratio. This adaptive sidelobe reduction (ASR) procedure is analogous to Capon's (1969) minimum variance method (MVM) of adaptive spectral estimation. Unlike MVM, which provides a statistical estimate of the real-valued power spectral density, thereby estimating noise level and improving resolution, ASR provides a single-realization complex-valued estimate of the Fourier transform that suppresses sidelobes and noise. Further, the computational complexity of ASR is dramatically lower than that of MVM, which is critical for large multidimensional problems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation. ASR performance characteristics can be varied through the choice of filter order, l(1)- or l(2)-norm filter vector constraints and a separable or nonseparable multidimensional implementation. The author compares simulated point scattering SAR imagery produced by the ASR, MVM, and MUSIC algorithms and illustrates ASR performance on three sets of collected SAR imagery. PMID:18291927

Degraaf, S R

1994-01-01

20

Linear phase low pass FIR filter design using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an optimal design of linear phase digital low pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO) has been presented. In the design process, the filter length, pass band and stop band frequencies, feasible pass band and stop band ripple sizes are specified. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional gradient

Saptarshi Mukherjee; Rajib Kar; Durbadal Mandal; Sangeeta Mondal; S. P. Ghoshal

2011-01-01

21

Wavelets and filter banks: theory and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wavelet transform is compared with the more classical short-time Fourier transform approach to signal analysis. Then the relations between wavelets, filter banks, and multiresolution signal processing are explored. A brief review is given of perfect reconstruction filter banks, which can be used both for computing the discrete wavelet transform, and for deriving continuous wavelet bases, provided that the filters

Martin Vetterli; Cormac Herley

1992-01-01

22

Design of High-speed, Low-power FIR Filters with Fine-grained Cost Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a new design methodology for the realization of finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter in transposed direct form. The logic complexity and logic depth of the FIR filter solutions have conventionally been evaluated based on the total number of adder units and the number of adder units along the critical paths. Such optimization criteria have short fall

Jiajia Chen; Chip-Hong ChangandA; A. Prasad Vinod

2006-01-01

23

On the Comparison of Different Number Systems in the Implementation of Complex FIR Filters  

E-print Network

On the Comparison of Different Number Systems in the Implementation of Complex FIR Filters Gian dissipation, the implementations of complex FIR filters based on the following number represen- tations: traditional two's complement (TCS), Quadratic Residue Number System (QRNS) and radix-2j Redundant Complex Num

Nannarelli, Alberto

24

Filter-length word-length tradeoffs in FIR digital filter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a theorem which shows that there is a lower bound on the Chebyshev approximation error for linear-phase direct-form FIR digital filters, when the coefficients are constrained to be b-bit numbers. We then investigate the tradeoff between filter-length N and coefficient word-length b, using the product Nb as a complexity measure, for both the usual direct form and the

D. Kodek; KENNETH STEIGLITZ

1980-01-01

25

A class of linear-phase FIR filters for decimation, interpolation, and narrow-band filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters for decimation and interpolation is discussed. The transfer function of these filters is of the form H(z) = A (zD) B(z)where D is the decimation or interpolation ratio and A (zD) is realized at the lower sampling rate. The polynomial A (zD) is adjusted so that the overall

T. Saramaki

1984-01-01

26

The Dual Carrier ABSK System Based on a FIR Bandpass Filter  

PubMed Central

The special impacting filter (SIF) with IIR structure has been used to demodulate ABSK signals. The key points of SIF, including the resonance circuit's high Q value and the “slope-phase discrimination” character of the filter sideband, are demonstrated in the paper. The FIR narrow-band bandpass filtering system, which can also provide the impact-filtering effect, is proposed. A dual carrier system of ABSK signals is designed with the proposed FIR filter as its receiver. The simulation results show that the FIR filter can work well. Moreover, compared to the traditional SIF, the proposed FIR filter can not only achieve higher spectral efficiency, but also give better demodulation performance. PMID:24658625

Chen, Zhimin; Wu, Lenan; Wang, Jiwu

2014-01-01

27

Boundary implications for frequency response of interval FIR and IIR filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that vertex implication results in parameter space apply to interval trigonometric polynomials. Subsequently, it is shown that the frequency responses of both interval FIR and IIR filters are bounded by the frequency responses of certain extreme filters. The results apply directly in the evaluation of properties of designed filters, especially because it is more realistic to bound the filter coefficients from above and below instead of determining those with infinite precision because of finite arithmetic effects. Illustrative examples are provided to show how the extreme filters might be easily derived in any specific interval FIR or IIR filter design problem.

Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

1991-01-01

28

Design of optimal finite wordlength FIR digital filters using integer programming techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a general-purpose integer-programming computer program to the design of optimal finite wordlength FIR digital filters is described. Examples of two optimal low-pass FIR finite wordlength filters are given and the results are compared with the results obtained by rounding the infinite wordlength coefficients. An analysis of the approach based on the results of more than 50 design

DUSAN M. KODEK

1980-01-01

29

Coefficient Transformations for Area-Efficient Implementation of Multiplier-less FIR Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques based on common sub-computation extraction can be used to minimize number of additions in the multiplier-less implementations of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters. We present two types of coefficient transforms which used in conjunction with these techniques enable area-efficient realization of multiplier-less FIR filters. (i) Number theoretic transforms-that use redundant binary representations such as Canonical Sign Digit (CSD) (ii)

Mahesh Mehendale; Somdipta Basu Roy; Sunil D. Sherlekar; G. Venkatesh

1998-01-01

30

Non-Causal Fir Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or\\u000aselling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final\\u000aImpulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum,\\u000arespectively. Upon tis assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the\\u000a'best' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the\\u000areturn from the

Andrzej Dyka

2006-01-01

31

A computer program for designing optimum FIR linear phase digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general-purpose computer program which is capable of designing a large Class of optimum (in the minimax sense) FIR linear phase digital filters. The program has options for designing such standard filters as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop filters, as well as multipassband-stopband filters, differentiators, and Hilbert transformers. The program can also be used to design filters

JAMES H. MCCLELLAN; THOMAS W. PARKS; LAWRENCE R. RABINER

1973-01-01

32

Alternative approaches implementing high-performance FIR filters on lookup-table-based FPGAs: a comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite impulse response filters (FIR filters) are very commonly used in digital signal processing (DSP) applications and are traditionally implemented using ASICs or DSP-processors. For FPGA implementation, due to the high throughput rate and large computational power required under real-time constraints, they are a challenging subject. Indeed, the limitation of resources on FPGA, i.e., logic blocks and flip flops, and furthermore, the high routing delays, requires compact implementations of the circuits. Three approaches for implementation of high-performance symmetric FIR filters on lookup table-based FPGAs will be considered in this paper. Fully parallel distributed arithmetic, table lookup multiplication, and conventional hardware multiplication. Implementation results will be illustrated by an 8 taps 8 bits symmetric FIR filter, and comparative considerations of the above approaches invoked for Xilinx FPGAs will be also shown.

Do, Tien-Toan; Kropp, Holger; Reuter, Carsten; Pirsch, Peter

1998-10-01

33

Low power and high-speed implementation of fir filters for software defined radio receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most computationally intensive part of the wideband receiver of a software defined radio (SDR) is the intermediate frequency (IF) processing block. Digital filtering is the main task in IF processing. The computational complexity of finite impulse response (FIR) filters used in the IF processing block is dominated by the number of adders (subtractors) employed in the multipliers. This paper

A. Prasad Vinod; Edmund Ming-kit Lai

2006-01-01

34

Design of FIR pulse-shaping filter: Superiority of Differential Evolution optimization over Convex optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of different types of digital FIR filter is of paramount significance in various Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications. Different optimization techniques can judiciously be utilized to determine the impulse response coefficients of such a filter. These optimization techniques may include some conventional processes such as Convex or Non-convex optimization methods or some evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA),

S. Chattopadhyay; S. K. Sanyal; A. Chandra

2010-01-01

35

A Programmable 36-MHz Digital Filter Bank for Radio Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and constructed an agile 8-channel digital filter bank on a 9U VME board that operates at a maximum clock rate of 36 MHz. A set of these boards have been employed to create 100-200 MHz, 50-100 channel spectrometers. Our applications involve detection of weak signals in a background of noise--pulsar radio astronomy and the search for narrow-band radio emissions from extraterrestrial civilizations. The agility factors include total bandwidth, spacing of filter channels, selection of filter response and choice of output data format (voltage or detected power). The input is a complex analog voltage centered on zero frequency which is passed to the board via coaxial ports on the front panel. The computational kernels on this board are Harris HSP 43168 Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter devices. We can also operate the board in a 16-channel output mode. The 2-4 bit format digital output is presented to a custom backplane. Along with our development we have written a suite of simulation software tasks both to determine the sensitivity loss and non-linear gain response that result from quantization and to optimize filter responses. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

Backer, D. C.; Dexter, M. R.; Zepka, A.; Ng, D.; Werthimer, D. J.; Ray, P. S.; Foster, R. S.

1997-01-01

36

A new common subexpression elimination algorithm for implementing low complexity FIR filters in software defined radio receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters used in the channelizer of a software defined radio (SDR) receiver is dominated by the complexity of coefficient multipliers. It is well known that common subexpression elimination (CSE) methods based on canonical signed digit (CSD) coefficients produce low complexity FIR filter coefficient multipliers. A new CSE algorithm based on the

R. Mahesh; A. Prasad Vinod

2006-01-01

37

Design Techniques for Uniform-DFT, Linear Phase Filter Banks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniform-DFT filter banks are an important class of filter banks and their theory is well known. One notable characteristic is their very efficient implementation when using polyphase filters and the FFT. Separately, linear phase filter banks, i.e. filter banks in which the analysis filters have a linear phase are also an important class of filter banks and desired in many applications. Unfortunately, it has been proved that one cannot design critically-sampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks and achieve perfect reconstruction. In this paper, we present a least-squares solution to this problem and in addition prove that oversampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks (which are also useful in many applications) can be constructed for perfect reconstruction. Design examples are included illustrate the methods.

Sun, Honglin; DeLeon, Phillip

1999-01-01

38

Spatially-varying IIR filter banks for image coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on the application of spatially variant infinite impulse response (IIR) filter banks to subband image coding. The new filter bank is based on computationally efficient recursive polyphase decompositions that dynamically change in response to the input signal. In the absence of quantization, reconstruction can be made exact. However, by proper choice of an adaptation scheme, we show that subband image coding based on time varying filter banks can yield improvement over the use of conventional filter banks.

Chung, Wilson C.; Smith, Mark J. T.

1992-01-01

39

FIR Filter Design via Spectral Factorization and Convex Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

udio, spectrum shaping, ... ) upper bounds are convex in h; lower bounds are notMagnitude filter design problem involves magnitude specsClassical example: lowpass filter designlowpass filter with maximum stopband attenuation:521\\/51IS()l variables: h C R (filter coefficients),52 G R (stopband attenuation) parameters: 51 ( R (logarithmic passband ripple), n (order),Op (passband frequency), Os (stopband frequency)magnitude filter design problems are nonconvex can

Lieven Vandenberghe; Shao-po Wu; Stephen Boyd

1997-01-01

40

Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks  

SciTech Connect

The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

41

11.11 Two-Channel Filter Banks Two-Channel Filter Banks (M = 2)  

E-print Network

1/27 11.11 Two-Channel Filter Banks #12;2/27 Two-Channel Filter Banks (M = 2) We want to look ---= Analysis-Synthesis Transfer Function Output When Aliasing Has Been Cancelled: #12;10/27 Two at methods that are not based on the DFT In general we want to look at Fig. 12.26 from Porat ... and figure

Fowler, Mark

42

Voltage-buffer-based low-power area-efficient SC FIR filter for wireless communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new idea of finite impulse response (FIR) switched capacitor (SC) filter realization suitable for a wireless communication is proposed. A design on the circuit level for a CMOS 0.35 ?m process is presented. Main advantages of the proposed filter are low power consumption and small chip area occupation. In classic approaches to SC FIR filter realizations, such parameters like chip area, power consumption and signal quality are conflicting ones. There are various SC FIR architectures. Some are power economic, but need very complicated circuitry. Others have simple structures, but use a big number of high power active elements like operational amplifiers. We propose an approach, which is a compromise solution. Instead of using high power op amps, specialized low-power simple voltage followers have been introduced to reduce the chip area occupation and simultaneously not enlarge the power consumption. The proposed idea is to decrease the number of large capacitors by providing to some big capacitors a voltage from several small capacitors by means of the specialized voltage followers. Apart from power-economic operation, our followers are simple, including 8 transistors, and operate with high precision (of order 10-3). The resulting SC FIR filters dissipate relatively low power. Wireless channel filters based on SC FIR techniques are typically of the order 30 to 35. The proposed filter is designed just for such an order, and will dissipate less than 6 mW, being supplied by 3V, and occupies a chip area less than 1.5 mm2. The maximum signal frequency is close to 1.25 MHz. For a proper operation, the circuit needs only a 2.5 MHz clock generator, which is a low value. The clock generator is realized as an internal block, similarly as in our previous chips implemented in CMOS 0.8 ?m and 0.35 ?m processes.

Dlugosz, Rafal; Wojtyna, Ryszard

2005-06-01

43

Ultra low power switched current finite impulse response filter banks realized in CMOS 0.18 ?m technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra low power circuits are in high demand in many applications especially in wireless sensor networks (WSN), where energy is scavenged from environment. WSN systems contain different blocks, such as: sensors, filters, analog-to-digital converters, very often a simple processor and the RF front end block. This paper concerns ultra low power finite impulse response (FIR) filters and filter banks implemented in a switched current (SI) technique. In this paper new SI FIR filter structures and filter banks have been proposed. These circuits operate in the current mode and do not use operational amplifiers, what enables very low power dissipation on the level of several ?W. Proposed filters incorporate transistors working under threshold level for the voltage supply that is in the range 0.5 - 0.7 V. The simulated attenuation in the stopband of the frequency response is limited to about 45 dB, what is due to different nonidealities, but such value is usually sufficient in WSN applications. The SI technique features many interesting mechanisms that simplify realization of analog filter banks. The signal samples that are stored in the delay lane are in SI filters copied to the filter coefficients using current mirrors. As a result, there exists the possibility to connect many sets of filter coefficients to a single delay line without the speed limitation. Ultra low power operation of proposed filters is also possible due to a special structure of the clock generator that only consists from switches and NOT gates.

D?ugosz, Rafa?

2007-05-01

44

Optimization of FIR digital filters over the canonical signed-digit coefficient space using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent paper a novel approach was presented for the restoration of canonical signed-digit (CSD) numbers to their correct format after the application of crossover and mutation operations in genetic algorithms. This paper is concerned with the development of a new technique for the optimization of FIR digital filters over the CSD coefficient space based on genetic algorithms. This

A. T. G. Fuller; B. Nowrouzian; F. Ashrafzadeh

1998-01-01

45

Optimum Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Low-Pass Filtering of Market Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this contribution is to compare 9 cases of FIR (Finite Impulse Response) type filters, by using approximation theory based norms for the following output parameters: delay and correlation between input and output, and ``smoothness'' of the output derivative. It was found that the most commonly used rectangular shape of impulse response is in general not an optimum

A. Dyka; M. Kazmierczak

2005-01-01

46

A novel architecture design for VLSI implementation of an FIR decimation filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel architecture design of a one stage FIR filter for decimation is described. It performs the decimation of a 1-bit code at 1024KHz of double integration Sigma Delta modulation output to PCM at 16KHz. This architecture is designed in such a way that it needs only a simple control structure suitable for VLSI implementation. We devised an algorithm for

H. Meleis; P. Le Fur

1985-01-01

47

A filter family designed for use in quadrature mirror filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a family of filters that have been designed for Quadrature Mirror Filter (QMF) Banks. These filters provide a significant improvement over conventional optimal equiripple and window designs when used in QMF banks. The performance criterion for these filters differ from those usually used for filter design in a way which makes the usual filter design techniques difficult

J. D. Johnston

1980-01-01

48

METEOR: a constraint-based FIR filter design program  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed to specify a filter only in terms of upper and lower limits on the response, find the shortest filter length which allows these constraints to be met, and then find a filter of that order which is farthest from the upper and lower constraint boundaries in a minimax sense. The simplex algorithm for linear programming is used

Kenneth Steiglitz; Thomas W. Parks; James F. Kaiser

1992-01-01

49

Compensation of two-periodic nonuniform holding signal distortions by using a variable FIR filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a Farrow-based variable FIR filter to compensate distortions in digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that are due to two-periodic nonuniform holding signals. Without compensation such holding signals introduce distortions that reduce the DAC performance considerably. By utilizing a discrete-time model of a zero-order hold, we first derive the ideal frequency responses of the compensation filters. Then we exploit the spectral

Christian Vogel

2008-01-01

50

A Low Power Linear Phase Digital FIR Filter for Wearable ECG Devices.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a low power linear phase digital FIR filter which is a part of an ECG-on-Chip. The ECG-on-Chip can be embedded into clothing to acquire the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and send a warning message to a mobile phone or PDA if an abnormal ECG is detected. The proposed new filter structure significantly reduces the arithmetic operations for each sample which in turn lowers the power consumption. The filter is developed based on the interpolated finite impulse filter technique and is very attractive for a low cost and low power VLSI implementation. PMID:17281980

Lian, Yong; Yu, Jianghong

2005-01-01

51

Optimized FIR filters for digital pulse compression of biphase codes with low sidelobes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In miniaturized radars where power, real estate, speed and low cost are tight constraints and Doppler tolerance is not a major concern biphase codes are popular and FIR filter is used for digital pulse compression (DPC) implementation to achieve required range resolution. Disadvantage of low peak to sidelobe ratio (PSR) of biphase codes can be overcome by linear programming for either single stage mismatched filter or two stage approach i.e. matched filter followed by sidelobe suppression filter (SSF) filter. Linear programming (LP) calls for longer filter lengths to obtain desirable PSR. Longer the filter length greater will be the number of multipliers, hence more will be the requirement of logic resources used in the FPGAs and many time becomes design challenge for system on chip (SoC) requirement. This requirement of multipliers can be brought down by clustering the tap weights of the filter by kmeans clustering algorithm at the cost of few dB deterioration in PSR. The cluster centroid as tap weight reduces logic used in FPGA for FIR filters to a great extent by reducing number of weight multipliers. Since k-means clustering is an iterative algorithm, centroid for weights cluster is different in different iterations and causes different clusters. This causes difference in clustering of weights and sometimes even it may happen that lesser number of multiplier and lesser length of filter provide better PSR.

Sanal, M.; Kuloor, R.; Sagayaraj, M. J.

52

Noise attenuation properties of non-recursive FIR filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noise filtering properties of digital filters are studied using the classic analogue Butterworth model. We derive simple expressions for the noise power output associated with low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-reject and types III and IV Mth-order digital differentiating filters in terms of their frequency characteristics. These results allow the user to quantify the extent of noise reduction, and hence the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio inherent in the application of a digital filter, or combinations of such filters, as a function of its bandwidth. In one application involving over-sampled fringes obtained from a white light Fabry-Perot interferometer, we show that it is possible to obtain 85% reduction in noise from a low-pass filter with normalized cut-off frequency of 0.15. In preliminary applications involving differentiators we observed significant noise reduction when applied to the said fringes.

DeFreitas, J. M.

2003-09-01

53

Recursive time-varying filter banks for subband image coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filter banks and wavelet decompositions that employ recursive filters have been considered previously and are recognized for their efficiency in partitioning the frequency spectrum. This paper presents an analysis of a new infinite impulse response (IIR) filter bank in which these computationally efficient filters may be changed adaptively in response to the input. The filter bank is presented and discussed in the context of finite-support signals with the intended application in subband image coding. In the absence of quantization errors, exact reconstruction can be achieved and by the proper choice of an adaptation scheme, it is shown that IIR time-varying filter banks can yield improvement over conventional ones.

Smith, Mark J. T.; Chung, Wilson C.

1992-01-01

54

Non-Causal Fir Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets  

E-print Network

In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon tis assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the 'best' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from the market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduced by the a priori known filter. The best result were obtained for the impulse response given by the Pascal triangle and the family of symmetric power triangles, both for the case of trading with, and without the transaction fee. It was found that the transaction fee dramatically reduces a possible net return from the market, and therefore should not be omitted in market analyzes.

Dyka, A

2006-01-01

55

Optimal Design of CSD Coefficient FIR Filters Subject to Number of Nonzero Digits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a hardware implementation of FIR(Finite Impulse Response) digital filters, it is desired to reduce a total number of nonzero digits used for a representation of filter coefficients. In general, a design problem of FIR filters with CSD(Canonic Signed Digit) representation, which is efficient one for the reduction of numbers of multiplier units, is often considered as one of the 0-1 combinational problems. In such the problem, some difficult constraints make us prevent to linearize the problem. Although many kinds of heuristic approaches have been applied to solve the problem, the solution obtained by such a manner could not guarantee its optimality. In this paper, we attempt to formulate the design problem as the 0-1 mixed integer linear programming problem and solve it by using the branch and bound technique, which is a powerful method for solving integer programming problem. Several design examples are shown to present an efficient performance of the proposed method.

Ozaki, Yuichi; Suyama, Kenji

56

On the design of FIR digital data transmission filters with arbitrary magnitude specifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple algorithm is presented for the design of FIR data transmission filters with arbitrary magnitude specifications. The technique involves the iterative solution of a set of linear equations as opposed to the more common approach of applying linear programming to the data transmission filter design problem. The design algorithm can accommodate conventional Nyquist filters or Nyquist filters with a non-negative frequency response that can be subsequently split into matched filter pairs using spectral factorization techniques. The filters can have equiripple stopbands or can be specified to satisfy arbitrary magnitude specifications, which is a common requirement in data transmission applications. Design examples are presented for filters satisfying FCC mask specifications for digital microwave radio channels.

Samueli, Henry

1991-12-01

57

Comparison of orthonormal adaptive FIR and IIR filter realizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss both the utilization of a particular realization for an adaptive IIR filter and a related special structural interpretation of the Steiglitz-McBride method for the updating of the coefficients. The main application emphasis is oriented to echo cancellation but other areas of adaptive signal processing can be included, as for example postcursor filter in decision feedback equalization. The particular

I. Salama; J. E. Cousseau

1998-01-01

58

New Implementations of Analog FIR and IIR Filters Exhibiting a Potential for Wide Signal Bandwidth and Programmability  

Microsoft Academic Search

New implementations of analog finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) filter topologies devoid of operational amplifiers are presented. The circuits consist of various connections of delay lines and controlled current sources. The design problem associated with these new structures is considered, and is similar to procedures currently in existence for digital realizations of FIR and IIR circuits.

Frederick J. Winter

1993-01-01

59

Improved design procedure for multiplierless FIR digital filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for optimizing the design of multiplierless finite impulse response digital filters is described. In the procedure, real filter coefficients are first obtained by a standard method, are truncated, and finally are represented by either single powers of 2 or sums or differences of two powers of two. It is shown that, compared with both the conventional design methods and to other multiplierless design algorithms, the technique yields simpler realizations.

Shaffeu, H.; Jones, M. M.; Griffiths, H. D.; Taylor, J. T.

1991-06-01

60

An adaptive filter bank for motor imagery based Brain Computer Interface.  

PubMed

Brain Computer Interface (BCI) provides an alternative communication and control method for people with severe motor disabilities. Motor imagery patterns are widely used in Electroencephalogram (EEG) based BCIs. These motor imagery activities are associated with variation in alpha and beta band power of EEG signals called Event Related Desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS). The dominant frequency bands are subject-specific and therefore performance of motor imagery based BCIs are sensitive to both temporal filtering and spatial filtering. As the optimum filter is strongly subject-dependent, we propose a method that selects the subject-specific discriminative frequency components using time-frequency plots of Fisher ratio of two-class motor imagery patterns. We also propose a low complexity adaptive Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter bank system based on coefficient decimation technique which can realize the subject-specific bandpass filters adaptively depending on the information of Fisher ratio map. Features are extracted only from the selected frequency components. The proposed adaptive filter bank based system offers average classification accuracy of about 90%, which is slightly better than the existing fixed filter bank system. PMID:19162856

Thomas, Kavitha P; Guan, Cuntai; Tong, Lau Chiew; Prasad, Vinod A

2008-01-01

61

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL 40. NO 8. AUGUST 1992 1901 METEOR: A Constraint-Based FIR Filter Design  

E-print Network

-Based FIR Filter Design Program Kenneth Steiglitz, Fellow, IEEE, Thomas W. Parks, Fellow, IEEE, and James F. Steiglitz is with the Department of Computer Science, Princeton Uni- versity, Princeton, NJ 08544-2087. T. W

Steiglitz, Kenneth

62

Embedded FIR filter design for real-time refocusing using a standard plenoptic video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and low-cost embedded hardware architecture for real-time refocusing based on a standard plenoptic camera is presented in this study. The proposed layout design synthesizes refocusing slices directly from micro images by omitting the process for the commonly used sub-aperture extraction. Therefore, intellectual property cores, containing switch controlled Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, are developed and applied to the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) XC6SLX45 from Xilinx. Enabling the hardware design to work economically, the FIR filters are composed of stored product as well as upsampling and interpolation techniques in order to achieve an ideal relation between image resolution, delay time, power consumption and the demand of logic gates. The video output is transmitted via High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) with a resolution of 720p at a frame rate of 60 fps conforming to the HD ready standard. Examples of the synthesized refocusing slices are presented.

Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar

2014-03-01

63

Comparison of optimal and local search methods for designing finite wordlength FIR digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparison between an optimal (branch-and-bound) algorithm and a suboptimal (local search) algorithm for the design of finite wordlength finite-impulse-response (FIR) digital filters. Experimental results are described for 11 examples of length 15 to 35. It is concluded that when computer resources are not available for the optimal method, it is still worth applying the local search

D. Kodek; K. Steiglitz

1981-01-01

64

Implementation of large-scale fir adaptive filters on NVIDIA GeForce graphics processing unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents implementations of an FIR adaptive filter with a large number of taps on nVIDIA GeForce graphics processing unit (GPU) and CUDA software development environment. In order to overcome a long access latency for slow off-chip memory access, reduction of memory accesses by re-ordering and vector load\\/store operations and an increase of the number of threads are introduced.

Akihiro Hirano; Kenji Nakayama

2010-01-01

65

An Adaptively Pipelined Mixed Synchronous-Asynchronous Digital FIR Filter Chip Operating at 1.3 Gigahertz  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-throughput low-latency digital finite impulse response (FIR) filter has been designed for use in partial-response maximum-likelihood (PRML) read channels of modern disk drives. The filter is a hybrid synchronous-asynchronous design. The speed-critical portion of the filter is designed as a high-performance asynchronous pipeline sandwiched between synchronous input and output portions, making it possible for the entire filter to be

Montek Singh; José A. Tierno; Alexander Rylyakov; Sergey Rylov; Steven M. Nowick

2010-01-01

66

Wideband digital Quadrature Transformation based on perfect reconstruction filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadrature Transformation based on Hilbert transform method to wideband signal is not suited to engineering application because the group delay can make severe aliasing. Wideband digital quadrature transformation based on perfect reconstruction filter banks is put forward in this paper. The wideband signal is divided into sub-band signals by analysis filter bank, then let the negative parts of the output

Xiaohong Huang; Zhenmiao Deng

2011-01-01

67

An unbiased FIR filter for TIE model of a local clock in applications to GPS-based timekeeping.  

PubMed

An unbiased finite impulse response (FIR) filter is proposed to estimate the time-interval error (TIE) K-degree polynomial model of a local clock in global positioning system (GPS)-based timekeeping in the presence of noise that is not obligatory Gaussian. Generic coefficients for the unbiased FIRs are derived. The low-degree FIRs and noise power gains are given. An estimation algorithm is proposed and examined for the TIE measurements of a crystal clock in the presence of the uniformly distributed sawtooth noise induced by the multichannel GPS timing receiver. Based upon this algorithm, we show that the unbiased FIR estimates are consistent with the reference (rubidium) measurements and fit them better than the standard Kalman filter. PMID:16764441

Shmaliy, Yuriy S

2006-05-01

68

Design of Digital Filters and Filter Banks by Optimization: A State of the Art Review  

E-print Network

Design of Digital Filters and Filter Banks by Optimization: A State of the Art Review W.-S. Lu as described below. For the sake of simplicity, we consider the problem of de- signing a linear-phase, lowpass

Lu, Wu-Sheng

69

Optimized FPGA Implementation of Multi-Rate FIR Filters Through Thread Decomposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-rate finite impulse response (MRFIR) filters are among the essential signal-processing components in spaceborne instruments where finite impulse response filters are often used to minimize nonlinear group delay and finite precision effects. Cascaded (multistage) designs of MRFIR filters are further used for large rate change ratio in order to lower the required throughput, while simultaneously achieving comparable or better performance than single-stage designs. Traditional representation and implementation of MRFIR employ polyphase decomposition of the original filter structure, whose main purpose is to compute only the needed output at the lowest possible sampling rate. In this innovation, an alternative representation and implementation technique called TD-MRFIR (Thread Decomposition MRFIR) is presented. The basic idea is to decompose MRFIR into output computational threads, in contrast to a structural decomposition of the original filter as done in the polyphase decomposition. A naive implementation of a decimation filter consisting of a full FIR followed by a downsampling stage is very inefficient, as most of the computations performed by the FIR state are discarded through downsampling. In fact, only 1/M of the total computations are useful (M being the decimation factor). Polyphase decomposition provides an alternative view of decimation filters, where the downsampling occurs before the FIR stage, and the outputs are viewed as the sum of M sub-filters with length of N/M taps. Although this approach leads to more efficient filter designs, in general the implementation is not straightforward if the numbers of multipliers need to be minimized. In TD-MRFIR, each thread represents an instance of the finite convolution required to produce a single output of the MRFIR. The filter is thus viewed as a finite collection of concurrent threads. Each of the threads completes when a convolution result (filter output value) is computed, and activated when the first input of the convolution becomes available. Thus, the new threads get spawned at exactly the rate of N/M, where N is the total number of taps, and M is the decimation factor. Existing threads retire at the same rate of N/M. The implementation of an MRFIR is thus transformed into a problem to statically schedule the minimum number of multipliers such that all threads can be completed on time. Solving the static scheduling problem is rather straightforward if one examines the Thread Decomposition Diagram, which is a table-like diagram that has rows representing computation threads and columns representing time. The control logic of the MRFIR can be implemented using simple counters. Instead of decomposing MRFIRs into subfilters as suggested by polyphase decomposition, the thread decomposition diagrams transform the problem into a familiar one of static scheduling, which can be easily solved as the input rate is constant.

Kobayashi, Kayla N.; He, Yutao; Zheng, Jason X.

2011-01-01

70

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 45, NO. 6, PP. 1415--1427, JUNE 1997 1 On Fast FIR Filters Implemented as TailCanceling  

E-print Network

. Definitions A general causal N­th order FIR filter consists of a tapped delay line N elements long and a table digital filters which have constant group delay across all frequencies. The tradeoff is that to achieve

Smith III, Julius Orion

71

On two-channel filter banks with directional vanishing moments.  

PubMed

The contourlet transform was proposed to address the limited directional resolution of the separable wavelet transform. One way to guarantee good approximation behavior is to let the directional filters in the contourlet filter bank have sharp frequency response. This requires filters with large support size. We seek to isolate the key filter property that ensures good approximation. In this direction, we propose filters with directional vanishing moments (DVM). These filters, we show, annihilate information along a given direction. We study two-channel filter banks with DVM filters. We provide conditions under which the design of DVM filter banks is possible. A complete characterization of the product filter is, thus, obtained. We propose a design framework that avoids 2-D factorization using the mapping technique. The filters designed, when used in the contourlet transform, exhibit nonlinear approximation comparable to the conventional filters while being shorter and, therefore, providing better visual quality with less ringing artifacts. Furthermore, experiments show that the proposed filters outperform the conventional ones in image approximation and denoising. PMID:17491453

da Cunha, Arthur L; Do, Minh N

2007-05-01

72

A filter bank-based source extraction algorithm for heart sound removal in respiratory sounds.  

