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1

FIR filter banks for hexagonal data processing.  

PubMed

Images are conventionally sampled on a rectangular lattice. Thus, traditional image processing is carried out on the rectangular lattice. The hexagonal lattice was proposed more than four decades ago as an alternative method for sampling. Compared with the rectangular lattice, the hexagonal lattice has certain advantages which include that it needs less sampling points; it has better consistent connectivity and higher symmetry; the hexagonal structure is also pertinent to the vision process. In this paper, we investigate the construction of symmetric FIR hexagonal filter banks for multiresolution hexagonal image processing. We obtain block structures of FIR hexagonal filter banks with 3-fold rotational symmetry and 3-fold axial symmetry. These block structures yield families of orthogonal and biorthogonal FIR hexagonal filter banks with 3-fold rotational symmetry and 3-fold axial symmetry. In this paper, we also discuss the construction of orthogonal and biorthogonal FIR filter banks with scaling functions and wavelets having optimal smoothness. In addition, we present a few of such orthogonal and biorthogonal FIR filters banks. PMID:18701391

Jiang, Qingtang

2008-09-01

2

Low delay FIR filter banks: design and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this paper is the design of low and minimum delay, exact reconstruction analysis-synthesis systems based on filter banks. It presents a time domain approach to the problem of designing FIR filter banks with adjustable reconstruction delays. It is shown that using a time domain formulation for the analysis-synthesis systems, the system delay can be considered to be

Kambiz Nayebi; Thomas P. Barnwell; Mark J. T. Smith

1994-01-01

3

Theory and design of signal-adapted FIR paraunitary filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the design of signal-adapted FIR paraunitary filter banks, using energy compaction as the adaptation criterion. We present some important properties that globally optimal solutions to this optimization problem satisfy. In particular, we show that the optimal filters in the first channel of the filter bank are spectral factors of the solution to a linear semi-infinite programming (SIP) problem.

Pierre Moulin; M. Kivanc Mihcak

1998-01-01

4

On M-channel linear phase FIR filter banks and application in image compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the theory and structure of a large subclass of M-channel linear-phase perfect-reconstruction FIR filter banks-systems with analysis and synthesis filters of length Li=KiM+?, where ? is an arbitrary integer, 0⩽?filter banks (LPPRFBs). Next,

Trac Duy Tran; Truong Q. Nguyen

1997-01-01

5

Lagrange multiplier approaches to the design of two-channel perfect-reconstruction linear-phase FIR filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present two approaches to the design of two-channel perfect-reconstruction linear-phase finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter banks. Both approaches analyze and design the impulse responses of the analysis filter bank directly. The synthesis filter bank is then obtained by simply changing the signs of odd-order coefficients in the analysis filter bank. The approach deals with unequal-length filter banks. By designing the

Bor-Rong Horng

1992-01-01

6

Multidimensional FIR filter bank design using Grobner bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariate polynomial matrix factorization algorithm is introduced and discussed. This algorithm and another algorithm for computing a globally minimal generating matrix of the syzygy of solutions associated with a polynomial matrix are both associated with a zero-coprimeness constraint that characterizes perfect-reconstruction filter banks. Generalizations, as well as limitations of recent results which incorporate the perfect reconstruction as well as

Chalie Charoenlarpnopparut; N. K. Bose

1999-01-01

7

Oversampled filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfect reconstruction oversampled filter banks are equivalent to a particular class of frames in l2(Z). These frames are the subject of this paper. First, the necessary and sufficient conditions of a filter bank for implementing a frame or a tight frame expansion are established, as well as a necessary and sufficient condition for perfect reconstruction using FIR filters after an

Z. Cvetkovic; M. Vetterli

1998-01-01

8

Passive cascaded-lattice structures for low-sensitivity FIR filter design, with applications to filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of nonrecursive cascaded-lattice structures is derived, for the implementation of finite-impulse response (FIR) digital filters. The building blocks are lossless and the transfer function can be implemented as a sequence of planar rotations. The structures can be used for the synthesis of any scalar FIR transfer functionH(z)with no restriction on the location of zeros; at the same time,

P. P. Vaidyanathan

1986-01-01

9

Optimal design of FIR triplet halfband filter bank and application in image coding.  

PubMed

This correspondence proposes an efficient semidefinite programming (SDP) method for the design of a class of linear phase finite impulse response triplet halfband filter banks whose filters have optimal frequency selectivity for a prescribed regularity order. The design problem is formulated as the minimization of the least square error subject to peak error constraints and regularity constraints. By using the linear matrix inequality characterization of the trigonometric semi-infinite constraints, it can then be exactly cast as a SDP problem with a small number of variables and, hence, can be solved efficiently. Several design examples of the triplet halfband filter bank are provided for illustration and comparison with previous works. Finally, the image coding performance of the filter bank is presented. PMID:20643606

Kha, H H; Tuan, H D; Nguyen, T Q

2010-07-19

10

Simultaneous design of FIR filter banks and spatial patterns for EEG signal classification.  

PubMed

The spatial weights for electrodes called common spatial pattern (CSP) are known to be effective in EEG signal classification for motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (MI-BCI). To achieve accurate classification in CSP, it is necessary to find frequency bands that relate to brain activities associated with BCI tasks. Several methods that determine such a set of frequency bands have been proposed. However, the existing methods cannot find the multiple frequency bands by using only learning data. To address this problem, we propose discriminative filter bank CSP (DFBCSP) that designs finite impulse response filters and the associated spatial weights by optimizing an objective function which is a natural extension of that of CSP. The optimization is conducted by sequentially and alternatively solving subproblems into which the original problem is divided. By experiments, it is shown that DFBCSP can effectively extract discriminative features for MI-BCI. Moreover, experimental results exhibit that DFBCSP can detect and extract the bands related to brain activities of motor imagery. PMID:22949044

Higashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshihisa

2012-08-29

11

Wavelets and recursive filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that infinite impulse response (IIR) filters lead to more general wavelets of infinite support than finite impulse response (FIR) filters. A complete constructive method that yields all orthogonal two channel filter banks, where the filters have rational transfer functions, is given, and it is shown how these can be used to generate orthonormal wavelet bases. A family

C. Herley; M. Vetterli

1993-01-01

12

Design of FIR digital filters using tapped cascaded FIR subfilters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the design of an FIR digital filter by interconnecting a number of identical FIR subfilters with the aid of a few additional multipliers and adders. The overall structure is in the form of tapped cascaded FIR subfilters. A composite method to determine the tapping coefficients along with the coefficients of the subfilter to approximate the overall frequency response characteristic is proposed. Several numerical examples illustrating the proposed method are included.

Nakamura, S.; Mitra, S. K.

13

On the Design of Nearly-PR and PR FIR Cosine Modulated Filter Banks Having Approximate Cosine-Rolloff Transition Band  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an efficient method for designing nearly perfect reconstruction (NPR) and perfect reconstruction (PR) cosine modulated filter banks (CMFBs) with prototype filters having an approximate cosine-rolloff (CR) transition band. It is shown that the flatness condition required for an NPR CMFB can be automatically satisfied by using a prototype filter with a CR transition band. The design problem

S. S. Yin; S. C. Chan; K. M. Tsui

2008-01-01

14

On the Design of Low Delay Nearly-PR and PR FIR Cosine Modulated Filter Banks having approximate cosine-roll transition band  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method for designing a class of nearly perfect reconstruction (NPR) or perfect reconstruction (PR) cosine modulated filter banks (CMFBs) with prototype filters having an approximate cosine-rolloff transition band is presented. The NPR CMFBs in (1,2) is first generalized to include low-delay CMFBs. It is shown that a prototype filter with cosine-rolloff transition band will automatically satisfy the flatness

S. C. Chan; S. S. Yin

15

Frame-theoretic analysis of oversampled filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a frame-theoretic analysis of oversampled finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (FIR) uniform filter banks (FBs). Our analysis is based on a new relationship between the FBs polyphase matrices and the frame operator corresponding to an FB. For a given oversampled analysis FB, we present a parameterization of all synthesis FBs providing perfect reconstruction. We find

H. Bolcskei; Franz Hlawatsch; Hans G. Feichtinger

1998-01-01

16

Exact reconstruction analysis\\/synthesis filter banks with time-varying filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine some of the analysis\\/synthesis issues associated with FIR (finite impulse response) time-varying filter banks where the filter bank coefficients are allowed to change in response to the input signal. Several issues are identified as being important for realizing performance gains from time-varying filter banks in image coding applications. These issues relate to the behavior of the filters

M. J. T. Smith

1993-01-01

17

Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

18

Continuous-time integrated FIR filters at microwave frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss adaptive integrated finite-impulse response (FIR) filters operating in the continuous time domain. These filters become attractive to implement at microwave frequencies. An important topological property of the traveling wave FIR filter is presented, and its advantages when used as an adaptive equalizer are pointed out. Design considerations and modeling aspects of compact on-chip delay lines are given. Simulation

Shanthi Pavan

2004-01-01

19

Exact Reconstruction Analysis/Synthesis Filter Banks with Time-Varying Filters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines some of the analysis/synthesis issues associated with FIR time-varying filter banks where the filter bank coefficients are allowed to change in response to the input signal. Several issues are identified as being important in order to ...

J. L. Arrowood M. J. T. Smith

1993-01-01

20

Image Denoising Using FIR Filters Designed with Evolution Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Images are often corrupted by noise due to various factors during their acquisition and transmission phases. Image denoising is aimed to remove the noise as well as preserving image features as much as possible. This paper presents an adaptive image denosing method using FIR (finite impulse response) filters. The FIR filter coefficients are optimized by using evolution strategies algorithm in

Shuangteng Zhang

2011-01-01

21

Information Theoretic Approach to Complexity Reduction of FIR Filter Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new paradigm of design methodology to reduce the complexity of application-specific finite-impulse response (FIR) digital filters. A new adder graph data structure called the multiroot binary partition graph (MBPG) is proposed for the formulation of the multiple constant multiplication problem of FIR filter design. The set of coefficients in any fixed point representation is partitioned into

Chip-Hong Chang; Jiajia Chen; A. P. Vinod

2008-01-01

22

Efficient multirate realization for narrow transition-band FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A filtering technique for reducing the computational complexity in FIR (finite-impulse-response) filters at any bandwidth is described. This technique uses a combination of multirate and complementary filters. It is shown that the resulting computational complexity is almost independent of the transition bandwidth of the filter, but depends somewhat on the cutoff frequency. It is concluded that any reasonable filter specification

Tor A. Ramstad; Tapio Saramaki

1988-01-01

23

Theory of two-dimensional multirate filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on 2-D FIR (two-dimensional finite-impulse-response) filter banks for multirate applications. The theory is valid for all sampling lattices; conditions for alias-free and perfect signal reconstruction are derived. Synthesis structures for paraunitary and nonparaunitary polynomial matrices are derived, which yield perfect reconstruction filter banks. The degrees of freedom are given for these systems. Linear phase conditions are posed

G. Karlsson; M. Vetterli

1990-01-01

24

Computer-Aided Algorithms for Multiplierless FIR Filter Design.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this thesis is to outline a number of iterative algorithms for the computer-aided design of multiplierless linear phase FIR time-invariant digital filters. Two different classes of digital network structures are proposed for the realization of the multiplierless FIR filters. One such class consists of structures utilizing registers, adders, shifters, and switches. The structures in the second group are characterized by multiplier coefficients expressible in the discrete powers-of-two domain with very few non-zero bits and as a result, can also be implemented without multipliers. The structures in the first group are essentially periodically time-varying filters which with some suitable constraints can be made to simulate time-invariant filters. A general analysis algorithm is developed to monitor the harmonic effects associated with all periodically time -varying systems and a simple design method is introduced through an example to illustrate the general characteristics of filters in this category. Two different general algorithms are developed for designing FIR filters belonging to the second group. The objective of these algorithms is to minimize the computation required to realize the FIR filtering functions. Comparisons are made between these two algorithms in terms of efficiency and performance. This thesis also considers the design of linear phase FIR filters with short word-length coefficients. To this end, three different implementation schemes are suggested. The FIR-FIR cascade form, the FIR-IIR cascade form and the generalized transversal form. Various algorithms are developed to design FIR filters based on each of these schemes. Hybrid forms of these structures often led to good results. Extensive examples are included to illustrate all approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches are discussed.

Pyi, Hwa-Sheng

25

Linear Phase Cosine Modulated Maximally Decimated Filter Banks with Perfect Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel way to design maximally deci- mated FIR cosine modulated filter banks, in which each analysis and synthesis filter has linear phase. The system can be designed to have either the approximate reconstruction property (pseudo- QMF system) or perfect reconstruction property (PR system). In the PR case, the system is a paraunitary filter bank. As in earlier

Yuan-pei Lin; P. P. Vaidyanathan

1994-01-01

26

A novel implementation for narrow-band FIR digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper Crochiere and Rabiner [1] discuss the theory of using finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters for signal decimation, interpolation, and filtering. In this paper we expand on the ideas presented in the earlier paper on implementing narrow-band designs efficiently. It is shown how, using the techniques of decimation and interpolation, a desired narrow-band filter can be

LAWRENCE R. RABINER; RONALD E. CROCHIERE

1975-01-01

27

Fast electronically tunable filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows a new electronically tunable filter bank. The main characteristics are: wide frequency range, 6 to 18GHz, compact size and fast response within the temperature range of -40° C to 75° C. To achieve these objectives the filter bank is built using HMIC and MMIC technology. The purpose of the system is to act as a fast tunable

M. S. Ruiperez; Daniel Amor; J. Gonzalez; J. I. Alonso

2005-01-01

28

Filter banks in digital communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital signal processing has played a key role in the development of telecommunication systems over the last two decades. In recent years digital filter banks have been occupying an increasingly important role in both wireless and wireline communication systems. In this paper we review some of these applications of filter banks with special emphasis on discrete multitone modulation which has

P. P. Vaidyanathan

2001-01-01

29

A novel FIR filter design based on clonal selection algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FIR filter has some advantages, such as system stability, simple implement, and linear phase. It has been widely used in digital signal processing and other relative fields. Clonal selection algorithm has been applied successfully in solving problems like memory acquisition, multi-modal optimization and traveling salesman problem. This paper proposes a novel FIR filter design method. It combines clonal selection algorithm and window function method to achieve optimization. In the design process, float coding is adopted to increase the convergence precision. Some simulation experiments are carried out to verify the performance of the presented algorithm. The results show that the introduced method is able to design some FIR filter which is difficult for other methods. The filter design approach discussed in this paper is universal and easy to implement.

Wang, Qiusheng; Gao, Shaokun; Zhao, Jingpo

2008-11-01

30

Splitting the unit delay [FIR\\/all pass filters design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fractional delay filter is a device for bandlimited interpolation between samples. It finds applications in numerous fields of signal processing, including communications, array processing, speech processing, and music technology. We present a comprehensive review of FIR and allpass filter design techniques for bandlimited approximation of a fractional digital delay. Emphasis is on simple and efficient methods that are well

T. I. Laakso; V. Valimaki; M. Karjalainen; U. K. Laine

1996-01-01

31

FIR filter design via semidefinite programming and spectral factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a semidefinite programming approach to FIR filter design with arbitrary upper and lower bounds on the frequency response magnitude. It is shown that the constraints can be expressed as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and hence they can be easily handled by interior-point methods. Using this LMI formulation, we can cast several interesting filter design problems as convex or

Shao-Po Wu; Stephen Boyd; Lieven Vandenberghe

1996-01-01

32

One structure for efficient narrow-band bandpass FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a narrow-band bandpass FIR filter design with a small number of multipliers per output sample (NMPS). The proposed method is based on the use of the pipelining\\/interleaving (PI) technique within a quadrature modulation structure, where only one narrow-band lowpass filter is required. In order to reduce the NMPS, the narrow-band lowpass filter is designed with an interpolated

G. Jovanovic-Dolecek; J. Diaz-Carmona

2002-01-01

33

Best linear unbiased estimation filters with FIR structures for state space signal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new best linear unbiased estimation (BLUE) finite impulse response (FIR) filter called the BLUE FIR filter is proposed for discrete-time state space signal models with system noises and inputs. The proposed BLUE FIR filter is a linear function of only the finite measurements and inputs on the most recent horizon, does not require a priori information

Wook Hyun Kwon; Pyung Soo Kim; Soo Hee Han

1999-01-01

34

Fast electronically tunable filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows a new electronically tunable filter bank. The main characteristics are: wide frequency range, 6 to 18 GHz, compact size and fast response within the temperature range of -40degC to 75degC. To achieve these objectives the filter bank is built using HMIC and MMIC technology. The purpose of the system is to act as a fast tunable system

M. S. Ruiperez; Daniel Amor; J. Gonzalez; J. I. Alonso

2005-01-01

35

The design of perfect reconstruction nonuniform band filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a general procedure for the design of analysis-synthesis systems based on nonuniform filter banks. The procedure is based on a time-domain analysis which results in a set of time-domain conditions for the exact reconstruction of the input signal at the output. These conditions are used as part of a powerful tool for designing FIR (finite impulse response)

K. Nayebi; M. J. T. Smith

1991-01-01

36

A general formulation of modulated filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general framework for maximally decimated modulated filter banks. The theory covers the known classes of cosine modulation and relates them to complex-modulated filter banks. The prototype filters have arbitrary lengths, and the overall delay of the filter bank is arbitrary, within fundamental limits. Necessary and sufficient conditions for perfect reconstruction (PR) are derived using the polyphase

Peter Niels Heller; Tanja Karp; Truong Q. Nguyen

1999-01-01

37

Modelling Subsea Coaxial Cable as FIR Filter on MATLAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the modelling of subsea coaxial cable as a FIR filter on MATLAB. The subsea coaxial cables are commonly used in telecommunication industry and, oil and gas industry. Furthermore, this cable is unlike a filter circuit, which is a ``lumped network'' as individual components appear as discrete items. Therefore, a subsea coaxial network can be represented as a digital filter. In overall, the study has been conducted using MATLAB to model the subsea coaxial channel model base on primary and secondary parameters of subsea coaxial cable.

Kanisin, D.; Nordin, M. S.; Hazrul, M. H.; Kumar, E. A.