PubMed

In this paper, we consider the problem of heart sounds (HS) removal from respiratory sounds (RS), and a novel semi-blind single-channel source extraction algorithm is proposed. The proposed method is able to extract the underlying pure RS from the HS corrupted noisy input signals by incorporating the filter banks and template-based matching using FIR filters. For performance evaluation of the presented method, the average power spectral densities (PSD) of the input RS segments without HS have been compared with the PSD of the reconstructed signals over six selected frequency bands from 20 to 800Hz. The proposed method is tested for various types of RS recordings and found effective by yielding an overall maximum spectral difference of 2.8707+/-0.9875dB for a frequency range below 800Hz. PMID:19596272

Jin, F; Sattar, F; Goh, D Y T

2009-09-01

73

Structured Noise Removal By Using A High Flexible 2D Fir Digital Filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on the adjustment of data acquisition devices, medical images may be degraded by structured noise, which has to be removed before further steps of image processing techniques like contour finding or feature extraction are applied. In the 2D frequency domain of an image, structured noise usually is characterized by a pattern with relatively sharp bounded regions. So, to loose not too much image information by filtering, it is necessary to apply a digital filter, whose bandstop-region has nearly the same pattern as the structured noise region. In this paper, a polynomal approximation algorithm within the scope of the window method of designing 2D Finite-duration Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters is presented, with which it is possible to design lowpass-, highpass-, bandpass-, and bandstop-filters of arbitrary shape, size and position in the 2D frequency domain. The effect of enhancement by this method on a 2D-echocardiogram degraded by ripple structured noise is demonstrated.

Hecker, R.; Poppl, S. J.

1982-11-01

74

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [89] MAY 2010 inite impulse response (FIR) filters have played a central role in dig-  

E-print Network

. Of particular note are METEOR [10] and the peak-constrained least-squares (PCLS) approach [11], [12]. METEOR, and effective algorithms for solving them have been available for some time. Around the time that METEOR IEEE a flexible plat- form for FIR filter design that captures the spirit of METEOR, but encapsulates a richer

Davidson, Tim

75

Realization of tapped delay lines using switched-capacitor LDI ladders and application to FIR filter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a method for realizing tapped delay lines using switched-capacitor LDI ladders. A synthesis procedure for finite-impulse-response switched-capacitor filters (FIR SCFs) based on this delay line is proposed, and the stability problem for this class of circuits is discussed

Hiroshi Iwakura

1993-01-01

76

Soil seed banks and plant community assembly following disturbance by fire and logging in interior Douglas-fir forests of south-central  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between soil seed banks and aboveground understory vegetation were examined in dry Douglas- fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Beissn.) Franco) forests near Kamloops, British Columbia, to compare the effects of different disturbance types (low and high severity fires and non-salvage logging), and to evaluate how seed banks contribute to post-disturbance vegetation establishment. Sites were selected to represent disturbances at 1, 5,

Kaeli E. Stark; Gary E. Bradfield

2006-01-01

77

Adaptive Interference Suppression for DS-CDMA Systems Based on Interpolated FIR Filters With Adaptive Interpolators in Multipath Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an adaptive linear-receiver structure based on interpolated finite-impulse response (FIR) filters with adaptive interpolators for direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) systems in multipath channels. The interpolated minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) and the interpolated constrained minimum-variance (CMV) solutions are described for a novel scheme, where the interpolator is rendered time-varying in order to mitigate multiple-access interference and

Rodrigo C. de Lamare; Raimundo Sampaio-Neto

2007-01-01

78

New results and open problems on nonuniform filter-banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonuniform filter-banks (FBs) have traditionally been built either by cascading uniform ones in a tree structure or by direct design methods that lead to near-perfect reconstruction. However many theoretical issues remain unresolved. This paper begins by pointing out a number of these issues, and summarizes the known conditions for existence of nonuniform perfect reconstruction (PR) FBs. As a new contribution,

Sony Akkarakaran; P. P. Vaidyanathan

1999-01-01

79

AN ADAPTIVE PROJECTION ALGORITHM FOR MULTIRATE FILTER BANK OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

to the nonquadratic nature of the cost function to be minimized, and accordingly non gradient algorithms may offer to the global minimum of the cost function, while at the same time avoiding potential local minima due to itsAN ADAPTIVE PROJECTION ALGORITHM FOR MULTIRATE FILTER BANK OPTIMIZATION Dong-Yan Huang and Phillip

Regalia, Phillip A.

80

Low Power Realization and Synthesis of Higher-Order FIR Filters Using an Improved Common Subexpression Elimination Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters is mainly dominated by the number of adders (subtractors) used to implement the coefficient multipliers. It is well known that Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) method based on Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) representation considerably reduces the number of adders in coefficient multipliers. Recently, a binary-based CSE (BSE) technique was proposed, which produced better reduction of adders compared to the CSD-based CSE. In this paper, we propose a new 4-bit binary representation-based CSE (BCSE-4) method which employs 4-bit Common Subexpressions (CSs) for implementing higher order low-power FIR filters. The proposed BCSE-4 offers better reduction of adders by eliminating the redundant 4-bit CSs that exist in the binary representation of filter coefficients. The reduction of adders is achieved with a small increase in critical path length of filter coefficient multipliers. Design examples show that our BCSE-4 gives an average power consumption reduction of 5.2% and 6.1% over the best known CSE method (BSE, NR-SCSE) respectively, when synthesized with TSMC-0.18µm technology. We show that our BCSE-4 offers an overall adder reduction of 6.5% compared to BSE without any increase in critical path length of filter coefficient multipliers.

Smitha, K. G.; Vinod, A. P.

81

Electroencephalographic compression based on modulated filter banks and wavelet transform.  

PubMed

Due to the large volume of information generated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) study, compression is needed for storage, processing or transmission for analysis. In this paper we evaluate and compare two lossy compression techniques applied to EEG signals. It compares the performance of compression schemes with decomposition by filter banks or wavelet Packets transformation, seeking the best value for compression, best quality and more efficient real time implementation. Due to specific properties of EEG signals, we propose a quantization stage adapted to the dynamic range of each band, looking for higher quality. The results show that the compressor with filter bank performs better than transform methods. Quantization adapted to the dynamic range significantly enhances the quality. PMID:22255966

Bazán-Prieto, Carlos; Cárdenas-Barrera, Julián; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando

2011-01-01

82

A new design algorithm for two-band orthonormal rational filter banks and orthonormal rational wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new algorithm for the design of orthonormal two-band rational filter banks. Owing to the connection between iterated rational filter banks and rational wavelets, this is also a design algorithm for orthonormal rational wavelets. It is basically a simple iterative procedure, which explains its exponential convergence and adaptability under various linear constraints (e,g., regularity). Although the filters obtained

Thierry Blu

1998-01-01

83

PYRAMIDAL DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANKS AND CURVELETS Minh N. Do y and Martin Vetterli yx  

E-print Network

the digital curvelet transform. The regularity issue of the iterated filters in the directional filter bank National Science Foundation grant number 21­52439.97. between PDFB and the curvelet transform. FinallyPYRAMIDAL DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANKS AND CURVELETS Minh N. Do y and Martin Vetterli yx y Audio

Do, Minh N.

84

PYRAMIDAL DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANKS AND CURVELETS Minh N. Doy and Martin Vetterliyx  

E-print Network

the digital curvelet transform. The regularity issue of the iterated filters in the directional filter bank National Science Foundation grant number 21-52439.97. between PDFB and the curvelet transform. FinallyPYRAMIDAL DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANKS AND CURVELETS Minh N. Doy and Martin Vetterliyx y

Do, Minh N.

85

A filter bank for the directional decomposition of images: theory and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce a directionally oriented 2-D filter bank with the property that the individual channels may be critically sampled without loss of information. The passband regions of the component filters are wedge-shaped and thus provide directional information. It is shown that these filter bank outputs may be maximally decimated to achieve a minimum sample representation in a way that

Roberto H. Bamberger; Mark J. T. Smith

1992-01-01

86

Evaluation of least squares designed contrast-enhancing FIR filters for automatic segmentation of 3D confocal images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent advances in high-speed confocal imaging, data storage, and computational power, practical high-speed 3D cytometry instrumentation is on the horizon. For 3D cytometry to become practical for example from the perspective of a pathologist, speed attained in part by walk-away automation is fundamentally important. This level of automation can only be obtained with fully automated segmentation of image objects from background. Accuracy of this first image analysis task is crucial since it determines the results of all subsequent quantitative analyses. Confocal cell images often have low contrast due to both inherently low signal-to-noise ratios and high cell- cell contrast ratios that can occupy much of the available imaging dynamic range. A contrast-enhancing technique previously developed for 2D images of fluorescent cell nuclei was extended for 3D confocal images (stacks of 2D image slices). Edge sharpening and contrast-enhancement necessary for automatic thresholding are achieved by filtering with a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. These optimal FIR filters range in size from 3 X3X3X to 13X13X13 and were designed by utilizing the perceptron criterion and nonlinear least squares on confocal training datasets derived from fluorescent microspheres. By utilizing fluorescent beads of known shapes and sizes, the ideal (or standard) segmented image is known a priori. The contrast-enhancing performance of these filters on 3D confocal images of DAPI stained cell nuclei demonstrates that they should lead to accurate, fully automated 3D image segmentation.

Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.

2002-05-01

87

Canonical Signed Digit Study. Part 2; FIR Digital Filter Simulation Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite Impulse Response digital filter using Canonical Signed-Digit (CSD) number representation for the coefficients has been studied and its computer simulation results are presented here. Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion is employed to optimize filter coefficients into the corresponding CSD numbers. To further improve coefficients optimization process, an extra non-zero bit is added for any filter coefficients exceeding 1/2. This technique improves frequency response of filter without increasing filter complexity almost at all. The simulation results show outstanding performance in bit-error-rate (BER) curve for all CSD implemented digital filters included in this presentation material.

Kim, Heechul

1996-01-01

88

Analog FIR Filter Used for Range-Optimal Pulsed Radar Applications  

E-print Network

Matched filter is one of the most critical block in radar applications. With different measured range and relative velocity of a target we will need different bandwidth of the matched filter to maximize the radar signal to noise ratio (SNR...

Su, Eric Chen

2014-08-13

89

USING PHASE AND MAGNITUDE INFORMATION OF THE COMPLEX DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANK FOR TEXTURE SEGMENTATION  

E-print Network

USING PHASE AND MAGNITUDE INFORMATION OF THE COMPLEX DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANK FOR TEXTURE and segmentation. Simulation results show that the CDFB phase information is complementary to the magnitude. Lower- mentation. This paper discusses how magnitude and phase informa- tion of the complex directional filter bank

Oraintara, Soontorn

90

Vector space framework for unification of one- and multidimensional filter bank theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of results in filter bank theory can be viewed using vector space notations. This simplifies the proofs of many important results. In this paper, we first introduce the framework of vector space, and then use this framework to derive some known and some new filter bank results as well. For example, the relation among the Hermitian image property,

Tsuhan Chen; P. P. Vaidyanathan

1994-01-01

91

Reconstruction of band-limited periodic nonuniformly sampled signals through multirate filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A band-limited signal can be recovered from its periodic nonuniformly spaced samples provided the average sampling rate is at least the Nyquist rate. A multirate filter bank structure is used to both model this nonuniform sampling (through the analysis bank) and reconstruct a uniformly sampled sequence (through the synthesis bank). Several techniques for modeling the nonuniform sampling are presented for

Ryan S. Prendergast; Bernard C. Levy; Paul J. Hurst

2004-01-01

92

Using modulated filter banks for ISI/ICI-corrupted multicarrier transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we proposed an algorithm using symbol- overlapping, redundant transforms for both, transmitter and receiver. We show that a combination of a low-delay cosine- modulated filter bank at the transmitter and an optimized filter bank at the receiver performs as good as the Discrete Multitone solution, but with much smaller latency time. For channel equalization Zero-Forcing and MMSE methods are used. Different methods of redundancy insertion used for a better channel equalization are discussed. Due to better stopband attenuation of the basis filters modulated filter banks show less sensitivity to Intersymbol and Intercarrier Interference and narrowband interferers.

Trautmann, Steffen; Karp, Tanja; Fliege, Norbert J.

1999-10-01

93

Extraction and tracking of MRI tagging sheets using a 3D Gabor filter bank.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a novel method for automatically extracting the tagging sheets in tagged cardiac MR images, and tracking their displacement during the heart cycle, using a tunable 3D Gabor filter bank. Tagged MRI is a non-invasive technique for the study of myocardial deformation. We design the 3D Gabor filter bank based on the geometric characteristics of the tagging sheets. The tunable parameters of the Gabor filter bank are used to adapt to the myocardium deformation. The whole 3D image dataset is convolved with each Gabor filter in the filter bank, in the Fourier domain. Then we impose a set of deformable meshes onto the extracted tagging sheets and track them over time. Dynamic estimation of the filter parameters and the mesh internal smoothness are used to help the tracking. Some very encouraging results are shown. PMID:17946853

Qian, Zhen; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Axel, Leon

2006-01-01

94

A Recursive Variable Fractional Delay FIR Filters Design Scheme Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel recursive scheme to compute the global and robust optimal variable fractional delay (VFD) filters based on the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is developed in this paper. If the PSO is directly used to compute an optimal VFD filter the particles with high dimension might be yielded, which could require a long convergence time. Our recursive scheme invokes only

Dongyan Sun; Jiaxiang Zhao; Xiaoming Zhao

2009-01-01

95

Polyphase networks, block digital filtering, LPTV systems, and alias-free QMF banks: a unified approach based on pseudocirculants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between block digital filtering and quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks is explored. Necessary and sufficient conditions for alias cancellation in QMF banks are expressed in terms of an associated matrix, derived from the polyphase components of the analysis and synthesis filters. These conditions, called the pseudocirculant conditions, make it possible to unite QMF banks with the framework of

P. P. Vaidyanathan; SANJIT K. MITRA

1988-01-01

96

An analytical formula for the design of quadrature mirror filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadrature mirror filters have an outstanding relevance in the implementation of filter banks for dividing the speech signal into frequency bands and for reconstructing it from these subbands. An analytical formula is given, which allows one to optimize the design of the basic low-pass FIR filter by means of a straight nonlinear minimization procedure.

GIANCARLO PIRANI; VALERIO ZINGARELLI

1984-01-01

97

Two design techiques for 2-D FIR LoG filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most popular technique for edge detection is based on the convolution of the image with a LoG operator namely the Laplacian of Gaussian characterized by a space constant a. We propose an approximation of this operator in the frequency domain by means of a finite impulse response filter with powers-of-two coefficients. According to the space constant value two types of realization are considered the direct form or a Chebyshev structure derived on the McClellan transformation. Both techniques lead to efficient implementation of the filters which do not require actual multipliers. Results on a test image are presented for those multiplierless filters together with those obtained by a direct computation of the LoG operator with infinite precision coefficients and it is concluded there are no significant differences.

Siohan, Pierre; Pele, Danielle; Ouvrard, Valery

1990-09-01

98

CHARGE-BASED CMOS FIR ADAPTIVE FILTER Milutin Stanacevic and Gert Cauwenberghs  

E-print Network

a large number of taps. In our system, a 64-tap analog delay line is realized. The cumulative effect will describe in detail each of the building blocks of an adaptive filter: delay line, adaptation cell and multiply-and-accumulate cir- cuit with output driver. 2.1. Delay Line Typical audio applications require

Stanacevic, Milutin

99

Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals  

DOEpatents

A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

2014-10-14

100

Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals  

DOEpatents

A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

2014-05-20

101

Design of multi-channel near-perfect-reconstruction transmultiplexers using cosine-modulated filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the design of nearly perfect reconstruction transmultiplexer systems based on cosine-modulated filter banks. Under the same scheme of cosine-modulation, several families of transmultiplexer systems are derived, the main difference of which is the prototype filter. We show several ways of obtaining this filter and we also propose a new technique for designing high-quality prototype filters. A comparative

Fernando Cruz-roldán; Ángel M. Bravo-santos; Pilar Martín-martín; Roberto Jiménez-martínez

2003-01-01

102

Design of FIR digital filters for pulse shaping and channel equalization using time-domain optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three algorithms are developed for designing finite impulse response digital filters to be used for pulse shaping and channel equalization. The first is the Minimax algorithm which uses linear programming to design a frequency-sampling filter with a pulse shape that approximates the specification in a minimax sense. Design examples are included which accurately approximate a specified impulse response with a maximum error of 0.03 using only six resonators. The second algorithm is an extension of the Minimax algorithm to design preset equalizers for channels with known impulse responses. Both transversal and frequency-sampling equalizer structures are designed to produce a minimax approximation of a specified channel output waveform. Examples of these designs are compared as to the accuracy of the approximation, the resultant intersymbol interference (ISI), and the required transmitted energy. While the transversal designs are slightly more accurate, the frequency-sampling designs using six resonators have smaller ISI and energy values.

Houts, R. C.; Vaughn, G. L.

1974-01-01

103

Design and Performance of Overlap FFT Filter-Bank for Dynamic Spectrum Access Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An OFDMA-based (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access-based) channel access scheme for dynamic spectrum access has the drawbacks of large PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) and large ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference). To solve these problems, a flexible channel access scheme using an overlap FFT filter-bank was proposed based on single carrier modulation for dynamic spectrum access. In order to apply the overlap FFT filter-bank for dynamic spectrum access, it is necessary to clarify the performance of the overlap FFT filter-bank according to the design parameters since its frequency characteristics are critical for dynamic spectrum access applications. This paper analyzes the overlap FFT filter-bank and evaluates its performance such as frequency characteristics and ACI performance according to the design parameters.

Tanabe, Motohiro; Umehira, Masahiro

104

Cryptanalysis of a computer cryptography scheme based on a filter bank  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes the security of a recently-proposed signal encryption scheme based on a filter bank. A very critical weakness of this new signal encryption procedure is exploited in order to successfully recover the associated secret key.

David Arroyo; Chengqing Li; Shujun Li; Gonzalo Alvarez

2007-10-29

105

Parallel digital modem using multirate digital filter banks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of architectures for an all-digital modem is presented in this report. This architecture, referred to as the parallel receiver (PRX), is based on employing multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to demodulate, track, and detect the received symbol stream. The resulting architecture is derived, and specifications are outlined for designing the DFB for the PRX. The key feature of this approach is a lower processing rate then either the Nyquist rate or the symbol rate, without any degradation in the symbol error rate. Due to the freedom in choosing the processing rate, the designer is able to arbitrarily select and use digital components, independent of the speed of the integrated circuit technology. PRX architecture is particularly suited for high data rate applications, and due to the modular structure of the parallel signal path, expansion to even higher data rates is accommodated with each. Applications of the PRX would include gigabit satellite channels, multiple spacecraft, optical links, interactive cable-TV, telemedicine, code division multiple access (CDMA) communications, and others.

Sadr, Ramin; Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Raphaeli, Dan; Hinedi, Sami

1994-01-01

106

USING PHASE AND MAGNITUDE INFORMATION OF THE COMPLEX DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANK FOR TEXTURE IMAGE RETRIEVAL  

E-print Network

USING PHASE AND MAGNITUDE INFORMATION OF THE COMPLEX DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANK FOR TEXTURE IMAGE, Fontainebleau, 77305 France ABSTRACT This paper discusses how to utilize both magnitude and phase in- formation images. This paper discusses how magnitude and phase information of the complex directional lter bank

Oraintara, Soontorn

107

On the Construction of Invertible Filter Banks on the 2-Sphere  

PubMed Central

The theories of signal sampling, filter banks, wavelets, and “overcomplete wavelets” are well established for the Euclidean spaces and are widely used in the processing and analysis of images. While recent advances have extended some filtering methods to spherical images, many key challenges remain. In this paper, we develop theoretical conditions for the invertibility of filter banks under continuous spherical convolution. Furthermore, we present an analogue of the Papoulis generalized sampling theorem on the 2-Sphere. We use the theoretical results to establish a general framework for the design of invertible filter banks on the sphere and demonstrate the approach with examples of self-invertible spherical wavelets and steerable pyramids. We conclude by examining the use of a self-invertible spherical steerable pyramid in a denoising experiment and discussing the computational complexity of the filtering framework. PMID:18270119

Yeo, Boon Thye Thomas; Ou, Wanmei; Golland, Polina

2009-01-01

108

Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization  

E-print Network

Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Fingerprint image generation Evolutionary algorithm Image filters Input pressure a b s t r a c t Constructing a fingerprint database is important to evaluate the performance

Cho, Sung-Bae

109

Spacecraft precision entry navigation using an adaptive sigma point Kalman filter bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work documents the development of a sigma point Kalman filter for the purpose of precision spacecraft navigation during the atmospheric entry, descent and landing phase. The use of the sigma point Kalman filter is driven by the desire to avoid complex partial derivatives associated with the standard extended Kalman filter. The strategy increases the likelihood that the navigation algorithm will be compatible with the Electra. Using Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (MER-A) and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) data, experiments were conducted to validate the proposed navigation concept. Beginning at atmospheric entry interface, the hypersonic entry phase is considered and the navigation architecture performance is quantified. Using the sigma point Kalman filter as the main computational unit, a filter bank for environmental parameter identification is investigated. The focus of the investigation is atmospheric parameter identification. The MER-A mission is used to verify the ability of the filter bank to make appropriate selections. The navigation architecture is implemented on the Electra programmable radio, a flight hardware communication node available on spacecraft build for Mars exploration. The investigations show that the sigma point Kalman filter structure is very applicable to the atmospheric entry navigation problem. When used in conjunction with the filter bank concept, the overall navigation architecture is shown to be able to improve navigation accuracy over standard dead-reckoning, while providing robustness to uncertainties in the atmosphere. The navigation algorithm is successfully hosted on the Electra programmable radio and is capable of processing actual MER inertial measurement data.

Heyne, Martin Cornelius

110

Multiresolution image representation using combined 2-D and 1-D directional filter banks.  

PubMed

In this paper, effective multiresolution image representations using a combination of 2-D filter bank (FB) and directional wavelet transform (WT) are presented. The proposed methods yield simple implementation and low computation costs compared to previous 1-D and 2-D FB combinations or adaptive directional WT methods. Furthermore, they are nonredundant transforms and realize quad-tree like multiresolution representations. In applications on nonlinear approximation, image coding, and denoising, the proposed filter banks show visual quality improvements and have higher PSNR than the conventional separable WT or the contourlet. PMID:19095538

Tanaka, Yuichi; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q

2009-02-01

111

Enhanced adaptive filter-bank-based automated pavement crack detection and segmentation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We incorporate, evaluate, and assess the feasibility of using filter banks in automated pavement distress systems from a system level. We integrate a novel filter-bank-based distress segmentation method, which, unlike previously researched methods, does not depend on highpass data. In addition, we incorporate the standard Said Pearlman set partitioning in hierarchical trees compression coder into the automated pavement distress system, which is a first in this area of research. A third contribution of the research is a statistical detection algorithm that assists in overall system performance. Preliminary testing using images provided by the Georgia Department of Transportation demonstrate the promise of the proposed method.

Lettsome, Clyde A.; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Kaul, Vivek

2012-10-01

112

Elaborate analysis and design of filter-bank-based sensing for wideband cognitive radios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful operation of a cognitive radio system strongly depends on its ability to sense the radio environment. With the use of spectrum sensing algorithms, the cognitive radio is required to detect co-existing licensed primary transmissions and to protect them from interference. This paper focuses on filter-bank-based sensing and provides a solid theoretical background for the design of these detectors. Optimum detectors based on the Neyman-Pearson theorem are developed for uniform discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and modified DFT filter banks with root-Nyquist filters. The proposed sensing framework does not require frequency alignment between the filter bank of the sensor and the primary signal. Each wideband primary channel is spanned and monitored by several sensor subchannels that analyse it in narrowband signals. Filter-bank-based sensing is proved to be robust and efficient under coloured noise. Moreover, the performance of the weighted energy detector as a sensing technique is evaluated. Finally, based on the Locally Most Powerful and the Generalized Likelihood Ratio test, real-world sensing algorithms that do not require a priori knowledge are proposed and tested.

Maliatsos, Konstantinos; Adamis, Athanasios; Kanatas, Athanasios G.

2014-12-01

113

A design method of multidimensional linear-phase paraunitary filter banks with a lattice structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lattice structure of multidimensional (MD) linear-phase paraunitary filter banks (LPPUFBs) is proposed, which makes it possible to design such systems in a systematic manner. Our proposed structure can produce MD-LPPUFBs whose filters all have the region of support 𝒩(M?), where M and ? are the decimation and positive integer diagonal matrices, respectively, and 𝒩(N) denotes the set of integer

Shogo Muramatsu; Akihiko Yamada; Hitoshi Kiya

1999-01-01

114

FPGA implementation of a demux based on a multirate filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an extensive comparison among alternative algorithms for the implementation of a digital demultiplexer has been carried out. The computational complexity, the performances and the accuracy with respect to the quantization noise effects have been evaluated for the different algorithms. In particular, the digital architecture has been designed to replace an analog filter bank composed of six surface

M. Re; G. C. Cardarilli; A. Del Re; R. Lojacono

2000-01-01

115

ON ALIASING EFFECTS IN THE CONTOURLET FILTER BANK Truong T. Nguyen and Soontorn Oraintara  

E-print Network

achieve the asymptotic optimal result as the curvelet transform. Essentially, these conditions assume-ee.uta.edu/msp ABSTRACT The pyramidal directional filter bank (PDFB) for the con- tourlet transform is analyzed to improve the performances of current image coders. Recently, Cand`es and Donoho constructed the curvelet

Oraintara, Soontorn

116

Improved structures of maximally decimated directional filter Banks for spatial image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an improved structure for directional filter banks (DFBs) that preserves the visual information in the subband domain. The new structure achieves this outcome while preserving both the efficient polyphase implementation and the exact reconstruction property. The paper outlines a step-by-step framework in which to examine the DFB, and within this framework discusses how, through the insertion of

Sang-il Park; Mark J. T. Smith; Russell M. Mersereau

2004-01-01

117

Efficient reconstruction of band-limited sequences from nonuniformly decimated versions by use of polyphase filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient polyphase structure for the reconstruction of a band-limited sequence from a nonuniformly decimated version is developed. Theoretically, the reconstruction involves the implementation of a bank of multilevel filters, and it is shown that how all these reconstruction filters can be obtained at the cost of one Mth band low-pass filter and a constant matrix multiplier. The resulting structure

P. P. Vaidyanathan; V. C. Liu

1990-01-01

118

On the Performance of Timing-Error Tolerant Programmable FIR Filters P N Whatmough and I Darwazeh  

E-print Network

filter is proposed to combat potential transient timing-errors in low voltage operation. The architecture allows the isolation of errors in the filter taps in combination with simple error correction schemes) functions. Efficient implementation can be challenging for high-throughput programmable filters since

Haddadi, Hamed

119

Filter banks and the "Intensity Analysis" of EMG  

E-print Network

Vinzenz von Tscharner (2000) has presented an interesting mathematical method for analyzing EMG-data called "intensity analysis" (EMG = electromyography). Basically the method is a sort of bandpassing of the signal. The central idea of the method is to describe the "power" (or "intensity") of a non-stationary EMG signal as a function both of time and of frequency. The connection with wavelet theory is that the filter is constructed by rescaling a given mother wavelet using a special array of scales (center frequencies) with non-constant relative bandwidth. Some aspects of the method may seem a bit ad hoc and we have therefore undertaken a closer mathematical investigation, showing the connection with the conventional wavelet analysis and giving a somewhat simplified formulation of the method using Morlet wavelets. It is pointed out that the "intensity analysis" method is related to the concept of an equalizer. In order to illustrate the method we apply it to nonstationary EMG-signals of a dynamic leg-extensio...

Borg, Frank

2010-01-01

120

Formation and bacterial composition of young, natural biofilms obtained from public bank-filtered drinking water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Germany, bank-filtered raw water and ground water is mainly used for drinking water conditioning. Microorganisms, which are neither retarded by the subsoil passage of the bank-filtration, nor by the different filtration and disinfection steps at the water works, cause the growth of biofilms on different materials originally used in drinking water distribution systems. The development, the phylogenetical diversity and

Thomas Schwartz; Sandra Hoffmann; Ursula Obst

1998-01-01

121

First results from the FPGA/NIOS Adaptive FIR Filter Using Linear Prediction Implemented in the AERA Radio Stations to Reduce Narrow Band RFI for Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

The FPGA/NIOS FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP) to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI) has been installed in several radio stations in the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) experiment. AERA observes coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays to make a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio signals provide complementary information to that obtained from Auger surface detectors, which are predominantly sensitive to the particle content of an air shower at the surface. The radio signals from air showers are caused by the coherent emission due to geomagnetic and charge-excess processes. These emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 - 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. A FIR filter implemented in the FPGA logic segment of the front-end electronics of a radio sensor significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we present first results of the efficiency of the adaptive LP FIR filter, deployed in real AERA station on pampas, with a comparison to the currently used IIR notch filter with constant coefficients. The laboratory tests confirms the stability of the filter. Using constant LP coefficients the suppression efficiency remains the same for hours, which corresponds to more than $\\bf 10^{12}$ clock cycles. We compared in real conditions several variants of the LP FIR filter with various lengths and various coefficients widths (due to fixed-point representations in the FPGA logic) with the aim to minimize the power consumption for the radio station while keeping sufficient accuracy for noise reduction.

Zbigniew Szadkowski; D. G?as; C. Timmermans; T. Wijnen for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2014-06-03

122

Current-State Constrained Filter Bank for Wald Testing of Spacecraft Conjunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a filter bank consisting of an ordinary current-state extended Kalman filter, and two similar but constrained filters: one is constrained by a null hypothesis that the miss distance between two conjuncting spacecraft is inside their combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one is constrained by an alternative complementary hypothesis. The unconstrained filter is the basis of an initial screening for close approaches of interest. Once the initial screening detects a possibly risky conjunction, the unconstrained filter also governs measurement editing for all three filters, and predicts the time of closest approach. The constrained filters operate only when conjunctions of interest occur. The computed likelihoods of the innovations of the two constrained filters form a ratio for a Wald sequential probability ratio test. The Wald test guides risk mitigation maneuver decisions based on explicit false alarm and missed detection criteria. Since only current-state Kalman filtering is required to compute the innovations for the likelihood ratio, the present approach does not require the mapping of probability density forward to the time of closest approach. Instead, the hard-body constraint manifold is mapped to the filter update time by applying a sigma-point transformation to a projection function. Although many projectors are available, we choose one based on Lambert-style differential correction of the current-state velocity. We have tested our method using a scenario based on the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale mission, scheduled for launch in late 2014. This mission involves formation flight in highly elliptical orbits of four spinning spacecraft equipped with antennas extending 120 meters tip-to-tip. Eccentricities range from 0.82 to 0.91, and close approaches generally occur in the vicinity of perigee, where rapid changes in geometry may occur. Testing the method using two 12,000-case Monte Carlo simulations, we found the method achieved a missed detection rate of 0.1%, and a false alarm rate of 2%.

Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

2012-01-01

123

Real-Time Diagnosis of Faults Using a Bank of Kalman Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new robust method of automated real-time diagnosis of faults in an aircraft engine or a similar complex system involves the use of a bank of Kalman filters. In order to be highly reliable, a diagnostic system must be designed to account for the numerous failure conditions that an aircraft engine may encounter in operation. The method achieves this objective though the utilization of multiple Kalman filters, each of which is uniquely designed based on a specific failure hypothesis. A fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) system, developed based on this method, is able to isolate faults in sensors and actuators while detecting component faults (abrupt degradation in engine component performance). By affording a capability for real-time identification of minor faults before they grow into major ones, the method promises to enhance safety and reduce operating costs. The robustness of this method is further enhanced by incorporating information regarding the aging condition of an engine. In general, real-time fault diagnostic methods use the nominal performance of a "healthy" new engine as a reference condition in the diagnostic process. Such an approach does not account for gradual changes in performance associated with aging of an otherwise healthy engine. By incorporating information on gradual, aging-related changes, the new method makes it possible to retain at least some of the sensitivity and accuracy needed to detect incipient faults while preventing false alarms that could result from erroneous interpretation of symptoms of aging as symptoms of failures. The figure schematically depicts an FDI system according to the new method. The FDI system is integrated with an engine, from which it accepts two sets of input signals: sensor readings and actuator commands. Two main parts of the FDI system are a bank of Kalman filters and a subsystem that implements FDI decision rules. Each Kalman filter is designed to detect a specific sensor or actuator fault. When a sensor or actuator fault occurs, large estimation errors are generated by all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis. By monitoring the residual output of each filter, the specific fault that has occurred can be detected and isolated on the basis of the decision rules. A set of parameters that indicate the performance of the engine components is estimated by the "correct" Kalman filter for use in detecting component faults. To reduce the loss of diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in the face of aging, the FDI system accepts information from a steady-state-condition-monitoring system. This information is used to update the Kalman filters and a data bank of trim values representative of the current aging condition.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2006-01-01

124

Application of a Bank of Kalman Filters for Aircraft Engine Fault Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a bank of Kalman filters is applied to aircraft gas turbine engine sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation (FDI) in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, thereby isolating the specific fault. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The proposed FDI approach is applied to a nonlinear engine simulation at nominal and aged conditions, and the evaluation results for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions are given. The ability of the proposed approach to reliably detect and isolate sensor and actuator faults is demonstrated.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2003-01-01

125

Minimum redundancy for ISI free FIR filterbank transceivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been great interest in the design of filterbank transceivers. Usually, with proper time domain equalization, the channel is modeled as an FIR filter. It is known that for FIR channels, the introduction of certain redundancy allows the receiver to cancel intersymbol interference (ISI) completely, and channel equalization is performed implicitly using FIR transceivers. This scheme allows us to

Yuan-Pei Lin; See-May Phoong

2002-01-01

126

Boundary handling mechanism for lifting-based spatial adaptation of filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time/space varying filter banks (FBs) are proved to be useful in building signal adaptive transforms. Lifting factorization of FBs allows to spatially adapt between arbitrary FBs, avoiding the need to design border FBs to complete perfect reconstruction (PR) during the transition. However, lifting based switching between arbitrarily designed FBs induces spurious transients into the resulting subbands during the transition. In this paper we propose a boundary handling mechanism that maintains good frequency response and eliminates the transients during the transition. We successfully show spatial adaptation between JPEG2000 9/7 and 5/3 FBs to reduce the ringing artifacts in images.

Jayachandra, D.; Makur, Anamitra

2012-03-01

127

Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

128

SENSITIVITY OF HYBRID FILTER BANKS A/D CONVERTERS TO ANALOG REALIZATION ERRORS AND FINITE WORD LENGTH  

E-print Network

process of analog devices are a serious prob- lem in analog systems design. This paper studies the deteriSENSITIVITY OF HYBRID FILTER BANKS A/D CONVERTERS TO ANALOG REALIZATION ERRORS AND FINITE WORD LENGTH Tudor Petrescu and Jacques Oksman Department of Signal Processing and Electronic Systems ´Ecole

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

Fast multiscale directional filter bank-based speckle mitigation in gallstone ultrasound images.  

PubMed

Speckle noise is a multiplicative type of noise commonly seen in medical and remote sensing images. It gives a granular appearance that degrades the quality of the recorded images. These speckle noise components need to be mitigated before the image is used for further processing and analysis. This paper presents a novel approach for removing granular speckle noise in gray scale images. We used an efficient multiscale image representation scheme named fast multiscale directional filter bank (FMDFB) along with simple threshold methods such as Vishushrink for image processing. It is a perfect reconstruction framework that can be used for a wide range of image processing applications because of its directionality and reduced computational complexity. The FMDFB-based speckle mitigation is appealing over other traditional multiscale approaches such as wavelets and Contourlets. Our experimental results show that the despeckling performance of the proposed method outperforms the wavelet and Contourlet-based despeckling methods. PMID:24562027

Leavline, Epiphany Jebamalar; Sutha, Shunmugam; Singh, Danasingh Asir Antony Gnana

2014-02-01

130

Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

Sadr, R.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

1992-01-01

131

Filter-bank based digital sub-banding ASIC architecture for coherent optical receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a highly efficient high performance architecture for the digital signal processing of high speed coherent optical receivers. Our ASIC signal processing architecture ports for the first time to optical reception efficient filter bank signal processing structures. The resulting optical receiver ASICs are applicable to long-haul and metro photonic communication and provide substantial energy efficiency saving 30%-50% in power consumption. We aim to develop an ultra-high-speed optical receiver ASIC for transporting 160 Gb/s in a 25 GHz optical band - seven such channels will together carry 1Tb/s (plus overhead) in our 'TeraSanta' project of TeraBitPerSecond efficient transponders.

Nazarathy, Moshe; Tolmachev, Alex

2013-01-01

132

Design of two-channel filter bank using nature inspired optimization based fractional derivative constraints.  

PubMed

In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (?p), stopband error (?s), transition band error (?t), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. PMID:25034647

Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

2015-01-01

133

An optimization of the FPGA/NIOS adaptive FIR filter using linear prediction to reduce narrow band RFI for the next generation ground-based ultra-high energy cosmic-ray experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic part of an extensive air shower developing in the atmosphere provides significant information complementary to that obtained by water Cherenkov detectors which are predominantly sensitive to the muonic content of an air shower at ground. The emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 and 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. The Auger Engineering Radio Array currently suppresses the RFI by multiple time-to-frequency domain conversions using an FFT procedure as well as by a set of manually chosen IIR notch filters in the time-domain. An alternative approach developed in this paper is an adaptive FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP). The coefficients for the linear predictor are dynamically refreshed and calculated in the virtual NIOS processor. The radio detector is an autonomous system installed on the Argentinean pampas and supplied from a solar panel. Powerful calculation capacity inside the FPGA is a factor. Power consumption versus the degree of effectiveness of the calculation inside the FPGA is a figure of merit to be minimized. Results show that the RFI contamination can be significantly suppressed by the LP FIR filter for 64 or less stages.

Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Fraenkel, E. D.; Glas, Dariusz; Legumina, Remigiusz

2013-12-01

134

Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns.  

PubMed

Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician's time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a "texton histogram" of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different "textons" representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C; Tang, Shou Jiang

2014-11-20

135

Adaptive Filter-bank Approach to Restoration and Spectral Analysis of Gapped Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main topic of this paper is the nonparametric estimation of complex (both amplitude and phase) spectra from gapped data, as well as the restoration of such data. The focus is on the extension of the APES (amplitude and phase estimation) approach to data sequences with gaps. APES, which is one of the most successful existing nonparametric approaches to the spectral analysis of full data sequences, uses a bank of narrowband adaptive (both frequency and data dependent) filters to estimate the spectrum. A recent interpretation of this approach showed that the filterbank used by APES and the resulting spectrum minimize a least-squares (LS) fitting criterion between the filtered sequence and its spectral decomposition. The extended approach, which is called GAPES for somewhat obvious reasons, capitalizes on the aforementioned interpretation: it minimizes the APES-LS fitting criterion with respect to the missing data as well. This should be a sensible thing to do whenever the full data sequence is stationary, and hence the missing data have the same spectral content as the available data. We use both simulated and real data examples to show that GAPES estimated spectra and interpolated data sequences have excellent accuracy. We also show the performance gain achieved by GAPES over two of the most commonly used approaches for gapped-data spectral analysis, viz., the periodogram and the parametric CLEAN method. This work was partly supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research.

Stoica, Petre; Larsson, Erik G.; Li, Jian

2000-10-01

136

New method for designing two-channel causal stable IIR perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for designing two-channel causal stable IIR PR filter banks and wavelet bases is proposed. It is based on the structure previously proposed by Phoong et al. (1995). Such a filter bank is parameterized by two functions (alpha) (z) and (beta) (z), which can be chosen as an all-pass function to obtain IIR filterbanks with very high stopband attenuation. One of the problems with this choice is that a bump of about 4 dB always exists near the transition band of the analysis and synthesis filters. The stopband attenuation of the high-pass analysis filter is also 10 dB lower than that of the low-pass filter. By choosing (beta) (z) and (alpha) (z) as an all-pass function and a type-II linear- phase finite impulse response function, respectively, the bumping can be significantly suppressed. In addition, the stopband attenuation of the high-pass filter can be controlled easily. The design problem is formulated as a polynomial approximation problem and is solved efficiently by the Remez exchange algorithm. The extension of this method to the design of a class of IIR wavelet basis is also considered.

Mao, J. S.; Chan, S. C.; Ho, Ka L.

2000-10-01

137

Evaluation of an Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, an approach for in-flight fault detection and isolation (FDI) of aircraft engine sensors based on a bank of Kalman filters is developed. This approach utilizes multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific fault hypothesis. When the propulsion system experiences a fault, only one Kalman filter with the correct hypothesis is able to maintain the nominal estimation performance. Based on this knowledge, the isolation of faults is achieved. Since the propulsion system may experience component and actuator faults as well, a sensor FDI system must be robust in terms of avoiding misclassifications of any anomalies. The proposed approach utilizes a bank of (m+1) Kalman filters where m is the number of sensors being monitored. One Kalman filter is used for the detection of component and actuator faults while each of the other m filters detects a fault in a specific sensor. With this setup, the overall robustness of the sensor FDI system to anomalies is enhanced. Moreover, numerous component fault events can be accounted for by the FDI system. The sensor FDI system is applied to a commercial aircraft engine simulation, and its performance is evaluated at multiple power settings at a cruise operating point using various fault scenarios.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2004-01-01

138

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 45, NO. 6, PP. 1415{1427, JUNE 1997 1 On Fast FIR Filters Implemented as Tail-Canceling  

E-print Network

with acceptable noise tolerance. II. Definitions A general causal N-th order FIR lter consists of a tapped delay, allow the possibility of implementing linear-phase linear digital lters which have constant group delay line N elements long and a table of N + 1 impulse response coe cients fh0 ::: hNg such that at each

Smith III, Julius Orion

139

Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters Developed and Demonstrated for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-flight sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is critical to maintaining reliable engine operation during flight. The aircraft engine control system, which computes control commands on the basis of sensor measurements, operates the propulsion systems at the demanded conditions. Any undetected sensor faults, therefore, may cause the control system to drive the engine into an undesirable operating condition. It is critical to detect and isolate failed sensors as soon as possible so that such scenarios can be avoided. A challenging issue in developing reliable sensor FDI systems is to make them robust to changes in engine operating characteristics due to degradation with usage and other faults that can occur during flight. A sensor FDI system that cannot appropriately account for such scenarios may result in false alarms, missed detections, or misclassifications when such faults do occur. To address this issue, an enhanced bank of Kalman filters was developed, and its performance and robustness were demonstrated in a simulation environment. The bank of filters is composed of m + 1 Kalman filters, where m is the number of sensors being used by the control system and, thus, in need of monitoring. Each Kalman filter is designed on the basis of a unique fault hypothesis so that it will be able to maintain its performance if a particular fault scenario, hypothesized by that particular filter, takes place.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2005-01-01

140

Robust FIR Beamforming Applied TO Medical Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

We previously described a beamformer architecture that replaces the single apodization weights on each receive channel with channel-unique finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The filter weights are designed to optimize the contrast resolution performance of the imaging system. While the FIR beamformer offers significant gains in contrast resolution, the beamformer suffers from low sensitivity and its performance rapidly degrades in the presence of noise. In this paper a new method is presented to improve the robustness of the FIR beamformer to electronic noise as well as variation or uncertainty in the array response. A method is also described, which controls the sidelobe levels of the FIR beamformer’s spatial response by applying an arbitrary weighting function in the filter design algorithm. The robust FIR beamformer is analyzed using a generalized cystic resolution metric that quantifies a beamformer’s clinical imaging performance as a function of cyst size and channel input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Fundamental performance limits are compared between two robust FIR beamformers (the dynamic focus FIR (DF-FIR) beamformer and the group focus FIR (GF-FIR) beamformer), the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformer, and the spatial matched filter (SMF) beamformer. Results from this study show that the new DF- and GF-FIR beamformers are more robust to electronic noise compared to the optimal contrast resolution FIR beamformer. Furthermore, the added robustness only comes with a slight loss in cystic resolution. Results from the generalized cystic resolution metric show that a 9-tap robust FIR beamformer outperforms the SMF and DAS beamformer until receive channel input SNR drops below ?5 dB; whereas, the 9-tap optimal contrast resolution beamformer’s performance deteriorates around 50 dB SNR. The effects of moderate phase aberrations, characterized by an a priori root-mean-square strength of 28 ns and an a priori full-width at half-maximum correlation length of 3.6 mm, are investigated on the robust FIR beamformers. Full sets of robust FIR beamformer filter weights are constructed using an in silico model of the Ultrasonix Sonix RP scanner and the L14-5/38mm probe. Using the derived weights a series of simulated point target and anechoic cyst B-mode images are generated to further investigate the potential increases in contrast resolution when using the robust FIR beamformers. Under the investigated conditions, the 7-tap optimal contrast resolution beamformer and the 7-tap robust beamformer with added SNR constraint increase lesion detectability by 247% and 137% compared to the conventional DAS beamformer, respectively. Finally experimental phantom and in vivo images are produced using this novel receive architecture. The simulated and experimental images clearly show a reduction in clutter and an increase in contrast resolution compared to the conventionally beamformed images. This novel receive beamformer can be applied to any conventional ultrasound system where the system response is reasonably well characterized. PMID:19574125

Guenther, Drake A.; Walker, William F.

2009-01-01

141

A novel fast and reduced redundancy structure for multiscale directional filter banks.  

PubMed

The multiscale directional filter bank (MDFB) improves the radial frequency resolution of the contourlet transform by introducing an additional decomposition in the high-frequency band. The increase in frequency resolution is particularly useful for texture description because of the quasi-periodic property of textures. However, the MDFB needs an extra set of scale and directional decomposition, which is performed on the full image size. The rise in computational complexity is, thus, prominent. In this paper, we develop an efficient implementation framework for the MDFB. In the new framework, directional decomposition on the first two scales is performed prior to the scale decomposition. This allows sharing of directional decomposition among the two scales and, hence, reduces the computational complexity significantly. Based on this framework, two fast implementations of the MDFB are proposed. The first one can maintain the same flexibility in directional selectivity in the first two scales while the other has the same redundancy ratio as the contourlet transform. Experimental results show that the first and the second schemes can reduce the computational time by 33.3%-34.6% and 37.1%-37.5%, respectively, compared to the original MDFB algorithm. Meanwhile, the texture retrieval performance of the proposed algorithms is more or less the same as the original MDFB approach which outperforms the steerable pyramid and the contourlet transform approaches. PMID:17688211

Cheng, Kin-On; Law, Ngai-Fong; Siu, Wan-Chi

2007-08-01

142

Systematic design of transmitter and receiver architectures for flexible filter bank multi-carrier signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-carrier (MC) signaling is currently in the forefront of a myriad of systems, either wired or wireless, due to its high spectral efficiency, simple equalization, and robustness in front of multipath and narrowband interference sources. Despite its widespread deployment, the design of efficient architectures for MC systems becomes a challenging task when adopting filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation due to the inclusion of band-limited shaping pulses into the signal model. The reason to employ these pulses is the numerous improvements they offer in terms of performance, such as providing higher spectral confinement and no frequency overlap between adjacent subcarriers. These attributes lead to a reduced out-of-band power emission and a higher effective throughput. The latter is indeed possible by removing the need of cyclic prefix, which is in charge of preserving orthogonality among subcarriers in conventional MC systems. Nevertheless, the potential benefits of FBMC modulations are often obscured when it comes to an implementation point of view. In order to circumvent this limitation, the present paper provides a unified framework to describe all FBMC signals in which both signal design and implementation criteria are explicitly combined. In addition to this, we introduce the concept of flexible FBMC signals that, unlike their traditional MC counterparts, do not impose restrictions on the signal parameters (i.e., symbol rate, carrier spacing, or sampling frequency). Moreover, our framework also proposes a methodology that overcomes the implementation issues that characterize FBMC systems and allows us to derive simple, efficient, and time-invariant transmitter and receiver architectures.

Gutiérrez, Esteban; López-Salcedo, José A.; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

2014-12-01

143

Temporal backpropagation for FIR neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional feedforward neural network is a static structure which simply maps input to output. To better reflect the dynamics in a biological system, a network structure which models each synapse by a finite-impulse response (FIR) linear filter is proposed. An efficient-gradient descent algorithm which is shown to be a temporal generalization of the familiar backpropagation algorithm is derived. By

Eric A. Wan

1990-01-01

144

Design of FIR digital phase networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the minimax design of FIR digital filters with prescribed phase characteristics and unit magnitude is a nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper it is approximated by a linear programming problem, and it is shown that the solution of this linear program is optimal to first order. That is, if ?0and ?0are optimal deviations of magnitude and phase

KENNETH STEIGLITZ

1981-01-01

145

FPGA architectures for electronically scanned wide-band RF beams using 3-D FIR/IIR digital filters for rectangular array aperture receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time digital implementation of three-dimensional (3-D) infinite impulse response (IIR) beam filters are discussed. The 3-D IIR filter building blocks have filter coefficients, which are defined using algebraic closed-form expressions that are functions of desired beam personalities, such as the look-direction of the aperture, the bandwidth and sampling frequency of interest, inter antenna spacing, and 3dB beam size. Real-time steering of such 3-D beam filters are obtained by proposed calculation of filter coefficients. Application specific computing units for rapidly calculating the 3-D IIR filter coefficients at nanosecond speed potentially allows fast real-time tracking of low radar cross section (RCS) objects at close range. Proposed design consists of 3-D IIR beam filter with 4 4 antenna grid and the filter coefficient generation block in separate FPGAs. The hardware is designed and co-simulated using a Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T FPGA. The 3-D filter operates over 90 MHz and filter coefficient computing structure can operate at up to 145 MHz.

Wijayaratna, Sewwandi; Madanayake, Arjuna; Beall, Brandon D.; Bruton, Len T.

2014-05-01

146

Automated 3D motion tracking using Gabor filter bank, robust point matching, and deformable models.  

PubMed

Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tagged MRI or tMRI) provides a means of directly and noninvasively displaying the internal motion of the myocardium. Reconstruction of the motion field is needed to quantify important clinical information, e.g., the myocardial strain, and detect regional heart functional loss. In this paper, we present a three-step method for this task. First, we use a Gabor filter bank to detect and locate tag intersections in the image frames, based on local phase analysis. Next, we use an improved version of the robust point matching (RPM) method to sparsely track the motion of the myocardium, by establishing a transformation function and a one-to-one correspondence between grid tag intersections in different image frames. In particular, the RPM helps to minimize the impact on the motion tracking result of 1) through-plane motion and 2) relatively large deformation and/or relatively small tag spacing. In the final step, a meshless deformable model is initialized using the transformation function computed by RPM. The model refines the motion tracking and generates a dense displacement map, by deforming under the influence of image information, and is constrained by the displacement magnitude to retain its geometric structure. The 2D displacement maps in short and long axis image planes can be combined to drive a 3D deformable model, using the moving least square method, constrained by the minimization of the residual error at tag intersections. The method has been tested on a numerical phantom, as well as on in vivo heart data from normal volunteers and heart disease patients. The experimental results show that the new method has a good performance on both synthetic and real data. Furthermore, the method has been used in an initial clinical study to assess the differences in myocardial strain distributions between heart disease (left ventricular hypertrophy) patients and the normal control group. The final results show that the proposed method is capable of separating patients from healthy individuals. In addition, the method detects and makes possible quantification of local abnormalities in the myocardium strain distribution, which is critical for quantitative analysis of patients' clinical conditions. This motion tracking approach can improve the throughput and reliability of quantitative strain analysis of heart disease patients, and has the potential for further clinical applications. PMID:19369149

Chen, Ting; Wang, Xiaoxu; Chung, Sohae; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

2010-01-01

147

Automated 3D Motion Tracking using Gabor Filter Bank, Robust Point Matching, and Deformable Models  

PubMed Central

Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging (tagged MRI or tMRI) provides a means of directly and noninvasively displaying the internal motion of the myocardium. Reconstruction of the motion field is needed to quantify important clinical information, e.g., the myocardial strain, and detect regional heart functional loss. In this paper, we present a three-step method for this task. First, we use a Gabor filter bank to detect and locate tag intersections in the image frames, based on local phase analysis. Next, we use an improved version of the Robust Point Matching (RPM) method to sparsely track the motion of the myocardium, by establishing a transformation function and a one-to-one correspondence between grid tag intersections in different image frames. In particular, the RPM helps to minimize the impact on the motion tracking result of: 1) through-plane motion, and 2) relatively large deformation and/or relatively small tag spacing. In the final step, a meshless deformable model is initialized using the transformation function computed by RPM. The model refines the motion tracking and generates a dense displacement map, by deforming under the influence of image information, and is constrained by the displacement magnitude to retain its geometric structure. The 2D displacement maps in short and long axis image planes can be combined to drive a 3D deformable model, using the Moving Least Square method, constrained by the minimization of the residual error at tag intersections. The method has been tested on a numerical phantom, as well as on in vivo heart data from normal volunteers and heart disease patients. The experimental results show that the new method has a good performance on both synthetic and real data. Furthermore, the method has been used in an initial clinical study to assess the differences in myocardial strain distributions between heart disease (left ventricular hypertrophy) patients and the normal control group. The final results show that the proposed method is capable of separating patients from healthy individuals. In addition, the method detects and makes possible quantification of local abnormalities in the myocardium strain distribution, which is critical for quantitative analysis of patients’ clinical conditions. This motion tracking approach can improve the throughput and reliability of quantitative strain analysis of heart disease patients, and has the potential for further clinical applications. PMID:19369149

Wang, Xiaoxu; Chung, Sohae; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

2013-01-01

148

Classification of premature ventricular complexes using filter bank features, induction of decision trees and a fuzzy rule-based system.  

PubMed

The classification of heart beats is important for automated arrhythmia monitoring devices. The study describes two different classifiers for the identification of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) in surface ECGs. A decision-tree algorithm based on inductive learning from a training set and a fuzzy rule-based classifier are explained in detail. Traditional features for the classification task are extracted by analysing the heart rate and morphology of the heart beats from a single lead. In addition, a novel set of features based on the use of a filter bank is presented. Filter banks allow for time-frequency-dependent signal processing with low computational effort. The performance of the classifiers is evaluated on the MIT-BIH database following the AAMI recommendations. The decision-tree algorithm has a gross sensitivity of 85.3% and a positive predictivity of 85.2%, whereas the gross sensitivity of the fuzzy rule-based system is 81.3%, and the positive predictivity is 80.6%. PMID:10723892

Wieben, O; Afonso, V X; Tompkins, W J

1999-09-01

149

Oversampled perfect reconstruction DFT modulated filter banks for multi-carrier transceiver systems$  

E-print Network

, the polyphase filters are formed by cascading special types of paraunitary matrices characterized by a limited) refers to a condition where the output of the tandem Contents lists available at SciVerse Science

Champagne, Benoît

150

Multi-scale texture analysis of remote sensing images using gabor filter banks and wavelet transforms  

E-print Network

a limited range of spatial frequencies and orientations. Using Gabor filters, each image texture can be differentiated with respect to its dominant spatial frequency and orientation. Wavelet transformations are useful for decomposition of an image...

Ravikumar, Rahul

2009-05-15

151

Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel biorthogonal filter banks for lossy-to-lossless image coding.  

PubMed

Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel (M > 2) biorthogonal filter banks (BOFBs) for lossy-to-lossless image coding is presented in this paper. Since the proposed block-lifting structure is more general than the conventional lifting factorizations and does NOT require many restrictions such as paraunitary, number of channels, and McMillan degree in each building block unlike the conventional lifting factorizations, its coding gain is higher than that of the previous methods. Several proposed BOFBs are designed and applied to image coding. Comparing the results with conventional lossy-to-lossless image coding structures, including the 5/3- and 9/7-tap discrete wavelet transforms in JPEG 2000 and a 4 × 8 hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform in JPEG XR, the proposed BOFBs achieve better result in both objective measure and perceptual visual quality for the images with a lot of high-frequency components. PMID:22434801

Suzuki, Taizo; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q

2012-07-01

152

Inverse filtering of room acoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method is proposed for realizing exact inverse filtering of acoustic impulse responses in room. This method is based on the principle called the multiple-input\\/output inverse theorem (MINT). The inverse is constructed from multiple finite-impulse response (FIR) filters (transversal filters) by adding some extra acoustic signal-transmission channels produced by multiple loudspeakers or microphones. The coefficients of these FIR filters

M. Miyoshi; Y. Kaneda

1988-01-01

153

A subband adaptive filter allowing maximally decimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional subband adaptive filters (ADF) using filter banks have shown degradation in performance because of the nonideal nature of filter banks. For this problem, the authors propose an alias free subband structure for adaptive filtering using polyphase frequency sampling filter (FSF) banks. As a preliminary, they make it clear that the conventional polyphase discrete Fourier transform (DFT) bank is equivalent

Yoji Yamada; Hiroshi Ochi; Hitoshi Kiya

1994-01-01

154

A nonlinear filter-bank model of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve: rate responses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to produce a functional model of the auditory nerve (AN) response of the guinea-pig that reproduces a wide range of important responses to auditory stimulation. The model is intended for use as an input to larger scale models of auditory processing in the brain-stem. A dual-resonance nonlinear filter architecture is used to reproduce the mechanical tuning of the cochlea. Transduction to the activity on the AN is accomplished with a recently proposed model of the inner-hair-cell. Together, these models have been shown to be able to reproduce the response of high-, medium-, and low-spontaneous rate fibers from the guinea-pig AN at high best frequencies (BFs). In this study we generate parameters that allow us to fit the AN model to data from a wide range of BFs. By varying the characteristics of the mechanical filtering as a function of the BF it was possible to reproduce the BF dependence of frequency-threshold tuning curves, AN rate-intensity functions at and away from BF, compression of the basilar membrane at BF as inferred from AN responses, and AN iso-intensity functions. The model is a convenient computational tool for the simulation of the range of nonlinear tuning and rate-responses found across the length of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve. PMID:12822799

Sumner, Christian J; O'Mard, Lowel P; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A; Meddis, Ray

2003-06-01

155

DOUGLAS FIR Pseudotsuga menziesii  

E-print Network

from spring buds to treat venereal diseases. The Sinkyone of California made Douglas-fir bark tea which eased colds and stomach ailments. The Kayenta Navaho of Arizona used the tree to treat stomach disease and headaches, although what part of the plant was used is not known. Also, historically the Kayenta Navajo ground part of tree with a certain rock and mixed it with corn seeds to insure a good crop. The Pueblo people used the wood to construction dwellings while the twigs were worn on various parts of dancers ' costumes. Prayer sticks made of Douglas-fir wood were excavated from archeological sites in New Mexico dating back to the Anasazi. The White Mountain Apache used the pitch of this conifer as gum and applied it to water jugs to make them watertight. Douglas-fir roots were used in California Indian basketry. Commercial: The tree is one of the world's most important and valuable timber trees and historically it was used by Westerners for telephone poles and railway ties among many other uses. Today Douglasfir is also grown for Christmas trees. Wildlife: The winged seeds are eaten by western squirrels, the red tree mouse, and the dusky-foot woodrat. The foliage and twigs are browsed by antelope, mule and white-tailed deer, elk, and mountain sheep. The staminate cones and needles of Douglas-fir provide a significant winter food of the blue grouse.

156

Preamble-based frequency-domain joint CFO and STO estimation for OQAM-based filter bank multicarrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filter bank multicarrier systems, similarly to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), are very sensitive to carrier frequency offset (CFO) and symbol timing offset (STO). In this paper, a low-complexity preamble-based joint CFO and STO technique is presented. It is based on a relatively long preamble in order to improve the CFO estimation performance as well as avoid interference coming from the data following this preamble. After CFO and STO correction, the preamble can be reused to estimate the channel. Unlike most current techniques, the CFO and STO estimation occurs in the frequency domain. This allows for a low-complexity estimation with respect to time-domain techniques and, as will be shown by simulations, provide even better performance in a reasonable range. The drawback however is that the estimation range is shorter. Specifically, for large STOs (and to a smaller extent large CFOs), the performance decreases below time-domain estimations. Two versions of the STO estimation technique will be presented, the second one being an approximation of the first one, making it less complex yet also less precise. The performance is assessed by means of computer simulations, testing for both large and small STOs, and compared with existing techniques.

Caekenberghe, Stijn Van; Bourdoux, André; der Perre, Liesbet Van; Louveaux, Jérôme

2014-12-01

157

RFI suppression in SAR based on filtering interpretation of SSA and fast implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has proven to be a powerful remote sensing instrument for underground and obscured object detection. However, SAR echoes are often contaminated by radio frequency interferences (RFI) from multiple broadcasting stations. Essentially, RFI suppression problem is one-dimensional stationary time series denoising problem. This article proposed a novel RFI suppression algorithm based on singular spectral analysis (SSA) from a linear invariant systems perspective. It can be seen that SSA algorithm has an equivalence relation with finite impulse response (FIR) filter banks. Besides, this article first introduce two approximated methods which can remarkably speed up spectral decomposition--Nyström method and Column-Sampling approximation--to obtain the coefficients of above SSA-FIR-filter. Simulation results and imaging results of measured data have proved the efficiency and validity of this algorithm.

Wang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Weidong; Qi, Xiangyang; Liu, Yue

2012-12-01

158

Differential Cultural Algorithm for Digital Filters Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

FIR and IIR digital filters design involve multi-parameter optimization, on which some existing intelligent algorithms don't work efficiently. This paper focuses on employing the proposed differential cultural (DC) algorithm to design FIR and IIR digital filters. DC is a global stochastic searching technique that can find out the global optima of the problem more rapidly. After describing the theory and

Hongyuan Gao; Ming Diao

2010-01-01

159

Design and application of finite impulse response digital filters.  

PubMed

The finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter is a spatial domain filter with a frequency domain representation. The theory of the FIR filter is presented and techniques are described for designing FIR filters with known frequency response characteristics. Rational design principles are emphasized based on characterization of the imaging system using the modulation transfer function and physical properties of the imaged objects. Bandpass, Wiener, and low-pass filters were designed and applied to 201Tl myocardial images. The bandpass filter eliminates low-frequency image components that represent background activity and high-frequency components due to noise. The Wiener, or minimum mean square error filter 'sharpens' the image while also reducing noise. The Wiener filter illustrates the power of the FIR technique to design filters with any desired frequency response. The low-pass filter, while of relative limited use, is presented to compare it with a popular elementary 'smoothing' filter. PMID:7060600

Miller, T R; Sampathkumaran, K S

1982-01-01

160

Comparison between EEMD, wavelet and FIR denoising: influence on event detection in impedance cardiography.  

PubMed

During thoracic impedance signal acquisition, noise is inherently introduced and hence, denoising is required to allow for accurate event detection. This paper investigates the effectiveness of Ensemble Emperical Mode Decomposition to filter random noise. The performance of the EEMD method is compared with an optimal FIR filter and wavelet denoising. The IMF selection for signal reconstruction in the EEMD denoising method is optimized using a sequential search. Denoising performance was evaluated by the SNR and the accuracy in event detection after filtering. When all criteria are taken into account, wavelet seems to outperform both EEMD and FIR denoising. PMID:22254433

De Ridder, S; Neyt, X; Pattyn, N; Migeotte, P-F

2011-01-01

161

z-transform DFT filters and FFT's  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper shows how discrete Fourier transformation can be implemented as a filter bank in a way which reduces the number of filter coefficients. A particular implementation of such a filter bank is directly related to the normal complex FFT algorithm. The principle developed further leads to types of DFT filter banks which utilize a minimum of complex coefficients. These

G. Bruun

1978-01-01

162

Study on optical finite impulse response filter Guangjie Zeng  

E-print Network

Study on optical finite impulse response filter Ying Zhou Guangjie Zeng Feihong Yu Zhejiang. A mathematic model of the optical FIR filter is introduced from the FIR theory. Details of the mapping University State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation Optical Engineering Department Hangzhou

163

Prediction based on Boolean filters for multiresolution lossless image compression  

E-print Network

mask. Interpolation techniques based on median filters and FIR median hybrid filters have been in a neighborhood of the current pixel, N~(i,jl,enclosed in the input vec- tor z(i,j)are used to calculate

Gabbouj, Moncef

164

Adaptive filtering approach to spectral estimation and SAR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an adaptive FIR filtering approach, which is referred to as the APES (amplitude and phase estimation of a sinusoid), for complex spectral estimation. We compare the APES algorithm with other FIR filtering approaches including the Welch and Capon methods. We also describe how to apply the FIR filtering approaches to target range signature estimation and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. We show via both numerical and experimental examples that the adaptive FIR filtering approaches such as Capon and APES can yield more accurate spectral estimates with much lower sidelobes and narrower spectral peaks than the FFT method, which is also a special case of the FIR filtering approaches. We show that although the APES algorithnm yields somewhat wider spectral peaks than the Capon method, the former gives more accurate overall spectral estimates and SAR images that the latter and the FFT method.