2011-05-01

38

Design of multiplierless FIR filters with an adder depth versus filter order trade-off  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the trade-offs in FIR filter design are studied. This includes the adder depth for the constant filter coefficients, the number of adders, and the number of delay elements, i.e., the filter order. It is shown that the proposed design algorithm can be used to decrease both the overall arithmetic complexity and the adder depth, possibly with a

Kenny Johansson; Linda S. DeBrunner; Oscar Gustafsson; Victor DeBrunner

2009-01-01

39

Minimum complexity FIR filters and sparse systolic arrays  

SciTech Connect

The properties of BETA-spline approximation and the integral/derivative properties of convolution lead to efficient algorithms for the implementation of multidimensional FIR filters. The implementations are of minimum time complexity under the Nyquist criterion. The algorithm can easily be implemented using a sparse systolic array architecture. The resulting BETA-spline convolvers have much lower circuit complexity than systolic architectures based on conventional convolution algorithms. A two-dimensional hardware implementation based on simplifications of current architectures is presented.

Ferrari, L.A.; Sankar, P.V.

1988-06-01

40

Linear-phase perfect reconstruction filter bank: lattice structure, design, and application in image coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lattice structure for an M-channel linear-phase perfect reconstruction filter bank (LPPRFB) based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) is introduced. The lattice can be proven to use a minimal number of delay elements and to completely span a large class of LPPRFBs: all analysis and synthesis filters have the same FIR length, sharing the same center of symmetry. The

Trac D. Tran; Ricardo L. de Queiroz; Truong Q. Nguyen

2000-01-01

41

Application of under-Decimated Filter Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maximally decimated filter banks have been extensively studied in the past. A filter bank is said to be under-decimated if the number of channels is more than the decimation ratio in the subbands. A maximally decimated filter bank is well known for its ap...

Y. Lin P. P. Vaidyanathan

1994-01-01

42

The theory and design of arbitrary-length cosine-modulated filter banks and wavelets, satisfying perfect reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that FIR filter banks that satisfy the perfect-reconstruction (PR) property can be obtained by cosine modulation of a linear-phase prototype filter of length N=2mM, where M is the number of channels. In this paper, we present a PR cosine-modulated filter bank where the length of the prototype filter is arbitrary. The design is formulated as a

Truong Q. Nguyen; R. David Koilpillai

1996-01-01

43

Designing of two-dimensional FIR fan filters by Fourier reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure based on the Fourier reconstruction technique is proposed for designing a two-dimensional FIR bandpass fan filter. By adequate definition of the attenuator, the fan filter can be designed with a specified number of fans and specified pass orientation. With the proposed algorithm, any one-dimensional FIR prototype, with the exception of lowpass filters, can be extended to fan filters, and both even and odd size fan filters can be designed.

Kato, H.; Furukawa, T.

1980-12-01

44

Rank-deficient robust Capon filter-bank approach to complex spectral estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider nonparametric complex spectral estimation using an adaptive filtering based approach where the finite impulse response (FIR) filter-bank is obtained via a rank-deficient robust Capon beamformer. We show that by allowing the sample covariance matrix to be rank-deficient, we can achieve much higher resolution than existing approaches, which is useful in many applications including radar target detection and feature extraction. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the performance of the new approach as compared to existing data-adaptive and data-independent FIR filtering based spectral estimation methods.

Wang, Yanwei; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

2004-09-01

45

A digital filter bank for spectral matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new digital filter bank design is proposed for the processing of speech waveforms where spectral pattern matching techniques are applicable. Outputs in decibels from the 30 channels of the filter bank are computed every 12 ms. Care has been taken to select a time window and filter center frequency and bandwidth values that take into account the acoustic characteristics

D. Klatt

1976-01-01

46

An Optimal FIR Filter for Linear TIE Models of Local Clocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an optimal finite impulse response (FIR) filter for linear TIE models of local clocks. A comparison with the unbiased FIR filter is provided. Estimations are carried out for a local crystal clock using GPS-based sawtooth measurements. As a main conclusion, we notice that an optimal solution does not contribute too much to estimation accuracy and

Yuriy S. Shmaliy

2007-01-01

47

Design tradeoffs using truncated multipliers in FIR filter implementations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a general FIR filter architecture utilizing truncated tree multipliers for computation. The average error, maximum error, and variance of error due to truncation are derived for the proposed architecture. A novel technique that reduces the average error of the filter is presented, along with equations for computing the signal-to-noise ratio of the truncation error. A software tool written in Java is described that automatically generates structural VHDL models for specific filters based on this architecture, given parameters such as the number of taps, operand lengths, number of multipliers, and number of truncated columns. We show that a 22.5% reduction in area can be achieved for a 24-tap filter with 16-bit operands, 4 parallel multipliers, and 12 truncated columns. For this implementation, the average reduction error is only 9.18 × 10-5 ulps, and the reduction error SNR is only 2.4 dB less than the roundoff SNR of an equivalent filter without truncation.

Walters, Eugene G., III; Schulte, Michael J.

2002-12-01

48

A class of FIR Nyquist (Nth-band) filters with zero intersymbol interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new class of linear-phase FIR Nyquist (Nth-band) filters composed of cascaded FIR subfilters with different periodicities in the frequency domain. Each one of the subfilters is itself a Nyquist filter or anNth-band filter. - The composite filters have zero intersymbol interference and they provide a Chebyshev stopband behavior, thereby band-limiting the pulses optimally. A computationally efficient

T. Saramaki; Y. Neuvo

1987-01-01

49

A class of linear-phase FIR filters for decimation, interpolation, and narrow-band filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters for decimation and interpolation is discussed. The transfer function of these filters is of the form H(z) = A (zD) B(z)where D is the decimation or interpolation ratio and A (zD) is realized at the lower sampling rate. The polynomial A (zD) is adjusted so that the overall

T. Saramaki

1984-01-01

50

Pyramidal directional filter banks and curvelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible multiscale and directional representation for im ages is proposed. The scheme combines directional filter banks with the Laplacian pyramid to provides a sparse representation for t wo- dimensional piecewise smooth signals resembling images. The underlying expansion is a frame and can be designed to be a tight frame. Pyramidal directional filter banks provide an e ffective method to

Minh N. Dot; Martin Vetterlits

2001-01-01

51

On the optimality of nonunitary filter banks in subband coders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the energy compaction capabilities of nonunitary filter banks in subband coding. It is shown that nonunitary filter banks have larger coding gain than unitary filter banks because of the possibility of performing half-whitening in each channel. For long filter unit pulse responses, optimization of subband coding gain for stationary input signals results in a filter bank decomposition,

Sven Ole Aase; Tor A. Ramstad

1995-01-01

52

A new directional filter bank for image analysis and classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new directional filter bank for image analysis and classification is proposed. This paper introduces an improved structure in order to visualize subband outputs of the directional filter banks, while retaining the attractive properties of the original directional filter banks such as 1-D separable filtering, perfect reconstruction, and maximal decimation. Using this structure, any arbitrary 2n band directional filter bank

Sang-Il Park; Mark J. T. Smith; Russell M. Mersereau

1999-01-01

53

B-spline design of digital FIR filter using evolutionary computation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the forth coming era, digital filters are becoming a true replacement for the analog filter designs. Here in this paper we examine a design method for FIR filter using global search optimization techniques known as Evolutionary computation via genetic algorithm and bacterial foraging, where the filter design considered as an optimization problem. In this paper, an effort is made to design the maximally flat filters using generalized B-spline window. The key to our success is the fact that the bandwidth of the filer response can be modified by changing tuning parameters incorporated well within the B-spline function. This is an optimization problem. Direct approach has been deployed to design B-spline window based FIR digital filters. Four parameters (order, width, length and tuning parameter) have been optimized by using GA and EBFS. It is observed that the desired response can be obtained with lower order FIR filters with optimal width and tuning parameters.

Swain, Manorama; Panda, Rutuparna

2011-10-01

54

Hardware reduction by combining pipelined A\\/D conversion and FIR filtering for channel equalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods for channel equalization often involve cascading, a pipelined A\\/D converter and a FIR filter. Given the nature of pipelined converters, a new method is proposed that performs partial equalization within the pipelined A\\/D thus reducing the number of taps required for the FIR filter. Simulations have shown it is possible to save 54 flip-flops at the cost of

Shahriar Shahramian; Tony Chan Carusone

2004-01-01

55

A design of the stopband variable FIR digital filters using spectral parameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several applications in digital signal processing demand variable digital filters with arbitrary variable frequency response. However, the design method of filters having variable piecewise large attenuation characteristics in the stopband is not proposed. This paper describes the design method of variable FIR digital filters having changed piecewise large attenuation characteristics in the stopband. The basic idea is to represent the

Tomonari SHINBO; Naoyuki AIKAWA; Y. Sugita; T. Moriti; Y. Wasaka; T. Kimura

2003-01-01

56

Demonstration of using digital FIR filter and matched filter to increase data rate in visible light communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using digital-filters in time domain are demonstrated to enhance the modulation-speed of 1 MHz bandwidth white LED communication. Digital FIR filter and matched filtering are used to reduce the inter-symbol-interference (ISI). Hence, 20-Mbps is achieved by using 4-ASK modulation.

Liu, Yu-Feng; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Huang, Po-Yen; Liu, Yang

2013-01-01

57

Gain scaling for multirate filter banks  

SciTech Connect

Eliminating two trivial degrees of freedom corresponding to the lowpass DC response and the highpass Nyquist response in a two-channel multirate filter bank seems simple enough. Nonetheless, the ISO/IEC JPEG 2000 image coding standard manages to make this mundane task look totally mysterious. We reveal the true meaning behind JPEG 2000's arcane specifications for filter bank normalization and point out how the seemingly trivial matter of gain scaling leads to highly nontrivial issues concerning uniqueness of lifting factorizations.

Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

58

On orthonormal wavelets and paraunitary filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The known result that a binary-tree-structured filter bank with the same paraunitary polyphase matrix on all levels generates an orthonormal basis is generalized to binary trees having different paraunitary matrices on each level. A converse result that every orthonormal wavelet basis can be generated by a tree-structured filter bank having paraunitary polyphase matrices is then proved. The concept of orthonormal

Anand K. Soman; P. P. Vaidyanathan

1993-01-01

59

Switchable low loss SAW filter bank with SAW notch filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and testing of 4 channels switchable low loss SAW filter bank with SAW notch filters is described. Slanted-finger interdigital transducer (SIDT) including EWC\\/SPUDT is adopted to achieve the low insertion loss of individual SAW filter. SAW filters are fabricated on YZ LiNbO3 substrate with the insertion loss of less than 6.5 dB, the stop-band rejection of more than

Jiangsheng Liu; Jiuling Liu; Shunzhou Li; Shitang He; Yong Liang; Honglang Li

2008-01-01

60

A design of digital FIR filter in low-frequency time-code receiver and its implementing with DSP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An FIR (finit impulse response) filter is applied to a low-frequency time-code receiver and the FIR filtering for the low-frequency time-code receiver is implemented with the DSP (digital signal processor) chip TMS320C5402. The results show that the FIR filter can restrain the relatively serious interference and reduce the distortion for the signal so as to be helpful for completing the high-performance timing receiver.

Bai, Yan; Xu, Lin-Sheng; Wu, Gui-Chen

2005-06-01

61

Design Techniques for Uniform-DFT, Linear Phase Filter Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uniform-DFT filter banks are an important class of filter banks and their theory is well known. One notable characteristic is their very efficient implementation when using polyphase filters and the FFT. Separately, linear phase filter banks, i.e. filter ...

H. Sun P. DeLeon

1999-01-01

62

Extracting tissue deformation using Gabor filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach for accurate extraction of tissue deformation imaged with tagged MR. Our method, based on banks of Gabor filters, adjusts (1) the aspect and (2) orientation of the filter"s envelope and adjusts (3) the radial frequency and (4) angle of the filter"s sinusoidal grating to extract information about the deformation of tissue. The method accurately extracts tag line spacing, orientation, displacement and effective contrast. Existing, non-adaptive methods often fail to recover useful displacement information in the proximity of tissue boundaries while our method works in the proximity of the boundaries. We also present an interpolation method to recover all tag information at a finer resolution than the filter bank parameters. Results are shown on simulated images of translating and contracting tissue.

Montillo, Albert; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

2004-04-01

63

Modified DFT filter banks with perfect reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, essential features of the recently introduced modified discrete Fourier transform DFT (MDFT) filter bank are presented. First, it is shown that all analysis and synthesis filters-obtained by appropriate complex modulation of a low-pass prototype filter-are linear phase. This is important for subband image coding applications. Another important property is the structure-inherent alias cancellation: all odd alias spectra

Tanja Karp; N. J. Fliege

1999-01-01

64

On half-band, third-band, and Nth-band FIR filters and their design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Half-band FIR digital filters are known to be important due to their reduced computational requirements. They are especially valuable when used to decimate or interpolate by a factor of 2 [1], where their characteristics well match the filtering requirements. Computational savings can also be achieved by extending the concept of half-band filters to Nth-band filters for use in decimation or

F. Mintzer

1982-01-01

65

Structured design of a 288-tap FIR filter by optimized partial product tree compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact 10-b, 288-tap finite impulse response (FIR) filter is designed by adopting structured architecture that employs an optimized partial product tree compression method. The new scheme is based on the addition of equally weighted partial products resulted from 288 multiplications of the filter coefficients and the inputs. The 288 multiplication and 287 addition operations are decomposed to add 1440

Jun Rim Choi; Lak Hyun Jang; Seong Wook Jung; Jin Ho Choi

1997-01-01

66

Structured design of a 288-tap FIR filter by optimized partial product tree compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact 10-bit, 288-tap FIR filter is designed by adopting structured architecture which employs optimized partial product tree compression method. The new architecture is based on the addition of equally weighted partial products which result from 288 multiplications of the filter coefficients and the inputs. The 288 multiplication and 287 addition operations are decomposed to add 1440 partial products to

Jun Rim Choi; Seong Wook Jeong; Lak Hyun Jang; Jin Ho Choi

1996-01-01

67

Optimization of FIR filters in subexpression space with constrained adder depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A popular technique in the design of multiplierless FIR filters explores the common subexpression sharing when the filter coefficients are optimized. In these techniques, the coefficient multiplier are realized as a multiplier block (MB) with shared shifters and adders. Many researches showed that the power consumption of a MB is often not simply proportional to the number of adders but

Ya Jun Yu; Yong Ching Lim

2009-01-01

68

Optimal design of real and complex minimum phase digital FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a generalized optimal minimum phase digital FIR filter design algorithm that supports (1) arbitrary magnitude response specifications, (2) high coefficient accuracy, and (3) real and complex filters. The algorithm uses the discrete Hilbert transform relationship between the magnitude spectrum of a causal real sequence and its minimum phase delay phase spectrum given by Cizek (1970). We extend the

N. Damera-Venkata; Brian L. Evans

1999-01-01

69

Fast and energy-efficient constant-coefficient FIR filters using residue number system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present constant-coefficient finite impulse response (FIR) filters design using residue number system (RNS) arithmetic. The novelty of our approach rests in an attempt to maximize the accumulated benefit of the application of RNS to the design of constant coefficient filters. To achieve this, we consider the impact of RNS on many layers: from coefficient representation and

Piotr Patronik; Krzysztof Berezowski; Stanislaw J. Piestrak; Janusz Biernat; Aviral Shrivastava

2011-01-01

70

Application of Fir Median Hybrid Filters to remove blinks in Electrooculograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a comparative study of several algorithms used to remove the blink noise in the electroculogram preserving the sharp edges in the signal produced by the so-called saccadic eye movements. Median filters (MF) and several types of Fir Median Hybrid Filters (FMH) are proposed. 16 real Electrooculogram register with saccadic movements in controlled position were used to test

MARCELINO MARTINEZ; EMILIO SORIA; RAFAEL MAGDALENA; ANTONIO JOSÉ SERRANO LÓPEZ; JOAN VILA

71

Vessel enhancement filter using directional filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vessel enhancement is an important preprocessing step in accurate vessel-tree reconstruction which is necessary in many medical imaging applications. Conventional vessel enhancement approaches used in the literature are Hessian-based filters, which are found to be sensitive to noise and sometimes give discontinued vessels due to junction suppression. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for vessel enhancement for angiography

Phan T. H. Truc; Young-koo Lee; Sungyoung Lee; Tae-seong Kim

2009-01-01

72

Linear phase paraunitary filter banks: theory, factorizations and designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

M channel maximally decimated filter banks have been used in the past to decompose signals into subbands. The theory of perfect-reconstruction filter banks has also been studied extensively. Nonparaunitary systems with linear phase filters have also been designed. The authors study paraunitary systems in which each individual filter in the analysis synthesis banks has linear phase. Specific instances of this

Anand K. Soman; P. P. Vaidyanathan; Truong Q. Nguyen

1993-01-01

73

Designing Linear Phase FIR Filters with Particle Swarm Optimization and Harmony Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, evolutionary methods have shown great success in solving many combinatorial optimization problems such as FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter design. An ordinary method in FIR filter design problem is Parks-McClellan, which is both difficult to implement and computationally expensive. The goal of this paper is to design a near optimal linear phase FIR filter using two recent evolutionary approaches; Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Harmony Search (HS). These methods are robust, easy to implement, and they would not trap in local optima due to their stochastic behavior. In addition, they have distinguishing features such as less variance error and smaller overshoots in both stop and pass bands. To prove these benefits, two case studies are presented and obtained results are compared with previous implementations. In both cases, better and reliable results are achieved.