Li, Jian; Stoica, Peter

1995-06-01

165

Longitudinal enhancement of the hyperechoic regions in ultrasonography of muscles using a Gabor filter bank approach: a preparation for semi-automatic muscle fiber orientation estimation.  

PubMed

In this study, to complement our previously proposed method for estimating muscle fiber orientation, the Gabor filter bank (GF) technique was applied to sonograms of the biceps and forearm muscles to longitudinally enhance the coherently oriented and hyperechoic perimysiums regions. The method involved three steps: orientation field estimation, frequency map computation and Gabor filtering. The method was evaluated using a simulated image distorted with multiplicative speckle noises where the "muscles" were arranged in a bipennate fashion with an "aponeurosis" located in the middle. After enhancement using the GF approach, most of the original hyperechoic bands in the simulated image could be recovered. The proposed method was also tested using a group of biceps and forearm muscle sonograms collected from healthy adult subjects. Compared with the sonograms without enhancement, the enhanced images led to the detection of more linear patterns including muscle fascicles and smaller angle differences compared with the mean of manual results from two operators, therefore, were better prepared for the automatic estimation of muscle fiber orientation. The proposed method has the potential of assisting in the visualization of strongly oriented patterns in skeletal muscle sonograms as well as in the semi-automatic estimation of muscle fiber orientations. PMID:21371811

Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping

2011-04-01

166

Improved Finite Impulse Response Filters for Enhanced Destriping of Geostationary Satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visible infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) common to many geostationary satellites produces visible wavelength data contaminated with stripes. The stripes affect the usefulness of the data in quantitative studies. This paper briefly reviews the cause of the striping and then develops a tapered window finite impulse response (FIR) filter and a constrained least squares FIR filter. Both filters minimize

James J. Simpson; James R. Stitt; David M. Leath

1998-01-01

167

Growing corkbark fir and subalpine fir for nursery production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This bulletin is largely based on research conducted at the University of Idaho during 2000-2009. Corkbark and subalpine fir have desirable characteristics for Christmas tree and landscape use, including soft, fragrant foliage that ranges from dark green to silvery or bluish-green. Depending on seed...

168

www.fir.rwth-aachen.de Ansprechpartner  

E-print Network

www.fir.rwth-aachen.de Ansprechpartner: Matthias Blum, M. Sc. Telefon: +49 241 47705-408 E-Mail: matthias.blum@fir.rwth-aachen.de Aufgabenstellung: In der Regel werden logistische Aspekte und-, Master-, Diplomarbeit FIR an der RWTH Aachen Campus-Boulevard 55 52074 Aachen #12;

Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH)

169

LOW DELAY FILTER FOR ADAPTIVE NOISE REDUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A filter structure is proposed which has a significantly lower signal delay than common frequency-domain filtering by means of an analysis-synthesis filter-bank (AS FB). The recently pub- lished filter-bank equalizer (FBE) is a filter(-bank) with a lower signal delay compared to the corresponding AS FB. In this con- tribution, the signal delay of the FBE is further reduced by ap-

Peter Vary

170

Design of IIR Variable Fractional Delay Digital Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel method for designing IIR variable fractional delay (VFD) digital filters with variable and fixed denominator is presented. First of all, a peak-constrained weighted least-squares (PCWLS) method is employed to design a set of FIR fixed fractional delay (FD) filters according to given specifications. The PCWLS FIR filters are implemented by the projected least-squares (PLS) algorithm.

Hon Keung Kwan; Aimin Jiang

2007-01-01

171

A computationally efficient FIR MMSE-DFE for CCI-impaired dispersive channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast algorithms for the computation of the FIR MMSE-DFE in the presence of ISI, CCI, and colored noise are presented. Substantial reductions in computational complexity are achieved by using the powerful analytical tools of Cholesky factorization and displacement structure to fully exploit the structure of the problem. Both symbol-spaced and fractionally spaced feedforward filters are considered. Finally, we give a

Naofal Al-Dhahir

1997-01-01

172

A New Common Subexpression Elimination Algorithm for Realizing Low-Complexity Higher Order Digital Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of linear-phase finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters is dominated by the complexity of coefficient multipliers. The number of adders (subtractors) used to implement the multipliers determines the complexity of the FIR filters. It is well known that common subexpression elimination (CSE) methods based on canonical signed digit (CSD) coefficients reduce the number of adders required in the multipliers of FIR

R. Mahesh; A. Prasad Vinod

2008-01-01

173

Non-Causal Final Impulse Response Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon this assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the ``best'' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from market.

A. Dyka

2006-01-01

174

New demodulation filter in digital phase rotation beamforming.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a new quadrature demodulation filter to reduce hardware complexity in digital phase rotation beamforming. Due to its low sensitivity to phase delay errors, digital quadrature demodulation is commonly used in ultrasound machines. However, since it requires two lowpass filters for each channel to remove harmonics, the direct use of conventional finite impulse response (FIR) filters in ultrasound machines is computationally expensive and burdensome. In our new method, an efficient multi-stage uniform coefficient (MSUC) filter is utilized to remove harmonic components in phase rotation beamforming. In comparison with the directly implemented FIR (DI-FIR) and the previously-proposed signed-power-of-two FIR (SPOT-FIR) lowpass filters, the proposed MSUC filter reduces the necessary hardware resources by 93.9% and 83.9%, respectively. In simulation, the MSUC filter shows a negligible degradation in image quality. The proposed method resulted in comparable spatial and contrast resolution to the DI-FIR approach in the phantom study. These preliminary results indicate that the proposed quadrature demodulation filtering method could significantly reduce the hardware complexity in phase rotation beamforming while maintaining comparable image quality. PMID:16563453

Schneider, Fabio Kurt; Yoo, Yang Mo; Agarwal, Anup; Koh, Liang Mong; Kim, Yongmin

2006-07-01

175

Optimal Approximation Algorithms for Digital Filter Design.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several new algorithms are presented for the optimal approximation and design of various classes of digital filters. An iterative algorithm is developed for the efficient design of unconstrained and constrained infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters. Both in the unconstrained and constrained cases, the numerator and denominator of the filter transfer function are designed iteratively by recourse to the Remez algorithm and to appropriate design parameters and criteria, at each iteration. This makes it possible for the algorithm to be implemented by means of a short main program which uses (at each iteration) the linear phase FIR filter design algorithm of McClellan et al. as a subroutine. The approach taken also permits the filter to be designed with a desired ripple ratio. Also, the algorithm determines automatically the minimum passband ripple corresponding to the prescribed orders and band edges of the filter. The filter is designed directly without guessing the passband ripple or stopband ripple. Another algorithm, based on similar principles, is developed for the design of a nonlinear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filter, whose transfer function optimally approximates a desired magnitude response, there being no constraints imposed on the phase response. A similar algorithm is presented for the design of two new classes of FIR digital filters, one linear phase and the other nonlinear phase. A filter of either class has significantly reduced number of multiplications compared to the one obtained by its conventional counterpart, with respect to a given frequency response. In the case of linear phase, by introducing the new class of digital filters into the design of multistage decimators and interpolators for narrow-band filter implementation, it is found that an efficient narrow-band filter requiring considerably lower multiplication rate than the conventional linear phase FIR design can be obtained. The amount of data storage required by the new class of nonlinear phase FIR filters is significantly less than its linear phase counterpart. Finally, the design of a (finite-impulse-response) FIR digital filter with some of the coefficients constrained to zero is formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem and the LP technique is then used to design this class of constrained FIR digital filters. . . . (Author's abstract exceeds stipulated maximum length. Discontinued here with permission of author.) UMI.

Liang, Junn-Kuen

176

Geographic variation in growth response of Douglas-fir to interannual climate variability and  

E-print Network

the International Tree- Ring Data Bank to study radial growth response to historical climate variability and projected climate change P E I - Y U C H E N , C E D A R W E L S H and A N D R E A S H A M A N N Department Abstract We used 179 tree ring chronologies of Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] from

Hamann, Andreas

177

An efficient approximation to the quadratic Volterra filter and its application in real-time loudspeaker linearization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear filtering based on the Volterra series expansion is a powerful and popular approach in signal processing. However, a serious problem is the increased filter complexity as compared to linear filtering. This paper presents an efficient approximation to the second-order Volterra filter. The proposed filter structure, called multi-memory decomposition (MMD), is composed of three linear FIR filters and one multiplier.

Walter A. Frank

1995-01-01

178

Design of Microwave Band Pass Filters for the Debuncher Stochastic Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The FIR filters designed for the debuncher stochastic cooling system needed improvement. Its bandwidth was too wide, its magnitude was not flat, its phase ripple was too great, and it was difficult to control the characteristics of the filter. A simple microwave technique was employed to have a short time delay, simple robust layout, and small board size. A significant savings was seen over the FIR technique and these filters were installed in the Antiproton Source Debuncher while the FIR filters were removed from the debuncher stochastic cooling entirely.

Deibele, C.; /Fermilab

2001-01-01

179

Nonuniformly Spaced Photonic Microwave Delay-Line Filters and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite impulse response (FIR) filter for microwave signal processing implemented based on an optical delay-line structure with uniformly spaced taps has been extensively investigated, but the realization of such a filter with negative or complex tap coefficients to provide an arbitrary frequency response is still a challenge. In this paper, an overview of photonic microwave delay-line filters with nonuniformly

Yitang Dai; Jianping Yao

2010-01-01

180

Order selection of the hearing aid Feedback Canceller filter based on its impulse response energy.  

PubMed

Numerous methods have been proposed to cancel the unpleasant effects of acoustic feedback between the loudspeaker and microphone in hearing aid systems. Adaptive Feedback Cancellation (AFC) methods are often used to estimate an FIR filter for cancelling the feedback path effect. In estimating the AFC FIR filter, it is important to select the order of the filter properly; especially when the feedback path changes from one environment to another and no knowledge about it is available. Choosing improper filter order causes deficient system performance or excessive computations and power usage in the system. We present tracking of the energy of AFC FIR filters and its convergence behavior as a new criterion for determining the proper order for AFC FIR filter. Experimental results show validity of the proposed criterion. PMID:23367105

Khoubrouy, Soudeh A; Panahi, Issa M S

2012-01-01

181

CONTINUOUS WEIGHING ON A CONVEYOR BELT WITH FIR FILTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today much higher speed of operation and highly accurate weighing of packages during crossing a conveyor belt has been getting more and more important in the food and distribution industries etc. Continuous weighing means that masses of discrete packages on a conveyor belt are automatically determined in sequence. Making the best use of new weighing scale called a multi-stage conveyor

Ryosuke Tasaki; Takanori Yamazaki; Hideo Ohnishi; Masaaki Kobayashi; Shigeru Kurosu

182

Water Level Detection from Video with Fir Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes how to detect water level from a video signal for use of automatic river surveillance. The water level is recognized as a boundary line between the land region and the water region. A conventional method uses a \\

Masahiro Iwahashi; Sakol Udomsiri

2007-01-01

183

Subspace methods for the blind identification of multichannel FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a problem arising in a context of digital communications. A digital source is transmitted through a continuous channel (the propagation medium), and several measurements are performed at the receiver, either by means of several sensors, or by oversampling the received signal compared to the emission rate. Given only these observations, the baseband equivalents of the corresponding channels

Eric Moulines; P. Duhamel; J.-F. Cardoso; S. Mayrargue

1995-01-01

184

FIR filtering by the modified Fermat number transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Right-angle circular convolution (RCC) and the modified Fermat number transform (MFNT) are introduced. It is shown that a linear convolution of two N-point sequences can be obtained by a corresponding N-point RCC. It is also shown that the MFNT supports RCC so that a linear convolution can be computed by an N -point MFNT and its inverse plus N multiplies

W. Li; A. M. Peterson

1990-01-01

185

Pipelining highly concurrent VLSI processors to meet stringent finite impulse filter requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The signal processing task for the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter is particularly amenable to pipelined processors. Pipelining, combined with concurrent processing at each stage of the pipeline, leads to a highly efficient architecture with regard to maximizing throughput and filter sampling frequency. An algorithm is presented for the linear phase FIR filter signal processing task using a pipelined array of highly concurrent VLSI processors. The algorithm and pipelined array permits realization of linear phase FIR filters of arbitrary length with very high throughput. A methodology is also presented for using the pipelined array to cascade stages of equal length optimal FIR filters to obtain small relative passbands and transition widths, while maintaining acceptable passband and stopband ripples.

Siferd, R. E.

186

Design of Optimal Digital Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four methods for designing digital filters optimal in the Chebyshev sense are developed. The properties of these filters are investigated and compared. An analytic method for designing narrow-band FIR filters using Zolotarev polynomials, which are extensions of Chebyshev polynomials, is proposed. Bandpass and bandstop narrow-band filters as well as lowpass and highpass filters can be designed by this method. The design procedure, related formulae and examples are presented. An improved method of designing optimal minimum phase FIR filters by directly finding zeros is proposed. The zeros off the unit circle are found by an efficient special purpose root-finding algorithm without deflation. The proposed algorithm utilizes the passband minimum ripple frequencies to establish the initial points, and employs a modified Newton's iteration to find the accurate initial points for a standard Newton's iteration. The proposed algorithm can be used to design very long filters (L = 325) with very high stopband attenuations. The design of FIR digital filters in the complex domain is investigated. The complex approximation problem is converted into a near equivalent real approximation problem. A standard linear programming algorithm is used to solve the real approximation problem. Additional constraints are introduced which allow weighting of the phase and/or group delay of the approximation. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The desired constant group delay which gives the minimum Chebyshev error is found to be smaller than that of a linear phase filter of the same length. These filters, in addition to having a smaller, approximately constant group delay, have better magnitude characteristics than exactly linear phase filters with the same length. The filters have nearly equiripple magnitude and group delay. The problem of IIR digital filter design in the complex domain is formulated such that the existence of best approximation is guaranteed. An efficient and numerically stable algorithm for the design is proposed. The methods to establish a good initial point are investigated. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The magnitudes of the filter poles near the passband edge are larger than of those far from the passband edge. A delay overshooting may occur in the transition band (don't care region), and it can be reduced by decreasing the maximum allowed pole magnitude of the design problem at the expense of increasing the approximation error.

Chen, Xiangkun

187

Data rate reduction using a digital anti-aliasing filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital antialiasing filtering techniques in a PCM data acquisition system are presented which allow reduction of the sampling rate with minimum increases in size, weight, and power of the hardware. Using a finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter, the sampling rate can be reduced to about 2.5 times the signal bandwidth. The digital antiimage filter or interpolation filter is useful in the reproduction process if an analog output is to be recreated.

Lee, Kyong H.; Maschhoff, Robert H.

188

Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

2009-09-01

189

SARGENT'S FIR HYBRID: ABIES AMABILIS X LASIOCARPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

in the summer of 1896, Professor Charles Sprague Sargent found a fir tree that he thought might be a natural hybrid between Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes and A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. The founder and Director of the Arnold Arboretum, Sargent was generally recognized as America's pre eminent dendrologist. His brief description of the putative hybrid (Sargent, 1898) is still the

William B. Critchfield

190

BioMagResBank databases DOCR and FRED containing converted and filtered sets of experimental NMR restraints and coordinates from over 500 protein PDB structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two new databases of NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints: the Database Of Converted Restraints (DOCR) and the Filtered Restraints Database (FRED). These databases currently correspond to 545 proteins with NMR structures deposited in the Protein Databank (PDB). The criteria for inclusion were that these should be unique, monomeric proteins with author-provided experimental NMR data and coordinates available

Jurgen F. Doreleijers; Aart J. Nederveen; Wim Vranken; Jundong Lina; Alexandre M. J. J. Bonvin; Robert Kaptein; John L. Markley; Eldon L. Ulrich

2005-01-01

191

Differential evolution particle swarm optimization for digital filter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, swarm and evolutionary algorithms have been applied for the design of digital filters. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution particle swarm optimization (DEPSO) have been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters. Two different fitness functions have been studied and experimented, each having its own significance. The first study considers

Bipul Luitel; Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy

2008-01-01

192

An economical class of digital filters for decimation and interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of digital linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters for decimation (sampling rate decrease) and interpolation (sampling rate increase) are presented. They require no multipliers and use limited storage making them an economical alternative to conventional implementations for certain applications. A digital filter in this class consists of cascaded ideal integrator stages operating at a high sampling rate

E. Hogenauer

1981-01-01

193

Hybrid Differential Evolution with covariance matrix adaptation for digital filter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital filter design method utilizing a hybrid algo- rithm based on a Differential Evolution (DE) and Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) is presented. The main goal of the algorithm is to optimize the finite impulse response (FIR) filter coefficients which lead to the minimum error between the actual and the ideal filter frequency response. DE performs the global exploration

Krzysztof Walczak

2011-01-01

194

Bank Mergers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News exaimnes the recent flurry of merger activities in the banking sector. The ten resources discussed provide the details of the recent three big banking mergers and the likely effects on efficiency, lending and consumers. On April 6, 1998, Citibank, the second largest bank in America, announced that it will be merging with Travelers Group, a large financial services firm, in a deal worth $80 billion -- the largest merger deal ever. Only a week later, BankAmerica announced it would merge with NationsBank to create the first coast-to-coast bank in America, in a deal worth $60 billion. The third deal took place on the same day, when First Chicago NBD and Banc One announced they will be merging in a deal valued at $30 billion.

Ng, Thiam Hee.

195

A SYNCHRONIZED FIR/VUV LIGHT SOURCE AT JEFFERSON LAB  

SciTech Connect

We describe a dual free-electron laser (FEL) configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that allows simultaneous lasing at FIR/THz and UV wavelengths. The FIR/THz source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing nearly diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules. The FIR source would use the exhaust beam from a UVFEL. The coherent harmonics in the VUV from the UVFEL are out-coupled through a hole. The FIR source uses a shorter resonator with either hole or edge coupling to provide very high power FIR pulses. Simulations indicate excel-lent spectral brightness in the FIR region with over 100 W/cm-1 output.

Stephen Benson, David Douglas, George Neil, Michelle D. Shinn, Gwyn Williams

2012-07-01

196

Optimal approximation algorithms for digital filter design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several new algorithms are presented for the optimal approximation and design of various classes of digital filters. An iterative algorithm is developed for the efficient design of unconstrained and constrained infinite impulse response (IIR) digital filters. Both in the unconstrained and constrained cases, the numerator and denominator of the filter transfer function are designed iteratively by recourse to the Remez algorithm and to appropriate design parameters and criteria, at each iteration. This makes it possible for the algorithm to be implemented by means of a short main program which uses (at each iteration) the linear phase FIR filter design algorithm of McClellan et al. as a subroutine. The approach taken also permits the filter to be designed with a desired ripple ratio. Also, the algorithm determines automatically the minimum passband ripple corresponding to the prescribed orders and band edges of the filter. The filter is designed directly without guessing the passband ripple or stopband ripple.

Liang, J. K.

197

Douglas-fir nutrition: Summary of results from the  

E-print Network

Cooperative SILVICULTURE WOOD QUALITY NUTRITION MODELING College of Forest Resources University of WashingtonDouglas-fir nutrition: Summary of results from the Regional Forest Nutrition Research Project

198

Ultrasensitive TES bolometers for space based FIR astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the development of a background limited transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer for the wavelength band 30-60 ?m. The bolometer consists of a Ti/Au superconducting thermometer and a Ta radiation absorber deposited on a 200?m×300?m membrane of SixNy suspended on long, narrow legs. This device is voltage biased and the current through the device is measured by a SQUID amplifier. The thermometer has transition temperature Tc = 108 mK and the device is operated from a 70 mK base plate. FIR radiation is coupled into a multimodc horn with entrance aperture of 450 ?m, length 4.5 mm and exit aperture of 45 ?m, which feeds a metal integrating cavity containing the detector. The radiation band is defined by a pair of lowpass and highpass mesh filters in front of the horn. Here we present measurements of optical noise equivalent power (NEP), optical efficiency, dynamic range and time constant. The results show that measured TES detectors are close to meeting the requirement of the ``Band 3'' of SAFARI FTS imaging instrument [1] on the SPICA mission [2].

Morozov, D.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Ade, P.; Bruijn, M.; de Korte, P. A. J.; Hoevers, H.; Ridder, M.; Khosropanah, P.; Dirks, B.; Gao, J.-R.

2009-12-01

199

Multichannel recursive-least-square algorithms and fast-transversal-filter algorithms for active noise control and sound reproduction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much research on active noise control (ANC) systems and transaural sound reproduction (TSR) systems. In those fields, multichannel FIR adaptive filters are extensively used. For the learning of FIR adaptive filters, recursive-least-squares (RLS) algorithms are known to produce a faster convergence speed than stochastic gradient descent techniques, such as the basic least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm or even the

Martin Bouchard; Stephan Quednau

2000-01-01

200

Realization of Low Power High-Speed Channel Filters with Stringent Adjacent Channel Attenuation Specifications for Wireless Communication Receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite impulse response (FIR) filtering is the most computationally intensive operation in the channelizer of a wireless communication receiver. Higher order FIR channel filters are needed in the channelizer to meet the stringent adjacent channel attenuation specifications of wireless communications standards. The computational cost of FIR filters is dominated by the complexity of the coefficient multipliers. Even though many methods for reducing the complexity of filter multipliers have been proposed in literature, these works focused on lower order filters. This paper presents a coefficient-partitioning-based binary subexpression elimination method for realizing low power FIR filters. We show that the FIR filters implemented using proposed method consume less power and achieve speed improvement compared to existing filter implementations. Design examples of the channel filters employed in the Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (D-AMPS) and Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) receivers show that the proposed method achieved 23% average reductions of full adder and power consumption and 23.3% reduction of delay over the best existing method. Synthesis results show that the proposed method offers average area reduction of 8% and power reduction of 22% over the best known method in literature.

Mathew, Jimson; Mahesh, R.; Vinod, A. P.; Lai, Edmund M.-K.

201

Interstate banking, bank consolidation, and bank lending to small business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents and critics of interstate banking argue over the implications of nationwide banking for bank lending to small business. This study explores the patterns of (1) bank consolidation at the national level and (2) the share of domestic-bank commercial lending extended to small firms, specifically, small manufacturing firms, over the period 1976–90. The evidence indicates that despite the trend toward

John T. Rose

1993-01-01

202

Original article Water relations of European silver fir  

E-print Network

better adapted to drought. Abies alba Mill = European silver fir / Alps / stomata / water potentialOriginal article Water relations of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill) in 2 natural stands in the French Alps subject to contrasting climatic conditions P Guicherd Université Joseph-Fourier, Centre de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

203

Original article In vitro Douglas fir pollen germination  

E-print Network

Original article In vitro Douglas fir pollen germination: influence of hydration, sucrose October 1997; accepted 15May 1998) Abstract - Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) pollen. This can be overcome by rehydrating the pollen in 100 % relative humidity prior to culturing. The long

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Original article The response of dehydrated Douglas fir  

E-print Network

set. Three assay types that provided useful relationships to seed set were respiration (RESP), percent menziesii / Douglas fir 1 pollen 1 respiration 1 germination / viability 1 fertility 1 seed-set Résumé response of Douglas fir pollen stored for various periods (1 to several years) was related to actual seed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Virtual Field Trip: Temperate Rain Forest Douglas Fir and Western  

E-print Network

Virtual Field Trip: Temperate Rain Forest Douglas Fir and Western Hemlock forest, Roslyn, Wa. #12;Virtual Field Trip: Temperate Rain Forest Douglas Fir and Western Hemlock forest, Roslyn, Wa. Topics Knysna Forest Biome near Nature's Valley, in the Tsitsikamma, South Africa #12;Climate Precipitation (avg

Hansen, Andrew J.

206

CHARACTERIZATION OF EASTERN U.S. SPRUCE-FIR SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

he spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. his chapter will describe the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, includ...

207

Lamb wave interactions through dispersion 2D filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic surface waves are widely used to sense and map the properties of the propagation media. In order to characterise local space-time waves, methods such as Gabor analysis are powerful. Nevertheless, knowing which wave is observed, extracting its full bandwidth contribution from the others and to map it in the signal domain is also of great interest. In the Fourier domain, the acoustic energy of a wave is concentrated along the wave-number frequency (k-?) dispersion curve, a way to extract one wave from others is to filter the signals by mean of k-? band-pass area that keeps only the selected surface wave. The objective of the present paper is to propose 2D Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters based on an arbitrary area shape designed to extract selected waves. FIR filtering is based on convolving the impulse response of the filter with the signals. Impulse responses derived from using k-? elliptical areas (E-FIR) are presented. The E-FIR filters are successfully tested on three experimental space-time signals corresponding to the propagation of Lamb waves measured by standard transducers on a cylindrical shell, by laser Doppler on a plate and generated by a circular pulse and observed by shearography on a rectangular plate.

Martinez, L.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Caplain, E.; Sarens, B.; Glorieux, C.

2012-03-01

208

Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications  

PubMed Central

Far infrared (FIR) radiation (? = 3–100 ?m) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 ?m) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

2013-01-01

209

Characterization of eastern US spruce-fir soils. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

The spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. This chapter describes the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, including soil properties that are important in understanding forest function and the consequences of atmospheric deposition to forested ecosystems. Chapter 1 describes the silvical characteristics of the spruce-fir forest. The Spruce-Fir Research Cooperative included six intensive study sites; five were high-elevation research sites located from western North Carolina to New Hampshire, with one low-elevation site in Maine. Information gained from research at these sites, and other relevant research from these regions, provides the basis for this description of eastern U. S. spruce-fir soils.

Fernandez, I.J.

1992-01-01

210

Fusion of finite impulse response filter and adaptive Kalman filter to suppress angle random walk of fiber optic gyroscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new fusion structure of finite impulse response (FIR) filter and adaptive Kalman filter to suppress the angle random walk (ARW) of the fiber optic gyroscopes (FOGs). In our proposed fusion filter, a low-pass FIR filter first decomposes the discrete-time rotation rate into an approximation part and a detailed part. The detailed part is then put into an adaptive Kalman filter, which generates an increment part to compensate the high-frequency components of the rotation rate suppressed by the FIR filter. Different from the existing adaptive mechanism that modifies the covariance matrix of the error in the predicted estimate to cover model error, our proposal adaptively modifies the state equation of the Kalman filter to give a more accurate model. Therefore, it has the ability to distinguish the high-frequency components of the rotate rate from the high-frequency ARW noise. The new fusion structure integrates the advantages of these two filters. Experiments showed that with this new proposal, the ARW of a specific FOG had been reduced from 0.03741 deg/?{h} to 0.00976 deg/?{h} when the tap order M reached 1000, and the tracking error in dynamic cases was smaller than the digital resolution of the FOG.

He, Changhong; Yang, Chuanchuan; Wang, Ziyu

2012-12-01

211

Branch Banking, Bank Competition, and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often argued that branching stabilizes banking systems by facilitating diversification of bank portfolios; however, previous empirical research on the Great Depression offers mixed support for this view. Using data on national banks from the 1920s and 1930s, we show that branch banking raises the level of competition and increases exit from the banking system. This consolidation strengthens the

Mark Carlson; Kris James Mitchener

2006-01-01

212

Online banking applications and community bank performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of online banking intensity on the financial performance of community banks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study estimates online banking intensity and bank performance indices using a combination of primary and secondary data. Online banking intensity is specified as a latent construct and estimated using web feature data collected from

Ram N. Acharya; Albert Kagan; Srinivasa Rao Lingam

2008-01-01

213

Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiationa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

Bertschinger, G.; Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

2008-10-01

214

Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation.  

PubMed

Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating. PMID:19044527

Bertschinger, G; Endres, C P; Lewen, F; Oosterbeek, J W

2008-10-01

215

The Complex Subband Decomposition and its Application to the Decimation of Large Adaptive Filtering Problems  

E-print Network

The Complex Subband Decomposition and its Application to the Decimation of Large Adaptive Filtering. By this, we mean that an arbitrary FIR system S(z) of order L (which may be large) can be decimated, the analysis and synthesis filters have single-sided frequency responses. This decimation can render

Reilly, James P.

216

Wideband digital filter using FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital filter being developed by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is presented here. The filter is designed using field programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits and has an equivalent clock rate of 4 GHz. The ALMA radio astronomy array being developed by the NRAO in cooperation with several European scientific agencies will consist of up to 64 twelve-meter diameter antennas to be used for observing astronomical sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This instrument is to observe with bandwidths up to 16 GHz per antenna in eight unbroken RF bands of 2 GHz each. Bandwidth-resolution trade-offs are done in ALMA by providing each of the eight 4-Gsample/s digitizers per antenna with a programmable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filter. The filter can be selected to perform 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, . . ., 1/64 band filtering and sample decimation. In the 1/2 band mode, the filter has the equivalent of 128 tap weight multiplications. Tap weights increase by factors of two to the limit of 2048 tap weights when the filter is programmed to be a 1/32 band low-pass or high-pass filter. The filter is designed to process the output of a four-bit digitizer. The filter utilizes RAM look-up tables for tap weight multiplications. The output of the tap weight multiplications drive an adder tree which has 10-bit precision in the early stages and 7-bit precision in latter stages. Output quantizing of the adder tree output is done in look-up table RAM to 2- bit, 4-level precision. The filter is implemented on a 280-mm, 6-U, Euro card using FPGA ICs running with a system clock rate of 125 MHz.

Escoffier, Raymond P.; Webber, John C.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Broadwell, Charles M.

2000-07-01

217

Status of the spruce; Fir cooperative research program  

SciTech Connect

Aside from the mixed conifer forest in the San Bernadino National Forest near the Los Angeles Basin, the only significant visible decline and mortality of a U.S. forest possibly caused by regional air pollution is found in the high elevation spruce/fir forests of the Appalachians (VA, NC, TN, W VA), Adirondacks (NY), Green Mountains (VT), and the White Mountains (NH). In January, most of the scientists that have or are currently studying Spruce-Fir conditions met in Philadelphia. They came to a consensus on the regional condition of the Spruce-Fir forests. The results of that meeting are summarized.

Hertel, G.D.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Arre, T. (Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA (US)); Eager, C. (Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, TN (US)); Mohnen, V. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (USA)); MedLarz, S. (Northrop Services, Broomall, PA (US))

1987-01-01

218

Interior-point methods for magnitude filter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe efficient interior-point methods for the design of FIR filters with constraints on the magnitude spectrum, for example, piecewise-constant upper and lower bounds, and arbitrary phase. Several researchers have observed that problems of this type can be solved via convex optimization and spectral factorization. The associated optimization problems are usually solved via linear programming or, more recently, semidefinite programming.

Brien Alkire; Lieven Vandenberghe

2001-01-01

219

A note on 'free accumulation' in VLSI filter architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Completely pipelined inner product architectures are presented for FIR filtering and linear transformation. The designs use only full adders, organized to form multipliers. By cascading these multiplier structures, no additional area or time is needed to sum their products. The merits of the FFT are briefly reconsidered in the context of high throughput VLSI structures for digital signal processing.

P. Cappello; K. Steiglitz

1985-01-01

220

Addressing Tax Risks Involving Bank Losses  

E-print Network

ax risk bank loss risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk oss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax isk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax isk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax ank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss ax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank ax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk bank loss tax risk ba ank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax ?? risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax bank loss risk tax b

unknown authors

221

Bank It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game students explore the concept of probability in conjunction with addition of money. The object of the game is to have the most money at the end or reach $5 first. Throughout the game students collect coins for the number(s) rolled on each turn, but once the number 1 is rolled they lose all that they haven't banked.

2012-01-01

222

Thermally-efficient reconfigurable narrowband RF-photonic filter.  

PubMed

We present the design and fabrication of thermally-efficient tuning structures integrated into a narrowband reconfigurable radio-frequency (RF)-photonics filter using silicon-on-insulator waveguide optical delay lines. By introducing thermal isolation trenching, we are able to achieve IIR, FIR or arbitrary mixed response with less than 120 mW average tuning power in a single RF-photonic unit cell filter. PMID:21164810

Feng, Ning-Ning; Dong, Po; Feng, Dazeng; Qian, Wei; Liang, Hong; Lee, Daniel C; Luff, Jonathan B; Agarwal, Anjali; Banwell, Tom; Menendez, Ron; Toliver, Paul; Woodward, Ted K; Asghari, Mehdi

2010-11-22

223

Bank Terminals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

1978-01-01

224

BA EDHD HHS MUS Tec/Fir escorts, MA,  

E-print Network

Disabled Seating BA EDHD HHS MUS Tec/Fir LINE - D MBA, MAcc, MOD, EdS, Med, MFCS, MIT, MRC, MM, MPH and Sciences Summer Commencement Map University Lawn Diagram N McFall Center Presidential Seating Faculty

Moore, Paul A.

225

NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

226

Low-power implementation of polyphase filters in Quadratic Residue Number system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is the reduction of the power dis- sipated in digital filters, while maintaining the timing un- changed. A polyphase filter bank in the Quadratic Residue Number System (QRNS) has been implemented and then compared, in terms of performance, area, and power dis- sipation to the implementation of a polyphase filter bank in the traditional two's

Gian-carlo Cardarilli; Andrea Del Re; Alberto Nannarelli; Marco Re

2004-01-01

227

Supply of Douglas fir and its potential for biomass utilization  

SciTech Connect

The potential of the Douglas fir for biomass utilization is examined and it is noted from price projections that diversion of the Douglas fir to biomass would have quite spectacular price effects. Demand is expected to grow substantially even without any consideration of the use for biomass conversion, while projections of supply show that prices and supply will increase because of the adoption of intensive forestry techniques.

Berck, P.

1980-04-01

228

Banking Theory, Deposit Insurance, and Bank Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. Introduction The last several years have seen extensive change in the U.S. banking industry. ' In the 1950s and 1960s the banking industry was a symbol of stability. By contrast, recent years have seen the greatest frequency of bank failures since the Great Depression. During the same period, the banking environment has undergone the most significant changes since 1933,

Douglas W. Diamond; Philip H. Dybvig

1986-01-01

229

Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

2009-01-01

230

Central banking, free banking, and financial crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Summary View In the Keynesian view, the central bank is a part of an extramarket remedy to a market malady. Investment markets are inherently unstable; government control of the economy's money supply is an important element in macroeconomic stabilization policy. The case against central banking—and for free banking—reverses the characterization of both remedy and malady. Free banking is a

Roger W. Garrison

1996-01-01

231

General Banking Conditions 2009 General Banking Conditions  

E-print Network

or to the integrity of the financial system. 3 Activities and objectives The Customer provides information to the Bank activities. The Bank may give goods, docu- ments of title, securities or financial instruments that belongGeneral Banking Conditions 2009 r #12;#12;1 General Banking Conditions (Version 2009

Franssen, Michael

232

Empirical mode decomposition as a filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has recently been pioneered by Huang et al. for adaptively representing nonstationary signals as sums of zero-mean amplitude modulation frequency modulation components. In order to better understand the way EMD behaves in stochastic situations involving broadband noise, we report here on numerical experiments based on fractional Gaussian noise. In such a case, it turns out that

Patrick Flandrin; Gabriel Rilling; Paulo Goncalves

2004-01-01

233

Effect of solid matrix priming during moist chilling on dormancy breakage and germination of seeds of four fir species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of solid matrix priming (SMP) to overcome seed dormancy ofseeds of four fir species (Pacific silver fir, subalpine fir, grand fir andnoble fir), was examined. Seeds were subjected to treatments that combinedmoistchilling and SMP (SMP-chilling) and their germination compared to that elicitedby traditional moist chilling. For the SMP-chilling, six solid matrices withdifferent water holding capacities were tested (sphagnum,

Yilun Ma; J. Allan Feurtado; Allison R. Kermode

2003-01-01

234

Variation in soil seed bank species composition of a dry coniferous forest: spatial scale and sampling considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the effects of disturbance on soil seed bank spatial structure, variation in seed bank species composition\\u000a was analyzed at two spatial scales in mature (undisturbed) and recently disturbed stands of Interior Douglas-fir forest in\\u000a south-central British Columbia. Coarse-scale analysis among stands 10–100 km apart using Multi-Response Permutation Procedures\\u000a showed that individual mature stands were mainly characterized by

Kaeli E. Stark; André Arsenault; Gary E. Bradfield

2008-01-01

235

Performance of antisapstain compounds on kiln-dried Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber subjected to rewetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mold and stain fungi can be easily controlled by kiln-drying, but even this material can be rewetted during shipping and storage, allowing fungi to colonize the wood. The potential for using surface spray treatments with commercial formulations containing combinations of propiconazole, didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride, or 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate to pro- tect kiln-dried Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber was evaluated over an 18-month

Neil Melencion; J. J. Morrell

236

Douglas-fir and western larch: chemical and physical properties in relation to Douglas-fir hark beetle attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency of Douglas-fir bark beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), attack on western larch (Lark occidentalis NW.) was negatively correlated with 3-carene content of the xylem oleoresin. Concentrations of all oleoresin volatiles from stem cores of standing trees were higher in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) France) than in western larch with the single exception of 3-carene. Successful brood production by

A. N. REED; J. W. HANOVER; M. M. FURNISS

237

Cyclic block filtered multitone modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A filter bank modulation transceiver is presented. The idea is to obtain good sub-channel frequency confinement as it is done by the family of exponentially modulated filter banks that is typically referred to as filtered multitone (FMT) modulation. However, differently from conventional FMT, the linear convolutions are replaced with circular convolutions. Since transmission occurs in blocks, the scheme is referred to as cyclic block FMT (CB-FMT). This paper focuses on the principles, design, and implementation of CB-FMT. In particular, it is shown that an efficient realization of both the transmitter and the receiver is possible in the frequency domain (FD), and it is based on the concatenation of an inner discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and a bank of outer DFTs. Such an implementation suggests a simple sub-channel FD equalizer. The overall required implementation complexity is lower than in FMT. Furthermore, the orthogonal filter bank design is simplified. The sub-channel frequency confinement in CB-FMT yields compact power spectrum and lower peak-to-average power ratio than in OFDM. Furthermore, the FD equalization allows the exploitation of the transmission medium time and frequency diversity; thus, it potentially yields lower symbol error rate and higher achievable rate in time-variant frequency-selective fading.

Tonello, Andrea M.; Girotto, Mauro

2014-12-01

238

Low-complexity wavelet filter design for image compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image compression algorithms based on the wavelet transform are an increasingly attractive and flexible alternative to other algorithms based on block orthogonal transforms. While the design of orthogonal wavelet filters has been studied in significant depth, the design of nonorthogonal wavelet filters, such as linear-phase (LP) filters, has not yet reached that point. Of particular interest are wavelet transforms with low complexity at the encoder. In this article, we present known and new parameterizations of the two families of LP perfect reconstruction (PR) filters. The first family is that of all PR LP filters with finite impulse response (FIR), with equal complexity at the encoder and decoder. The second family is one of LP PR filters, which are FIR at the encoder and infinite impulse response (IIR) at the decoder, i.e., with controllable encoder complexity. These parameterizations are used to optimize the subband/wavelet transform coding gain, as defined for nonorthogonal wavelet transforms. Optimal LP wavelet filters are given for low levels of encoder complexity, as well as their corresponding integer approximations, to allow for applications limited to using integer arithmetic. These optimal LP filters yield larger coding gains than orthogonal filters with an equivalent complexity. The parameterizations described in this article can be used for the optimization of any other appropriate objective function.

Majani, E.

1994-01-01

239

Bioinformatics Activity Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is designed for educators hoping to teach students about the world of biotechnology and bioinformatics, and the lesson plans here are top-notch. The lessons span a variety of topics, including applied mathematics, DNA, and genetics. Visitors can scroll through six sections, including Organisms and Evolution or Proteins and Proteomics. Visitors can scroll through each area, keeping in mind that each activity is categorized by grade level, subject area, and type. For those looking for specific areas, they will find a set of activity filters that can be used to easily identify specific resources. Some of the activity offerings here include "Genetic Disorder Research," "What is Cloning?," and "DNA Detectives: Extract your Own DNA." Finally, visitors can visit In The News to learn more about ongoing activities at the Bioinformatics Activities Bank.

240

A Novel Genetic Algorithm for Optimization of FRM Digital Filters over DBNS Multiplier Coefficient Space Based on Correlative Roulette Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of double base number system (DBNS) multiplier coefficients reduces the complexity and power consumption in the hardware implementation of FIR digital filters. The use of genetic algorithms for optimization of the constituent DBNS multiplier coefficients can further reduce the complexity of the digital filter. This paper presents a novel genetic algorithm based on correlative roulette selection (CRS) for

Sai Mohan Kilambi; Behrouz Nowrouzian

2006-01-01

241

Essays on banking  

E-print Network

This thesis consists of two chapters that investigate two important issues in banking of the past decade: the effect of banking consolidation on the borrowers and the regulatory capital requirements for banks. The first ...

Erel, Isil

2006-01-01

242

Cord-Blood Banking  

MedlinePLUS

... severe combined immunodeficiency . There are two types of banks that store cord blood: Public banks collect donated cord blood for research or for ... collected, anonymously marked, and sent to a public bank to potentially save the life of another child ...

243

Investment Banks Goldman Sachs  

E-print Network

Brown Brothers Harriman Fidelity HSBC Money Center Banking Bank of America CIBC Citigroup Mellon Financial Corporation PNC Bank Wachovia Asset Management Firms Acadian Asset Management Alliance Capital Management Baring Asset Management Dimensional Fund Advisors First Quadrant New Amsterdam Partners

Aronov, Boris

244

The Gaussian sum convolution probability hypothesis density filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multi-target tracking algorithm, termed as the Gaussian sum convolution probability hypothesis density (GSCPHD) filter, is proposed. The filter is calculated by a bank of convolution filters with Gaussian approximations to the predicted and posterior densities. It is shown that the ability to deal with complex observation model, non or small observation noise of the GSCPHD over the Gaussian

Jian Jun Yin; Jian Qiu Zhang; Ze Sen Zhuang

2008-01-01

245

Collection of biological and non-biological particles by new and used filters made from glass and electrostatically charged synthetic fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic filters made from fibers carrying electrostatic charges and fiberglass filters that do not carry electrostatic charges are both utilized com- monly in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The pres- sure drop and efficiency of a bank of fiberglass filters and a bank of electrostatically charged synthetic filters were measured repeatedly for 13 weeks in operating HVAC systems at

P. C. Raynor; B. G. Kim; G. Ramachandran; M. R. Strommen; J. H. Horns; A. J. Streifel

2008-01-01

246

Ranking the Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ranking the Banks, sponsored by American Banker, does just what the title suggests: ranks banks, worldwide. Five catagories of banks -- World Banks, Thrifts, Industry, Bank Holding Companies, and Commercial banks -- are subdivided into a number of different subcatagories including Top 100 Banking Companies in Assets, Top 100 World Banking Companies in Deposits, and Top 25 Lead Legal Advisers. Each compilation of data is ranked and tabled and the current ranking is displayed against the last. All tables are clearly dated, and those exclusive to American Banker online are highlighted with an icon.

247

Internet Banking System Prototype  

E-print Network

Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

2010-01-01

248

Disk filter  

DOEpatents

An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09

249

GROWTH-TREND DECLINES OF SPRUCE AND FIR IN MID-APPALACHIAN SUBALPINE FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dendroecological analysis of 258 increment growth cores collected from red spruce, balsam fir, and Fraser fir in central West Virginia and western Virginia indicates marked declines in growth-trend during the past 20 years similar to that reported for spruce and fir in high-eleva...

250

Commercial Bank and Bank Holding Company Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Report of Condition and Income database, provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, contains financial data for all banks regulated by the Federal Reserve System, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Comptroller of the Currency. Merger Data contains information on all "bank acquisitions and mergers since 1985." The Merger Data is available in either ASCII or SAS format. Quarterly Call Report Data contains "income and balance sheet items for all the banks" from the first quarter of 1989. The data are on an individual bank basis and are downloadable in zipped SAS transport data file format.

251

New LMS adaptive filter for GPR processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DFT method popular in GPR processing assumes that data is infinite outside a given interval. The selection of a finite time interval and of the orthogonal trigonometric basis over a given interval means that only those frequencies which coincide with the basis will project onto a single basis vector. The rest of the frequency set will give nonzero projections on the entire basis set [harris, 1978]. The finite data set is obtained by windowing an infinite data sequence. The assumption is that the unmeasured data is zero and this is not true. When the power of the signal is concentrated on a narrow BW this operation spreads that power into adjacent frequency regions. This phenomenon is called spectral leakage. Leakage affects power estimation, resolution, dynamic range, implementation and detectability of a sinusoidal component. Parametric methods can be used to describe the process that creates a signal. A priori knowledge is required to extrapolate the information from the input signal. This approach eliminates spectral leakage problems. Parametric methods create a model that use a number of parameters to describe the process that create the signal under observation. Adaptive filters are parametric and iterative, theses filters respond to the input by changing their model parameters. The number of samples used at the input is small, however the samples are stored in memory so that the parameters obtained from an estimate are statistically combined with those of the previous estimates. This gives an accurate reading over several iterations. To date the closed loop adaptive filters have been used more commonly in radar signal processing. The closed loop adaptive filters have a feedback factor. One of the main disadvantages of closed loop adaptive filters are firstly the need for continual optimization and secondly instability. The second little known group of adaptive filters are called open loop adaptive filters. These filters differ from open loop ADF in that they do not require feedback, the input signal is used to change the parameters of the filter. An adaptive algorithm used by an ALP in closed loop filters changes the FIR filter coefficients such that the transfer function of the adaptive filter become the inverse of that possessed by the input process. Once adapted the frequency response of the FIR filter will be unity at the frequency of the input signal and the ALP's output. The error will be at a minimal value. By comparison the frequency response of the FIR filter in an open loop configuration will be zero at the frequency of the input signal. Open loop filters are more stable than closed loops adaptive filters. A novel frequency domain open loop adaptive filter is also introduced. This filter offers more stability, does not need feed back and has increased convergence speed.

Dube, F. N.; Devlin, John C.

2000-04-01

252

Central bank Financial Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have

J. Ramon Martinez-Resano

2004-01-01

253

Strategic online banking adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the determinants of banks’ decisions to adopt a transactional website for their customers. Using a panel of commercial banks in the United States for the period 2003–2006, we show that although bank-specific characteristics are important determinants of banks’ adoption decisions, competition also plays a prominent role. The extent of competition is related to the geographic

Rubén Hernández-Murillo; Gerard Llobet; Roberto Fuentes

2010-01-01

254

Biological Filters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

Klemetson, S. L.

1978-01-01

255

Block Digital Filter Implementation Techniques and Transform Domain Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is concerned with block implementation techniques of digital filters and their application to transform domain processing. Block implementation of digital filters is useful for high throughput filtering due to inherent parallelism. Furthermore, more accurate computation is possible through proper allocation of computation resources in the block transform domain when input data are correlated. The performance improvement is closely related to block transform coding gain of the input signal. By extending scalar linear constant coefficient difference equation (LCCDE) to block LCCDE, we have shown various block filter structure implementation techniques, and investigated their finite precision coefficient quantization effects. Particularly, block lattice implementation of IIR and FIR filters is of interest due to their good numerical properties. In order to derive the block lattice structures, we have used block lossless bounded real (BLBR) functions; in the block IIR lattice implementation, a BLBR function derived from the denominator of the block transfer function is used, which parallels the Gray-Markel lattice for the scalar case, and in the block FIR lattice implementation, the block version of power complementary pair polynomials is derived and utilized. It has been demonstrated that these block lattice filter structures have better finite coefficient quantization characteristics than those of any other block filter structures. The block filter structures are directly applied to transform domain filtering without any modification of the block filter structures. The matrix coefficients only need to be changed to the transform domain coefficients. It has been shown that nonuniform coefficient quantization in the transform domain filtering improves the accuracy of filtering for finite given computational resources (for example, number of transistors in the VLSI implementation).

Jang, Youngbeom

1994-01-01

256

Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir  

E-print Network

Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir and Redwood Forests Philip B. Durgin United and chemical properties of soil often to a critical extent. By promoting aggregation, soil organic matter affects erodibility,1 infiltration,2 water reten- tion,3 and shear strength of soil.4 Organic matter

Standiford, Richard B.

257

Anomalous dispersion and the pumping of far infrared (FIR) lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the anomalous dispersion at the pump transition in molecular far-infrared lasers (FIR) can lead to sizable focusing and defocusing effects. Criteria for beam spreading and trapping are considered with CH2F as an example.

Lawandy, N. M.

1978-01-01

258

FIR signature verification system characterizing dynamics of handwriting features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an online signature verification method based on the finite impulse response (FIR) system characterizing time-frequency characteristics of dynamic handwriting features. First, the barycenter determined from both the center point of signature and two adjacent pen-point positions in the signing process, instead of one pen-point position, is used to reduce the fluctuation of handwriting motion. In this paper, among the available dynamic handwriting features, motion pressure and area pressure are employed to investigate handwriting behavior. Thus, the stable dynamic handwriting features can be described by the relation of the time-frequency characteristics of the dynamic handwriting features. In this study, the aforesaid relation can be represented by the FIR system with the wavelet coefficients of the dynamic handwriting features as both input and output of the system. The impulse response of the FIR system is used as the individual feature for a particular signature. In short, the signature can be verified by evaluating the difference between the impulse responses of the FIR systems for a reference signature and the signature to be verified. The signature verification experiments in this paper were conducted using the SUBCORPUS MCYT-100 signature database consisting of 5,000 signatures from 100 signers. The proposed method yielded equal error rate (EER) of 3.21% on skilled forgeries.

Thumwarin, Pitak; Pernwong, Jitawat; Matsuura, Takenobu

2013-12-01

259

Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

260

Temporal Stability and Dendroclimatology in Silver Fir and Red Spruce  

E-print Network

. Dendroclimatology requires a predictable, relationship between growth and climate. Tree-ring series from silver fir patterns through mathematical models that relate precisely dated tree-ring records to climate measurements) , Katarina CUFAR 2) & Tom LEVANIC 2) K e y w o r d s : Dendrochronology, climate change. S u m m a r y SMITH

Cufar, Katarina

261

Original article Tree-ring characteristics of subalpine fir  

E-print Network

Original article Tree-ring characteristics of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt fluctuations on radial growth and tree-ring properties of Abies lasiocarpa, we sampled dominant trees in 49 impacts on wood quality of high and low-elevation Abies lasiocarpa. The correlation and response functions

Boyer, Edmond

262

Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in Coastal Western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search o{ an explanation for the disjunct, isolated population of subalpine fir on Prince of Wales Island io southeastern Alaska, Harris (1965) suggests that the stand had descended from a local remnant population that escaped glaciation rather rhan from postglacial westward migration. During independent, but related, studies on plant distributions in coastal western North America, both of us have

A. Worley; Dennis Jaques

263

Kidney Filtering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students filter different substances through a plastic window screen, different sized hardware cloth and poultry netting. Their model shows how the thickness of a filter in the kidney is imperative in deciding what will be filtered out and what will stay within the blood stream.

2014-09-18

264

Low Power Adder Based Auditory Filter Architecture  

PubMed Central

Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65?nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%. PMID:25506073

Jayanthi, V. S.

2014-01-01

265

Low power adder based auditory filter architecture.  

PubMed

Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65?nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%. PMID:25506073

Rahiman, P F Khaleelur; Jayanthi, V S

2014-01-01

266

Cascaded integrator comb filters with smoothly varying coefficients for reduced delay in synchrotron feedback loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the J-PARC complex in Tokai, Japan, is designed to accelerate a high intensity proton beam from 181 MeV, and later 400 MeV to 3 GeV in 20 ms within the 40 ms machine cycle. The beam power up to 1 MW demands a stable beam control to avoid excessive losses and activation of the accelerator chain. The fully digital control system is based on quadrature modulation and demodulation. In the amplitude control loops standard FIR filters separate the harmonics (h=2) and (h=4) after down conversion. For the phase loops at (h=2) and (h=4), intended to damp synchrotron oscillations, the delay in a FIR filter would limit the loop stability. Cascaded integrator comb filters, also called CIC filters, provide a shorter delay because they filter the longitudinal beam signal only where it is necessary. The notches are located at multiples of the revolution frequency of the proton beam. For fixed frequency accelerator applications, digital comb filters with fixed clock frequency are widely used to improve loop stability. For variable frequency accelerator applications, as in a proton synchrotron, where the frequency swing is larger than the notch width, usually the clock frequency of the comb filter is variable and chosen to be an integer multiple of the particle revolution frequency. At J-PARC RCS, the clock frequency has to be fixed. Tracking the frequency would require a variable noninteger number of filter taps. Here we present a filter, based on the weighted output of 2 CIC filters with variable length, and one tap difference. The filter function looks like a CIC with smoothly varying coefficients, where the notches follow the revolution frequency of the proton beam. The delay of this filter is approximately half of the corresponding FIR filter, so that the phase loops have a higher stability margin.

Schnase, A.; Nomura, M.; Tamura, F.; Yamamoto, M.; Anami, S.; Ezura, E.; Hara, K.; Ohmori, C.; Takagi, A.; Yoshii, M.

2005-12-01

267

WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION  

SciTech Connect

The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-10

268

Central Banking Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Central Banks of the World is a pointers page to central banks and central bank information for over 45 countries, as well as multilateral financial institutions, research and training establishments, and conference information. To show how little is generally known about the history of central banking in the United States, this site includes an email message sent to the webmaster of the First Bank of the United States, promoting a certain software company's web interactivity applications. Of course, since the First Bank of the United States was closed in 1811, its web site is primarily historical. The Central Banks site lists over 30 Internet directories and pointers pages that list the First Bank of the United States as a functioning financial institution. To help remedy this situation, the site includes a pointer to a brief history of banking in the US.

269

An Architecture For Integrating Low Complexity and Reconfigurability for Channel filters in Software Defined Radio Receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most computationally demanding block in the digital front end of a software defined radio (SDR) receiver is the channelizer which operates at the highest sampling rate. Reconfigurability and low complexity are the two key requirements of the SDR channelizers. An architecture for implementing low complexity and reconfigurable finite impulse response (FIR) filters for channelizers is proposed in this paper.

R. Mahesh; A. Prasad Vinod

2007-01-01

270

World Bank Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has recently added full-text journal articles to its Website. The World Bank Research Observer is geared towards non-specialist readers who have an interested in bank research. It includes articles on such matters as development economics, new World Bank research, and development policy. The World Bank Economic Review is a professional journal, published three times a year, that focuses on "World Bank-sponsored research that emphasizes empirical applications." Journals are searchable by article and by issue, as well as by author and keyword.

271

Bank panics and the endogeneity of central banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central banking is intimately related to liquidity provision to banks during times of crisis, the lender-of-last-resort function. This activity arose endogenously in certain banking systems. Depositors lack full information about the value of bank assets, so that during macroeconomic downturns they monitor their banks by withdrawing in a banking panic. The likelihood of panics depends on the industrial organization of

Gary Gorton; Lixin Huang

2006-01-01

272

Minimax sidelobe reduction filtering for Huffman sequence autocorrelation function type signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution is presented for the impulse response of an FIR sidelobe reduction filter, intended for signals consisting of a main lobe and two symmetrically spaced side-lobes, i.e. for signals of the Huffman sequence autocorrelation function type. The filter minimizes the output main-lobe level subject to a constraint on the maximum sidelobe level. It is shown that for those input

A. Dyka; H. Ugoski

1988-01-01

273

Minority-Owned Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest installment from this quarterly report from the Federal Reserve Board of Governors lists minority-owned banks by state. Data include assets, deposits, and established dates. The data from this study, from the banks that participate in the Department of the Treasury's Minority Bank Deposit Program, are compiled from "Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income filed quarterly by banks (FFIEC 031 through 034) and from other information in the Board's National Information Center database."

274

The Magnetic Field Surrounding Serp-FIR1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a 350 micron SHARP/CSO polarization map of the environment surrounding the intermediate-mass YSO Serp-FIR1. These observations are part of a larger program to test the magnetically regulated star formation model using a statistically significant sample of relatively isolated star-forming cores. This model predicts that the magnetic field in these cores will have an hourglass morphology and that the symmetry axis of the magnetic field will be aligned with the outflow axis. We will discuss the results of Serp-FIR1 in terms of this model and compare it to our previously published results. This work is funded by NSF grant AST-0909030.

Chapman, Nicholas L.; Davidson, J. A.; Novak, G.; Matthews, T.; Matthews, B.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Volgenau, N.; Vaillancourt, J.

2012-01-01

275

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Monroeville, PA); Dilmore, William J. (Murrysville, PA)

1992-01-01

276

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

1992-09-01

277

Global Systems for Mobile Position Tracking Using Kalman and Lainiotis Filters  

PubMed Central

We present two time invariant models for Global Systems for Mobile (GSM) position tracking, which describe the movement in x-axis and y-axis simultaneously or separately. We present the time invariant filters as well as the steady state filters: the classical Kalman filter and Lainiotis Filter and the Join Kalman Lainiotis Filter, which consists of the parallel usage of the two classical filters. Various implementations are proposed and compared with respect to their behavior and to their computational burden: all time invariant and steady state filters have the same behavior using both proposed models but have different computational burden. Finally, we propose a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) implementation of the Steady State Kalman, and Lainiotis filters, which does not require previous estimations but requires a well-defined set of previous measurements. PMID:24883349

Assimakis, Nicholas

2014-01-01

278

Lattice form adaptive infinite impulse response filtering algorithm for active noise control.  

PubMed

In some situations of active noise control, infinite impulse response (IIR) filters are more suitable than finite impulse response (FIR) filters owing to the poles in the transfer function. A number of algorithms have been derived for applying IIR filters in active noise control; however, most of them use the direct form IIR filter structure, which faces the difficulties of checking stability and relatively slow convergence speed for noise composed of narrow-band components with large power disparity. To overcome these difficulties along with using the direct form IIR filters, a new adaptive algorithm is proposed in this paper, which uses and updates the lattice form adaptive IIR filter in an active noise control system. Full mathematical derivations of the proposed algorithm are presented, and the comparison between the proposed algorithm and the commonly used filtered-u LMS and filtered-v LMS algorithms shows the superiority of the proposed algorithm. PMID:12558272

Lu, Jing; Shen, Chunhua; Qiu, Xiaojun; Xu, Boling

2003-01-01

279

Lattice form adaptive infinite impulse response filtering algorithm for active noise control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some situations of active noise control, infinite impulse response (IIR) filters are more suitable than finite impulse response (FIR) filters owing to the poles in the transfer function. A number of algorithms have been derived for applying IIR filters in active noise control; however, most of them use the direct form IIR filter structure, which faces the difficulties of checking stability and relatively slow convergence speed for noise composed of narrow-band components with large power disparity. To overcome these difficulties along with using the direct form IIR filters, a new adaptive algorithm is proposed in this paper, which uses and updates the lattice form adaptive IIR filter in an active noise control system. Full mathematical derivations of the proposed algorithm are presented, and the comparison between the proposed algorithm and the commonly used filtered-u LMS and filtered-v LMS algorithms shows the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

Lu, Jing; Shen, Chunhua; Qiu, Xiaojun; Xu, Boling

2003-01-01

280

Fast maximum likelihood for blind identification of multiple FIR channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a fast maximum likelihood method for estimating the impulse responses of multiple FIR channels driven by an arbitrary unknown input. The resulting method consists of two iterative steps, where each step minimizes a quadratic function. The two-step maximum likelihood (TSML) method is shown to be high-SNR efficient, i.e., attaining the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRB) at high SNR.

Yingbo Hua

1996-01-01

281

Cavity-dumping of an optically pumped FIR laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conventional molecular gas far-infrared laser pumped by a low-pressure Q-switched CO2 laser has been cavity-dumped. The dumping of far-infrared radiation was accomplished by means of an optical semiconductor switch activated by the pulsed output of either a Q-switched or an actively mode-locked Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. As a result, 10 ns FIR pulses have been generated. Dumping efficiency turns out

J. Burghoorn; W. Roest; J. Bij; T. O. Klaassen; W. Th Wenckebach

1993-01-01

282

Commercial Banking Industry Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

283

Bank of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

284

Bank Diversification and Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the consequences of bank diversification into fee-based businesses. Universal banks raise welfare by expanding the range of services available to entrepreneurs. However, because they may choose to rescue failed entrepreneurs in order to sell them fee-based financial services, universal banks provide weaker incentives. Adopting a holding company structure and devolving liquidation decisions to the lending division partially

Gyöngyi Lóránth; Alan Morrison

2008-01-01

285

European Central Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

286

Snow Bank Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Local professors teamed up with a fourth-grade teacher to show students the similarities and differences between sedimentary rock layers and snow banks. Students observed and drew snow banks and explored the effects of melting and salting on the snow banks.

Audrey C. Rule

2005-01-01

287

Shadow banking regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shadow banks conduct credit intermediation without direct, explicit access to public sources of liquidity and credit guarantees. Shadow banks contributed to the credit boom in the early 2000s and collapsed during the financial crisis of 2007-09. We review the rapidly growing literature on shadow banking and provide a conceptual framework for its regulation. Since the financial crisis, regulatory reform efforts

Tobias Adrian; Adam B. Ashcraft

2012-01-01

288

Efficiency in European banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the established literature on modelling the cost characteristics of banking markets by applying the flexible Fourier functional form and stochastic cost frontier methodologies to estimate scale economies, X-inefficiencies and technical change for a large sample of European banks between 1989 and 1997. The results reveal that scale economies are widespread for smallest banks and those in the

Y. Altunba?; E. P. M. Gardener; P. Molyneux; B. Moore

2001-01-01

289

Banking on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

Internet Research, 1996

1996-01-01

290

Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [Cii], [Oi] and [Nii] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel-PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (> 109 M_?) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed by the cooling of gas in the cores of the most compact clusters and provide important diagnostics of the temperature and density of the dense clouds this gas resides in. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Edge, A. C.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Mittal, R.; Allen, S. W.; Baum, S. A.; Böhringer, H.; Bregman, J. N.; Bremer, M. N.; Combes, F.; Crawford, C. S.; Donahue, M.; Egami, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Ferland, G. J.; Hamer, S. L.; Hatch, N. A.; Jaffe, W.; Johnstone, R. M.; McNamara, B. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Popesso, P.; Quillen, A. C.; Salomé, P.; Sarazin, C. L.; Voit, G. M.; Wilman, R. J.; Wise, M. W.

2010-07-01

291

Breaking FIR-Radio Correlation: The Case of Interacting Galaxies  

E-print Network

Far-infrared (FIR)--radio correlation is a well-established empirical connection between continuum radio and dust emission of star-forming galaxies, used as a tool in determining star-formation rates. Here we point out that in the case of interacting star-forming galaxies this tool might break. Galactic interactions and mergers have been known to give rise to tidal shocks and disrupt morphologies especially in the smaller of the interacting components. Moreover, these shocks can also heat the gas and dust and accelerate particles leading to tidal cosmic-ray population in addition to standard galactic cosmic rays. Both heating and additional non-thermal radiation will obviously affect the FIR-radio correlation of these systems. To test this hypothesis we have analyzed a sample of 43 infrared bright star-forming interacting galaxies at different merger stages. We have found that their FIR-radio correlation parameter and radio emission spectral index vary over different merger stages and behave as it would be ex...

Donevski, Darko

2015-01-01

292

The singular value filter: a general filter design strategy for PCA-based signal separation in medical ultrasound imaging.  