Shirvani, Abdolreza; Khezri, Kaveh; Razzazi, Farbod; Lucas, Caro

74

A 'trick' for the design of FIR half-band filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a well-known property of FIR half-band filters, this correspondence shows how the design time for equiripple half-band filters can be reduced by a considerable amount. The observation which leads up to this improved procedure also places in evidence new implementation schemes, which simultaneously ensure low passband and stopband sensitivities. Extension of the method toMth-band filter design is also

P. P. VAIDYANATHAN; TRUONG Q. NGUYEN

1987-01-01

75

Variation-Aware Low-Power Synthesis Methodology for Fixed-Point FIR Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel finite-impulse response (FIR) filter synthesis technique that allows for aggressive voltage scaling by exploiting the fact that all filter coefficients are not equally important to obtain a ldquoreasonably accuraterdquo filter response. Our technique implements a level-constrained common-subexpression-elimination algorithm, where we can constrain the number of adder levels (ALs) required to compute each of

Jung Hwan Choi; Nilanjan Banerjee; Kaushik Roy

2009-01-01

76

Image deblocking by the dual adaptive FIR Wiener filter and overcomplete representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blocking artifacts exist in the block-based discrete cosine transform (DCT) compressed images and video sequences in low bit rate compression. Based on the minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) criterion, we have developed a dual adaptive FIR Wiener (DAW) filter previously. In this paper, the DAW filter is then extended to form the overcomplete dual adaptive Wiener (OCDAW) filter by applying to the

Renqi Zhang; Yiu-Leung Fong; Wai-Kuen Cham

2009-01-01

77

Filter Bank Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary task in any cognitive radio (CR) network is to dynamically explore the radio spectrum and reliably determine portion(s) of the frequency band that may be used for the communication link(s). Accordingly, each CR node in the network has to be equipped with a spectrum analyzer. In this paper, we propose filter banks as a tool for spectrum sensing

Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

2008-01-01

78

Theory of optimal orthonormal filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper we derived a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for maximizing the coding gain in an orthonormal filter bank. These are referred to as the decorrelation and majorization conditions. While each of these two conditions is individually only necessary and not sufficient, they together form a set of necessary and sufficient conditions. In this paper we

P. P. Vaidyanathan

1996-01-01

79

Filter bank frame expansions with erasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study frames for robust transmission overthe Internet. In our previous work, we used quantized finitedimensionalframes to achieve resilience to packet losses;here, we allow the input to be a sequence in ` 2 (Z) and focuson a filter-bank implementation of the system. We presentresults in parallel, RNor CNversus ` 2 (Z), and show thatuniform tight frames, as well as newly

Jelena Kovacevic; Pier Luigi Dragotti; Vivek K. Goyal

2002-01-01

80

Spatially-Varying IIR Filter Banks for Image Coding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports on the application of spatially variant infinite impulse response (IIR) filter banks to subband image coding. The new filter bank is based on computationally efficient recursive polyphase decompositions that dynamically change in respon...

W. C. Chung M. J. T. Smith

1992-01-01

81

Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, II: Linear Phase Filter Banks  

SciTech Connect

The theory of group lifting structures is applied to linear phase lifting factorizations for the two nontrivial classes of two-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filter banks, the whole-and half-sample symmetric classes. Group lifting structures defined for the reversible and irreversible classes of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are shown to satisfy the hypotheses of the uniqueness theorem for group lifting structures. It follows that linear phase lifting factorizations of whole-and half-sample symmetric filter banks are therefore independent of the factorization methods used to compute them. These results cover the specification of user-defined whole-sample symmetric filter banks in Part 2 of the ISO JPEG 2000 standard.

Brislawn, Christopher M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

82

Ultra low power switched current finite impulse response filter banks realized in CMOS 0.18 ?m technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra low power circuits are in high demand in many applications especially in wireless sensor networks (WSN), where energy is scavenged from environment. WSN systems contain different blocks, such as: sensors, filters, analog-to-digital converters, very often a simple processor and the RF front end block. This paper concerns ultra low power finite impulse response (FIR) filters and filter banks implemented in a switched current (SI) technique. In this paper new SI FIR filter structures and filter banks have been proposed. These circuits operate in the current mode and do not use operational amplifiers, what enables very low power dissipation on the level of several ?W. Proposed filters incorporate transistors working under threshold level for the voltage supply that is in the range 0.5 - 0.7 V. The simulated attenuation in the stopband of the frequency response is limited to about 45 dB, what is due to different nonidealities, but such value is usually sufficient in WSN applications. The SI technique features many interesting mechanisms that simplify realization of analog filter banks. The signal samples that are stored in the delay lane are in SI filters copied to the filter coefficients using current mirrors. As a result, there exists the possibility to connect many sets of filter coefficients to a single delay line without the speed limitation. Ultra low power operation of proposed filters is also possible due to a special structure of the clock generator that only consists from switches and NOT gates.

D?ugosz, Rafa?

2007-06-01

83

Perfect reconstruction filter banks with rational sampling factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open problem, namely, how to construct perfect reconstruction filter banks with rational sampling factors, is solved. Such filter banks have N branches, each one having a sampling factor of p i\\/qi, and their sum equals one. In this way, the well-known theory of filter banks with uniform band splitting is extended to allow for nonuniform divisions of the spectrum.

J. Kovaceciv; M. Vetterli

1993-01-01

84

Discrete multitone modulation with principal component filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrete multitone (DMT) modulation is an attractive method for communication over a nonflat channel with possibly colored noise. The uniform discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter bank and cosine modulated filter bank have in the past been used in this system because of low complexity. We show in this paper that principal component filter banks (PCFB) which are known to be

P. P. Vaidyanathan; Yuan-Pei Lin; Sony Akkarakaran; See-May Phoong

2002-01-01

85

Noise and Outlier Removal from Jet Engine Health Signals Using Weighted FIR Median Hybrid Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of noise and outliers from measurement signals is a major problem in jet engine health monitoring. Typical measurement signals found in most jet engines include low rotor speed, high rotor speed, fuel flow and exhaust gas temperature. Deviations in these measurements from a baseline `good' engine are often called measurement deltas and the health signals used for fault detection, isolation, trending and data mining. Linear filters such as the FIR moving average filter and IIR exponential average filter are used in the industry to remove noise and outliers from the jet engine measurement deltas. However, the use of linear filters can lead to loss of critical features in the signal that can contain information about maintenance and repair events that could be used by fault isolation algorithms to determine engine condition or by data mining algorithms to learn valuable patterns in the data. Non-linear filters such as the median and weighted median hybrid filters offer the opportunity to remove noise and gross outliers from signals while preserving features. In this study, a comparison of traditional linear filters popular in the jet engine industry is made with the median filter and the subfilter weighted FIR median hybrid (SWFMH) filter. Results using simulated data with implanted faults shows that the SWFMH filter results in a noise reduction of over 60 per cent compared to only 20 per cent for FIR filters and 30 per cent for IIR filters. Preprocessing jet engine health signals using the SWFMH filter would greatly improve the accuracy of diagnostic systems.

Ganguli, R.

2002-11-01

86

Minimum adder depth multiple constant multiplication algorithm for low power FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we propose a graph based minimum adder depth algorithm for the multiple constant multiplication (MCM) problem. Hence, all multiplier coefficients are here guaranteed to be realized at the theoretically lowest depth possible. The motivation for low adder depth is that this has been shown to be a main factor for the power consumption. An FIR filter is

Kenny Johansson; Oscar Gustafsson; Linda S. DeBrunner; Lars Wanhammar

2011-01-01

87

Switching activity analysis and power estimation for multiple constant multiplier block of FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The switchings in the multiple constant multiplier (MCM) block of FIR filters are heavily affected by the spatial correlation of inputs at each computation unit—adders in this case. In this work, a new switching activity model for the MCM blocks is developed by taking the spatial correlation of inputs of each adder into consideration. Based on this model, a power

Wen Bin Ye; Ya Jun Yu

2011-01-01

88

Fast two-dimensional WLS techniques for the design of two-dimensioinal FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the design of two-dimensional (2-D) quadrantally symmetric finite impulse response (FIR) filters, and presents three very efficient algorithms for the weighted least squares design with a weight matrix that assigns four different weights to four different frequency bands. The first algorithm seeks for iterative solutions to the matrix equation describing the optimality condition of the design

Ruijie Zhao; Xiaoping Lai

2011-01-01

89

A unifying view of some training algorithms for multilayer perceptrons with FIR filter synapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns neural network architectures for modelling time-dependent signals. A number of algorithms have been published for multilayer perceptrons with synapses described by finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) filters (the latter case is also known as locally recurrent globally feedforward networks). The derivations of these algorithms have used different approaches in calculating the gradients, and in this

Andrew Back; Efic A. Wan; Steve Lawrence; Ah Chung Tsoi

1994-01-01

90

A Unifying View of Some Training Algorithms for Multilayer Perceptrons with FIR Filter Synapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest has come about in deriving various neural network architec- tures for modelling time-dependent signals. A number of algorithms have been published for multilayer perceptrons with synapses described by finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) filters (the latter case is al so known as Locally Recurrent Globally Feedforward Networks ). The derivations of these algorithms have

Andrew Back; Eric A. Wan; Steve Lawrence; Ah Chung Tsoi

1995-01-01

91

Image deblocking using dual adaptive FIR Wiener filter in the DCT transform domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blocking artifacts exist in images and video sequences compressed to low bit rates using block discrete cosine transform (DCT) compression standards. In order to reduce blocking artifacts, a novel DCT domain technique is presented in this paper. Firstly, a new FIR Wiener filter which exploits the dependence of neighboring DCT coefficients based on the linear minimum mean-square-error (LMMSE) criterion is

Renqi Zhang; Wanli Ouyang; Wai-kuen Cham

2009-01-01

92

Efficient and accurate optimal linear phase FIR filter design using opposition-based harmony search algorithm.  

PubMed

In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems. PMID:23844390

Saha, S K; Dutta, R; Choudhury, R; Kar, R; Mandal, D; Ghoshal, S P

2013-06-10

93

A new approach to FIR digital filters with fewer multipliers and reduced sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the design of efficient finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters is presented. The essence of the proposed method is to decompose the design problem into two parts: the realization of an efficient prefilter and the design of the corresponding amplitude equalizer. It is shown that this method can provide benefits in three areas: reduced computational complexity,

JOHN W. ADAMS; ALAN N. WILLSON

1983-01-01

94

On the design of FIR digital filters with prescribed stopband or passband deviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utility of the constrained Chebyshev approximation for the design of FIR filters is discussed in this letter. This method can often replace an iterated execution of the classical Parks- McClellan program and has more flexibility for a number of applications.

Grenez, F.

1986-07-01

95

Modeling the hemodynamic response in fMRI using smooth FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling the hemodynamic response in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) experiments is an important aspect of the analysis of functional neuroimages. This has been done in the past using parametric response function, from a limited family. In this contribution, the authors adopt a semi-parametric approach based on finite impulse response (FIR) filters. In order to cope with the increase in the

Cyril Goutte; Finn Årup Nielsen; K. H. Hansen

2000-01-01

96

B-spline design of maximally flat and prolate spheroidal-type FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital FIR filter is described that offers excellent passband and stopband characteristics for general applications. Design formulae include parameters that adjust the magnitude response from one having characteristics like the maximally flat designs of Hermann (1971) and Kaiser (1975, 1979) to one having characteristics like the minimum-sidelobe energy approximations of Kaiser and Saramaki (1989). The impulse response coefficients are

Rick M. Roark; M. A. Escabi

1999-01-01

97

Comparative study of several Fir Median Hybrid Filters for blink noise removal in Electrooculograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a kind of impulsive noise due to eye blinks is typical during the acquisition of electrooculograms. This paper describes a comparative study of several algorithms used to remove the blink noise in the electroculogram preserving the sharp edges in the signal produced by the so-called saccadic eye movements. Median filters (MF) and several types of Fir Median

MARCELINO MARTÍNEZ; EMILIO SORIA; RAFAEL MAGDALENA; ANTONIO JOSÉ; Antonio Jose Serrano; Jose David Martin; Joan Vila

2008-01-01

98

FIR Filter Design via Spectral Factorization and Convex Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

udio, spectrum shaping, ... ) upper bounds are convex in h; lower bounds are notMagnitude filter design problem involves magnitude specsClassical example: lowpass filter designlowpass filter with maximum stopband attenuation:521\\/51IS()l variables: h C R (filter coefficients),52 G R (stopband attenuation) parameters: 51 ( R (logarithmic passband ripple), n (order),Op (passband frequency), Os (stopband frequency)magnitude filter design problems are nonconvex can

Lieven Vandenberghe; Shao-po Wu; Stephen Boyd

1997-01-01

99

Optimization of high speed pipelining in FPGA-based FIR filter design using genetic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares FPGA-based full pipelined multiplierless FIR filter design options. Comparison of Distributed Arithmetic (DA), Common Sub-Expression (CSE) sharing and n-dimensional Reduced Adder Graph (RAG-n) multiplierless filter design methods in term of size, speed, and A*T product are provided. Since DA designs are table-based and CSE/RAG-n designs are adder-based, FPGA synthesis design data are used for a realistic comparison. Superior results of a genetic algorithm based optimization of pipeline registers and non-output fundamental coefficients are shown. FIR filters (posted as open source by Kastner et al.) for filters in the length from 6 to 151 coefficients are used.

Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Botella, Guillermo; Romero, David E. T.; Kumm, Martin

2012-05-01

100

Flexible design of multidimensional perfect reconstruction FIR 2-band filters using transformations of variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to designing multidimensional linear-phase FIR diamond subband filters having the perfect reconstruction property is presented. It is based on a transformation of variables technique and is equivalent to the generalized McClellan transformation. Methods for designing a whole class of transformation are given. The approach consists of two parts; design of the transformation and design of the 1-D filters.

David B. H. Tay; Nick G. Kingsbury

1993-01-01

101

Compensation of two-periodic nonuniform holding signal distortions by using a variable FIR filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a Farrow-based variable FIR filter to compensate distortions in digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that are due to two-periodic nonuniform holding signals. Without compensation such holding signals introduce distortions that reduce the DAC performance considerably. By utilizing a discrete-time model of a zero-order hold, we first derive the ideal frequency responses of the compensation filters. Then we exploit the spectral

Christian Vogel

2008-01-01

102

A 200MHz, 3mW, 16Tap Mixed-Signal FIR Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have built a 16-tap, 7-bit, 200MHz, mixed-signal FIR filter that consumes 3mW at 3.3V. The filter uses p-channel synapse transistors to store the tap coefficients; electron tun- neling and hot-electron injection to modify the tap weights; digital registers for the delay line; and multiplying digital-to- analog converters to multiply the digital delay-line values with the analog tap weights. The

Miguel Figueroa; Chris Diorio

103

Flexible design of computationaly efficient nearly perfect QMF filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a flexible design method of computationally efficient uniform filter bank where each filter channel is obtained by frequency translation of a prototype base-band filter. It is shown that the original signal decomposed by the analysis filter bank into N adjacent uniform subbands subsampled by N, can be reconstructed with negligible distortion. We give a practical implementation which

J. Masson; Z. Picel

1985-01-01

104

Design of multirate filter banks by ℋ? optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is developed to design IIR synthesis filters in a multirate filter bank. The filters minimize the l2-induced norm of the error system between the multirate filter bank and a desired pure time-delay system. This criterion is reduced to one of ℋ? optimization, for which there is ready-made software

Tongwen Chen; Bruce A. Francis

1995-01-01

105

Digital filter bank design quadratic-constrained formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulate the filter bank design problem as an quadratic-constrained least-squares minimization problem. The solution of the minimization problem converges very quickly since the cost function as well as the constraints are quadratic functions with respect to the unknown parameters. The formulations of the perfect-reconstruction cosine-modulated filter bank, of the near-perfect-reconstruction pseudo-QMF bank, and of the two-channel biorthogonal linear-phase filter bank

Truong Q. Nguyen

1995-01-01

106

EFFICIENT IMPLEMENTATION OF UNDECIMATED DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an efficient method to implement undecimated directional filter banks (UDFBs) is proposed. The method is based on an observation that many non-separable two- dimensional two-channel FBs can be efficiently implemented by a separable structure if their polyphase components are separable. Therefore, with appropriate delay and advance blocks, undecimated non-separable FBs can be computed with a comparable computational

Truong T. Nguyen; Soontorn Oraintara

2006-01-01

107

Multidimensional directional filter banks and surfacelets.  

PubMed

In 1992, Bamberger and Smith proposed the directional filter bank (DFB) for an efficient directional decomposition of 2-D signals. Due to the nonseparable nature of the system, extending the DFB to higher dimensions while still retaining its attractive features is a challenging and previously unsolved problem. We propose a new family of filter banks, named NDFB, that can achieve the directional decomposition of arbitrary N-dimensional (N > or =2) signals with a simple and efficient tree-structured construction. In 3-D, the ideal passbands of the proposed NDFB are rectangular-based pyramids radiating out from the origin at different orientations and tiling the entire frequency space. The proposed NDFB achieves perfect reconstruction via an iterated filter bank with a redundancy factor of N in N-D. The angular resolution of the proposed NDFB can be iteratively refined by invoking more levels of decomposition through a simple expansion rule. By combining the NDFB with a new multiscale pyramid, we propose the surfacelet transform, which can be used to efficiently capture and represent surface-like singularities in multidimensional data. PMID:17405426

Lu, Yue M; Do, Minh N

2007-04-01

108

Optimal Design of CSD Coefficient FIR Filters Subject to Number of Nonzero Digits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a hardware implementation of FIR(Finite Impulse Response) digital filters, it is desired to reduce a total number of nonzero digits used for a representation of filter coefficients. In general, a design problem of FIR filters with CSD(Canonic Signed Digit) representation, which is efficient one for the reduction of numbers of multiplier units, is often considered as one of the 0-1 combinational problems. In such the problem, some difficult constraints make us prevent to linearize the problem. Although many kinds of heuristic approaches have been applied to solve the problem, the solution obtained by such a manner could not guarantee its optimality. In this paper, we attempt to formulate the design problem as the 0-1 mixed integer linear programming problem and solve it by using the branch and bound technique, which is a powerful method for solving integer programming problem. Several design examples are shown to present an efficient performance of the proposed method.

Ozaki, Yuichi; Suyama, Kenji

109

Orthogonal time-varying filter banks and wavelet packets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the construction of orthogonal time-varying filter banks. By examining the time domain description of the two-channel orthogonal filter bank the authors find it possible to construct a set of orthogonal boundary filters, which allows to apply the filter bank to one-sided or finite-length signals, without redundancy or distortion. The method is constructive and complete. There is a whole space

Cormac Herley; Martin Vetterli

1994-01-01

110

On the design of FIR digital data transmission filters with arbitrary magnitude specifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple algorithm is presented for the design of FIR data transmission filters with arbitrary magnitude specifications. The technique involves the iterative solution of a set of linear equations as opposed to the more common approach of applying linear programming to the data transmission filter design problem. The design algorithm can accommodate conventional Nyquist filters or Nyquist filters with a non-negative frequency response that can be subsequently split into matched filter pairs using spectral factorization techniques. The filters can have equiripple stopbands or can be specified to satisfy arbitrary magnitude specifications, which is a common requirement in data transmission applications. Design examples are presented for filters satisfying FCC mask specifications for digital microwave radio channels.