PubMed

A general filtering method, called the singular value filter (SVF), is presented as a framework for principal component analysis (PCA) based filter design in medical ultrasound imaging. The SVF approach operates by projecting the original data onto a new set of bases determined from PCA using singular value decomposition (SVD). The shape of the SVF weighting function, which relates the singular value spectrum of the input data to the filtering coefficients assigned to each basis function, is designed in accordance with a signal model and statistical assumptions regarding the underlying source signals. In this paper, we applied SVF for the specific application of clutter artifact rejection in diagnostic ultrasound imaging. SVF was compared to a conventional PCA-based filtering technique, which we refer to as the blind source separation (BSS) method, as well as a simple frequency-based finite impulse response (FIR) filter used as a baseline for comparison. The performance of each filter was quantified in simulated lesion images as well as experimental cardiac ultrasound data. SVF was demonstrated in both simulation and experimental results, over a wide range of imaging conditions, to outperform the BSS and FIR filtering methods in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and motion tracking performance. In experimental mouse heart data, SVF provided excellent artifact suppression with an average CNR improvement of 1.8 dB with over 40% reduction in displacement tracking error. It was further demonstrated from simulation and experimental results that SVF provided superior clutter rejection, as reflected in larger CNR values, when filtering was achieved using complex pulse-echo received data and non-binary filter coefficients. PMID:21693416

Mauldin, F William; Lin, Dan; Hossack, John A

2011-11-01

293

The Singular Value Filter: A General Filter Design Strategy for PCA-Based Signal Separation in Medical Ultrasound Imaging  

PubMed Central

A general filtering method, called the singular value filter (SVF), is presented as a framework for principal component analysis (PCA) based filter design in medical ultrasound imaging. The SVF approach operates by projecting the original data onto a new set of bases determined from PCA using singular value decomposition (SVD). The shape of the SVF weighting function, which relates the singular value spectrum of the input data to the filtering coefficients assigned to each basis function, is designed in accordance with a signal model and statistical assumptions regarding the underlying source signals. In this paper, we applied SVF for the specific application of clutter artifact rejection in diagnostic ultrasound imaging. SVF was compared to a conventional PCA-based filtering technique, which we refer to as the blind source separation (BSS) method, as well as a simple frequency-based finite impulse response (FIR) filter used as a baseline for comparison. The performance of each filter was quantified in simulated lesion images as well as experimental cardiac ultrasound data. SVF was demonstrated in both simulation and experimental results, over a wide range of imaging conditions, to outperform the BSS and FIR filtering methods in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and motion tracking performance. In experimental mouse heart data, SVF provided excellent artifact suppression with an average CNR improvement of 1.8 dB (P < 0.05) with over 40% reduction (P < 0.05) in displacement tracking error. It was further demonstrated from simulation and experimental results that SVF provided superior clutter rejection, as reflected in larger CNR values, when filtering was achieved using complex pulse-echo received data and non-binary filter coefficients. PMID:21693416

Lin, Dan; Hossack, John A.

2012-01-01

294

Optimization of multiplierless two-dimensional digital filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circularly symmetric and diamond-shaped low-pass linear phase FIR filters are designed using coefficients comprising the sum or difference of two signed power-of-two (SPT) terms. A minimax error criterion is adopted in conjunction with an optimization process based on the use of genetic algorithms (GAs). The results presented are compared with those obtained using various other design methods, including simulated annealing, linear programming and simple rounding of an optimum (continuous) minimax solution. The filters designed using GAs exhibit superior performance to those designed using other methods.

Sriranganathan, S.; Bull, David R.; Redmill, David W.

1996-02-01

295

Modeling Filter Bypass: Impact on Filter Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models and test methods for determining filter efficiency ignore filter bypass, the air that circumvents filter media because of gaps around the filter or filter housing. In this paper, we develop a general model to estimate the size-resolved particle removal efficiency, including bypass, of HVAC filters. The model applies the measured pressure drop of the filter to determine the

Matthew Ward; Jeffrey Siegel

296

Filtering Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how CCD cameras use color filters to create astronomical images in this Moveable Museum unit. The four-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity notes, and step-by-step directions. Students look at black-and-white photos to understand gray scale and construct simple red and green cellophane filters and observe magazine images through them.

297

Submicron filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2\\/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as

Frederick Tepper; Leonid Kaledin

2009-01-01

298

Water Filter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective.
Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

WGBH Boston

2002-01-01

299

Power quality detection and classification using digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a power disturbance detection and classification method based on a digital filtering technique. The key idea underlying the approach is to decompose a disturbed or distorted signal using a multi-channel filter bank. The decomposed signals are then processed to classify and evaluate the power disturbances. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various power quality disturbances,

Z. Chen; P. Urwin

2001-01-01

300

Predicting postfire Douglas-fir beetle attacks and tree mortality in the northern Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were monitored for 4 years following three wildfires. Logis- tic regression analyses were used to develop models predicting the probability of attack by Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroc- tonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, 1905) and the probability of Douglas-fir mortality within 4 years following fire. Percent crown volume scorched (crown scorch), cambium injury, diameter at breast height (DBH), and

Sharon Hood; Barbara Bentz

2007-01-01

301

Bahrain's offshore banking center  

SciTech Connect

The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

1983-01-01

302

Bank Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank Information Center (BIC) is a nonprofit, independent, non-governmental organization that "provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)." The organization's Website contains information about BIC's ongoing activities and offers useful publications and toolkits for those interested in and involved with MDBs. The Toolkits for Activists section includes fact sheets that explain the inner workings of the World Bank, covering topics such as basic information about the World Bank, the Country Assistance Strategy, World Bank policy framework, and information on World Bank's lending. Each fact sheet is available in both .pdf and HTML formats. The publications section offers a variety of resources including papers, case studies, and meeting reports, many of which are available online. Also provided are links to other monitoring organizations around the world and several online forums. An information services page will be added soon.

303

User's guide to the douglas-fir beetle impact model. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Douglas-fir beetle occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir. At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precendent conditions for epidemics of Douglas-fir beetle. An impact model has been developed to simulate tree mortality during such epidemics. The model has been linked to the Stand Prognosis Model (Forest Vegetation Simulator). This is a guide for using the model.

Marsden, M.A.; Eav, B.B.; Thompson, M.K.

1994-09-01

304

Simulated Performance of an FIR-Based Feedback System to Control the Electron Cloud Single-Bunch Transverse Instabilities in the CERN SPS  

SciTech Connect

The operation at high current of high-energy proton machines like the SPS at CERN is affected by transverse single-bunch instabilities due to the Electron Cloud effect [1]. As a first step toward modeling a realistic feedback control system to stabilize the bunch dynamics, we investigate the use of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter to represent the processing channel. The effect of the processing channel on the bunch dynamics is analyzed using the macro-particle simulation package Wart-Posinst. We discuss the basic features of the feedback model, report on simulation results, and present our plans for further development of the numerical model.

Secondo, R.; Vay, J. L.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J. D.; Rivetta, C. H.; Hofle, W.

2011-03-28

305

The Origins of Banking Panics: Models, Facts, and Bank Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banking panics are the central event informing and rationalizing government intervention into the banking industry. In the last decade progress has been made in understanding the origins of panics. This essay reviews recent theoretical and empirical work on the origins of banking panics. New evidence on the causes of banking panics is introduced. Banking panics do not appear to have

Charles W. Calomiris; Gary Gorton

1991-01-01

306

Non-Causal Final Impulse Response Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon this assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the ``best'' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduced by the {ITALIC a priori} known filter. The best results were obtained for the impulse response given by the Pascal triangle and the family of symmetric power triangles, both for the case of trading with, and without the transaction fee. It was found that the transaction fee dramatically reduces a possible net return, and therefore should not be omitted in market analyzes.

Dyka, A.

2006-11-01

307

Multidimensional digital filters for point-target detection in cluttered infrared scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional (3-D) spatiotemporal prediction-error filter (PEF) is used to enhance foreground/background contrast in (real and simulated) sensor image sequences. Relative velocity is utilized to extract point targets that would otherwise be indistinguishable with spatial frequency alone. An optical-flow field is generated using local estimates of the 3-D autocorrelation function via the application of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse FFT. Velocity estimates are then used to tune in a background-whitening PEF that is matched to the motion and texture of the local background. Finite impulse response (FIR) filters are designed and implemented in the frequency domain. An analytical expression for the frequency response of velocity-tuned FIR filters, of odd or even dimension with an arbitrary delay in each dimension, is derived.

Kennedy, Hugh L.

2014-11-01

308

Method and system for training dynamic nonlinear adaptive filters which have embedded memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described herein is a method and system for training nonlinear adaptive filters (or neural networks) which have embedded memory. Such memory can arise in a multi-layer finite impulse response (FIR) architecture, or an infinite impulse response (IIR) architecture. We focus on filter architectures with separate linear dynamic components and static nonlinear components. Such filters can be structured so as to restrict their degrees of computational freedom based on a priori knowledge about the dynamic operation to be emulated. The method is detailed for an FIR architecture which consists of linear FIR filters together with nonlinear generalized single layer subnets. For the IIR case, we extend the methodology to a general nonlinear architecture which uses feedback. For these dynamic architectures, we describe how one can apply optimization techniques which make updates closer to the Newton direction than those of a steepest descent method, such as backpropagation. We detail a novel adaptive modified Gauss-Newton optimization technique, which uses an adaptive learning rate to determine both the magnitude and direction of update steps. For a wide range of adaptive filtering applications, the new training algorithm converges faster and to a smaller value of cost than both steepest-descent methods such as backpropagation-through-time, and standard quasi-Newton methods. We apply the algorithm to modeling the inverse of a nonlinear dynamic tracking system 5, as well as a nonlinear amplifier 6.

Rabinowitz, Matthew (Inventor)

2002-01-01

309

Compact Micromachined Bandpass Filters for Infrared Planetary Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal instrument strawman payload of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter on the Europa Jupiter Science Mission will map out thermal anomalies, the structure, and atmospheric conditions of Europa and Jupiter within the 7-100 micron spectral range. One key requirement for the payload is that the mass cannot exceed 3.7 kg. Consequently, a new generation of light-weight miniaturized spectrometers needs to be developed. On the path toward developing these spectrometers is development of ancillary miniaturized spectroscopic components. In this paper, we present a strategy for making radiation hard and low mass FIR band pass metal mesh filters. Our strategy involves using MEMS-based fabrication techniques, which will permit the quasi-optical filter structures to be made with micron-scale precision. This will enable us to achieve tight control over both the pass band of the filter and the micromachined silicon support structure architecture, which will facilitate integration of the filters for a variety of applications.

Brown, Ari D.; Aslam, Shahid; Chervenak, James A.; Huang, Wei-Chung; Merrell, Willie; Quijada, Manuel

2011-01-01

310

Random filtering structure-based compressive sensing radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently with an emerging theory of `compressive sensing' (CS), a radically new concept of compressive sensing radar (CSR) has been proposed in which the time-frequency plane is discretized into a grid. Random filtering is an interesting technique for efficiently acquiring signals in CS theory and can be seen as a linear time-invariant filter followed by decimation. In this paper, random filtering structure-based CSR system is investigated. Note that the sparse representation and sensing matrices are required to be as incoherent as possible; the methods for optimizing the transmit waveform and the FIR filter in the sensing matrix separately and simultaneously are presented to decrease the coherence between different target responses. Simulation results show that our optimized results lead to smaller coherence, with higher sparsity and better recovery accuracy observed in the CSR system than the nonoptimized transmit waveform and sensing matrix.

Zhang, Jindong; Ban, YangYang; Zhu, Daiyin; Zhang, Gong

2014-12-01

311

17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR FILTERS ARE VISIBLE TO THE SIDES OF THE DOORS. THE BUILDING WAS DIVIDED INTO ZONES BY AIRLOCK DOORS AND AIR FILTERS. AIR PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS WERE MAINTAINED IN THE ZONES, SUCH THAT AIRFLOW WAS PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION. (9/24/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

312

Continuous weighing on a multi-stage conveyor belt with FIR filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today higher speed of operation and highly accurate weighing of packages during crossing a conveyor belt has been getting more important in the food and distribution industries etc. Continuous weighing means that masses of discrete packages on a conveyor belt are automatically determined in sequence. Making the proper use of new weighing scale called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale which

Ryosuke Tasaki; Takanori Yamazaki; Hideo Ohnishi; Masaaki Kobayashi; Shigeru Kurosu

2007-01-01

313

An Efficient Arithmetic Sum-of-Product (SOP) based Multiplication Approach for FIR Filters and DFT  

E-print Network

them. We use the Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) representation for the coefficients ci to minimize the number of partial products in each of the N trapezoids. CSD is a radix-2 number system in which a bit can take a value from the set {1..., among all the radix-2 number systems, the CSD representation results in the mini- mum number of non-zero bits for any number. To illustrate the advantage associated with CSD representation, consider a coefficient with a value of 61. If its binary...

Kumar, Rajeev

2013-04-24

314

A fully non-uniform approach to FIR filtering Brigitte Bidegaray-Fesquet (1)  

E-print Network

others electronic devices ­ by one to two orders of magnitude is extremely challenging but will be very sample analog signals (at Nyquist rate) without taking advantage of their intrinsic properties] that Analog-to-digital Converters (ADCs) using a non equi-repartition in time of samples leads to interesting

Bidegaray, Brigitte

315

NOISE AND OUTLIER REMOVAL FROM JET ENGINE HEALTH SIGNALS USING WEIGHTED FIR MEDIAN HYBRID FILTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of noise and outliers from measurement signals is a major problem in jet engine health monitoring. Typical measurement signals found in most jet engines include low rotor speed, high rotor speed, fuel flow and exhaust gas temperature. Deviations in these measurements from a baseline ‘good’ engine are often called measurement deltas and the health signals used for fault

R. Ganguli

2002-01-01

316

Design of odd number rational coefficients symmetric compactly-supported biorthogonal wavelet filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most wavelet filters that constructed based on Daubechies compactly-supported wavelet construction theory have nonlinear phase and irrational number coefficients. Nonlinear phase may cause distortion in image processing, and irrational filter coefficients will cause much inconvenience for wavelet applications on computer, especially for embedded processor applications. With thought of the theory of perfect-reconstruction filter banks, this paper does a study for

Han Fang-fang; Duan Fa-jie; Duan Xiao-jie; Zhang Chao

2010-01-01

317

Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

2014-05-01

318

Bank for International Settlements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), a creation of the Hague Conference of 1930, is "a[n international] central banking institution" whose aim is "to promote the co-operation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations." Its web site provides a detailed profile of BIS, along with its basic texts and charters. However, the power of the site is its publication section, a small but growing list of full text publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), highlighted by the quarterly International Banking and Financial Market Developments, a "commentary on recent developments in international banking, securities and global derivatives markets based on partial information available for the [most recent quarter] and on more detailed banking data for [the previous quarter]." The site also contains BIS Review, "a collection of important articles and speeches by senior central bankers."

319

A Genetic Algorithm Employing Correlative Roulette Selection for Optimization of FRM Digital Filters over CSD Multiplier Coefficient Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that canonical signed digit (CSD) multiplier coefficients reduce the complexity and power consumption requirements in the hardware implementation of FIR digital filters. Optimization of the constituent CSD multiplier coefficients using genetic algorithms can further reduce this complexity by constantly evolving from generation to generation based on the minimization of an objective fitness function modeled on the

Sai Mohan Kilambi; Behrouz Nowrouzian

2006-01-01

320

Cooperative Banks and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative banks are an important, and growing, part of many financial systems. This paper empirically analyzes the role of cooperative banks in financial stability. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, we find that cooperative banks are more stable than commercial banks. This finding is due to the lower volatility of the cooperative banks' returns, which more than offsets their

Martin Cihák; Heiko Hesse

2007-01-01

321

Banking Scope and Financial Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the implications of financial system design for financial innovation. We begin with assumptions about the investment opportunities of firms, their observable attributes, and the roles of commercial banks, investment banks, and the financial market. We examine the borrower's choice between bank and financial market funding, the commercial bank's choice of monitoring capacity, and the investment bank's choice of

Arnoud W A Boot; Anjan V Thakor

1997-01-01

322

Bank Record Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

1982-01-01

323

Banking: shop and compare.  

PubMed

There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors. PMID:25108982

O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

2014-01-01

324

Bank Director Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created for directors of financial companies, Bank Director Magazine is a quarterly publication that examines issues of importance to bank directors. The online publication includes the complete table of contents, as well as a selection of articles from the current issue. The site also features a directory of names, addresses, and phone numbers of M&A investment banking and law firms, consulting firms, and technology and retail delivery companies.

325

Development News: World Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Development News, or DevNews, is the World Bank's daily Web-based newsletter. Available in English, French, and Spanish, DevNews offers feature stories on recent advances and challenges in world development. The newsletter also links to a daily summary of approved loans, speeches given by World Bank officials, an events calendar, and World Bank press releases. Articles from February 1999 to the present can be found in the free archive.

326

The European Central Bank: The Bank that rules Europe?   

E-print Network

The power of the European Central Bank (ECB) is rooted in its independence established in the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. This power is reinforced though the bank’s monetary policy credibility—achieved through meeting its price stability mandate...

Howarth, D.

2009-01-01

327

14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) 1. Applicability. This rule applies to the...

2012-01-01

328

14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) 1. Applicability. This rule applies to the...

2013-01-01

329

14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) 1. Applicability. This rule applies to the...

2014-01-01

330

14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) 1. Applicability. This rule applies to the...

2010-01-01

331

Historical Statistics on Banking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Historical Statistics on Banking (HSOB), from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, "provides annual statistical information on the banking industry beginning in 1934." The site contains commercial banking reports, savings institution reports, and bank and thrift failure reports from 1934 to 1999. The Milestones feature offers a chronological retrospective on the FDIC's collection and use of data. Although the database is fairly easy to use, the HSOB Help section contains additional detailed instructions on saving and printing charts, and also offers a helpful glossary of terms used.

332

A ComputationallyEfficient FIR MMSEDFE for CCI--Impaired Dispersive Channels \\Lambda  

E-print Network

A Computationally­Efficient FIR MMSE­DFE for CCI--Impaired Dispersive Channels \\Lambda Naofal Al­Dhahir, Member IEEE Abstract Fast algorithms for the computation of the FIR MMSE--DFE in the presence of ISI, CCI--feedback equalizer, Co--channel Interference Suppression. I. Introduction Co--channel interference (CCI

Al-Dhahir, Naofal

333

PZTYOPHTHORUS ORARZUS BRIGHT (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE) INA NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DOUGLAS-FIR SEED ORCHARD: EFFECT OF CLONE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Entomologist 126: 11 11 -1 118 (1994) The geographic range of the Douglas-fir twig beetle, Pityophthorus orarius Bright, was extended beyond the original provenance of southern British Columbia to northern California. A survey of 457 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees in 1985 revealed that those with heavy cone crops were more likely to be infested by twig

NANCY G. RAPPAPORT; DAVID L. WOOD

334

Chemistry of throughfall under douglas fir and Rocky Mountain juniper. [Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca; Juniperus scopulorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and nitrate were measured in throughfall under isolated douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) trees in northern Utah for 39 storms in 1970 and 1971. Concentrations were 3-16 times greater under the trees than in the open. Throughfall under douglas fir invariably had higher concentrations than that

G. E. Hart; D. R. Parent

1974-01-01

335

REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF BALSAM FIR (ABIES BALSAMEA), WHITE SPRUCE (PICEA GLAUCA), AND BLACK SPRUCE  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF BALSAM FIR (ABIES BALSAMEA), WHITE SPRUCE (PICEA GLAUCA), AND BLACK; coniferous forest; ecotone; mixedwood forest; Picea glauca; Picea mariana. The northern limit of a species coniferous species (balsam fir [Abies balsamea], white spruce [Picea glauca] and black spruce [P. mariana

Asselin, Hugo

336

Nutrient Availability from Douglas Fir Bark in Response to Substrate pH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two studies were conducted to determine the influence of substrate pH on nutrient availability in douglas fir bark (DFB). Douglas fir bark was amended with either calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] at 13 rates to generate substrates with low to high pH. A non-amended control ...

337

Overstory/understory relationships in old growth Grand fir habitat types of northeast Oregon  

E-print Network

allotments. Stands in two of the Douglas fir ecotypes (Psudotsuga menziesii/Carex geyeri and Pseudotsuga mens/exit/Symphoricarpos a/bus) were dominated by Douglas fir and also had a relatively large number of ponderosa pine present. Stands of the third...

Schreder, Peter Todd

2000-01-01

338

Chemical and mineral composition of ectomycorrhizosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies  

E-print Network

Chemical and mineral composition of ectomycorrhizosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa- zosphere soils of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) in the Ae horizon of a Luvisol. Can. J'ectomycorhi- zosphère sous sapin subalpin (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) dans l'horizon Ae d'un luvisol. Can. J. Soil

Massicotte, Hugues

339

Annosus Root Disease in True Firs in Northern and Central California National Forests1  

E-print Network

Annosus Root Disease in True Firs in Northern and Central California National Forests1 G. W stand and tree characteristics associated with the occurrence of annosus root disease-feet) of the total dead firs during a 1.5-year period. Annosus root disease was estimated to infest 18 percent

Standiford, Richard B.

340

Plasmon Enhancements for FIR Detection A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, P. V. V. Jayaweera  

E-print Network

Plasmon Enhancements for FIR Detection A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, P. V. V. Jayaweera Department Council-Canada Ont. CANADA Abstract--The use of plasmons to improve the response of FIR and THz detectors is generating extensive interest. Increased absorption due to the plasmonic absorption in a GaAs wafer

Perera, A. G. Unil

341

Spatial changes in forest floor and foliar chemistry of spruce-fir forests across New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., high elevation spruce-fir forests receive greater amounts of nitrogen deposition relative to low elevation areas. At high elevations the cycling of nitrogen is naturally low due to slower decomposition and low biological N demand. The combination of these factors make spruce-fir ecosystems potentially responsive to changes in N inputs.

S. G. McNulty; J. D. Aber; R. D. Boone

1991-01-01

342

Past and present outbreaks of the balsam fir sawfly in western Newfoundland: An analytical review  

E-print Network

Past and present outbreaks of the balsam fir sawfly in western Newfoundland: An analytical review whether a sustained outbreak of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Harris) in western Newfoundland America (Martineau, 1985) but the current outbreak on the west coast of the island of Newfoundland (Fig. 1

343

Should Banks Be Diversified? Evidence from Individual Bank Loan Portfolios  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effect of loan portfolio focus versus diversification on the return and the risk of 105 Italian banks over the period 1993–99 using data on bank-by-bank exposures to different industries and sectors. We find that diversification is not guaranteed to produce superior performance and\\/or greater safety for banks. For high-risk banks, diversification reduces bank return while producing riskier

Iftekhar Hasan; Anthony Saunders

2006-01-01

344

American Association of Tissue Banks  

MedlinePLUS

... AATB here for more information ="imageslider.next()"> Tissue Bank Specialist Certification AATB offers a program for Certification ... prep and other meetings and training workshops >> Accredited Bank Search AATB’s Accreditation Program ensures that tissue-banking ...

345

FDIC Banking Review, October 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC's monthly publication Banking Review includes the article "Financially Distressed Banks: How Effective Are Enforcement Actions in the Supervision Process?" which looks at some effects of bank examinations.

346

Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center) [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center; Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)) [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA)) [Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA)

1990-05-01

347

Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

1990-01-01

348

High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues  

SciTech Connect

New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong [Centre for Laser, Atomic and Molecular Studies (CLAMS), University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B. [Canadian Light Source, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 101 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada)

2010-02-03

349

75 FR 67731 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...both of Victor, Iowa; Corydon State Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of...

2010-11-03

350

75 FR 69444 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...both of Victor, Iowa; Corydon State Bank, Corydon, Iowa; First State Bank of Colfax, Colfax, Iowa; Maxwell State Bank, Maxwell, Iowa; Pocahontas State Bank, Pocahontas, Iowa; and Panora State Bank, Panora, Iowa. Board of...

2010-11-12

351

Banking on Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank

Roach, Ronald

2010-01-01

352

Overflowing the Banks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will teach students about levees and how they are designed to hold a river in its bank. They will construct a model of a river bank and explore how levees can cause water levels to back up into smaller streams and tributaries, causing floods.

353

iBank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

2012-01-01

354

Rural banking in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people in the vast rural areas of Africa lack access to financial services, and most commercial banks are not interested in moving into these areas due to their low income levels, lack of scale economies, and poor infrastructure. Also, few banks actually understand the most common economic activity in rural areas: agriculture. Consequently, the absence of financial institutions in

Gerard van Empel

2010-01-01

355

Bank Community Development Corporations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides a brief overview of bank and bank holding company community development corporations (CDCs), the types of activities for which they can be used, the legal requirements in establishing such an entity, and how they are organized and operated. Case studies, including studies of the Shorebank Corporation of Chicago, the First…

Illinois State Dept. of Commerce and Community Affairs, Springfield.

356

Air filter  

SciTech Connect

An air filter is described that has a counter rotating drum, i.e., the rotation of the drum is opposite the tangential intake of air. The intake air has about 1 lb of rock wool fibers per 107 cu. ft. of air sometimes at about 100% relative humidity. The fibers are doffed from the drum by suction nozzle which are adjacent to the drum at the bottom of the filter housing. The drum screen is cleaned by periodically jetting hot dry air at 120 psig through the screen into the suction nozzles.

Jackson, R.E.; Sparks, J.E.

1981-03-03

357

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

1988-01-01

358

12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...

2011-01-01

359

12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...

2010-01-01

360

Gaussian Filters for Nonlinear Filtering Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop and analyze real-time and accurate filters for nonlinear filtering problems based on the Gaussian distributions. We present the systematic formulation of Gaussian filters and develop efficient and accurate numerical integration of the optimal filter. We also discuss the mixed Gaussian filters in which the conditional probability density is approximated by the sum of Gaussian distributions.

Kazufumi Ito; Kaiqi Xiong

1999-01-01

361

12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF...

2011-01-01

362

12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF...

2010-01-01

363

Phosphorus Filter  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tom Kehler, fishery biologist at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania, checks the flow rate of water leaving a phosphorus filter column. The USGS has pioneered a new use for acid mine drainage residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, usi...

364

The world bank’s role in tourism development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last four decades, commitment to tourism as a development strategy for developing economies has fluctuated within the World Bank. This article reviews the bank’s experience from 1966 to the present as it has evolved through various phases of its own institutional role towards development. Today, driven by strong country demand, there is renewed interest within the bank in

Shaun Mann

2007-01-01

365

Quantitative characterization of the interactions among c-myc transcriptional regulators FUSE, FBP, and FIR.  

PubMed

Human c-myc is critical for cell homeostasis and growth but is a potent oncogenic factor if improperly regulated. The c-myc far-upstream element (FUSE) melts into single-stranded DNA upon active transcription, and the noncoding strand FUSE recruits an activator [the FUSE-binding protein (FBP)] and a repressor [the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR)] to fine-tune c-myc transcription in a real-time manner. Despite detailed biological experiments describing this unique mode of transcriptional regulation, quantitative measurements of the physical constants regulating the protein-DNA interactions remain lacking. Here, we first demonstrate that the two FUSE strands adopt different conformations upon melting, with the noncoding strand DNA in an extended, linear form. FBP binds to the linear noncoding FUSE with a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. FIR binds to FUSE more weakly, having its modest dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. FIR is monomeric under near-physiological conditions but upon binding of FUSE dimerizes into a 2:1 FIR(2)-FUSE complex mediated by the RRMs. In the tripartite interaction, our analysis suggests a stepwise addition of FIR onto an activating FBP-FUSE complex to form a quaternary FIR(2)-FBP-FUSE inhibitory complex. Our quantitative characterization enhances understanding of DNA strand preference and the mechanism of the stepwise complex formation in the FUSE-FBP-FIR regulatory system. PMID:20420426

Hsiao, Hsin-Hao; Nath, Abhinav; Lin, Chi-Yen; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa J; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Braddock, Demetrios T

2010-06-01

366

Tree Biomass Estimation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Based on Bayesian Method  

PubMed Central

Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) is the most important conifer species for timber production with huge distribution area in southern China. Accurate estimation of biomass is required for accounting and monitoring Chinese forest carbon stocking. In the study, allometric equation was used to analyze tree biomass of Chinese fir. The common methods for estimating allometric model have taken the classical approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability. However, many different biotic and abiotic factors introduce variability in Chinese fir biomass model, suggesting that parameters of biomass model are better represented by probability distributions rather than fixed values as classical method. To deal with the problem, Bayesian method was used for estimating Chinese fir biomass model. In the Bayesian framework, two priors were introduced: non-informative priors and informative priors. For informative priors, 32 biomass equations of Chinese fir were collected from published literature in the paper. The parameter distributions from published literature were regarded as prior distributions in Bayesian model for estimating Chinese fir biomass. Therefore, the Bayesian method with informative priors was better than non-informative priors and classical method, which provides a reasonable method for estimating Chinese fir biomass. PMID:24278198

Zhang, Jianguo

2013-01-01

367

Tree biomass estimation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) based on Bayesian method.  

PubMed

Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) is the most important conifer species for timber production with huge distribution area in southern China. Accurate estimation of biomass is required for accounting and monitoring Chinese forest carbon stocking. In the study, allometric equation W = a(D2H)b was used to analyze tree biomass of Chinese fir. The common methods for estimating allometric model have taken the classical approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability. However, many different biotic and abiotic factors introduce variability in Chinese fir biomass model, suggesting that parameters of biomass model are better represented by probability distributions rather than fixed values as classical method. To deal with the problem, Bayesian method was used for estimating Chinese fir biomass model. In the Bayesian framework, two priors were introduced: non-informative priors and informative priors. For informative priors, 32 biomass equations of Chinese fir were collected from published literature in the paper. The parameter distributions from published literature were regarded as prior distributions in Bayesian model for estimating Chinese fir biomass. Therefore, the Bayesian method with informative priors was better than non-informative priors and classical method, which provides a reasonable method for estimating Chinese fir biomass. PMID:24278198

Zhang, Xiongqing; Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, Jianguo

2013-01-01

368

GenBank  

PubMed Central

GenBank® (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 300 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:25414350

Benson, Dennis A.; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

2015-01-01

369

Using GenBank.  

PubMed

GenBank(R) is a comprehensive database of publicly available DNA sequences for more than 205,000 named organisms and for more than 60,000 within the embryophyta, obtained through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure, and domain information and the biomedical journal literature through PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available through FTP. GenBank usage scenarios ranging from local analyses of the data available through FTP to online analyses supported by the NCBI Web-based tools are discussed. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:18287687

Wheeler, David

2007-01-01

370

An FIR cooled grating spectrometer for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a liquid-He-cooled spectrometer being developed for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) to study FIR lines originating in the interstellar medium are discussed. Currently, the spectrometer contains six Ge:Ga photoconductor detectors mounted in integrating cavities and cooled to about 3 K; the collimator focal plane has space for 39 such detectors. The instrument achieves a maximum resolving power of 6000 by means of a 45-cm long echelle grating and is optically capable of operating in the spectral range 25-300 microns. A laboratory spectrum of water vapor, an atmospheric water absorption feature measured from the KAO with Mars as a source, and the forbidden O(2+) emission from W51-IRS1 are shown.

Erickson, E. F.; Haas, M. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Simpson, J. P.; Augason, G. C.; Houck, J. R.; Harwit, M. O.; Rank, D. M.

1985-01-01

371

A HIRES analysis of the FIR emission of supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high resolution (HiRes) algorithm has been used to analyze the far infrared emission of shocked gas and dust in supernova remnants. In the case of supernova remnant IC 443, we find a very good match between the resolved features in the deconvolved images and the emissions of shocked gas mapped in other wavelengths (lines of H2, CO, HCO+, and HI). Dust emission is also found to be surrounding hot bubbles of supernova remnants which are seen in soft X-ray maps. Optical spectroscopy on the emission of the shocked gas suggests a close correlation between the FIR color and local shock speed, which is a strong function of the ambient (preshock) gas density. These provide a potentially effective way to identify regions of strong shock interaction, and thus facilitate studies of kinematics and energetics in the interstellar medium.

Wang, Zhong

1994-01-01

372

A sampled-data CMOS analog adaptive filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully analog sampled-data CMOS adaptive filter realizing the LMS (least mean squared) adaptation on a four-tap FIR (finite impulse response) filter has been fabricated. The system uses clocked CMOS sampled-data storage, four-quadrant CMOS analog multipliers, and CMOS op amp-based arithmetic modules. For achieving higher output sampling rates and for allowing modularity, a parallel architecture has been used, implementing each filter tap separately instead of using a single time-multiplexed processing unit. The prototype chip was fabricated using double-metal double-poly 2-micron CMOS P-well technology, occupying an area of 4.0 sq mm and using +/- 5-V power supplies.

Gomez, Gabriel; Siferd, Raymond

373

World Bank Experts Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with reporters and editors in mind, the World Bank Experts Guide provides World Bank experts that are available to comment on to the media on a wide variety of topics. The list of experts may be viewed by name of expert or by subject. Each expert is given his or her own Webpage, which includes a short biography, expertise, and languages spoken, along with a photograph and related links. For ease of use, several "hot topics" are highlighted including AIDS/HIV and debt relief. This site gives an awe-inspiring look at the variety of experts working for the World Bank.

374

Core 4: Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Image Bank supplements the coursework for Core 4: The Shaping of the Modern World, an introductory course offered by the History Department of Brooklyn College. The Image Bank indexes numerous historical images spanning from the Scientific Revolution to the present. The images are divided into eight major topic indexes: Ancien Regime and Critics; Age of Revolutions; Industry and Society; Liberalism and Nationalism; Varieties of Imperialism; The World Turned Upside Down; Fascism, Depression & WWII; and, The World Since 1945. Indexes for major topics contain clustered subtopics, allowing users to locate relevant images quickly. This Image Bank presents students and educators with a valuable, visual method for understanding Modern Western History.

375

The New Economics of Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

All aspects of banking business are being radically transformed and to an extent that is changing the fundamental economics of the banking firm and the banking industry. This is because of three dominant factors: a series of powerful pressures acting simultaneously; technology is changing the very core of banking business: infor-mation advantages, processing, moni-toring, delivery, etc; and because, as a

David T. Llewellyn

1999-01-01

376

The Anatomy of Bank Diversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use panel data from nine countries over the period 1996 to 2003 to test how revenue diversi-fication in conjunction with increasing bank size affects bank value. Using a comprehensive framework for bank performance measurement, we find no evidence for a conglomerate discount, unlike studies concerned with industrial firms. Rather, revenue diversification increases bank profitability and is associated with higher

Ralf Elsas; Andreas Hackethal; Markus Holzhaeuser

2006-01-01

377

The Evolution of Online Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explore the success of U.S. banks in utilizing online banking as a distribution channel for their products and services. The emergence of the Internet as a distribution medium of revolutionary potential in the mid-1990s was greeted by the majority of banks with reservation and caution. At the beginning of this era banks were

Douglas Ross

378

Ultrasound speckle reduction using modified Gabor filters.  

PubMed

B-mode ultrasound images are characterized by speckle artifact, which may make the interpretation of images difficult. One widely used method for ultrasound speckle reduction is the split spectrum processing (SSP), but the use of one-dimensional (1-D), narrow-band filters makes the resultant image experience a significant resolution loss. In order to overcome this critical drawback, we propose a novel method for speckle reduction in ultrasound medical imaging, which uses a bank of wideband 2-D directive filters, based on modified Gabor functions. Each filter is applied to the 2-D radio-frequency (RF) data, resulting in a B-mode image filtered in a given direction. The compounding of the filters outputs give rise to a final image in which speckle is reduced and the structure is enhanced. We have denoted this method as directive filtering (DF). Because the proposed filters have effectively the same bandwidth as the original image, it is possible to avoid the resolution loss caused by the use of narrow-band filters, as with SSP. The tests were carried out with both simulated and real clinical data. Using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to quantify the amount of speckle of the ultrasound images, we have achieved an average SNR enhancement of 2.26 times with simulated data and 1.18 times with real clinical data. PMID:17375822

Dantas, Ricardo G; Costa, Eduardo T

2007-03-01

379

Influence of recent bark beetle outbreak on fire severity and postfire tree regeneration in montane Douglas-fir forests.  

PubMed

Understanding how disturbances interact to shape ecosystems is a key challenge in ecology. In forests of western North America, the degree to which recent bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fires may be linked (e.g., outbreak severity affects fire severity) and/ or whether these two disturbances produce compound effects on postfire succession is of widespread interest. These interactions remain unresolved, largely because field data from actual wildfires following beetle outbreaks are lacking. We studied the 2008 Gunbarrel Fire, which burned 27 200 ha in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests that experienced a bark beetle outbreak 4-13 years prefire ("gray stage," after trees have died and needles have dropped), to determine whether outbreak severity influenced subsequent fire severity and postfire tree regeneration. In 85 sample plots we recorded prefire stand structure and outbreak severity; multiple measures of canopy and forest-floor fire severity; and postfire tree seedling density. Prefire outbreak severity was not related to any measure of fire severity except for mean bole scorch, which declined slightly with increasing outbreak severity. Instead, fire severity varied with topography and burning conditions (proxy for weather at time of fire). Postfire Douglas-fir regeneration was low, with tree seedlings absent in 65% of plots. Tree seedlings were abundant in plots of low fire severity that also had experienced low outbreak severity (mean = 1690 seedlings/ha), suggesting a dual filter on tree regeneration. Although bark beetles and fire collectively reduced live basal area to < 5% and increased snag density to > 2000% of pre-outbreak levels, the lack of relationship between beetle outbreak and fire severity suggests that these disturbances were not linked. Nonetheless, effects on postfire tree regeneration suggest compound disturbance interactions that contribute to the structural heterogeneity characteristic of mid/lower montane forests. PMID:24400499

Harvey, Brian J; Donato, Daniel C; Romme, William H; Turner, Monica G

2013-11-01

380

Laboratory and field ecophysiological studies on the impact of air pollution on red spruce and Fraser fir  

SciTech Connect

In the first study, red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir.) seedlings were submitted to long-term multiple growing cycle intermittent ozone fumigations. No effect of ozone exposure on growth and gas exchange of the seedlings was found. Net photosynthesis at saturating light intensity was reduced in both species and the light compensation point was shifted upwards in spruce when exposed to ozone. Fraser fir seedlings showed inconsistent responses of CO{sub 2} curve parameters to ozone exposure. In the second study, the impact of summer exposure to ambient pollutants on winter hardiness in red spruce seedlings was examined. The seedlings were subjected to the following summertime treatments while kept in exclusion chambers on the top of Whitetop Mountain (Virginia): ambient air and clouds, ambient air with clouds excluded, charcoal filtered air, and chamberless control treatment. During the following winter the seedlings were placed in Blacksburg (Virginia), in two locations: in the open and in a shadehouse. A number of conducted tests indicated that there were significant differences in winter damage between the chamber treatments and chamberless control, as well as between the winter exposure locations. Among the summer chamber exposure regimes, the treatment excluding clouds seemed to perform the best. In the third study, the physiology of red spruce trees of various sizes growing on two sites on the top of Whitetop Mtn., was compared and related to ambient ozone concentration. Some seedlings were treated with an antioxidant EDU, to help evaluate the impact of ozone on their physiology.

Tyszko, P.B.

1991-01-01

381

Bank diversification, market structure and bank risk taking: theory and evidence from U.S. commercial banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how a bank’s diversification affects its own risk taking behavior and the risk taking of competing, nondiversified banks. By combining theories of bank organization, market structure and risk taking, I show that greater geographic diversification of banks changes a bank’s lending behavior and market interest rates, which also has ramifications for nondiversified competitors due to interactions in

Martin Goetz

2012-01-01

382

Bayesian Filtering: From Kalman Filters to Particle Filters, and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this self-contained survey\\/review paper, we system- atically investigate the roots of Bayesian filtering as well as its rich leaves in the literature. Stochastic filtering theory is briefly reviewed with emphasis on nonlinear and non-Gaussian filtering. Following the Bayesian statistics, different Bayesian filtering techniques are de- veloped given different scenarios. Under linear quadratic Gaussian circumstance, the celebrated Kalman filter can

ZHE CHEN

383

Water Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

1982-01-01

384

Plasmonic filters.  

SciTech Connect

Metal films perforated with subwavelength hole arrays have been show to demonstrate an effect known as Extraordinary Transmission (EOT). In EOT devices, optical transmission passbands arise that can have up to 90% transmission and a bandwidth that is only a few percent of the designed center wavelength. By placing a tunable dielectric in proximity to the EOT mesh, one can tune the center frequency of the passband. We have demonstrated over 1 micron of passive tuning in structures designed for an 11 micron center wavelength. If a suitable midwave (3-5 micron) tunable dielectric (perhaps BaTiO{sub 3}) were integrated with an EOT mesh designed for midwave operation, it is possible that a fast, voltage tunable, low temperature filter solution could be demonstrated with a several hundred nanometer passband. Such an element could, for example, replace certain components in a filter wheel solution.

Passmore, Brandon Scott; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

2009-09-01

385

Drug Filtering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Illuminations looks at exponential decay. The example of how kidneys filter blood is used. The material asks students to determine the amount of a drug that remains in the body over a period of time. Students will predict behavior by an exponential decay model and graph an exponential set of data. The lesson is appropriate for grades 9-12 and should require 1 class period to complete.

386

Optimally smooth symmetric quadrature mirror filters for image coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symmetric quadrature mirror filters (QMFs) offer several advantages for wavelet-based image coding. Symmetry and odd-length contribute to efficient boundary handling and preservation of edge detail. Symmetric QMFs can be obtained by mildly relaxing the filter bank orthogonality conditions. We describe a computational algorithm for these filter banks which is also symmetric in the sense that the analysis and synthesis operations have identical implementations, up to a delay. The essence of a wavelet transform is its multiresolution decomposition, obtained by iterating the lowpass filter. This allows one to introduce a new design criterion, smoothness (good behavior) of the lowpass filter under iteration. This design constraint can be expressed solely in terms of the lowpass filter tap values (via the eigenvalue decomposition of a certain finite-dimensional matrix). Our innovation is to design near- orthogonal QMFs with linear-phase symmetry which are optimized for smoothness under iteration, not for stopband rejection. The new class of optimally smooth QMF filter banks yields high performance in a practical image compression system.

Heller, Peter N.; Shapiro, Jerome M.; Wells, Raymond O., Jr.

1995-04-01

387

Mile High Wetland Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site listed here is provided by an environmental consulting firm that works with commercial and private landowners to establish Wetland Banks. An innovative concept (and growing reality) that has received mixed reviews from scientists, Wetland Banking attempts to combine the goals of developers (i.e., to develop a certain area) and wetland conservationists (i.e., to maintain/ restore areas of intact wetlands). If misused, this approach could work against wetland conservation; if properly instated, however, Wetland Banking might offer an alternative to the currently poor success rate of wetland mitigation projects. This resource by Mile High Wetlands Group, LLC, offers background information on Wetland banking, with an emphasis on the Group's local area (Colorado).

388

Statistics on Banking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FDIC Statistics on Banking is a "quarterly publication that provides aggregate financial and structure information on FDIC-insured institutions, with summary totals by state and charter type." The latest figures for third quarter 1997 are now available.

389

World Bank: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people are familiar with the World Bank's work in the areas of international finance and economic development, but they may not be aware of their work in the area of biodiversity. The World Bank happens to be the world's largest financier of biodiversity, and their work includes supporting the sustainable use of biodiversity outside protected areas, eradication of alien species, and land conservation. First-time visitors may wish to start their journey through the site by clicking on the "What's New" area. Here they will find reports on biodiversity, the role of indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation, and a review of the World Bank's conservation projects during the past twenty years. Another way to look through the materials on the site is by using the drop-down menus that read "Topic", "Country", and "Region/Income". Visitors can also read overview statements that cover the Bank's work on biodiversity and poverty, biosafety, and mountain ecosystems.

390

Tree-bank grammars  

SciTech Connect

By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

Charniak, E. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

1996-12-31

391

Fall Math Idea Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math idea bank includes autumn themed hands-on activities focused on the topics of leaves, spiders, and pumpkins. Also included in this resource are links to online activities and websites for research.

Wendy Petti

2014-01-01

392

Banking Data and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article on free banking data and research, created by Ruth Kobylecky Humphrey for the American Library Association, includes an index of annotations on a wide range of federal and association Websites that offer financial information and help for their members. The index is broken into several sections including Federal Agencies, The Federal Reserve System, International Banking, and the Secondary Market. Within each section, the entries are arranged in alphabetical order and carefully annotated.

Humphrey, Ruth Kobylecky.

393

The Lost Research of Early Northeastern Spruce-Fir Experimental A Tale of Lost Opportunities  

E-print Network

spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) with vary- ing forests or northern coniferous forests. They are typ- ically dominated by red spruce (Picea rubens), black

394

MEMORIES OF NATURAL DISTURBANCES IN PONDEROSA PINE DOUGLAS-FIR AGE STRUCTURE, SOUTHWESTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA  

E-print Network

viii MEMORIES OF NATURAL DISTURBANCES IN PONDEROSA PINE ­ DOUGLAS- FIR AGE STRUCTURE, SOUTHWESTERN: Master of Resource Management PROJECT TITLE: Memories of Natural Disturbances in Ponderosa Pine ­ Douglas

395

Light and temperature differentially colimit subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce seedling  

E-print Network

spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) seedling croissance de semis d'épinette (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) et de sapin (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook

Massicotte, Hugues

396

Rocket noise filtering system using digital filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of digital filters is designed to filter rocket noise to various bandwidths. The filters are designed to have constant group delay and are implemented in software on a general purpose computer. The Parks-McClellan algorithm is used. Preliminary tests are performed to verify the design and implementation. An analog filter which was previously employed is also simulated.

Mauritzen, David

1990-01-01

397

12 CFR 1261.14 - Vacant Bank directorships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacant Bank directorships. 1261.14 Section 1261.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK...

2011-01-01

398

12 CFR 1261.14 - Vacant Bank directorships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacant Bank directorships. 1261.14 Section 1261.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK...

2010-01-01

399

Dimerization of FIR upon FUSE DNA binding suggests a mechanism of c-myc inhibition.  

PubMed

c-myc is essential for cell homeostasis and growth but lethal if improperly regulated. Transcription of this oncogene is governed by the counterbalancing forces of two proteins on TFIIH--the FUSE binding protein (FBP) and the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR). FBP and FIR recognize single-stranded DNA upstream of the P1 promoter, known as FUSE, and influence transcription by oppositely regulating TFIIH at the promoter site. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with light scattering reveals that an FIR dimer binds one molecule of single-stranded DNA. The crystal structure confirms that FIR binds FUSE as a dimer, and only the N-terminal RRM domain participates in nucleic acid recognition. Site-directed mutations of conserved residues in the first RRM domain reduce FIR's affinity for FUSE, while analogous mutations in the second RRM domain either destabilize the protein or have no effect on DNA binding. Oppositely oriented DNA on parallel binding sites of the FIR dimer results in spooling of a single strand of bound DNA, and suggests a mechanism for c-myc transcriptional control. PMID:18059478

Crichlow, Gregg V; Zhou, Hongwen; Hsiao, Hsin-hao; Frederick, Kendra B; Debrosse, Maxime; Yang, Yuande; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa J; Chung, Hye-Jung; Fan, Chengpeng; De la Cruz, Enrique M; Levens, David; Lolis, Elias; Braddock, Demetrios

2008-01-01

400

Dimerization of FIR Upon FUSE DNA Binding Suggests Mechanism of c-myc Inhibition  

SciTech Connect

c-myc is essential for cell homeostasis and growth but lethal if improperly regulated. Transcription of this oncogene is governed by the counterbalancing forces of two proteins on TFIIH--the FUSE binding protein (FBP) and the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR). FBP and FIR recognize single-stranded DNA upstream of the P1 promoter, known as FUSE, and influence transcription by oppositely regulating TFIIH at the promoter site. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with light scattering reveals that an FIR dimer binds one molecule of single-stranded DNA. The crystal structure confirms that FIR binds FUSE as a dimer, and only the N-terminal RRM domain participates in nucleic acid recognition. Site-directed mutations of conserved residues in the first RRM domain reduce FIR's affinity for FUSE, while analogous mutations in the second RRM domain either destabilize the protein or have no effect on DNA binding. Oppositely oriented DNA on parallel binding sites of the FIR dimer results in spooling of a single strand of bound DNA, and suggests a mechanism for c-myc transcriptional control.

Crichlow,G.; Zhou, H.; Hsiao, H.; Frederick, K.; Debrosse, M.; Yang, Y.; Folta-Stogniew, E.; Chung, H.; Fan, C.; et al

2008-01-01

401

Automated Sensing of Douglas Fir Bud-Burst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of plant biological events such as budburst in the spring can have major impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem carbon balance. While research efforts that address the timing of events is gaining considerable momentum, the technology available for sensing and recording the timing of events is limited, especially for trees. Thus, researchers often perform manual measurements, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This has resulted in efforts such as Project BudBurst, a network of professional and volunteer observers across the United States that monitor plants as seasons change. Access to forest trees can be difficult during periods of greatest interest, such as when buds open in the spring. For example, high elevation, snow, and melting snow during the spring hamper access to trees in alpine regions. Researchers at Oregon State University and The University of Iowa are developing instrumentation for automating sensing of budburst in Douglas firs. While the instrumentation targets Douglas firs, it can find application in studying budburst in other species. We present an initial bud-burst sensor that uses optical techniques to sense bud opening. An optical fiber illuminates a target bud with modulated light, a second fiber detects, and guides reflect light to a photodetector and signal processing electronics. Changes in the reflected light indicate the budburst. The instrumentation exploits advances in microelectronics, particularly miniaturization and low power consumption, and uses advanced signal processing techniques such as lock-in detection. The instrumentation records the reflected light every 15 minutes on high-capacity, non-volatile Flash media. Power consumption is very low and sensors have an extrapolated, continuous operating time more than 9 months, suggesting their deployment in the fall, and retrieval in the following spring. We believe the sensor will enable a caliber of research not yet achievable owing to the difficulty of phenological data collection. We aim to make the sensor cost-effective and ultimately deployable in a wireless network. We envision its application in various disciplines and sectors including forestry, agriculture, climate change research, and genomics.

Lintz, H. E.; Kruger, A.; Wagner, D. A.; Tenney, I. J.

2011-12-01

402

12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS... § 615.5144 Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks...authorized by the banks for cooperatives' or...

2010-01-01

403

31 CFR 1010.652 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 1010.652 Section 1010...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters,...

2012-07-01

404

31 CFR 1010.652 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 1010.652 Section 1010...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters,...

2011-07-01

405

31 CFR 103.187 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 103.187 Section 103.187...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes...or in any jurisdiction. (4) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters,...

2010-07-01

406

78 FR 63476 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Georgia 30309: 1. Jane Bryant Banks, Mary Banks Garnand, James Banks Garnand, and Daniel Michael Garnand, all of...indirectly retain voting shares of Merchants & Farmers Bank of Greene County, both in Eutaw, Alabama. Board of...

2013-10-24

407

Robust adaptive extended Kalman filtering for real time MR-thermometry guided HIFU interventions.  

PubMed

Real time magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry is gaining clinical importance for monitoring and guiding high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablations of tumorous tissue. The temperature information can be employed to adjust the position and the power of the HIFU system in real time and to determine the therapy endpoint. The requirement to resolve both physiological motion of mobile organs and the rapid temperature variations induced by state-of-the-art high-power HIFU systems require fast MRI-acquisition schemes, which are generally hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). This directly limits the precision of real time MR-thermometry and thus in many cases the feasibility of sophisticated control algorithms. To overcome these limitations, temporal filtering of the temperature has been suggested in the past, which has generally an adverse impact on the accuracy and latency of the filtered data. Here, we propose a novel filter that aims to improve the precision of MR-thermometry while monitoring and adapting its impact on the accuracy. For this, an adaptive extended Kalman filter using a model describing the heat transfer for acoustic heating in biological tissues was employed together with an additional outlier rejection to address the problem of sparse artifacted temperature points. The filter was compared to an efficient matched FIR filter and outperformed the latter in all tested cases. The filter was first evaluated on simulated data and provided in the worst case (with an approximate configuration of the model) a substantial improvement of the accuracy by a factor 3 and 15 during heat up and cool down periods, respectively. The robustness of the filter was then evaluated during HIFU experiments on a phantom and in vivo in porcine kidney. The presence of strong temperature artifacts did not affect the thermal dose measurement using our filter whereas a high measurement variation of 70% was observed with the FIR filter. PMID:21997254

Roujol, Sébastien; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Hey, Silke; Moonen, Chrit; Ries, Mario

2012-03-01

408

Development of tissue bank.  

PubMed

The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

Narayan, R P

2012-05-01

409

Development of tissue bank  

PubMed Central

The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

Narayan, R. P.

2012-01-01

410

Precise adaptive photonic rf filters realized with adaptive Bragg gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for higher data capacity and reduced levels of interference in the communications arena are driving dtat links toward high carrier frequencies and wider modulation bandwidths. Circuitry for performing intermediate frequency processing over these more demanding ranges is needed to provide complex signal processing. We have demonstrated photonics technologies utilizing Bragg Grating Signal Processing (BGSP), which can be used to perform a variety of RF filter functions. The desirable benefits of multiple-tap adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filters, infinite impulse response (IIR) filters, and equalizers are well known; however, they are usually the province of digital signal processing and demand preprocessor sample rates that require high system power consumption. BGSPs provide these functions with discrete optical taps and digital controls while only requiring bandwidths easily provided by conventional RF circuitry. This is because the actual signal processing of the large information bandwidths is performed in the optical regime, while control functions are performed at RF frequencies compatible with integrated circuit technologies. To realize the performance benefits of photonic processing, the Bragg grating reflectors must be stabilized against environmental without unduly taxing the RF control circuitry. We have implemented a orthogonally coded tap modulation technique which stabilizes the transfer function of the signal processor and enables significant adaptive IF signal processing to be obtained with very low size, weight, and power. Our demonstration of a photonic proof-of-concept architecture is a reconfigurable, multiple-tap FIR filter that is dynamically controlled to implement low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-stop, and tunable filters operating over bandwidths of 3 Ghz.

Wickham, Michael G.; Upton, Eric L.

2000-09-01

411

Artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filters in cascade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artifacts in EEG (electroencephalogram) records are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). These noise sources increase the difficulty in analyzing the EEG and to obtaining clinical information. For this reason, it is necessary to design specific filters to decrease such artifacts in EEG records. In this paper, a cascade of three adaptive filters based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The first one eliminates line interference, the second adaptive filter removes the ECG artifacts and the last one cancels EOG spikes. Each stage uses a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which adjusts its coefficients to produce an output similar to the artifacts present in the EEG. The proposed cascade adaptive filter was tested in five real EEG records acquired in polysomnographic studies. In all cases, line-frequency, ECG and EOG artifacts were attenuated. It is concluded that the proposed filter reduces the common artifacts present in EEG signals without removing significant information embedded in these records.

Garcés Correa, A.; Laciar, E.; Patiño, H. D.; Valentinuzzi, M. E.

2007-11-01

412

High power pulsed FIR laser lines from CD3OH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FIR laser emissions from CD3OH using a pulsed TEA CO2 laser as optical pump are reported. The pump, which is similar to that described by Nicholson and Lipton (1977), has a tunable single-mode capability, being coarse-tuned by a grating reflector to most of the medium to high gain lines of the CO2 laser and fine-tuned by an intracavity etalon. The original solid germanium etalon described by Nicholson and Lipton is replaced by a design using a 4-cm air gap and a pair of germanium etalon plates that have antireflection coatings on the outside and are uncoated on the inside. A fused silica spacer makes temperature stabilization unnecessary. By angling the etalon, the laser may be tuned to nearly + or - 2GHz off the CO2 line center. Significantly large outputs are observed at 70.6 microns (10 P20 pump), 69.9 microns (10 R22), 42.3 microns (10 R6), and 105.3 microns and 41.7 microns (10 R8).

Ahmed, H.; Nicholson, J. P.

1983-02-01

413

Response of birds to thinning young Douglas-fir forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a result of recent fire history and decades of even-aged forest management, many coniferous forests in western Oregon are composed of young (20-50 yrs), densely stocked Douglas-fir stands. Often these stands are structurally simple - a single canopy layer with one or two overstory tree species - and have a relatively sparse understory. The lack of structural complexity in these stands may limit the availability of key habitat components for several species of vertebrates, including birds. Thinning may increase structural diversity by reducing competition among overstory trees and increasing the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor, thereby increasing development of understory vegetation. Existing old-growth forests may have developed under lower densities than is typical of contemporary plantations. Thus, thinning also may be a tool for accelerating the development of late-successional forest conditions in some circumstances. In addition to the potential increases in structural and biological diversity, thinning frequently is used to optimize wood fiber production and to generate timber revenue.

Hayes, John P.; Weikel, Jennifer M.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Erickson, Janet L.

2003-01-01

414

Fresh-stem bending of silver fir and Norway spruce.  

PubMed

The bending and growth characteristics of large fresh stems from four silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and three Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were studied. Twenty logs taken from different stem heights were subjected to four-point bending tests. From the bending test records, we calculated stress-strain curves, which accounted for detailed log taper, shear deformation and self weight. From these curves we determined, among other parameters, the modulus of elasticity (MOE), the modulus of rupture (MOR) and the work absorbed in bending (W). No significant differences were found between species for the wood properties examined. Values of MOE, MOR and W generally decreased with stem height, with MOR in the range of 43 to 59 MPa and MOE ranging from 10.6 to 15.6 GPa. These MOE values are twice or more those reported for stems of young Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) trees. Based on the radial growth properties measured in discs from the logs, we calculated predicted values of MOE and MOR for the stem cross section. The predictions of MOE were precise, whereas those of MOR were approximate because of a complex combination of different failure mechanisms. Methods to test and calculate MOE, MOR and W for the stems of living trees are discussed with the aim of improving analyses of tree biomechanics and assessments of forest stability protection. PMID:18171659

Lundström, Tor; Stoffel, Markus; Stöckli, Veronika

2008-03-01

415

Seed parasitism redirects ovule development in Douglas fir  

PubMed Central

Many parasitic species of insects complete their entire development in seeds. They feed off storage reserves within the ovule. These reserves only normally accumulate in fertilized ovules. Consequently, female insects that oviposit their eggs directly into the plant ovule need to be able to select correctly, as unfertilized ovules of conifers normally become so-called empty seed. We provide clear evidence that in conifers, seed-parasitizing insects do not need to discriminate between fertilized and unfertilized plant ovules when ovipositing their eggs. A host-specific insect, the chalcid Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), lays its eggs in ovules of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) before fertilization has taken place in the plant. Oviposition not only prevents the expected degeneration and death of unfertilized ovules, but it induces energy reserve accumulation. Ovules that would otherwise develop as empty seed are redirected in their development by the insect to provide food for the developing larvae. Instead of the insect exploiting normal events during seed development, the insect manipulates seed development for its own reproductive advantage. PMID:16011924

von Aderkas, Patrick; Rouault, Gaëlle; Wagner, Rebecca; Rohr, René; Roques, Alain

2005-01-01

416

World Bank Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has a number of specialized units designed to perform research in order to allow the organization to make informed policy decisions throughout the world. This website happens to provide information on the World Bank Institute, which effectively serves as the capacity development arm of the Bank and also "helps countries share and apply global and local knowledge to meet development challenges". On the Institute's site, visitors can find out about its various programs, which include work on preventing HIV/AIDS risk in the Balkans and scholarships designed to promote knowledge sharing and capacity building in the developing world. Visitors will want to pay close attention to the Publications area, as they may view or download working papers from a wide range of topics, including energy policy, labor force development, and development economics.

417

World Bank: News & Broadcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From logistics to international development, the World Bank's News & Broadcast website is worth bookmarking, particularly for public policy types, international affairs scholars, and anyone with a penchant for global matters. The homepage presents a news area, complete with icons which indicate whether there is video or audio associated with each item. Not only is it a good way to learn about the World Bank's activities, it is another way to stay on top of economic development strategies, political unrest, and foreign investment patterns. Visitors to the site can search all of the media available here, look over the World Bank's YouTube channel, and sign up for their RSS feed. Those persons looking for specific types of information can find a number of categories, including "Speeches", and "Issue Briefs".

418

World Bank: China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has a number of marvelous country profile websites, and their site dedicated to China is top-notch. It's not just a simple demographic overview of this dynamic country; it is a series of meditations on the state of their economy, political culture, urban development, and other affairs. First-time users will want to look at the "Country-At-A-Glance" section at the top of the homepage to get a thumbnail sketch of the country's current state of affairs. Over on the left-hand side of the page, visitors can look over the "Projects & Programs" area, which talks about the Bank's activities in the country, which include energy efficiency projects and sustainable biodiversity conservation works. Moving on, the "What's New" area features opinion pieces from World Bank officials, press releases, and information about lending policies. Users are also invited to sign up for their RSS feed and email updates here.

419

World Bank Research Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has collected its economic research so that users can access it through one easy-to-use Webpage. Research is organized into three main sections: Topics, Project Sites, and Key Outputs. These topics are further broken down into subcategories, which are accessible from the front page via pull-down menus or hyperlinked lists. The site also contains a What's New column, which lists the titles of new World Bank resources and classifies them by document type, such as working paper, evaluations of research, and project. Finally, the World Bank Research Website gives a short list of featured resources, which include research on hot topics such as poverty, civil war, and world development.

420

Mozilla Digital Memory Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for History and New Media at George Mason University doesn't shy away from provocative digital archive projects, and the Mozilla Digital Memory Bank is certainly one such work. Drawing on support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mozilla Foundation this site serves as a permanent, open, peer-produced digital archive of Mozilla history. Users are welcome to start by browsing the "Memory Bank" section, which includes blogs, interviews, documents, testimonials, and press releases. For those with a geographical bent, there is the "Mozilla Map", which lets users find out where in the world Mozilla developers and users are located. And for those who can't make up their mind about where to start, they can just click on over to the "Featured Bank Deposit" and start reading.

421

Are Banks Affiliated with Bank Holding Companies More Efficient Than Independent Banks? The Recent Experience Regarding Japanese Regional BHCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have investigated whether Japanese banks affiliated with bank holding companies are more efficient and profitable than independent banks. The present paper tests this hypothesis by using both a stochastic frontier approach and a market valuation approach. First, our results suggest that banks affiliated with bank holding companies are not more cost-efficient than are independent banks. Because of the

Nobuyoshi Yamori; Kozo Harimaya; Kazumine Kondo

2003-01-01

422

Should banks be diversified? Evidence from individual bank loan portfolios  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study empirically the effect of focus (specialization) vs. diversification on the return and the risk of banks using data from 105 Italian banks over the period 1993-1999. Specifically, we analyze the tradeoffs between (loan portfolio) focus and diversification using a unique data set that is able to identify individual bank loan exposures to different industries, to different sectors, and

Viral V. Acharya; Anthony Saunders

2002-01-01

423

Foreign Bank Presence, Domestic Bank Performance and Financial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the relationship between foreign bank presence and the performance of the domestic banking sector and takes into account the role of the level of development of the financial sector of the recipient country. We use data of 982 banks in 48 countries for 1990-96. We find support for the hypothesis that financial development does matter. In particular,

Niels Hermes; Robert Lensink

2004-01-01

424

Filtering Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site related to water filtration is from the US Environmental Agency entitled EPA Environmental Education: Water Filtration (1 ). The two-page document explains the need for water filtration and the steps water treatment plants take to purify water. To further understand the process, a demonstration project is provided that illustrates these purification steps, which include coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The second site is an interesting Flash animation called Filtration: How Does it Work (2 ) provided by Canada's Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. Visitors will learn various types of filtration procedures and systems and the materials that are used such as carbon and sand. Next, from the National Science Foundation is a learning activity called Get Out the Gunk (3 ). Using just a few simple items from around the house, kids will be able to answer questions like "Does a filter work better with a lot of water rushing through, or a small trickle?" and "Does it make the water cleaner if you pour it through a filter twice?" The fourth Web site, Rapid Sand Filtration (4 ), is provided by Dottie Schmitt and Christie Shinault of Virginia Tech. The authors describe the process, which involves the flow of water through a bed of granular media, normally following settling basins in conventional water treatment trains to remove any particulate matter left over after flocculation and settling. Along with its thorough description, readers can view illustrations and photographs that further explain the process. The Vegetative Buffer Strips for Improved Surface Water Quality (5) Web site is provided by the Iowa State University Extension office. The document explains what vegetative buffer strips are, how they filter contaminants and sediment from surface water, how effective they are, and more. The sixth offering is a file called Infiltration Basins and Trenches (6) that is offered by the University of Wisconsin Extension. These structures are intended to collect water, have it infiltrate into the ground, and have it purified along the way. This document explains how effective they are at removing pollutants, how to install them, design guidelines, maintenance, and more. Next, from a site called Wilderness Survial.net is the Water Filtration Devices (7) page. Visitors read how to make a filtering system out of cloth, sand, crushed rock, charcoal, or a hollow log, although as is stated, the water still has to be purified. The last site, from the US Geological Survey, is called A Visit to a Wastewater-Treatment Plant: Primary Treatment of Wastewater (8). Although geared towards children, the site does a good job of explaining what happens at each stage of the treatment process and how pollutants are removed to help keep water clean. Everything from screening, pumping, aerating, sludge and scum removal, killing bacteria, and what is done with wastewater residuals is covered.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

425

World Bank Photo Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New from the World Bank, this photography library offers over 500 online images of development from around the world. The pictures, works of art in their own right, cover an extensive range of subjects including people, nature, and urban environments. Registration is required. Users may, however, browse the library by entering "guest" in the user name field and "browse" as the password. The library offers both a simple keyword search, as well as an advanced search which allows users to search for images in specific fields including country, topic, photographer, and description. The photographs, marked with a World Bank stamp, are displayed in large thumbnails and include accompanying information.