Samueli, Henry

1991-12-01

111

Design of near perfect reconstruction oversampled filter banks for subband adaptive filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief, a design algorithm for real-valued and complex-valued oversampled filter banks which yield a low level of inband alias and enable simple subband adaptive structures is presented. The filter banks are either based on complex modulation of a real-valued low-pass prototype or on the direct or modulated setups of real-valued filter banks. If real-valued filter banks are required,

Moritz Harteneck; Stephan Weiss; Robert W. Stewart

1999-01-01

112

Design of hybrid filter banks for analog\\/digital conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents design algorithms for hybrid filter banks (HFBs) for high-speed, high-resolution conversion between analog and digital signals. The HFB is an unconventional class of filter bank that employs both analog and digital filters. When used in conjunction with an array of slower speed converters, the HFB improves the speed and resolution of the conversion compared with the standard

Scott R. Velazquez; Truong Q. Nguyen; Steven R. Broadstone

1998-01-01

113

Implementation of reduced-complexity high-performance programmable wavelet FIR filters using field-programmable logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FIR filters are routinely used in the implementation of modern digital signal processing systems, such as the discrete wavelet transform. Their efficient implementation using commercially available VLSI technology is a subject of continuous study and development. This paper presents the implementation using modern Altera APEX20K field-programmable logic (FPL) devices of reduced complexity and high performance FIR filters by means of the residue number system (RNS). Index arithmetic over Galois fields and the quadratic residue number systems (QRNS) together with a selection of a small wordwidth modulus set are the keys for attaining low-complexity and high-throughput in real and complex FIR filters. RNS-FPL merged FIR filters were about 65% faster than 2C designs and required fewer logic elements in most cases. An index arithmetic QRNS-based complex FIR filter yielded better results. This filter was up to 60% faster than the three-multiplier-per-tap filter and required fewer LEs for filters having more than 8 taps. Particularly, a 32-tap filter needed 24% LEs less than the classical design.

Ramirez, Javier; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

2002-03-01

114

Bit-Level Optimization of Shift-and-Add Based FIR Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of FIR filters using shift-and-add multipliers has been an active research area for the last decade. However, almost all algorithms so far has been focused on reducing the number of adders and subtractors, while little effort was put on the bit-level implementation. In this work we propose a method to optimize the number of full adders and half adders

Kenny Johansson; Oscar Gustafsson; Lars Wanhammar

2007-01-01

115

An improved frequency response masking approach for designing sharp FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to reduce the number of multipliers in the design of sharp FIR filters by frequency-response masking technique is presented. The success of the proposed method is based on a modified frequency-response masking approach where one of the subfilters in the approach is implemented by interpolated finite-impulse response (IFIR) technique. We have shown by example that the proposed

Yong Lian; Lei Zhang; Chi Chung Ko

2001-01-01

116

A Design Method of Fluency FIR Filters with Steep Cut Off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new design method of a class of FIR low-pass filters having steep cut-off with small number of taps. This is a significant improvement of our precedent result where desired frequency characteristics are realized by a set of frequency scalings of basic filters and their series connection. Though the method can realize an FIR filter with much smaller number of taps than conventional Remez method, the resulting characteristics can be such that their cut-off edges are not steep due to just the simple series connection of scaled filters. In this paper, we consider the series connection with each module consisting of a function of the basic filters. It turns out that the function can be written as a recursion with the basic filters, called mean operation. The mean operation is performed in such a way that the skirts of the transition region is subtracted recursively one by another to cancel the gradual slope, so that the resulting characteristics become steep. In a design example, the proposed method is compared with conventional ones and is shown to approximate a desired characteristics with smaller number of multiplies.

Kawasaki, Shuji; Katagishi, Kazuki; Toraichi, Kazuo; Murakami, Hitomi

117

Application of 1D FIR filter methods to 3D polygonal meshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a procedure of filtering a three dimensional (3-D) polygonal mesh by utilizing the basic methods of finite impulse response (FIR), one dimensional (1-D) filtering. A method of linearizing a 3-D mesh was developed in order to apply the 1-D filter methods. With the development of low cost 3-D scanners, which physically scan and digitize real-world objects, the amount of "noise" that is found on these models has increased. This noise can come from various sources, including unwanted imperfections in the object itself, and from the device being used to scan the object. This newly developed filtering method will provide not only a way to decrease the noise in models, but increase details of the model as well, using low-pass and high-pass filters respectively.

Ward, William S.

2012-02-01

118

3-D directional filter banks and surfacelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1992, Bamberger and Smith proposed the directional filter bank (DFB) for an efficient directional decomposition of two-dimensional (2-D) signals. Due to the nonseparable nature of the system, extending the DFB to higher dimensions while still retaining its attractive features is a challenging and previously unsolved problem. This paper proposes a new family of filter banks, named 3DDFB, that can achieve the directional decomposition of 3-D signals with a simple and efficient tree-structured construction. The ideal passbands of the proposed 3DDFB are rectangular-based pyramids radiating out from the origin at different orientations and tiling the whole frequency space. The proposed 3DDFB achieves perfect reconstruction. Moreover, the angular resolution of the proposed 3DDFB can be iteratively refined by invoking more levels of decomposition through a simple expansion rule. We also introduce a 3-D directional multiresolution decomposition, named the surfacelet transform, by combining the proposed 3DDFB with the Laplacian pyramid. The 3DDFB has a redundancy factor of 3 and the surfacelet transform has a redundancy factor up to 24/7.

Lu, Yue; Do, Minh N.

2005-08-01

119

A Kalman filter based on wavelet filter-bank and psychoacoustic modeling for speech enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a subband adaptive filter based on wavelet filter-bank for speech enhancement. The adaptation of Kalman filter in wavelet domain has effectively reduced the non-stationary noise. A perceptual weighting filter exploiting the masking properties of psychoacoustic model is concatenated with the Kalman filter to further improve the intelligibility of speech. The proposed method owns its merits from the

Yu Shao; Chip-hong Chang

2006-01-01

120

A 100MHz 64-tap FIR digital filter in 0.8-?m BiCMOS gate array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 64-tap FIR (finite impulse response) digital filter that has been designed using a newly developed filter compiler and fabricated in a 0.8-?m triple-level interconnect BiCMOS gate array technology is presented. The filter has been tested and is fully functional at a 100-MHz clock rate. These results are obtained by combining an optimized architecture and gate array floorplan with submicrometer

T. Yoshino; R. Jain; P. T. Yang; H. Davis; W. Gass; A. H. Shah

1990-01-01

121

A filter bank-based source extraction algorithm for heart sound removal in respiratory sounds.  

PubMed

In this paper, we consider the problem of heart sounds (HS) removal from respiratory sounds (RS), and a novel semi-blind single-channel source extraction algorithm is proposed. The proposed method is able to extract the underlying pure RS from the HS corrupted noisy input signals by incorporating the filter banks and template-based matching using FIR filters. For performance evaluation of the presented method, the average power spectral densities (PSD) of the input RS segments without HS have been compared with the PSD of the reconstructed signals over six selected frequency bands from 20 to 800Hz. The proposed method is tested for various types of RS recordings and found effective by yielding an overall maximum spectral difference of 2.8707+/-0.9875dB for a frequency range below 800Hz. PMID:19596272

Jin, F; Sattar, F; Goh, D Y T

2009-07-10

122

On two-channel filter banks with directional vanishing moments.  

PubMed

The contourlet transform was proposed to address the limited directional resolution of the separable wavelet transform. One way to guarantee good approximation behavior is to let the directional filters in the contourlet filter bank have sharp frequency response. This requires filters with large support size. We seek to isolate the key filter property that ensures good approximation. In this direction, we propose filters with directional vanishing moments (DVM). These filters, we show, annihilate information along a given direction. We study two-channel filter banks with DVM filters. We provide conditions under which the design of DVM filter banks is possible. A complete characterization of the product filter is, thus, obtained. We propose a design framework that avoids 2-D factorization using the mapping technique. The filters designed, when used in the contourlet transform, exhibit nonlinear approximation comparable to the conventional filters while being shorter and, therefore, providing better visual quality with less ringing artifacts. Furthermore, experiments show that the proposed filters outperform the conventional ones in image approximation and denoising. PMID:17491453

da Cunha, Arthur L; Do, Minh N

2007-05-01

123

Optimum Low Cost Two Channel IIR Orthonormal Filter Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we statistically optimize a well known class of IIR two channel orthonormal filter banks parameterized by a single coefficient when subband quantizers are present. The optimization procedure is extremely simple and very fast compared for ex...

J. Tuqan P. P. Vaidyanathan

1997-01-01

124

Generalized symmetric extension for size-limited multirate filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multirate (MR) filter bank is called size-limited if the total number of output samples equals the number of input samples. A method called symmetric extension improved performance in subband image compression systems compared to the earlier method of circular convolution. However, the symmetric extension method was developed only for two-band uniform filter banks, and required even-length linear phase analysis

Roberto H. Bamberger; Steven L. Eddins; Veyis Nuri

1994-01-01

125

THE APPLICATION OF MULTIWAVELET FILTER BANKS TO IMAGE PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiwavelets are a new addition to the body of wavelet theory. Realizable as matrix-valued filter banks leading to wavelet bases, multiwavelets offer simultaneous orthogonality, symmetry, and short support, which is not possible with scalar 2-channel wavelet systems. After reviewing this recently developed theory, we examine the use of multiwavelets in a filter bank setting for discrete-time sig- nal and image

V. Strela; P. N. Heller; G. Strang; P. Topiwala; C. Heil

1995-01-01

126

Time-domain filter bank analysis: a new design theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a new time-domain approach for the analysis and design of a broad class of general analysis\\/synthesis systems based on M-band filter banks. They derive a set of time-domain conditions for reconstruction which can be used directly in a filter bank design procedure. The general and unrestricted nature of this framework allows for the design of many useful

Kambiz Nayebi; Thomas P. Barnwell; Mark J. T. Smith

1992-01-01

127

An optimum design of linear phase FIR filters by the generalized Brain-State-in-a-Box neural network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we used a neural network model to find, an optimum design for a linear phase FIR digital filters coefficients. We used GBSB neural network model. The GBSB can guarantee convergence to an equilibrium point of the Lyapunov energy function as well as the fast computational speed. We utilized WLS error function to formulate an energy function of

S. Abbas Hosseini; Fardad Farokhi

2009-01-01

128

Causal Wiener filter banks for periodically correlated time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

A causal filter bank implementation of the cyclic Wiener filter for periodically correlated (PC) time series is developed. By converting a PC time series into a vector-valued wide-sense stationary (WSS) time series, the existing literature on factorization of spectral density matrices may be utilized. However, because PC analytic and equivalent baseband signals are generally complex improper, spectral factorization algorithms must

Mark S. Spurbeck; Peter J. Schreier

2007-01-01

129

FILTER BANK MULTITONE: A PHYSICAL LAYER CANDIDATE FOR COGNITIVE RADIOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two muticarrier methods called filtered multitone (FMT) and cosine modulated multitone (CMT) are presented as physical layer protocols for cognitive radio networks. We compare FMT and CMT to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFMD), and show that both FMT and CMT offer higher spectral efficiency. Furthermore, we show that the filter banks in the receiver front-end can also used for channel

Peiman Amini; Roland Kempter; Rong Rong Chen; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

130

Non-uniform multirate filter banks: theory and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonuniform, maximally decimated quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank is introduced. It permits the use of nonuniform filter responses, which is more suitable for some applications. A necessary condition for alias cancellation is derived for the case where all the decimation factors are integer-valued. A special case of the two-channel nonuniform AMF system with nonintegral decimation factors is analyzed, and

Phuong-Quan Hoang; P. P. Vaidyanathan

1989-01-01

131

A new local search method to design finite precision FIR filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new local search method for the design of FIR filters with low complexity finite precision coefficients based on the optimality criterion of peak constrained least squares. In order to improve search efficient and reduce invalid search steps, the proposed method adjusts the coefficient offsetting strategy conditionally and utilizes the geometric properties of the object function ?(h) that describes a hyper-ellipse. If the search point is inside ?(h) , it is selected, so the search trapped in an infeasible region is avoided. The tradeoff between coefficient complexity and PSR is got. Numerical experiments show that the proposed method holds better performance than the existed methods in terms of the search efficiency.

Zeng, Yi-Cheng; Li, Shu-Hua; Xu, Mao-Lin

2008-10-01

132

Nonuniform directional filter banks with arbitrary frequency partitioning.  

PubMed

Directional filter banks (DFBs) are highly desired in directional representation of images. In this correspondence, we propose a 2-D nonsubsampled nonuniform directional filter bank (NUDFB) and its design method. The proposed NUDFB has nonuniform wedge-shaped subbands and allows arbitrary frequency partitioning schemes. It can extract directional information according to the directional distribution of images. This attractive advantage cannot be achieved by the existing directional transforms. The design method of the proposed NUDFB is based upon the pseudopolar Fourier transform. By utilizing the geometry property of the pseudopolar grid, we employ a 1-D nonsubsampled nonuniform filter bank to obtain a set of nonuniform wedge-shaped subbands. During the design process, only 1-D operations are involved and, thus, the difficulty encountered in the design of 2-D fan filters is avoided. To demonstrate the potential of the proposed NUDFB, an example on image directional decomposition is given. PMID:20529743

Liang, Lili; Shi, Guangming; Xie, Xuemei

2010-06-07

133

HTS-based switched filter banks and delay lines  

SciTech Connect

For a number of communications and other applications, switched filter banks (some channelizers) and switched delay lines (phase shifters) are extremely useful since YBaCuO and TlCaBaCuO filters and delay lines have shown significant performance enhancements over their conventional counterparts, a purely superconducting version of the switched assemblies could result in additional improvements. A thermal switch has been developed that provides good isolation and insertion loss with adequate switching times to allow a monolithic approach to the switched lines and filter banks. Filter banks in the 8--11 GHz range have been demonstrated with insertion losses < 1 dB and out-of-band rejection greater than a package-limited 50 dB. Switched delay lines have been fabricated with insertion losses less than 0.3 dB/bit and peak phase deviations from linearity of less than 5 degrees over 30 GHz bandwidths.

Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Ginley, D.S.; Tigges, C.P.; Plut, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Truman, J.K. [CVC Products, Inc., Rochester, NY (United States); Track, E.K. [Hypres, Inc., Elmsford, NY (United States); Young, K.H.; Young, R.T. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

1992-09-01

134

HTS-based switched filter banks and delay lines  

SciTech Connect

For a number of communications and other applications, switched filter banks (some channelizers) and switched delay lines (phase shifters) are extremely useful since YBaCuO and TlCaBaCuO filters and delay lines have shown significant performance enhancements over their conventional counterparts, a purely superconducting version of the switched assemblies could result in additional improvements. A thermal switch has been developed that provides good isolation and insertion loss with adequate switching times to allow a monolithic approach to the switched lines and filter banks. Filter banks in the 8--11 GHz range have been demonstrated with insertion losses < 1 dB and out-of-band rejection greater than a package-limited 50 dB. Switched delay lines have been fabricated with insertion losses less than 0.3 dB/bit and peak phase deviations from linearity of less than 5 degrees over 30 GHz bandwidths.

Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Ginley, D.S.; Tigges, C.P.; Plut, T.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Truman, J.K. (CVC Products, Inc., Rochester, NY (United States)); Track, E.K. (Hypres, Inc., Elmsford, NY (United States)); Young, K.H.; Young, R.T. (Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (United States))

1992-01-01

135

HTS-based switched filter banks and delay lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For communications and a number of other applications, switched filter banks (some channelizers) and switched delay lines (phase shifters) are extremely useful since YBaCuO and TlCaBaCuO filters and delay lines have shown significant performance enhancements over their conventional counterparts. A purely superconducting version of the switched assemblies could result in additional improvements. A thermal switch was developed that provides good isolation and insertion loss with adequate switching times to allow a monolithic approach to the switched lines and filter banks. Filter banks in the 8-11 GHz range were demonstrated with insertion losses less than 1 dB and out-of-band rejection greater than a package-limited 50 dB. Switched delay lines were fabricated with insertion losses less than 0.3 dB/bit and peak phase deviations from linearity of less than 5 degrees over 30 GHz bandwidths.

Martens, J. S.; Hietala, V. M.; Ginley, D. S.; Tigges, C. P.; Plut, T. A.; Truman, J. K.; Track, E. K.

136

Frequency response masking approach for designing filter banks with rational sampling factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general structure for two-bank filter banks with rational sampling factors is proposed. Several design cases are examined to illustrate the feasibility of our approach. To achieve high precision as well as reduce the implementation cost, the rational filter banks are integrated with a frequency response masking technique. Comparison with M-stage octave filter banks based on audio spectral separation is

Ching-Shun Lin; Chris Kyriakakis

2003-01-01

137

On the effects of varying filter bank parameters on isolated word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of commercially available isolated word recognizers use a filter bank analysis as the front end processing for recognition. It is not well understood how the parameters of different filter banks (e.g., number of filters, types of filters, filter spacing, etc.) affect recognizer performance. In this paper we present results of performance evaluation of several types of filter

BRUCE A. DAUTRICH; LAWRENCE R. RABINER; THOMAS B. MARTIN

1983-01-01

138

Analysis and Design of Offset QPSK Using Redundant Filter Banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the analysis and design of OQPSK digital modulation. We first establish the discrete time formulation, which allows us to find the equivalent redundant filter banks. It is well known that redundant filter banks are related with redundant transformation of the Frame theory. According to the Frame theory, the redundant transformations and corresponding representations are not unique. In this way, we show that the solution to the pulse shaping problem is not unique. Then we use this property to minimize the effect of the channel noise in the reconstructed symbol stream. We evaluate the performance of the digital communication using numerical examples.

Fernandez-Vazquez, Alfonso; Jovanovic-Dolecek, Gordana

2013-02-01

139

Computational Structures of Multirate Filter Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have created new tools for (1) Developing a formalism in terms of shift and stride permutation operators and scalable tensor product kernels for modeling complex networks of multirate filter systems and an algebra for automatic manipulation of fundamen...