426

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

427

Estimating cumulative defoliation of balsam fir from hemlock looper and balsam fir sawfly using aerial defoliation survey in western Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guen.)) and balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis (Harris)) undergo periodic outbreaks in eastern Canada and cause significant growth and mortality losses to forests. Tree growth and mortality are closely related to cumulative defoliation estimates, which integrate annual defoliation over multiple years. Our objective was to determine a method to estimate cumulative defoliation of balsam

Javed Iqbal; David A. MacLean

2010-01-01

428

Adaptive filtering in subbands with critical sampling: analysis, experiments, and application to acoustic echo cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exact analysis of the critically subsampled two-band modelization scheme is given, and it is demonstrated that adaptive cross-filters between the subbands are necessary for modelization with small output errors. It is shown that perfect reconstruction filter banks can yield exact modelization. These results are extended to the critically subsampled multiband schemes, and important computational savings are seen to be

Andrk Gilloire; Martin Vetterli

1992-01-01

429

Multi-frequency aluminum nitride micro-filters for advanced RF communications.  

SciTech Connect

An AlN MEMS resonator technology has been developed, enabling massively parallel filter arrays on a single chip. Low-loss filter banks covering the 10 MHz--10-GHz frequency range have been demonstrated, as has monolithic integration with inductors and CMOS circuitry. The high level of integration enables miniature multi-bandm spectrally aware, and cognitive radios.

Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Stevens, James E.; Olsson, Roy H., III; Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Tuck, Melanie R.

2010-03-01

430

The efficiency of bank branches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the early studies of bank efficiency focused on scale and product mix efficiency, or how close banks are to producing at the scale or product mix that minimizes costs per unit of output. Despite these past efforts, something rather important is missing from most of the analysis according to the authors - evaluation of bank branch efficiency. There

Allen N. Berger; John H. Leusner; John J. Mingo

1994-01-01

431

The anatomy of bank diversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use panel data from nine countries over the period 1996–2008 to test how revenue diversification affects bank value. Relying on a comprehensive framework for bank performance measurement, we find robust evidence against a conglomerate discount, unlike studies concerned with industrial firms. Rather, diversification increases bank profitability and, as a consequence also market valuations. This indirect performance effect does not

Ralf Elsas; Andreas Hackethal; Markus Holzhäuser

2010-01-01

432

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA  

E-print Network

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA First Mover Advantage: A Portfolio Perspective of the State Analysts FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA #12;Disclaimer Our remarks today reflect our own views OF PHILADELPHIA Paul R. Flora Senior Economic Analyst FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF PHILADELPHIA First Mover Advantage

Firestone, Jeremy

433

Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing virtually all Norwegian publicly listed firms for the period 1979-1995. We find that profitability is substantially higher if firms maintain

H. A. Degryse; S. Ongena

2000-01-01

434

Multiple Versus Single Banking Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a theoretical model in which firms may choose multiple banking relationships to reduce the risk that financing will be denied by ‘relationship banks’ should the latter experience liquidity problems and refuse to roll over lines of credit. The inability to refinance from relationship banks signals unfavourable information about the quality of the firm’s project, which may also

Enrica Detragiache; Paolo Garella; Luigi Guiso

1997-01-01

435

Teaching Bank Runs through Films  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

Flynn, David T.

2009-01-01

436

Do Banks Provide Financial Slack?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the decision to choose bank debt rather than public securities in a firm's marginal financing choice. Using a sample of 500 firms over the 1980 to 1993 time period, we find that firms are relatively more likely to choose bank loans when variables that measure asymmetric information problems are elevated. The sensitivity of the likelihood of choosing bank

Charles J. Hadlock; Christopher M. James

2002-01-01

437

Personnel Management for Rural Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the problem of adjustment to the rural environment among the branch managers in commercial banks working in rural areas in consequence of the lead bank scheme. The analysis is based on data collected during an exploratory study of the lead bank scheme in a district in Gujarat State. The data suggest that urban-oriented managers

Sheth N R; Shah B G

438

The Diffusion of Online Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial services environment has been subject to changes on many fronts. Technological change and the advent of the Internet are among the most dramatic and challenging areas of change for the sector. This paper looks at retail banking and its adoption of online banking, in particular the factors driving and inhibiting adoption by banks. An international Delphi study confirms

Laura Bradley; Kate Stewart

2003-01-01

439

SpeciesBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SpeciesBank is a growing library of digital information about the biological species of Canada. It includes high-quality photographs, distribution maps, identification guidance, and a host of other information including links to monographs and species-specific information elsewhere on the Internet. The site is divided into sections that cover butterflies, brassicaceae, poisonous plants, moths, and noctuoidea.

440

Banks in industrial networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks are important institutions by reason of their role as intermediaries between the holders of surplus capital and those in need of financial resources. They are therefore often mentioned as vital nodes in modern economies, with substantial power positions in relation to their clients. In recent years deregulation and the development of information technology have prompted several observers to conclude

Lars Engwall; Jan Johanson

1990-01-01

441

Janus Serum Bank  

Cancer.gov

The Janus Serum bank was established in order to collect and store blood samples from presumably healthy individuals for future use in cancer research. The intention was to obtain information on factors important in the pathogenesis and etiology of cancer by examining blood samples obtained during the preclinical stage or latent period before the tumor has developed.

442

Banking & Financial Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is intended for high school business teachers, outlines the plan for a course in which students gain hands-on experience in operating a bank in which students actually deposit money. The document begins with a brief course description, rationale, and list of 11 course objectives. Presented next is background information about…

Warren, Brenda; Sorrell, Lisa

443

PLATFORMS FOR DNA BANKING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accelerated use of genomic technology in biological research portends a changing pattern in the use of genetic resource collections and fuels the desire among researchers to establish DNA banks. DNA sequencing of herbarium sheet specimens, cell cultures and germplasm offers a new approach to st...

444

HPCwire Job Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HPCwire Job Bank has become the matchmaker site of choice for bringing together the best talent and the leading employers in HPC commercial computing, research, academia, and the entire ecosystem of suppliers and users of HPC systems and technology, representing career opportunities in hardware, software, middleware, sales, marketing, consulting, design, development, engineering, research, testing, customer support and production.

445

Academic Interventions Bank Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes development of a bank of interventions in response to individual student needs identified by Student Study Teams (SSTs) in the Horry County (South Carolina) school district. It also describes the training of SST members in the selection, application, and monitoring of each intervention. Following a survey that identified basic…

Jenkins, Tom; Torrens, Meg

446

Replacing America's Job Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

Vollman, Jim

2009-01-01

447

The Protein Data Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http:\\/\\/www.rcsb.org\\/pdb\\/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource.

Helen M. Berman; John D. Westbrook; Zukang Feng; Gary Gilliland; Talapady N. Bhat; Helge Weissig; Ilya N. Shindyalov; Philip E. Bourne

2000-01-01

448

Snow Bank Detectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

449

Human milk banking.  

PubMed

Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

450

Embedded Image Coding using Quincunx Directional Filter Bank  

E-print Network

of the current image coders. Recently, Candes and Donoho constructed the curvelet transform [1], and proved several proposed methods to implement the digital curvelet transform [4], [5], but they all are redundant . The nonlinear approximation of a function f, f (c) M , is reconstructed by M curvelet coefficients, which have

Oraintara, Soontorn

451

A SNP resource for Douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation  

PubMed Central

Background Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauca) are native to North America, the coastal variety is also widely planted for timber production in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Our main goal was to develop a SNP resource large enough to facilitate genomic selection in Douglas-fir breeding programs. To accomplish this, we developed a 454-based reference transcriptome for coastal Douglas-fir, annotated and evaluated the quality of the reference, identified putative SNPs, and then validated a sample of those SNPs using the Illumina Infinium genotyping platform. Results We assembled a reference transcriptome consisting of 25,002 isogroups (unique gene models) and 102,623 singletons from 2.76 million 454 and Sanger cDNA sequences from coastal Douglas-fir. We identified 278,979 unique SNPs by mapping the 454 and Sanger sequences to the reference, and by mapping four datasets of Illumina cDNA sequences from multiple seed sources, genotypes, and tissues. The Illumina datasets represented coastal Douglas-fir (64.00 and 13.41 million reads), interior Douglas-fir (80.45 million reads), and a Yakima population similar to interior Douglas-fir (8.99 million reads). We assayed 8067 SNPs on 260 trees using an Illumina Infinium SNP genotyping array. Of these SNPs, 5847 (72.5%) were called successfully and were polymorphic. Conclusions Based on our validation efficiency, our SNP database may contain as many as ~200,000 true SNPs, and as many as ~69,000 SNPs that could be genotyped at ~20,000 gene loci using an Infinium II array—more SNPs than are needed to use genomic selection in tree breeding programs. Ultimately, these genomic resources will enhance Douglas-fir breeding and allow us to better understand landscape-scale patterns of genetic variation and potential responses to climate change. PMID:23445355

2013-01-01

452

Geographic diversification in banking, market share changes, and the viability of small independent banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospect of unlimited nationwide banking raises a question about the viability of small independent banks in competition with large, geographically diversified banking organizations. This study addresses the issue of small bank viability by focusing on the relative performance of independent banks and bank holding company subsidiaries in a regime of intrastate banking, where “performance” is measured by the cumulative

John T. Rose; John D. Wolken

1990-01-01

453

Fir continuum and line emissions from interstellar medium in galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-consistent method has been evolved to infer physical parameters like density, radiation field and abundances using line and continuum radiations as diagnostics. For that purpose, we first calculate the temperatures of graphite and silicate grains using the model of Li and Draine (Astrophys. J. 554:778, 2001) by solving self-consistently the energy balance for G 0 (1-104) times the radiation field following Weingartner and Draine (Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 134:263, 20010. Consequently, infrared emission fluxes are also obtained. To keep it simple, this is presented in the empirical form of parameters T D and wavelength. The same model of the grain is adopted for photoelectric heating of gas using the formalism of Weingartner and Draine (Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 134:263, 2001) (hereafter referred to as WD) and Bakes and Tielens (Astrophys. J. 427:822, 1994) (hereafter referred to as BT) for radiation field cited above in the range (6< h??13.6 eV). Temperature and abundances are determined using our own code for PDR very similar to cloudy code. All the possible sources of heating and cooling are considered for setting up the thermal balance. For the gas phase abundances that vary with depth in the cloud due to dust, self- and mutual shielding, chemical balance is solved. Most of the photoionization, photodissociation or chemical reaction rates are taken from UMIST database. We present an analysis of the cooling lines of singly ionized carbon [CII] at 158 ?m and neutral oxygen [OI], at 63 ?m and far infrared (FIR) continuum for a variety of star forming galaxies. Method of analysis of observational data is different from that of Malhotra et al. (Astrophys. J. 561:766, 2001). The radiation field G 0, density N h and abundance of carbon are obtained through best fit of observed and calculated intensities for lines and continuum radiations.

Shafiqullah; Siddiqui, Suhail Ahmad; Qaiyum, Abdul

2011-02-01

454

Regulation of Oleoresinosis in Grand Fir (Abies grandis)1  

PubMed Central

Grand fir (Abies grandis Lindl.) has been developed as a model system for the study of wound-induced oleoresinosis in conifers as a response to insect attack. Oleoresin is a roughly equal mixture of turpentine (85% monoterpenes [C10] and 15% sesquiterpenes [C15]) and rosin (diterpene [C20] resin acids) that acts to seal wounds and is toxic to both invading insects and their pathogenic fungal symbionts. The dynamic regulation of wound-induced oleoresin formation was studied over 29 d at the enzyme level by in vitro assay of the three classes of synthases directly responsible for the formation of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes from the corresponding C10, C15, and C20 prenyl diphosphate precursors, and at the gene level by RNA-blot hybridization using terpene synthase class-directed DNA probes. In overall appearance, the shapes of the time-course curves for all classes of synthase activities are similar, suggesting coordinate formation of all of the terpenoid types. However, closer inspection indicates that the monoterpene synthases arise earlier, as shown by an abbreviated time course over 6 to 48 h. RNA-blot analyses indicated that the genes for all three classes of enzymes are transcriptionally activated in response to wounding, with the monoterpene synthases up-regulated first (transcripts detectable 2 h after wounding), in agreement with the results of cell-free assays of monoterpene synthase activity, followed by the coordinately regulated sesquiterpene synthases and diterpene synthases (transcription beginning on d 3–4). The differential timing in the production of oleoresin components of this defense response is consistent with the immediate formation of monoterpenes to act as insect toxins and their later generation at solvent levels for the mobilization of resin acids responsible for wound sealing. PMID:9536068

Steele, Christopher L.; Katoh, Sadanobu; Bohlmann, Jörg; Croteau, Rodney

1998-01-01

455

[Genetic variability of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) inferred from AFLP markers].  

PubMed

Genetic variability of AFLP markers was studied in 20 populations of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica (Pinaceae) and in two populations of Far-Eastern Manchurian fir A. nephrolepis and Sakhalin fir A. sachalinensis each. Four pairs of selective primers were used. In total, 168 samples from three fir species were genotyped for 117 polymorphic loci. According to the AMOVA results, the variability proportion characterizing the differences between three Abies species was several times higher (F(CT) = 0.53) than that accounting for among-population differences within the species (F(SC) = 0.125). Differentiation of the A. sibirica populations based on AFLP markers exceeded 14% (F(ST) = 0.141). Significant correlation between the genetic distances calculated from the AFLP data and the geographic distances between populations was found. The results of AFLP variability analysis supported and supplemented the conclusions inferred previously from allozyme and cpSSR data: several genetically similar geographic groups of Siberian fir were identified. These groups differ both in allele frequencies and in the levels of genetic variation. PMID:21516799

Semerikova, S A; Semerikov, V L

2011-02-01

456

12 CFR 7.1000 - National bank ownership of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National bank ownership of property. 7.1000 Section 7.1000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND...

2011-01-01

457

12 CFR 7.1000 - National bank ownership of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National bank ownership of property. 7.1000 Section 7.1000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND...

2010-01-01

458

Interactions between Seagrass Complexity, Hydrodynamic Flow and Biomixing Alter Food Availability for Associated Filter-Feeding Organisms  

PubMed Central

Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.

2014-01-01

459

Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.  

PubMed

Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

2014-01-01

460

Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes  

PubMed Central

A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passage through the insects, with two new terpenes being detected in the feces. One of these was identified as isoborneol. The relative significance of the insect and gut microflora with respect to terpene modification is unresolved. The well-established toxicity of terpenes may account for the near absence of common gut microflora in the insects. Images PMID:16345660

Andrews, R. E.; Spence, K. D.

1980-01-01

461

MM wave\\/FIR twin slot antenna structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A twin slot antenna fed by a microstrip line for the millimeter-wave\\/far-infrared range is investigated. The twin slots couple incident power into a microstrip feed line which consists of microstrip low-pass filters and a microbolometer detector. An advantage of this structure is that the feed lines are isolated from the incident radiation by the slot ground plane. Several antennas were

J. G. Heston; S. M. Wentworth; R. L. Rogers; D. P. Neikirk; T. Itoh

1990-01-01

462

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

463

Interactive constrained min-max optimization of multi-rate digital filters over the canonical signed-digit coefficient space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the development of a graphical software environment called Papillon DSP OptiStation for the design and constrained min-max optimization of multi-rate FIR and IIR digital filters. The optimization engine is required to handle simultaneously multiple objective functions and multiple arbitrary equality and inequality constraints. Moreover, it is required to handle not only infinite-precision optimization, but

Behrouz Nowrouzian; A. T. G. Fuller; F. Ashrafzadeh

1998-01-01

464

12 CFR 225.115 - Applicability of Bank Service Corporation Act in certain bank holding company situations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of Bank Service Corporation Act in certain bank holding company situations. 225.115 Section 225.115 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

2010-01-01

465

A Stoma from the Scale of a Female Cone of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A stoma from the scale of a female cone of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca). Magnification = 6800x. Photosynthesis and respiration of male and female cones of Douglas-fir may have significant effects on whole-tree physiology.

Kevin Hultine (University of Idaho; Department of Forest Resources ADR; POSTAL)

2004-03-09

466

International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, VoL 8, No. 6, 1987 NEW FIR LASER LINES AND FREQUENCY  

E-print Network

, a CO 2 laser was used to pump a conventional hole-coupled Fabry-Perot FIR resonator, and wavelengths laser power was coupled into a Fabry-Perot resonator (R1 = 200 cm, R2 = =, D = i00 cm) by focusing mirror with 1 m focal length optics. FIR power was coupled out of the resonator with a 3 mm hole located

Cohen, Ronald C.

467

Survival, frost susceptibility, growth, and disease resistance of corkbark and subalpine fir grown for landscape and Christmas trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho Sandpoint Research and Extension Center (SREC) and two commercial nurseries in Idaho and Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest...

468

Fine-scale variability in growth–climate relationships of Douglas-fir, North Cascade Range, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about the sensitivity to climate of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is valu- able because it will allow forest managers to maximize growth, better understand how carbon sequestration may change over time, and better model and predict future ecosystem responses to climatic change. We examined the effects of clima- tic variability on the growth of Douglas-fir along an elevational

Michael J. Case; David L. Peterson

2005-01-01

469

Leaching of cell wall components caused by acid deposition on fir needles and trees.  

PubMed

Virgin fir forests have been declining since the 1960s at Mt. Oyama, which is located at the eastern edge of the Tanzawa Mountains and adjacent to the Kanto plain in Japan. An acid fog frequently occurs in the mountains. We collected throughfall and stemflow under fir trees and rainfall every week during January-December 2004 at Mt. Oyama to clarify the influence of acid fog on the decline of fir (Abies firma) needles. In relation to throughfall and stemflow, D-mannose, D-galactose, and D-glucose are the major neutral sugar components; only D-glucose is a major component of rainfall. The correlation coefficient between the total neutral sugars and uronic acid (as D-galacturonic acid), which is a key component of the cross-linking between pectic polysaccharides, was high except for rainfall. The leached amount of calcium ion, neutral sugars, uronic acid, and boron is related to the nitrate ion concentration in throughfall. Results of a laboratory exposure experiment using artificial fog water simulating the average composition of fog water observed at Mt. Oyama (simulated acid fog: SAF) on the fir seedling needles also shows a large leaching of these components from the cell walls of fir needles. The leaching amount increased concomitantly with decreasing pH of the SAF solution. We also observed that a dimeric rhamnogalacturonan II-borate complex (dRG-II-B) that exists in the cell wall as pectic polysaccharide was converted to monomeric RG-II (mRG-II) by the leaching of calcium ion and boron. Results not only of field observations but also those of laboratory experiments indicate a large effect of acid depositions on fir needles. PMID:18452971

Shigihara, Ado; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Sakurai, Naoki; Igawa, Manabu

2008-07-15

470

Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum in bank filtration systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a leading cause of waterborne disease. Many surface water systems therefore depend on filtration systems, including bank filtration systems, for the removal of the pathogenic oocysts. To better understand the effectiveness, e.g., of bank filtration systems, we have implemented a series of columns studies under various environmental conditions (column length: 10 cm - 60 cm, flow rates: 0.7 m/d - 30 m/d, ionic strength: 0.01 - 100 mM, filter grain size: 0.2 - 2 mm, various solution chemistry). We show that classic colloid filtration theory is a reasonable tool for predicting the initial breakthrough of C. parvum in pulsed injections of the oocyst through sand columns, although the model does not account for the significant tailing that occurs in C. parvum transport. Application of colloid filtration theory to bank filtration system is further limited by the intrinsic heterogeneity of the geologic systems used for bank filtration. We couple filtration theory with a stochastic subsurface transport approach and with percolation theory to account for the effects of intrinsic heterogeneity. We find that a 1-log removal can be achieved even under relatively adverse conditions (low collision efficiency, high velocity) if 85% - 90% of the sedimentary hydrofacies located within the bank filtration system or of the coarsest known hydrofacies connecting the riverbed with the extraction system has a grain-size distribution with a 10% passing diameter equal to 1 mm. One millimeter is a standard sieve size in sediment analysis.

Harter, T.; Atwill, E. R.; Hou, L. L.

2003-04-01

471

Compressed bloom filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bloom filter is a simple space-efficient randomized data structure for representing a set in order to support membership queries. Although Bloom filters allow false positives, for many applications the space savings outweigh this draw-back when the probability of an error is sufficiently low. We introduce compressed Bloom filters, which improve performance when the Bloom filter is passed as a

Michael Mitzenmacher

2001-01-01

472

ELECTRET AIR FILTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the research progress made so far on electret air filters used for separation of airborne particles from complex air stream. A set of different categories of these filters are delineated and the methods of manufacturing of these filters are described. The principles and mechanisms of filtration and modeling of pressure drop by these filters are analyzed. The

Rashmi Thakur; Dipayan Das; Apurba Das

2012-01-01

473

Hepa filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

474

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOEpatents

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09

475

HEPA filter dissolution process  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1992-12-31

476

HEPA filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1994-02-22

477

World Bank: Globalization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The word globalization is thrown around with reckless abandon by numerous parties these days, and as a result, the very notion of such a force is somewhat elusive. While this website from the World Bank may not end all of the fierce academic and pragmatic debates that rage on about globalization, it does offers some perspective from this organization on this wide-ranging phenomenon. The site itself contains audio and video selections, issue briefs, a data and statistics section, and an area dedicated to current research on the subject underway by the World Bank. The issue briefs are definitely worth a look as they address such questions as What is Globalization? and Does More International Trade Openness Increase World Poverty? The selection of videos is also quite nice, particularly a recent talk by Michael Moore (the former director-general of the World Trade Organization) entitled Globalization & Development: Its Implications & Institutions.

478

World Bank: Open Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank strives to make information about its activities and projects widely accessible, and the Open Development webpage is designed to help with that aspect of their work. Here, visitors can check out various "open" features, including their "Open Data" initiative and their "Open Solutions" area. The "Open Solutions" area includes various apps that help interested parties use the World Bank's data via their various handheld devices. Moving on, the "Blogs" area includes posts on related subjects, with titles like "Improving Public Health with Open Data" and "Taking Stock of the Role of Statistics in Economic Development". Visitors are also encouraged to offer their feedback on the site, and they can also sign up to join their Twitter feed.

479

PhysioBank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PhsyioBank is an impressive archive of digital recordings of physiologic signals and related data for use by the biomedical research community. The website is maintained by the National Institute of Biomedical Imagining and Bioengineering and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and new material is being added on a regular basis. Currently, the site includes biomedical signals and reports from healthy subjects and patients with a range of conditions, including congestive heart failure, epilepsy, gait disorders, and sleep apnea. First-time visitors would do well to take the interactive tour and then use the Getting Started section for locating resources. Also, visitors should make sure to look at the PhysioBank Archives. Here they will find a complete listing of all the currently available databases, organized according to the types of signals and annotations contained in each database. Finally, visitors can send queries about the site and its database via a contact form on the site's homepage.

480

World Bank Integrity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the World Bank Group, the Integrity Vice Presidency "independently investigates allegations of corruption and fraud." On their homepage, much of the material is covered within three primary sections: "Fighting Fraud & Corruption", "Investigating Staff Misconduct", and "Allegations". In the "Fighting Fraud & Corruption" area, visitors can learn about completed investigations and learn about the outcomes, which in many cases include sanctions and debarments. Moving on, the "Investigating Staff Misconduct" area includes information about recent investigations into partner organizations who have worked with the World Bank in the past and alleged abuses regarding travel fraud, abuse of authority, and corruption within infrastructure projects. Visitors may also wish to scroll down on the homepage to look over their annual report and check out news updates.

481

World Bank: Global Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank works to combat poverty and to increase development opportunities around the world, but they also have selected six strategic themes that focus in on global development. First-time visitors to the site can listen to World Bank President Robert B. Zoellick talk about these themes, and they may also wish to follow along with the accompanying slideshow. Themes include global public goods, the Arab world, and middle-income countries. By clicking on one of these themes, visitors can read comprehensive reports, working papers, or take a look at presentations that explore these areas in greater detail. Many of these information sources are contained within a "Highlights" area. Visitors with a penchant for economic development, international political economy, or international affairs will find this site very useful. It's also easy to see how these materials might be used in a classroom setting to spark discussion or debate about some of these very timely matters.

482

Who Robbed the Bank?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use DNA profiling to determine who robbed a bank. After they learn how the FBI's Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is used to match crime scene DNA with tissue sample DNA, students use CODIS principles and sample DNA fragments to determine which of three suspects matches evidence obtain at a crime location. They communicate their results as if they were biomedical engineers reporting to a police crime scene investigation.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

483

World Bank: Anticorruption [pdf[  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its many different guises, corruption around the world tends to affect the poor, who are often the most reliant on the provision of public services, and are also least likely to be able to pay the extra costs associated with bribery and fraud. The World Bank has identified corruption as "the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development," and thusly has set up this anticorruption website to serve as an online resource for policy-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other interested parties. On the site, the World Bank lays out its strategy for combating corruption, which includes increasing political accountability, strengthening civil society participation, and improving public sector management. The site also contains a number of helpful resources, such as toolkits for assessing government performance in this area, and information and reports on various regional and country-based approaches to dealing with corruption. The site is rounded out by a calendar of events and key strategy documents, such as "Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance, A World Bank Strategy."

484

Bank Portfolios and the Bank Lending Channel in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the adjustments in the structure of assets and liabilities of the Austrian banking sector taking place after a monetary tightening. Following increases in short-term interest rates, the share of loans to non-banks in interest-earning assets rises, which is at odds with predictions from the bank lending channel of monetary policy transmission. An extension of credit to nonfinancial

Johann Burgstaller; Johannes Kepler

485

Properties of multilayer filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New methods were investigated of using optical interference coatings to produce bandpass filters for the spectral region 110 nm to 200 nm. The types of filter are: triple cavity metal dielectric filters; all dielectric reflection filters; and all dielectric Fabry Perot type filters. The latter two types use thorium fluoride and either cryolite films or magnesium fluoride films in the stacks. The optical properties of the thorium fluoride were also measured.

Baumeister, P. W.

1973-01-01

486

12 CFR 7.2024 - Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staggered terms for national bank directors...Corporate Practices § 7.2024 Staggered terms for national bank directors and size of bank board. (a) Staggered terms. Any national bank...

2010-01-01

487

The effects of culture on banking strategy : a study of three banks in three countries  

E-print Network

Every company pursues a different strategy, and banks are no different. In the banking industry, each bank performs its business based on its own business strategies. Japanese banks have different strategies, but in terms ...

Kuroiwa, Seiichi

2006-01-01

488

Adaptive clutter rejection filters for airborne Doppler weather radar applied to the detection of low altitude windshear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimum adaptive clutter rejection filter for use with airborne Doppler weather radar is presented. The radar system is being designed to operate at low-altitudes for the detection of windshear in an airport terminal area where ground clutter returns may mask the weather return. The coefficients of the adaptive clutter rejection filter are obtained using a complex form of a square root normalized recursive least squares lattice estimation algorithm which models the clutter return data as an autoregressive process. The normalized lattice structure implementation of the adaptive modeling process for determining the filter coefficients assures that the resulting coefficients will yield a stable filter and offers possible fixed point implementation. A 10th order FIR clutter rejection filter indexed by geographical location is designed through autoregressive modeling of simulated clutter data. Filtered data, containing simulated dry microburst and clutter return, are analyzed using pulse-pair estimation techniques. To measure the ability of the clutter rejection filters to remove the clutter, results are compared to pulse-pair estimates of windspeed within a simulated dry microburst without clutter. In the filter evaluation process, post-filtered pulse-pair width estimates and power levels are also used to measure the effectiveness of the filters. The results support the use of an adaptive clutter rejection filter for reducing the clutter induced bias in pulse-pair estimates of windspeed.

Keel, Byron M.

1989-01-01

489

Adaptive clutter rejection filters for airborne Doppler weather radar applied to the detection of low altitude windshear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimum adaptive clutter rejection filter for use with airborne Doppler weather radar is presented. The radar system is being designed to operate at low-altitudes for the detection of windshear in an airport terminal area where ground clutter returns may mask the weather return. The coefficients of the adaptive clutter rejection filter are obtained using a complex form of a square root normalized recursive least squares lattice estimation algorithm which models the clutter return data as an autoregressive process. The normalized lattice structure implementation of the adaptive modeling process for determining the filter coefficients assures that the resulting coefficients will yield a stable filter and offers possible fixed point implementation. A 10th order FIR clutter rejection filter indexed by geographical location is designed through autoregressive modeling of simulated clutter data. Filtered data, containing simulated dry microburst and clutter return, are analyzed using pulse-pair estimation techniques. To measure the ability of the clutter rejection filters to remove the clutter, results are compared to pulse-pair estimates of windspeed within a simulated dry microburst without clutter. In the filter evaluation process, post-filtered pulse-pair width estimates and power levels are also used to measure the effectiveness of the filters. The results support the use of an adaptive clutter rejection filter for reducing the clutter induced bias in pulse-pair estimates of windspeed.

Keel, Byron M.

1989-12-01

490

Bank Relationships and Firm Profitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing virtually all Norwegian publicly listed firms for the period 1979-1995. We find a robust and economically relevant negative two-way correspondence

Hans Degryse; Steven Ongena

2001-01-01

491

Bank Competition and Financial Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the traditional “competition-fragility” view, more bank competition erodes market power, decreases profit margins, and\\u000a results in reduced franchise value that encourages bank risk taking. Under the alternative “competition-stability” view, more\\u000a market power in the loan market may result in higher bank risk as the higher interest rates charged to loan customers make\\u000a it harder to repay loans, and exacerbate

Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Rima Turk-Ariss

2009-01-01

492

77 FR 55214 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...percent of the voting shares of Lakeside Bank Holding Company, and thereby indirectly retain voting shares of Lakeside State Bank, both in New Town, North Dakota, and McKenzie County Bank, Watford City, North Dakota. Board...

2012-09-07

493

78 FR 38978 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...than July 15, 2013. A. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (Chapelle Davis, Assistant...indirectly retain shares of The Citizens State Bank of Taylor County, Reynolds, Georgia. B. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (Gerald C. Tsai,...

2013-06-28

494

76 FR 25692 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...20, 2011. A. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (Glenda Wilson...retain control of First National Bank of Muhlenberg County, Kentucky, both in Central City, Kentucky. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City (Dennis...

2011-05-05

495

78 FR 33092 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...views in writing to the Reserve Bank indicated for that notice or...2013. A. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (Yvonne Sparks...acquire voting shares of Hardin County Bancorp, Rosiclare, Illinois...thereby indirectly acquire Area Bank, Rosiclare, Illinois....

2013-06-03

496

76 FR 41500 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...later than July 29, 2011. A. Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (Colette A. Fried, Assistant Vice...indirectly acquire control of Town and Country Bank, Springfield, Illinois, and Logan County Bank, Lincoln, Illinois. Board of Governors...

2011-07-14

497

77 FR 46762 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Corp., and thereby indirectly acquire voting shares of The Middlefield Banking Company, both in Middlefield, Ohio, and Emerald Bank, Dublin; Ohio. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (Chapelle Davis, Assistant Vice President) 1000 Peachtree...

2012-08-06

498

76 FR 7568 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act...Spurzem, individually, and Sandbox, LLC, both of Charlottesville...Virginia. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System,...

2011-02-10

499

Bank capital regulation, diversification loss and the probability of bank failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of bank capital regulation on the probability of bank failure. Utilizing a two-parameter approach, it is shown that the relationship between bank capital ratio and probability of bank failure is not necessarily negative, and that capital ratio regulation may increase the probability of bank failure. This is because an increase in bank capital ratio may

Kenji Tsuji

1999-01-01

500

12 CFR 209.2 - Banks desiring to become member banks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Banks desiring to become member banks. 209.2 Section 209.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE...

2011-01-01