R. Tolimieri

1995-01-01

140

Applications of nonmaximally decimated multirate filter banks in intersymbol interference cancellation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study applications of nonmaximally decimated multirate filterbanks (NMDMF) in a communication channel with intersymbol interference (ISI), where the ISI transfer function may not have inverses, such as frequency- selective fading channels. The NMDMF plays the preprocessing role. We present a necessary and sufficient condition on an FIR ISI transfer function in terms of its zero set such that an FIR NMDMF with N channels and decimation by K, 0 < K < N, for the encoder exists so that the decoder is able to recover the original signal with an FIR synthesis system, where the integers K and N are arbitrarily fixed. The condition is easy to check and satisfy. In addition to the conditions on the channel transfer functions, the practical design of the FIR NMDMF precoders and their FIR synthesis banks for the reconstruction is also given. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the theory.

Xia, Xiang-Gen

1996-10-01

141

Parallel Digital Modem Using Multirate Digital Filter Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new class of architectures for an all-digital modem is presented in this report. This architecture, referred to as the parallel receiver (PRX), is based on employing multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to demodulate, track, and detect the received sy...

R. Sadr P. P. Vaidyanathan D. Raphaeli S. Hinedi

1994-01-01

142

Structures for Time-Reversed Inversion in Filter Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anticausal inversion of IIR transfer functions has gained importance in recent years, in the efficient implementation of IIR digital filter banks. In this paper we first introduce the idea of a causal dual, as an intermediate step in the implementation of...

P. P. Vaidyanathan T. Chen

1994-01-01

143

A new filter bank theory for time-frequency representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new formalism for the description of analysis\\/synthesis systems based on filter banks. Although this work was done in the context of speech coding systems, the results apply to a far broader class of problems. This new formalism has three specific advantages. First, it allows for the description of many different techniques and approaches with one unifying

M. Smith

1987-01-01

144

Nonuniform filter banks: a reconstruction and design theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general procedure for the design of analysis-synthesis systems based on nonuniform filter banks is described. The procedure is based on a time-domain analysis of nonuniform systems, which results in a set of conditions for the exact reconstruction of the input signal at the output. These conditions are used as part of a powerful iterative algorithm for designing finite impulse

Kambiz Nayebi; Mark J. T. Smith

1993-01-01

145

Noise reduction in oversampled filter banks using predictive quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce two methods for quantization noise reduction in oversampled filter banks. These methods are based on predictive quantization (noise shaping or linear prediction). It is demonstrated that oversampled noise shaping or linear predictive subband coders are well suited for subband coding applications where, for technological or other reasons, low-resolution quan- tizers have to be used. In this case, oversampling

Helmut Bölcskei; Franz Hlawatsch

2001-01-01

146

Rotation invariant texture classification based on a directional filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a rotation invariant texture classification method using a special directional filter bank (DFB). The new method extracts a set of coefficient vectors from the directional subband domain, and models them with multivariate Gaussian density. Eigen-analysis is then applied to the covariance metrics of these density functions to form rotation invariant feature vectors. Classification is based on the

Rong Duan; Hong Man; Ling Chen

2004-01-01

147

Boundary Filters for Finite-Length Signals and Time-Varying Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the question of how to construct time-varying filter banks in the mostgeneral M -channel non-orthogonal case. We show that by associating with both analysisand synthesis operators a set of boundary filters, it is possible to make the analysisstructure vary arbitrarily in time, and yet reconstruct the input with a similarly timevaryingsynthesis section. There is no redundancy or distortion

Cormac Herley

1994-01-01

148

Frequency response masking based design of two-channel FIR filterbanks with rational sampling factors and reduced implementation complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that the implementation complexity of a two-channel filterbank (FB) with rational sampling factors can be reduced by exploiting the frequency-response masking approach (FRM) technique for designing finite-impulse response (FIR) building-block filters in this bank compared with the use of direct-form FIR filters. This paper shows that by designing FRM filters building the FB in such a

Robert Bregovi?; Yong Ching Lim; Tapio Saramäki

2005-01-01

149

Low Power Realization and Synthesis of Higher-Order FIR Filters Using an Improved Common Subexpression Elimination Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters is mainly dominated by the number of adders (subtractors) used to implement the coefficient multipliers. It is well known that Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) method based on Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) representation considerably reduces the number of adders in coefficient multipliers. Recently, a binary-based CSE (BSE) technique was proposed, which produced better reduction of adders compared to the CSD-based CSE. In this paper, we propose a new 4-bit binary representation-based CSE (BCSE-4) method which employs 4-bit Common Subexpressions (CSs) for implementing higher order low-power FIR filters. The proposed BCSE-4 offers better reduction of adders by eliminating the redundant 4-bit CSs that exist in the binary representation of filter coefficients. The reduction of adders is achieved with a small increase in critical path length of filter coefficient multipliers. Design examples show that our BCSE-4 gives an average power consumption reduction of 5.2% and 6.1% over the best known CSE method (BSE, NR-SCSE) respectively, when synthesized with TSMC-0.18µm technology. We show that our BCSE-4 offers an overall adder reduction of 6.5% compared to BSE without any increase in critical path length of filter coefficient multipliers.

Smitha, K. G.; Vinod, A. P.

150

Electroencephalographic compression based on modulated filter banks and wavelet transform.  

PubMed

Due to the large volume of information generated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) study, compression is needed for storage, processing or transmission for analysis. In this paper we evaluate and compare two lossy compression techniques applied to EEG signals. It compares the performance of compression schemes with decomposition by filter banks or wavelet Packets transformation, seeking the best value for compression, best quality and more efficient real time implementation. Due to specific properties of EEG signals, we propose a quantization stage adapted to the dynamic range of each band, looking for higher quality. The results show that the compressor with filter bank performs better than transform methods. Quantization adapted to the dynamic range significantly enhances the quality. PMID:22255966

Bazán-Prieto, Carlos; Cárdenas-Barrera, Julián; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando

2011-01-01

151

Principal component filter banks for optimal multiresolution analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important issue in multiresolution analysis is that of optimal basis selection. An optimal P-band perfect reconstruction filter bank (PRFB) is derived in this paper, which minimizes the approximation error (in the mean-square sense) between the original signal and its low-resolution version. The resulting PRFB decomposes the input signal into uncorrelated, low-resolution principal components with decreasing variance. Optimality issues are

Michail K. Tsatsanis; Georgios B. Giannakis

1995-01-01

152

Vector-valued wavelets and vector filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce vector-valued multiresolution analysis and vector-valued wavelets for vector-valued signal spaces. We construct vector-valued wavelets by using paraunitary vector filter bank theory. In particular, we construct vector-valued Meyer wavelets that are band-limited. We classify and construct vector-valued wavelets with sampling property. As an application of vector-valued wavelets, multiwavelets can be constructed from vector-valued wavelets. We show

Xiang-Gen Xia; B. W. Suter

1996-01-01

153

Classification of Nonexpansive Symmetric Extension Transforms for Multirate Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and classifies a family of invertible discrete-time signal transforms, referred to assymmetric extension transforms(SET's), for finite-length signals. SET's are algorithms for applying perfect reconstruction multirate filter banks to symmetric extensions of finite-length signals, thereby avoiding the boundary artifacts introduced by simple periodic extension. A key point is when such symmetric decompositions can be formed with no increase

Christopher M. Brislawn

1996-01-01

154

A compound primitive operator approach to the realisation of video sub-band filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new video subband filtering architecture appropriate for VLSI implementation is presented. The system employs a reduced complexity multiply-accumulate structure realized using an extension to the primitive operator graph synthesis technique. This, in conjunction with a data multiplexing regime which implements a two channel quadrature mirror filter on a single finite impulse response (FIR) structure, has facilitated the fabrication of

David R. Bull; G. Wacey; J. J. Stone; J. M. Soloff

1993-01-01

155

A new design algorithm for two-band orthonormal rational filter banks and orthonormal rational wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new algorithm for the design of orthonormal two-band rational filter banks. Owing to the connection between iterated rational filter banks and rational wavelets, this is also a design algorithm for orthonormal rational wavelets. It is basically a simple iterative procedure, which explains its exponential convergence and adaptability under various linear constraints (e,g., regularity). Although the filters obtained

Thierry Blu

1998-01-01

156

A filter bank for the directional decomposition of images: theory and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors introduce a directionally oriented 2-D filter bank with the property that the individual channels may be critically sampled without loss of information. The passband regions of the component filters are wedge-shaped and thus provide directional information. It is shown that these filter bank outputs may be maximally decimated to achieve a minimum sample representation in a way that

Roberto H. Bamberger; Mark J. T. Smith

1992-01-01

157

8 channel and 32 channel low loss switchable SAW filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and testing of 8 channels and 32 channels low loss switchable SAW filter bank is described. Both input and output switches are used instead of input interconnection network and output switch to decrease the insertion loss of input interconnection network. In order to decrease the insertion loss, the individual filters used in 8 channels filter bank consists of

Shitang He; Honglang Li; Wen Wang; Shunzhou Li; Yong Liang

2003-01-01

158

Symmetric extension for lifted filter banks and obstructions to reversible implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Symmetric pre-extension is a standard approach to boundary handling for finite-length in- put vectors with linear phase filter banks. It works with both conventional linear imple- mentations and so-called reversible, or integer-to-integer, implementations of odd-length linear phase (whole-sample symmetric) filter banks. In comparison, significant di culties arise when using symmetric,pre-extension on reversible filter banks with even-length (half- sample symmetric)

Brendt Wohlberg; Christopher M. Brislawn

2008-01-01

159

A 150-mhz 43-tap Half-band Fir Digital Filter In 1.2-?m Cmos Generated By Silicon Compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 43-tap half-band FIR digital filter generated by a silicon compiler in 1.2-pm CMOS is described. The multiplierless fixed-coefficient filter has a folded transpose direct-form structure, uses carry-save addition, pipelining, and a true single-phase clocking scheme. The 6.5 x 6.3-mm2, 66,000 transistor chip has been verified at 150 MHz with a power dissipation of 2.0 W.

Joe Laskowski; Henry Samueli

1992-01-01

160

Use of finite wordlength FIR digital filter structures with improved magnitude and phase characteristics for reduction of muscle noise in EEG signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main disturbances in EEG signals is EMG artefacts generated by muscle movements. In the paper, the use of a linear\\u000a phase FIR digital low-pass filter with finite wordlength precision coefficients is proposed, designed using the compensation\\u000a procedure, to minimise EMG artefacts in contaminated EEG signals. To make the filtering more effective, different structures\\u000a are used, i.e. cascading,

P. K. Sadasivan; D. Narayana Dutt

1995-01-01

161

Broadband Beamforming of Focal Plane Array (FPA) Signals Using Real-Time Spatio-Temporal 3D FIR Frustum Digital Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time spatio-temporal (ST) 3D FIR Frustum filter is proposed for improving the SNR of broadband focal plane array (FPA) signals. The 3D stop band of the proposed filter attenuates non-reflected off-dish signals, such as radio frequency interference (RFI), and also attenuates noise due to local thermal sources(e.g.,ground)aswellasreceivernoise.Thefrustum-shaped 3D pass band transmits, with low distortion, desired broadband reflected celestial signals,

Thushara K. Gunaratne; Len Bruton; Pan Agathoklis

2011-01-01

162

A new transient model for three-phase power transformers using a wavelet filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for three-phase power transformers for electromagnetic transient studies, which employs a wavelet filter bank. In this model, both the primary and the secondary windings are represented by stages of a wavelet filter bank, where each turn is represented by one complete stage. The sum of responses of all stages forms the transformer total response. Using

S. A. Saleh; M. A. Rahman

2005-01-01

163

On ladder structures and linear phase conditions for bi-orthogonal filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some results for multidimensional m-band bi-orthogonal filter banks are presented. In the first part of the paper the authors introduce the ladder structure as a method for the design and implementation of the aforementioned filter banks. The second part of the paper focuses upon enforcing linear phase (LP) conditions in the context of ladder structures. The formulation of the LP

Imran A. Shah; T. A. C. M. Kalker

1994-01-01

164

Design of multiplierless programmable linear phase narrowband-bandpass FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a design technique for narrowband multiplierless programmable linear phase bandpass filters as a tapped cascade of very low complexity multiplierless cascade integrator-comb (CIC) filters of E.B. Hogenauer (1981). The design is based in a frequency transformation technique discussed by S.N. Hazra (1984) which maps a lowpass prototype filter to a programmable bandpass filter and is

Kamakshi Sivaramakrishnan; Ivan R. Linscott; Leonard G. Tyler

2004-01-01

165

A simultaneous coefficient calculation method for sincN FIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel simultaneous coefficient calculation method for sincN filter and its application to the filter design are described. This method can be applied to any (N) stages of sincN filters with no degradation of coefficient accuracy. Every coefficient can be calculated by Nth-order multiple-loop accumulation of N-scaled delayed impulses. The coefficient can be obtained every clock or operation cycle because

Mikio Shiraishi

2003-01-01

166

An Efficient Implementation of the Patterson-Holdsworth Auditory Filter Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes an implementation of a cochlear model proposed by Roy Patterson[Patterson1992]. Like a previous report [Slaney1988], this document is an electronic notebookwritten using a software package called Mathematica^TM [Wolfram 1988].This report describes the filter bank and its implementation. The filter bank is designed as a set ofparallel bandpass filters, each tuned to a different frequency. This report extends

Malcolm Slaney

1993-01-01

167

Multidimensional multirate filters and filter banks derived from one-dimensional filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method by which every multidimensional (M-D) filter with an arbitrary parallelepiped-shaped passband support can be designed and implemented efficiently is presented. It is shown that all such filters can be designed starting from an appropriate one-dimensional prototype filter and performing a simple transformation. With D denoting the number of dimensions, the complexity of design and implementation of the M-D

Tsuhan Chen; P. P. Vaidyanathan

1993-01-01

168

FIR filter synthesis algorithms for minimizing the delay and the number of adders  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the complexity of digital filters is dominated by the number of multiplications, many works have focused on minimizing the complexity of multiplier blocks that compute the constant coefficient multiplications required in filters. Although the complexity of multiplier blocks is significantly reduced by using efficient techniques such as decomposing multiplications into simple operations and sharing common subexpressions, previous works have

Hyeong-Ju Kang; In-Cheol Park

2001-01-01

169

FIR filter synthesis algorithms for minimizing the delay and the number of adders  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the complexity of digital filters is dominated by the number of multiplications, many works have focused on minimizing the complexity of multiplier blocks that compute the constant coefficient multiplications required in filters. Although the complexity of multiplier blocks is significantly reduced by using efficient techniques such as decomposing multiplications into simple operations and sharing common subexpressions, previous works have

Hyeong-Ju Kang; Hansoo Kim; In-Cheol Park

2000-01-01

170

An analytical formula for the design of quadrature mirror filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadrature mirror filters have an outstanding relevance in the implementation of filter banks for dividing the speech signal into frequency bands and for reconstructing it from these subbands. An analytical formula is given, which allows one to optimize the design of the basic low-pass FIR filter by means of a straight nonlinear minimization procedure.

GIANCARLO PIRANI; VALERIO ZINGARELLI

1984-01-01

171

Use of minimum-adder multiplier blocks in FIR digital filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational complexity of VLSI digital filters using fixed point binary multiplier coefficients is normally dominated by the number of adders used in the implementation of the multipliers. It has been shown that using multiplier blocks to exploit redundancy across the coefficients results in significant reductions in complexity over methods using canonic signed-digit (CSD) representation, which in turn are less

Andrew G. Dempster; M. D. Macleod

1995-01-01

172

Modeling, analysis, and optimum design of quantized M-band filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a rigorous modeling and analysis of quantization effects in M-band subband codecs, followed by optimal filter bank design and compensation. The codec is represented by a polyphase decomposition of the analysis\\/synthesis filter banks and an embedded nonlinear gain-plus-additive noise model for the pdf-optimized scalar quantizers. We construct an equivalent time-invariant but nonlinear structure operating at the slow

Richard A. Haddad

1995-01-01

173

On the Construction of Invertible Filter Banks on the 2-Sphere  

PubMed Central

The theories of signal sampling, filter banks, wavelets, and “overcomplete wavelets” are well established for the Euclidean spaces and are widely used in the processing and analysis of images. While recent advances have extended some filtering methods to spherical images, many key challenges remain. In this paper, we develop theoretical conditions for the invertibility of filter banks under continuous spherical convolution. Furthermore, we present an analogue of the Papoulis generalized sampling theorem on the 2-Sphere. We use the theoretical results to establish a general framework for the design of invertible filter banks on the sphere and demonstrate the approach with examples of self-invertible spherical wavelets and steerable pyramids. We conclude by examining the use of a self-invertible spherical steerable pyramid in a denoising experiment and discussing the computational complexity of the filtering framework.

Yeo, Boon Thye Thomas; Ou, Wanmei; Golland, Polina

2009-01-01

174

On the construction of invertible filter banks on the 2-sphere.  

PubMed

The theories of signal sampling, filter banks, wavelets, and "overcomplete wavelets" are well established for the Euclidean spaces and are widely used in the processing and analysis of images. While recent advances have extended some filtering methods to spherical images, many key challenges remain. In this paper, we develop theoretical conditions for the invertibility of filter banks under continuous spherical convolution. Furthermore, we present an analogue of the Papoulis generalized sampling theorem on the 2-Sphere. We use the theoretical results to establish a general framework for the design of invertible filter banks on the sphere and demonstrate the approach with examples of self-invertible spherical wavelets and steerable pyramids. We conclude by examining the use of a self-invertible spherical steerable pyramid in a denoising experiment and discussing the computational complexity of the filtering framework. PMID:18270119

Yeo, Boon Thye Thomas; Ou, Wanmei; Golland, Polina

2008-03-01

175

Reduction of coding artifacts in subband coders using adaptive filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with still image subband coding with adaptive filter banks. Based on an analysis of distortions in coders with fixed filter banks with different characteristics, the scheme with spatially adaptive filter banks is developed. The main objective is to construct a subband coder in which both ringing noise and blocking artifacts are reduced. With respect to local image characteristics, suitable filter responses are selected to achieve this aim. The selection is based on measuring of edge business and edge orientation. A second objective is to reduce border distortions caused by the circular extension method by employing filters with short unit pulse responses in the border regions. It turns out that subband coding with adaptive filter banks in combination with an optimum filter selection strategy achieves a good trade-off between ringing noise and blocking effects. We conclude that the presented scheme for automatic filter selection works well for a large class of images with reasonably high contrast. For 'smooth-looking' images further work to improve the robustness of the algorithm is needed. The use of adaptive filtering in the image border regions solves--to some extent--the distortion problems encountered when using the circular extension method.

Bever, Max; Husoy, John H.; Aase, Sven O.; Ramstad, Tor A.

1993-10-01

176

Multiple-model adaptive estimation using a residual correlation Kalman filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a modified multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) algorithm that uses the time correlation of the Kalman filter residuals, in place of their scaled magnitude, to assign conditional probabilities for each of the modeled hypotheses. This modified algorithm, denoted the residual correlation Kalman filter bank (RCKFB), uses the magnitude of an estimate of the correlation of the residual with

PETER D. HANLON; PETER S. MAYBECK

2000-01-01

177

A simple method to build oversampled filter banks and tight frames.  

PubMed

This paper presents conditions under which the sampling lattice for a filter bank can be replaced without loss of perfect reconstruction. This is the generalization of common knowledge that removing up/downsampling will not lose perfect reconstruction. The results provide a simple way of building oversampled filter banks. If the original filter banks are orthogonal, these oversampled banks construct tight frames of l2 (Z(n)) when iterated. As an example, a quincunx lattice is used to replace the rectangular one of the standard wavelet transform. This replacement leads to a tight frame that has a higher sampling in both time and frequency. The frame transform is nearly shift invariant and has intermediate scales. An application of the transform to image fusion is also presented. PMID:17990745

Yang, Bo; Jing, Zhongliang

2007-11-01

178

Optimal filter banks for signal reconstruction from noisy subband components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional design techniques for analysis and synthesis filters in subband processing applications guarantee perfect reconstruction of the original signal from its subband components. The resulting filters, however, lose their optimality when additive noise due, for example, to signal quantization, disturbs the subband sequences. We propose filter design techniques that minimize the reconstruction mean squared error (MSE) taking into account the

A. N. Delopoulos; S. D. Kollias

1996-01-01

179

Frequency sampling filters, design and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear programming method of reduced complexity is developed for the design of FIR frequency sampling digital filters. The frequency sampling method can be used directly in the frequency domain when implementing filtering by fast convolution using discrete Fourier transforms. For narrowband filters or filter banks, methods are shown which significantly reduce the required multiplication operations per data point in filter implementations. A general result is presented on the problem of finding the zeros of the transfer function of an FIR filter. This problem arises when it is necessary to convert a linear phase digital filter design into a minimum phase design. It also arises if it is desired to implement a high order filter by the cascading of a number of low order filters. A method is developed for the computation of the zeros of filters which have been designed by the frequency sampling technique. For such designs the locations of all zeros on the unit circle are known.

Aliphas, A.

180

Device architecture and precision nanofabrication of microring-resonator filter banks for integrated photonic systems.  

PubMed

To achieve the maximum benefit of electronic-photonic integrated circuits wavelength-division multiplexing must be used. This requires the design and fabrication of a highly integratable photonic device, capable of performing multiplexing/demultiplexing operations with low loss and minimal crosstalk. A filter bank consisting of high-index-contrast microring-resonator filters, with accurately spaced resonant frequencies can meet these requirements. This paper describes the basic architecture of microring-resonator filter banks, and how to maximize performance while keeping fabrication challenges reasonable. The greatest challenge in fabricating such devices is achieving the dimensional precision, on the scale of tens of picometers, needed to attain accurately spaced resonant frequencies. To do this, a fabrication method based on varying the electron-beam dose during scanning-electron beam lithography is used. This approach is used to create a dual twenty-channel filter bank, comprised of second-order silicon-rich silicon nitride microring resonators. The average resonant frequency spacing is off from the target spacing by only 3 GHz, corresponding to a dimensional precision of 75 pm. This approach is also shown to be compatible with the fabrication process for silicon microring resonators. Furthermore, it is shown that any remaining resonant frequency errors can be corrected with postfabrication thermal tuning. Also, a method of using the contra-propagating mode of a microring-resonator filter is demonstrated, enabling a single filter bank to multiplex/demultiplex two signals at the same time. PMID:20355625

Holzwarth, Charles W; Khilo, Anatoly; Dahlem, Marcus; Popovic, Milos A; Kärtner, Franz X; Ippen, Eric P; Smith, Henry I

2010-03-01

181

Lattice structure for generalized-support multidimensional linear phase perfect reconstruction filter bank.  

PubMed

Multidimensional linear phase perfect reconstruction filter bank (MDLPPRFB) can be designed and implemented via lattice structure. The lattice structure for the MDLPPRFB with filter support N(M?) has been published by Muramatsu , where M is the decimation matrix, ? is a positive integer diagonal matrix, and N(N) denotes the set of integer vectors in the fundamental parallelepiped of the matrix N. Obviously, if ? is chosen to be other positive diagonal matrices instead of only positive integer ones, the corresponding lattice structure would provide more choices of filter banks, offering better trade-off between filter support and filter performance. We call such resulted filter bank as generalized-support MDLPPRFB (GSMDLPPRFB). The lattice structure for GSMDLPPRFB, however, cannot be designed by simply generalizing the process that Muramatsu employed. Furthermore, the related theories to assist the design also become different from those used by Muramatsu . Such issues will be addressed in this paper. To guide the design of GSMDLPPRFB, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for a generalized-support multidimensional filter bank to be linear-phase. To determine the cases we can find a GSMDLPPRFB, the necessary conditions about the existence of it are proposed to be related with filter support and symmetry polarity (i.e., the number of symmetric filters ns and antisymmetric filters na). Based on a process (different from the one Muramatsu used) that combines several polyphase matrices to construct the starting block, one of the core building blocks of lattice structure, the lattice structure for GSMDLPPRFB is developed and shown to be minimal. Additionally, the result in this paper includes Muramatsu's as a special case. PMID:23974625

Gao, Xieping; Li, Bodong; Xiao, Fen

2013-08-21

182

Design of gain-optimized perfect reconstruction regular lattice filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers perfect reconstruction lattice filter banks. When optimizing for coding gain the purpose is to find a simple perfect reconstruction structure with few multiplication and reasonable gain. We present such a system which also possesses a certain regularity when expanding from N to 2N channels. Results including both obtained gain and the number of filter multiplications and filter magnitude responses are presented. The results show that the system gives strange filter responses, but good coding gain considering the number of multiplications.

Waldemar, Patrick; Ramstad, Tor A.

1994-09-01

183

A new family of nonredundant transforms using hybrid wavelets and directional filter banks.  

PubMed

We propose a new family of nonredundant geometrical image transforms that are based on wavelets and directional filter banks. We convert the wavelet basis functions in the finest scales to a flexible and rich set of directional basis elements by employing directional filter banks, where we form a nonredundant transform family, which exhibits both directional and nondirectional basis functions. We demonstrate the potential of the proposed transforms using nonlinear approximation. In addition, we employ the proposed family in two key image processing applications, image coding and denoising, and show its efficiency for these applications. PMID:17405445

Eslami, Ramin; Radha, Hayder

2007-04-01

184

Multiresolution image representation using combined 2-D and 1-D directional filter banks.  

PubMed

In this paper, effective multiresolution image representations using a combination of 2-D filter bank (FB) and directional wavelet transform (WT) are presented. The proposed methods yield simple implementation and low computation costs compared to previous 1-D and 2-D FB combinations or adaptive directional WT methods. Furthermore, they are nonredundant transforms and realize quad-tree like multiresolution representations. In applications on nonlinear approximation, image coding, and denoising, the proposed filter banks show visual quality improvements and have higher PSNR than the conventional separable WT or the contourlet. PMID:19095538

Tanaka, Yuichi; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q

2008-12-16

185

Optical correlator based pose estimation using a bank of filters and a pose search algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pose search algorithm is used in conjunction with a bank of binary phase only filters (BPOF's) to determine the pose of a craft in a docking scenario. This approach is facilitated by the use of a high speed spatial light modulator (SLM) capable of operating at ~ 4 kHz integrated into a VanderLugt type optical correlator. The filters are generated using images created from a 3D model of a craft and 3D animation software. The pose estimation is calculated using a computer interfaced to the optical correlator via a Matlab developed algorithm that captures the image frame and performs a series of correlations from a subset of filters selected by the algorithm from the filter bank.

Outerbridge, John; Gregory, Don A.

2007-04-01

186

Special design considerations for filter banks in arc furnace installations  

SciTech Connect

The application of high voltage harmonic filter circuits in power systems has increased rapidly over the past decade. This trend has been driven by the increased use of power electronic switching devices in transmission and industrial power systems and electric arcing devices in industrial applications. Electric utilities supplying power to these systems have become increasingly sensitive about harmonics emanating from these loads. This has resulted in increasingly complex filter designs with multiple branches tuned at different frequencies in order to achieve a harmonic distortion level that will meet standardized requirements. This paper focuses on the switching surge duties imposed on capacitors and air-cored reactors which are used in single tuned filters at arc furnace installations. Switching surge studies are often necessary to fully rate these components. Rating guidelines are provided. An example compares conventional filter designs with designs in which switching surges are considered.

Dudley, R.F. [Trench Electric, Scarborough, Ontario (Canada); Fellers, C.L. [Cooper Power Systems, Greenwood, SC (United States); Bonner, J.A. [Cooper Power Systems, Franksville, WI (United States)

1997-01-01

187

LMI-based aircraft engine sensor fault diagnosis using a bank of robust H? filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a sensor diagnostic approach based on a bank of H? filters for aircraft gas turbine engines, taking into account real-time and anti-disturbance requirements to run on an aircraft on-board computer. First of all, by defining an H? performance index to describe the disturbance attenuation performance of a dynamic system, the robust H? filter design problem has been

Ai He; Daoliang Tan; Xi Wang; Xiangxing Kong

2010-01-01

188

Harmonic Filter Analysis and Redesign for a Modern Steel Facility with Two Melt Furnaces Using Dedicated Capacitor Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This modern steel making facility relies on reactive compensation at the substation level in the form of harmonic filtering to support voltage for casting operations, and at the melt furnace level in the form of capacitor banks to support LMF operations. A history of harmonic filter failures at the substation, and intermittent capacitor unit failures at the melt furnace banks,

T. J. Dionise; V. Lorch

2006-01-01

189

Frame-Theory-Based Analysis and Design of Oversampled Filter Banks: Direct Computational Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the frames corresponding to oversampled filter banks (FBs). For this class of FB frames, we present a state-space parameterization of perfect reconstruction FB frames and explicit and numerically efficient formulas to compute the tightest frame bounds, to obtain the dual FB frame, and to construct a tight (paraunitary) FB frame from a given untight (nonparaunitary) FB frame.

Li Chai; Jingxin Zhang; Cishen Zhang; Edoardo Mosca

2007-01-01

190

Application of Multirate Digital Filter Banks to Wideband All-Digital Phase-Locked Loops Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate th...

R. Sadr B. Shah S. Hinedi

1992-01-01

191

Multicarrier modulation with blind detection capability using cosine modulated filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB) is introduced as a multicarrier modulation (MCM) technique for wideband data transmission over wireless channels. Under the name discrete wavelet multitone modulation, CMFB has been considered for data transmission over digital subscriber lines. We propose a new receiver structure that is different from those proposed previously. The new structure simplifies the task of channel

Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

2003-01-01

192

Human facial expression recognition based on local MR8 filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression represents intelligence, and facial expression recognition is always an important research field in computer vision and artificial intelligence for a long time. In this paper, we present a method of facial expression recognition based on local MR8 filter bank. At first, human face is detected by YIQ color space and morphologic features. Secondly, we find eyes and lip

Shipeng Xie; Limin Luo

2010-01-01

193

Embedded video coding using invertible motion compensated 3-D subband\\/wavelet filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new embedded video coding system with local motion compensation. An invertible motion compensated 3-D subband filter bank is utilized for video analysis\\/synthesis. The efficient embedded image coding scheme EZBC is extended to 3-D coding of video subbands. The coded bitstream is rate scalable and fully embedded thus meeting the increasing need for fine granular

Shih-Ta Hsiang; John W. Woods

2001-01-01

194

A reconfigurable wavelet packet filter bank transceiver for spectral analysis and dynamic spectrum access  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reconfigurable wavelet packet transceiver for spectral analysis and dynamic spectrum access is proposed. The transceiver consists of a Wavelet Packet Spectral Estimator (WPSE) and a Wavelet Packet Multi-carrier Modulator (WPM) both of which are implemented using filter banks. The WPSE estimates the radio environment and identifies spectrum holes and occupied bands. This information is then used to shape the

M. K. Lakshmanan; D. D. Ariananda; H. Nikookar

2011-01-01

195

A Unified Approach to Fourier-Clifford-Prometheus Sequences, Transforms and Filter Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a new unified approach to the so-called generalized Fourier-Clifford-Prometheus sequences, transforms (FCPTs) and M-channel Filter Banks. It is based on a new generalized FCPT-generating construction. This construction has a rich algebraic structure that supports a wide range of fast algorithms.

Ekaterina L.-Rundblad; Valeriy Labunets; Ilya Nikitin

196

Wavelet filter banks in a local weather forecast system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall is one of the most important events in daily life of human beings. During several decades, scientists have been trying to characterize the weather, current forecasts are based on high complex dynamic models (ensembles). In this paper is presented a local rainfall forecast system based on wavelet Time Series analysis and of Neural Networks. After several year taking data, a subjective local model has been automated by this system in different stages. This work is focused to explain the wavelet filters (MOWDT and CWT). This filtering stage obtains the pressure waves at appropriate scales and trains the neural classifier. As a result it allows detecting the upcoming of warm and cold fronts.

Buendia-Buendía, Fulgencio; Andina, Diego; María Tarquis, Ana; Buendia, Gabriel

2013-04-01

197

Design of almost symmetric orthogonal wavelet filter bank via direct optimization.  

PubMed

It is a well-known fact that (compact-support) dyadic wavelets [based on the two channel filter banks (FBs)] cannot be simultaneously orthogonal and symmetric. Although orthogonal wavelets have the energy preservation property, biorthogonal wavelets are preferred in image processing applications because of their symmetric property. In this paper, a novel method is presented for the design of almost symmetric orthogonal wavelet FB. Orthogonality is structurally imposed by using the unnormalized lattice structure, and this leads to an objective function, which is relatively simple to optimize. The designed filters have good frequency response, flat group delay, almost symmetric filter coefficients, and symmetric wavelet function. PMID:22345542

Murugesan, Selvaraaju; Tay, David B H

2012-02-15

198

Multidimensional multichannel FIR deconvolution using Gröbner bases.  

PubMed

We present a new method for general multidimensional multichannel deconvolution with finite impulse response (FIR) convolution and deconvolution filters using Gröbner bases. Previous work formulates the problem of multichannel FIR deconvolution as the construction of a left inverse of the convolution matrix, which is solved by numerical linear algebra. However, this approach requires the prior information of the support of deconvolution filters. Using algebraic geometry and Gröbner bases, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of exact deconvolution FIR filters and propose simple algorithms to find these deconvolution filters. The main contribution of our work is to extend the previous Gröbner basis results on multidimensional multichannel deconvolution for polynomial or causal filters to general FIR filters. The proposed algorithms obtain a set of FIR deconvolution filters with a small number of nonzero coefficients (a desirable feature in the impulsive noise environment) and do not require the prior information of the support. Moreover, we provide a complete characterization of all exact deconvolution FIR filters, from which good FIR deconvolution filters under the additive white noise environment are found. Simulation results show that our approaches achieve good results under different noise settings. PMID:17022265

Zhou, Jianping; Do, Minh N

2006-10-01

199

Invertible temporal subband/wavelet filter banks with half-pixel-accurate motion compensation.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3-D) subband/wavelet coding with motion compensation has been demonstrated to be an efficient technique for video coding applications in some recent research works. When motion compensation is performed with half-pixel accuracy, images need to be interpolated in both temporal subband analysis and synthesis stages. The resulting subband filter banks developed in these former algorithms were not invertible due to image interpolation. In this paper, an invertible temporal analysis/synthesis system with half-pixel-accurate motion compensation is presented. We look at temporal decomposition of image sequences as a kind of down-conversion of the sampling lattices. The earlier motion-compensated (MC) interlaced/progressive scan conversion scheme is extended for temporal subband analysis/synthesis. The proposed subband/wavelet filter banks allow perfect reconstruction of the decomposed video signal while retaining high energy compaction of subband transforms. The invertible filter banks are then utilized in our 3-D subband video coder. This video coding system does not contain the temporal DPCM loop employed in the conventional hybrid coder and the earlier MC 3-D subband coders. The experimental results show a significant PSNR improvement by the proposed method. The generalization of our algorithm for MC temporal filtering at arbitrary subpixel accuracy is also discussed. PMID:15326844

Hsiang, Shih-Ta; Woods, John W; Ohm, Jens-Rainer

2004-08-01

200

Directional filter bank-based segmentation for improved evaluation of nondestructive evaluation images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a directional filter bank (DFB) for segmentation of NDE images containing directional information. The DFB is used to split an image into a desired number of sub-band images with each sub-band image containing features belonging only to a given angular range. The DFB is a two-channel decomposition employing the Quincunx sampling matrix and the diamond half band

Gokul Swamy; Krishnan Balasubramaniam

2007-01-01

201

A fast algorithm for the implementation of filter banks based on `time domain aliasing cancellation'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several data compression techniques are in competition for coding high-quality audio signals (sampling rate ⩾32 kHz) down to a 64 kb\\/s bit rate. The authors concentrate on the subband\\/transform coding scheme using filter banks known as time domain aliasing cancellation (TDAC). This scheme first involves a window on a set of N data, overlapping by N\\/2 with the previous one,

P. Duhamel; Y. Mahieux; J. P. Petit

1991-01-01

202

Recognition of Arabic (Indian) bank check digits using log-gabor filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a technique for the automatic recognition of Arabic (Indian) bank check digits based on features\\u000a extracted by using the Log Gabor filters. The digits are classified by using the K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Hidden Markov\\u000a Models (HMM) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers. An extensive experimentation is conducted on the CENPARMI data,\\u000a a database consisting of

Sabri A. Mahmoud; Wasfi G. Al-Khatib

203

Invertible temporal subband\\/wavelet filter banks with half-pixel-accurate motion compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3-D) subband\\/wavelet coding with motion compensation has been demonstrated to be an efficient technique for video coding applications in some recent research works. When motion compensation is performed with half-pixel accuracy, images need to be interpolated in both temporal subband analysis and synthesis stages. The resulting subband filter banks developed in these former algorithms were not invertible due to

Shih-ta Hsiang; John W. Woods; Jens-rainer Ohm

2004-01-01

204

FIR differentiators for quantized signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of quantization noise on a signal whose rate is to be estimated using a FIR differentiator is analyzed, concentrating on the important constant-rate case in order that the filter be optimized for systems with low-frequency rates of change. Formulae for the mean-squared error of the filter, the corresponding spectral characteristics, and general formulae governing the filter coefficients are

Richard C. Kavanagh

2001-01-01

205

Variable-length lapped transforms with a combination of multiple synthesis filter banks for image coding.  

PubMed

A class of lapped transforms for image coding, which are characterized by variable-length synthesis filters, is introduced. In this class, the synthesis filter bank (FB) is first defined with an arbitrary combination of finite impulse response synthesis filters of perfect reconstruction FBs. An analysis FB is then obtained using direct matrix inversion or iterative implementation of Neumann series expansion. Moreover, to improve compression, we introduce a unitary transform that follows the analysis FB. This class enables a greater freedom of design than previously presented variable-length lapped transforms. We illustrate several design examples and present experimental results for image coding, which indicate that the proposed transforms are promising and comparable with conventional subband transforms including wavelets. PMID:16435538

Tanaka, Toshihisa; Hirasawa, Yasutaka; Yamashita, Yukihiko

2006-01-01

206

Study of statistical properties of random signals in multirate filter banks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous works on subband-related signal processing were mainly dedicated to the applications of subband systems and to the formulation of multirate filter banks. Only very limited results can be found that treat statistical properties of random signals inside a multirate filter bank. In this paper, such a theoretical study is performed from the statistical viewpoint. Our main interest lies in how a multirate structure interacts with a random signal. The key statistical properties examined are stationarity, autocorrelation, cross-correlation, power spectral density, and spectral flatness measure. Exact explicit expressions are obtained. These results have their counterparts in a fullband system; however, inside a multirate structure or a subband system, the aliasing effect caused by decimation should be taken into account. In a multirate system, stationarity is not preserved when an upsampling (or expanding) operation is encountered. Furthermore the equivalent filtering operation is nonlinear. A test example of an AR-1 process is included for demonstration. From this example, an interesting phenomenon is observed. When the correlation coefficient of the AR-1 process is close to 1, the lowpassed signal is not, in any sense, a rough replica of the source. This example justifies the significance and necessity of a theoretical analysis of subband systems from a statistical viewpoint. We believe that stochastic signal processing applications of a subband structure such as estimation, detection, recognition, etc. will benefit from study of this nature.

Lan, Leu-Shing

1995-04-01

207

Adaptive wavelet EMG compression based on local optimization of filter banks.  

PubMed

This paper presents an adaptive wavelet technique for compression of surface electromyographic signals. The technique employs an optimization algorithm to adjust the wavelet filter bank in order to minimize the distortion of the compressed signal. Orthogonality of the transform is ensured by using a restriction-free parametrization described elsewhere. A case study involving real-life isotonic and isometric electromyographic signals is presented for illustration. The results show that the proposed approach outperforms the standard non-optimized wavelet technique in terms of the percent residual difference for a given compression factor. PMID:18583726

Paiva, Juliana Pereira Lisboa M; Kelencz, Carlos Alberto; Paiva, Henrique Mohallem; Galvão, Roberto Kawakami H; Magini, Marcio

2008-06-26

208

Directional filter banks for detecting un-patterned TFT-LCD defect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) has become an actively used front of panel display technology with an increasing market. Intrinsically there is a region of non uniformity with low contrast that to human eye is perceived as a defect. Because the grey-level difference between the defect and the background is small, the conventional edge detection techniques are hardly applicable to detect these low contrast defects. Although several effort were dedicated in classifying the patterned TFT-LCD defects, only few researches were conducted on detecting the unpatterned TFT-LCD defects that accounts for approximately 15% of all defects produced during the manufacturing stages. This paper proposes a detection method for the un-patterned TFT-LCD defects by using the directional filter bank (DFB), Shen-Castan filter and maximum Feret's diameter. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested through the experiment using real TFT-LCD panel images.

Park, No Kap; Kim, Hye Won; Yoo, Suk In

2008-03-01

209

Multiscale image fusion using the undecimated wavelet transform with spectral factorization and nonorthogonal filter banks.  

PubMed

Multiscale transforms are among the most popular techniques in the field of pixel-level image fusion. However, the fusion performance of these methods often deteriorates for images derived from different sensor modalities. In this paper, we demonstrate that for such images, results can be improved using a novel undecimated wavelet transform (UWT)-based fusion scheme, which splits the image decomposition process into two successive filtering operations using spectral factorization of the analysis filters. The actual fusion takes place after convolution with the first filter pair. Its significantly smaller support size leads to the minimization of the unwanted spreading of coefficient values around overlapping image singularities. This usually complicates the feature selection process and may lead to the introduction of reconstruction errors in the fused image. Moreover, we will show that the nonsubsampled nature of the UWT allows the design of nonorthogonal filter banks, which are more robust to artifacts introduced during fusion, additionally improving the obtained results. The combination of these techniques leads to a fusion framework, which provides clear advantages over traditional multiscale fusion approaches, independent of the underlying fusion rule, and reduces unwanted side effects such as ringing artifacts in the fused reconstruction. PMID:23144033

Ellmauthaler, Andreas; Pagliari, Carla L; da Silva, Eduardo A B

2012-10-22

210

Boundary operation of 2-D nonseparable linear-phase paraunitary filter banks.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a boundary operation technique of 2-D nonseparable linear-phase paraunitary filter banks (NS-LPPUFBs) for size limitation. The proposed technique is based on a lattice structure consisting of the 2-D separable block discrete cosine transform and nonseparable support-extension processes. The bases are allowed to be anisotropic with the fixed critically subsampling, overlapping, orthogonal, symmetric, real-valued, and compact-support properties. First, the blockwise implementation is developed so that the basis images can be locally controlled. The local control of basis images is shown to maintain orthogonality. This property leads a basis termination (BT) technique as a boundary operation. The technique overcomes the drawback of NS-LPPUFBs that the popular symmetric extension method is invalid. Through some experimental results of diagonal texture coding, the significance of the BT is verified. PMID:22203718

Muramatsu, Shogo; Kobayashi, Tomoya; Hiki, Minoru; Kikuchi, Hisakazu

2011-12-23

211

Efficient thresholding-based ECG compressors for high quality applications using cosine modulated filter banks.  

PubMed

The aim of electrocardiogram (ECG) compression is to achieve as much compression as possible while the significant information is preserved in the reconstructed signal. Lossy thresholding-based compressors have shown good performance needing low computational resources. In this work, two compression schemes that include nearly perfect reconstruction cosine modulated filter banks for the signal decomposition are proposed. They are evaluated for highly reliable applications, where the reconstructed signal must be very similar to the original. The whole MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and suitable metrics are used in the assessment, to obtain representative results. Results show that the proposed compressors yield better performance than discrete wavelet transform-based techniques, when high quality requirements are imposed. PMID:22255969

Hernando-Ramiro, Carlos; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando; Pedroviejo-Benito, Fatimá

2011-01-01

212

Multiclass voluntary facial expression classification based on Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the classification of voluntary facial expressions from electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) signals using the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) algorithm. The FBCSP algorithm is an autonomous and effective machine learning approach for classifying two classes of EEG measurements in motor imagery-based Brain Computer Interface (BCI). However, the problem of facial expression recognition typically involves more than just two classes of measurements. Hence, this paper proposes an extension of FBCSP to the multiclass paradigm using a decision threshold-based classifier for classifying facial expressions from EEG and EMG measurements. A study is conducted using the proposed Multiclass FBCSP on 4 subjects who performed 6 different facial expressions. The results show that the Multiclass FBCSP is effective in classifying multiple facial expressions from the EEG and EMG measurements. PMID:19162828

Chin, Zheng Yang; Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai

2008-01-01

213

Filter-bank based digital sub-banding ASIC architecture for coherent optical receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a highly efficient high performance architecture for the digital signal processing of high speed coherent optical receivers. Our ASIC signal processing architecture ports for the first time to optical reception efficient filter bank signal processing structures. The resulting optical receiver ASICs are applicable to long-haul and metro photonic communication and provide substantial energy efficiency saving 30%-50% in power consumption. We aim to develop an ultra-high-speed optical receiver ASIC for transporting 160 Gb/s in a 25 GHz optical band - seven such channels will together carry 1Tb/s (plus overhead) in our 'TeraSanta' project of TeraBitPerSecond efficient transponders.

Nazarathy, Moshe; Tolmachev, Alex

2013-01-01

214

Dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank with linear-phase individual filters: an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform.  

PubMed

Dual-tree transforms have recently received much attention for the properties of shift-invariance and directional-selectivity. However, their designs generally encounter fractional-delay constraints, and become more complicated for providing linear-phase (LP) individual filters and flexible directional-selectivity, two important properties in image processing. In this paper, we propose an alternative shift-invariant and directional-selective transform-the dual-tree cosine-modulated filter bank (DTCMFB). In the proposed DTCMFB, its primal and dual filter banks are derived by cosine-modulating one LP prototype filter, and thus its design involves no fractional-delay constraints. Meanwhile, the derived modulation technique guarantees each individual filter to be LP and the LP condition is satisfied without any constraint on the prototype filter. By separable operations, the DTCMFB is extended to two-dimensions. The resulting 2D DTCMFB can provide much more flexible directional-selectivity. Finally, several simulations are given to verify the proposed DTCMFB, and the experiments on nonlinear approximation and image denoising are presented to demonstrate its potential in image processing. PMID:24107401

Liang, Lili; Liu, Han

2013-12-01

215

A dual-polarized broadband planar antenna and channelizing filter bank for millimeter wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a broadband log-periodic antenna coupled to multiple cryogenic bolometers. This detector architecture, optimized here for astrophysical observations, simultaneously receives two linear polarizations with two octaves of bandwidth at millimeter wavelengths. The broad bandwidth signal received by the antenna is divided into sub-bands with integrated in-line frequency-selective filters. We demonstrate two such filter banks: a diplexer with two sub-bands and a log-periodic channelizer with seven contiguous sub-bands. These detectors have receiver efficiencies of 20%-40% and percent level polarization isolation. Superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers detect the power in each sub-band and polarization. We demonstrate circularly symmetric beam patterns, high polarization isolation, accurately positioned bands, and high optical efficiency. The pixel design is applicable to astronomical observations of intensity and polarization at millimeter through sub-millimeter wavelengths. As compared with an imaging array of pixels measuring only one band, simultaneous measurements of multiple bands in each pixel has the potential to result in a higher signal-to-noise measurement while also providing spectral information. This development facilitates compact systems with high mapping speeds for observations that require information in multiple frequency bands.

O'Brient, Roger; Ade, Peter; Arnold, Kam; Edwards, Jennifer; Engargiola, Greg; Holzapfel, William L.; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, Michael J.; Quealy, Erin; Rebeiz, Gabriel; Richards, Paul; Suzuki, Aritoki

2013-02-01

216

Robust FIR Beamforming Applied TO Medical Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

We previously described a beamformer architecture that replaces the single apodization weights on each receive channel with channel-unique finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The filter weights are designed to optimize the contrast resolution performance of the imaging system. While the FIR beamformer offers significant gains in contrast resolution, the beamformer suffers from low sensitivity and its performance rapidly degrades in the presence of noise. In this paper a new method is presented to improve the robustness of the FIR beamformer to electronic noise as well as variation or uncertainty in the array response. A method is also described, which controls the sidelobe levels of the FIR beamformer’s spatial response by applying an arbitrary weighting function in the filter design algorithm. The robust FIR beamformer is analyzed using a generalized cystic resolution metric that quantifies a beamformer’s clinical imaging performance as a function of cyst size and channel input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Fundamental performance limits are compared between two robust FIR beamformers (the dynamic focus FIR (DF-FIR) beamformer and the group focus FIR (GF-FIR) beamformer), the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformer, and the spatial matched filter (SMF) beamformer. Results from this study show that the new DF- and GF-FIR beamformers are more robust to electronic noise compared to the optimal contrast resolution FIR beamformer. Furthermore, the added robustness only comes with a slight loss in cystic resolution. Results from the generalized cystic resolution metric show that a 9-tap robust FIR beamformer outperforms the SMF and DAS beamformer until receive channel input SNR drops below ?5 dB; whereas, the 9-tap optimal contrast resolution beamformer’s performance deteriorates around 50 dB SNR. The effects of moderate phase aberrations, characterized by an a priori root-mean-square strength of 28 ns and an a priori full-width at half-maximum correlation length of 3.6 mm, are investigated on the robust FIR beamformers. Full sets of robust FIR beamformer filter weights are constructed using an in silico model of the Ultrasonix Sonix RP scanner and the L14-5/38mm probe. Using the derived weights a series of simulated point target and anechoic cyst B-mode images are generated to further investigate the potential increases in contrast resolution when using the robust FIR beamformers. Under the investigated conditions, the 7-tap optimal contrast resolution beamformer and the 7-tap robust beamformer with added SNR constraint increase lesion detectability by 247% and 137% compared to the conventional DAS beamformer, respectively. Finally experimental phantom and in vivo images are produced using this novel receive architecture. The simulated and experimental images clearly show a reduction in clutter and an increase in contrast resolution compared to the conventionally beamformed images. This novel receive beamformer can be applied to any conventional ultrasound system where the system response is reasonably well characterized.

Guenther, Drake A.; Walker, William F.

2009-01-01

217

A novel fast and reduced redundancy structure for multiscale directional filter banks.  

PubMed

The multiscale directional filter bank (MDFB) improves the radial frequency resolution of the contourlet transform by introducing an additional decomposition in the high-frequency band. The increase in frequency resolution is particularly useful for texture description because of the quasi-periodic property of textures. However, the MDFB needs an extra set of scale and directional decomposition, which is performed on the full image size. The rise in computational complexity is, thus, prominent. In this paper, we develop an efficient implementation framework for the MDFB. In the new framework, directional decomposition on the first two scales is performed prior to the scale decomposition. This allows sharing of directional decomposition among the two scales and, hence, reduces the computational complexity significantly. Based on this framework, two fast implementations of the MDFB are proposed. The first one can maintain the same flexibility in directional selectivity in the first two scales while the other has the same redundancy ratio as the contourlet transform. Experimental results show that the first and the second schemes can reduce the computational time by 33.3%-34.6% and 37.1%-37.5%, respectively, compared to the original MDFB algorithm. Meanwhile, the texture retrieval performance of the proposed algorithms is more or less the same as the original MDFB approach which outperforms the steerable pyramid and the contourlet transform approaches. PMID:17688211

Cheng, Kin-On; Law, Ngai-Fong; Siu, Wan-Chi

2007-08-01

218

Filter-bank based efficient transmission of reduced-guard-interval OFDM.  

PubMed

We propose a new way to structure the digital signal processing for reduced guard-interval (RGI) OFDM optical receivers. The idea is to digitally parallelize the processing over multiple parallel virtual sub-channels, occupying disjoint spectral sub-bands. This concept is well known in the optical or analog sub-carrier domains, but it turns out that it can also be performed efficiently in the digital domain. Here we apply critically sampled uniform analysis and synthesis DFT filter bank signal processing techniques in order to realize a novel hardware efficient variant of RGI OFDM, referred to as Multi-Sub-Band OFDM (MSB-OFDM), reducing by 10% receiver computational complexity, relative to a single-polarization version of the CD pre-equalizer. In addition to being more computationally efficient than a conventional RGI OFDM system, the signal flow architecture of our scheme is amenable to being more readily realized over multiple FPGAs, for experimental demonstrations or flexible prototyping. PMID:22274045

Tolmachev, Alex; Nazarathy, Moshe

2011-12-12

219

Efficient extension of conventional low frequency filter bank spectrometer by implementation of high resolution Chirp Z signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral analysis of any signal involves a signal-processing tool using Fourier processors. Chirp Z Transform (CZT) is a modern technique providing ideally any frequency resolution in the spectrum. The conventional filter bank type spectrometer provides low to moderate (few 100 kHz) frequency resolution and if its frequency resolution is to be increased further then the number of channels must be

Jayesh P. Pabari

2008-01-01

220

Effect of Carrier Frequency Offset on Offset QAM Multicarrier Filter Bank Systems over Frequency-Selective Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the effect of carrier frequency offset (CFO) on offset QAM (OQAM) multicarrier filter bank (MCFB) systems, also known as staggered modulated multitone (SMT), over frequency-selective channels. This effect may be quantified by signal-to-interference ratio (SIR). We drive an accurate expression for the interference power and the desired signal power. Then SIR of SMT systems

H. Saeedi Sourck; Yan Wu; J. W. M. Bergmans; S. Sadri; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

2010-01-01

221

An analysis\\/synthesis model for the human visual system based on subspace decomposition and multirate filter bank theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage model of the human visual system (HVS) comprised of low-level (analysis) and a high-level (synthesis) processing stages is presented. The processing done at the low-level stage is described using two approaches, one based on a subspace decomposition and the other on a multirate filter bank. These two models simultaneously provide the high-level processing stage with different perspectives or

Lina Karam

1992-01-01

222

Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern Algorithm on BCI Competition IV Datasets 2a and 2b  

PubMed Central

The Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) algorithm is an effective and popular method for classifying 2-class motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG) data, but its effectiveness depends on the subject-specific frequency band. This paper presents the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) algorithm to optimize the subject-specific frequency band for CSP on Datasets 2a and 2b of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Competition IV. Dataset 2a comprised 4 classes of 22 channels EEG data from 9 subjects, and Dataset 2b comprised 2 classes of 3 bipolar channels EEG data from 9 subjects. Multi-class extensions to FBCSP are also presented to handle the 4-class EEG data in Dataset 2a, namely, Divide-and-Conquer (DC), Pair-Wise (PW), and One-Versus-Rest (OVR) approaches. Two feature selection algorithms are also presented to select discriminative CSP features on Dataset 2b, namely, the Mutual Information-based Best Individual Feature (MIBIF) algorithm, and the Mutual Information-based Rough Set Reduction (MIRSR) algorithm. The single-trial classification accuracies were presented using 10?×?10-fold cross-validations on the training data and session-to-session transfer on the evaluation data from both datasets. Disclosure of the test data labels after the BCI Competition IV showed that the FBCSP algorithm performed relatively the best among the other submitted algorithms and yielded a mean kappa value of 0.569 and 0.600 across all subjects in Datasets 2a and 2b respectively.

Ang, Kai Keng; Chin, Zheng Yang; Wang, Chuanchu; Guan, Cuntai; Zhang, Haihong

2012-01-01

223

Removal of BaseLine Wander and Power-Line Interference from the ECG by an Efficient FIR Filter with a Reduced Number of Taps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear phase filtering is proposed for the removal of baseline wander and power-line frequency components in electrocardiograms. In order to reduce the large number of computations involved in the digital filtering that are necessary, the desired filter spectrum was defined periodically. Making use of the property that the spectrum period is 50 Hz, the spectrum can be realized with a

Alste van J. A; T. S. Schilder

1985-01-01

224

Optimized filtering of regional and teleseismic seismograms: results of maximizing SNR measurements from the wavelet transform and filter banks  

SciTech Connect

Development of a worldwide network to monitor seismic activity requires deployment of seismic sensors in areas which have not been well studied or may have from available recordings. Development and testing of detection and discrimination algorithms requires a robust representative set of calibrated seismic events for a given region. Utilizing events with poor signal-to-noise (SNR) can add significant numbers to usable data sets, but these events must first be adequately filtered. Source and path effects can make this a difficult task as filtering demands are highly varied as a function of distance, event magnitude, bearing, depth etc. For a given region, conventional methods of filter selection can be quite subjective and may require intensive analysis of many events. In addition, filter parameters are often overly generalized or contain complicated switching. We have developed a method to provide an optimized filter for any regional or teleseismically recorded event. Recorded seismic signals contain arrival energy which is localized in frequency and time. Localized temporal signals whose frequency content is different from the frequency content of the pre-arrival record are identified using rms power measurements. The method is based on the decomposition of a time series into a set of time series signals or scales. Each scale represents a time-frequency band with a constant Q. SNR is calculated for a pre-event noise window and for a window estimated to contain the arrival. Scales with high SNR are used to indicate the band pass limits for the optimized filter.The results offer a significant improvement in SNR particularly for low SNR events. Our method provides a straightforward, optimized filter which can be immediately applied to unknown regions as knowledge of the geophysical characteristics is not required. The filtered signals can be used to map the seismic frequency response of a region and may provide improvements in travel-time picking, bearing estimation regional characterization, and event detection. Results are shown for a set of low SNR events as well as 92 regional and teleseismic events in the Middle East.

Leach, R.R.; Schultz, C.; Dowla, F.

1997-07-15

225

Differential susceptibility of white fir provenances to the fir engraver ...  

Treesearch

Description: The fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeC., attacks white fir, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) ... During the summer flight season, the attacking beetles bore into the cambial zone of fir boles, introducing a ... Subcortical examination of a subsample of the dead firs indicated that all had reproductively successful ...

226

MKID development for SuperSpec: an on-chip, mm-wave, filter-bank spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperSpec is an ultra-compact spectrometer-on-a-chip for millimeter and submillimeter wavelength astronomy. Its very small size, wide spectral bandwidth, and highly multiplexed readout will enable construction of powerful multibeam spectrometers for high-redshift observations. The spectrometer consists of a horn-coupled microstrip feedline, a bank of narrow-band superconducting resonator filters that provide spectral selectivity, and kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) that detect the power admitted by each filter resonator. The design is realized using thin-film lithographic structures on a silicon wafer. The mm-wave microstrip feedline and spectral filters of the first prototype are designed to operate in the band from 195-310 GHz and are fabricated from niobium with at Tc of 9.2K. The KIDs are designed to operate at hundreds of MHz and are fabricated from titanium nitride with a Tc of ~ 2 K. Radiation incident on the horn travels along the mm-wave microstrip, passes through the frequency-selective filter, and is finally absorbed by the corresponding KID where it causes a measurable shift in the resonant frequency. In this proceedings, we present the design of the KIDs employed in SuperSpec and the results of initial laboratory testing of a prototype device. We will also brie describe the ongoing development of a demonstration instrument that will consist of two 500-channel, R=700 spectrometers, one operating in the 1-mm atmospheric window and the other covering the 650 and 850 micron bands.

Shirokoff, E.; Barry, P. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Hollister, M. I.; Kovács, A.; McKenney, C.; Leduc, H. G.; Llombart, N.; Marrone, D. P.; Mauskopf, P.; O'Brient, R.; Padin, S.; Reck, T.; Swenson, L. J.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2012-09-01

227

Classification of premature ventricular complexes using filter bank features, induction of decision trees and a fuzzy rule-based system.  

PubMed

The classification of heart beats is important for automated arrhythmia monitoring devices. The study describes two different classifiers for the identification of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) in surface ECGs. A decision-tree algorithm based on inductive learning from a training set and a fuzzy rule-based classifier are explained in detail. Traditional features for the classification task are extracted by analysing the heart rate and morphology of the heart beats from a single lead. In addition, a novel set of features based on the use of a filter bank is presented. Filter banks allow for time-frequency-dependent signal processing with low computational effort. The performance of the classifiers is evaluated on the MIT-BIH database following the AAMI recommendations. The decision-tree algorithm has a gross sensitivity of 85.3% and a positive predictivity of 85.2%, whereas the gross sensitivity of the fuzzy rule-based system is 81.3%, and the positive predictivity is 80.6%. PMID:10723892

Wieben, O; Afonso, V X; Tompkins, W J

1999-09-01

228

A novel approach for using polyphase filter bank in directly digital RF conversion from RF to baseband  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software defined radio (SDR) hardware platform is in high demand for ultra-wideband digital EW receiver to carry out different mission requirements. Due to the limitations of current Analog-to-Digital conversion (ADC) techniques, the ideal receiver structure of SDR, with digital RF frequency conversion, cannot be achieved. In this article, a new channelization technique called ADC polyphase fast Fourier transformation (ADC PFFT) filter bank channelization is demonstrated. The key concept is to separate the speed at which the two functional units of an ADC - the sample and hold and the quantizer - operate. The sample and hold unit operates at the sampling frequency fs and the quantizer (the speed limiting factor in ADCs) can operate at a much slower rate, fs/M, where M is the decimation factor for digital filter bank. By integrated this ADC PFFT technique in ultra-wideband digital channelized EW receivers, directly digital RF down conversion can be achieved. With the ADC PFFT channelization for RF down conversion and polyphase FFT channelization for IF down conversion, 2-18 GHz frequency coverage can be accomplished in such ultra-wideband digital channelized EW receivers without the requirement of EW receivers being time-shared among outputs from many subbands due to bandwidth limitation in digital IF channelized EW receivers. Because the frequency down conversion from RF to BB are all processed digitally, issues such as image rejection and I/Q imbalance due to analog mixing will be eliminated in the ultrawideband digital channelized EW receivers.

Zhang, Deying; Jiang, Qin; Ahmed, Mohiuddin

2012-05-01

229

Quarter-Rate Implementation of an 1 GSPS 128 Tap FIR Structure used as Cross-correlator in UWB Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite impulse response (FIR) filters are widely used in many applications involving signal processing algorithms. The FIR can also be used as a convolver or as a cross-correlator due to its structural similarity. In general the problem with the hardware implementation of FIR is mainly the area complexity and this is much prominent if the number of taps is pretty

Tuhin Subhra Chakraborty; Saswat Chakrabarti

2008-01-01

230

Filter bank modulation techniques for very high speed digital subscriber lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicarrier basis functions and related issues are overviewed in this article with an emphasis on filtered multitone (FMT) modulation for VDSL. The combination of filtering, small amounts of excess bandwidth, multicarrier channel partitioning, and some equalization are shown to allow a good match for spectrum management and performance challenges in VDSL transmission. The FMT basic functions are overviewed in the

G. Cherubini; E. Eleftheriou; S. Oker; J. M. Cioffi

2000-01-01

231

Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel biorthogonal filter banks for lossy-to-lossless image coding.  

PubMed

Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel (M > 2) biorthogonal filter banks (BOFBs) for lossy-to-lossless image coding is presented in this paper. Since the proposed block-lifting structure is more general than the conventional lifting factorizations and does NOT require many restrictions such as paraunitary, number of channels, and McMillan degree in each building block unlike the conventional lifting factorizations, its coding gain is higher than that of the previous methods. Several proposed BOFBs are designed and applied to image coding. Comparing the results with conventional lossy-to-lossless image coding structures, including the 5/3- and 9/7-tap discrete wavelet transforms in JPEG 2000 and a 4 × 8 hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform in JPEG XR, the proposed BOFBs achieve better result in both objective measure and perceptual visual quality for the images with a lot of high-frequency components. PMID:22434801

Suzuki, Taizo; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q

2012-03-12

232

Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) in Brain-Computer Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In motor imagery-based brain computer interfaces (BCI), discriminative patterns can be extracted from the electroencephalogram (EEG) using the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm. However, the performance of this spatial filter depends on the operational frequency band of the EEG. Thus, setting a broad frequency range, or manually selecting a subject-specific frequency range, are commonly used with the CSP algorithm. To

Kai Keng Ang; Zhang Yang Chin; Haihong Zhang; Cuntai Guan

2008-01-01

233

SOURCE SEPARATION OF TEMPORALLY CORRELATED SOURCE USING BANK OF BAND PASS FILTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new source separation algorithms exploiting the difference in the spectra shapes of the source signals. The proposed approach relies only on second-order statistics and estimates the mixing matrix by using eigen- value decomposition of covariance matrix of prewithened sensor signals or alternatively an input output identification procedure using as inputs linear band pass filtered versions of

Andrzej Cichocki; Adel Belouchrani

2001-01-01

234

On Real-Time Optimal FIR Estimation of Linear TIE Models of Local Clocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an optimal finite-impulse response (FIR) filter for the linear time-interval error (TIE) model of a local clock and compare its estimates to those obtained by the unbiased FIR filter via the global positioning system (GPS)-based sawtooth measurements. We show theoretically and verify experimentally that there is no reasonable necessity in using optimal filters for GPS-based

Yuriy S. Shmaliy

2007-01-01

235

Subband\\/Transform coding using filter bank designs based on time domain aliasing cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, oddly stacked, critically sampled, single side-band (SSB) [7] analysis\\/synthesis system based on Time Domain Aliasing Cancellation (TDAC) [1],[2] is described in this paper. The specifications for the analysis and synthesis filter responses are developed and a number of designs which satisfy the reconstruction requirements are described. The application of TDAC systems to Subband\\/Transform coding is also discussed and

J. P. Princen; A. W. Johnson; A. B. Bradley

1987-01-01

236

A nonlinear filter-bank model of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve: Rate responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to produce a functional model of the auditory nerve (AN) response of the guinea-pig that reproduces a wide range of important responses to auditory stimulation. The model is intended for use as an input to larger scale models of auditory processing in the brain-stem. A dual-resonance nonlinear filter architecture is used to reproduce the

Christian J. Sumner; Lowel P. O'Mard; Enrique A. Lopez-Poveda; Ray Meddis

2003-01-01

237

A nonlinear filter-bank model of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve: Rate responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to produce a functional model of the auditory nerve (AN) response of the guinea-pig that reproduces a wide range of important responses to auditory stimulation. The model is intended for use as an input to larger scale models of auditory processing in the brain-stem. A dual-resonance nonlinear filter architecture is used to reproduce the mechanical tuning of the cochlea. Transduction to the activity on the AN is accomplished with a recently proposed model of the inner-hair-cell. Together, these models have been shown to be able to reproduce the response of high-, medium-, and low-spontaneous rate fibers from the guinea-pig AN at high best frequencies (BFs). In this study we generate parameters that allow us to fit the AN model to data from a wide range of BFs. By varying the characteristics of the mechanical filtering as a function of the BF it was possible to reproduce the BF dependence of frequency-threshold tuning curves, AN rate-intensity functions at and away from BF, compression of the basilar membrane at BF as inferred from AN responses, and AN iso-intensity functions. The model is a convenient computational tool for the simulation of the range of nonlinear tuning and rate-responses found across the length of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve.

Sumner, Christian J.; O'Mard, Lowel P.; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Meddis, Ray

2003-06-01

238

The gamma-filter-a new class of adaptive IIR filters with restricted feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized feedforward filters, a class of adaptive filters that combines attractive properties of finite impulse response (FIR) filters with some of the power of infinite impulse response (IIR) filters, are described. A particular case, the gamma filter, generalizes Widrow's adaptive transversal filter (adaline) to an infinite impulse response filter. Yet, the stability condition for the gamma filter is trivial, and

Jose C. Principe; Bert de Vries; Pedro Guedes de Oliveira

1993-01-01

239

SUBMM/FIR Bolometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory of operation of submm/FIR bolometers and their technology are described. Bolometers are detectors that work by recording the temperature rise due to the absorption of radiation with the aid of a resistance thermometer. Photons of any wavelength...

E. Kreysa

1992-01-01

240

Quantifying image distortion based on Gabor filter bank and multiple regression analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image quality assessment is indispensable for image-based applications. The approaches towards image quality assessment fall into two main categories: subjective and objective methods. Subjective assessment has been widely used. However, careful subjective assessments are experimentally difficult and lengthy, and the results obtained may vary depending on the test conditions. On the other hand, objective image quality assessment would not only alleviate the difficulties described above but would also help to expand the application field. Therefore, several works have been developed for quantifying the distortion presented on a image achieving goodness of fit between subjective and objective scores up to 92%. Nevertheless, current methodologies are designed assuming that the nature of the distortion is known. Generally, this is a limiting assumption for practical applications, since in a majority of cases the distortions in the image are unknown. Therefore, we believe that the current methods of image quality assessment should be adapted in order to identify and quantify the distortion of images at the same time. That combination can improve processes such as enhancement, restoration, compression, transmission, among others. We present an approach based on the power of the experimental design and the joint localization of the Gabor filters for studying the influence of the spatial/frequencies on image quality assessment. Therefore, we achieve a correct identification and quantification of the distortion affecting images. This method provides accurate scores and differentiability between distortions.

Ortiz-Jaramillo, B.; Garcia-Alvarez, J. C.; Führ, H.; Castellanos-Dominguez, G.; Philips, W.

2012-01-01

241

RFI suppression in SAR based on filtering interpretation of SSA and fast implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has proven to be a powerful remote sensing instrument for underground and obscured object detection. However, SAR echoes are often contaminated by radio frequency interferences (RFI) from multiple broadcasting stations. Essentially, RFI suppression problem is one-dimensional stationary time series denoising problem. This article proposed a novel RFI suppression algorithm based on singular spectral analysis (SSA) from a linear invariant systems perspective. It can be seen that SSA algorithm has an equivalence relation with finite impulse response (FIR) filter banks. Besides, this article first introduce two approximated methods which can remarkably speed up spectral decomposition--Nyström method and Column-Sampling approximation--to obtain the coefficients of above SSA-FIR-filter. Simulation results and imaging results of measured data have proved the efficiency and validity of this algorithm.

Wang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Weidong; Qi, Xiangyang; Liu, Yue

2012-12-01

242

Polyphase quadrature filters--A new subband coding technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of implementing filter banks for subband coding of speech is presented. First, Esteban's Quadrature Mirror Filter principle is extended to allow the direct synthesis of filter banks with any number of equal size filter bands. Then, by combining the quadrature filter characteristic with the polyphase network implementation of filter banks, a new filter bank structure is obtained

J. Rothweiler

1983-01-01

243

A new design method based on artificial bee colony algorithm for digital IIR filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital filters can be broadly classified into two groups: recursive (infinite impulse response (IIR)) and non-recursive (finite impulse response (FIR)). An IIR filter can provide a much better performance than the FIR filter having the same number of coefficients. However, IIR filters might have a multi-modal error surface. Therefore, a reliable design method proposed for IIR filters must be based

Nurhan Karaboga

2009-01-01

244

Wavelet transform domain adaptive FIR filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and studies two new wavelet transform domain least mean square (LMS) algorithms. The algorithms exploit the special sparse structure of the wavelet transform of wide classes of correlation matrices and their Cholesky factors in order to compute a whitening transformation of the input data in the wavelet domain and minimize computational complexity. The procedures differ in the

Srinath Hosur; Ahmed H. Tewfik

1997-01-01

245

Adaptive Doppler Filter Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A radar system for cancelling radar clutter with a minimum of equipment comprising an N-point Fast Fourier Transform for dividing the radar's doppler space into N contiguous frequency subbands; a delay line disposed at each frequency output port for the F...

B. L. Lewis

1985-01-01

246

Low-Noise-Far-Infrared (FIR) Receiver Tasks: FIR Laser Development. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the Low-Noise Far-Infrared (FIR) Receiver program for FIR laser development were established with the particular goal of improving magnetic fusion diagnostics in tokamak fusion reactors. Development of both FIR sources and receivers can ...

F. B. Foote E. J. Danielewicz T. A. Galantowicz

1984-01-01

247

Optical half-band filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes two kinds of novel 2×2 circuit configuration for finite-impulse response (FIR) half-band filters. These configurations can be transformed into each other by a symmetric transformation and their power transmittance is identical. The configurations have only about half the elements of conventional FIR lattice-form filters. We derive a design algorithm for achieving desired power transmittance spectra. We also

Kaname Jinguji; Manabu Oguma

2000-01-01

248

A new structure for narrow transition band, lowpass digital filter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new class of lowpass linear phase FIR filters is introduced. It is shown that lowpass filters with narrow transition bands can be realized efficiently by a structured form composed mainly of a few small FIR filters. The modular structure is suited for an implementation by a fast short convolution algorithm or a few single-chip filter IC's.

Zhongqi Jing; Adly Fam

1984-01-01

249

A New Class of Detail-Preserving Filters for Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of median type filters for image processing is proposed. In the filters, linear FIR substructures are used in conjunction with the median operation. The root signals and noise attenuation properties of the FIR-median hybrid filters are analyzed and compared to representative edge preserving filtering operations. The concept of multilevel median operation is introduced to improve the detail

Ari Nieminen; Pekka Heinonen; Yrjö Neuvo

1987-01-01

250

Comparison between EEMD, wavelet and FIR denoising: influence on event detection in impedance cardiography.  

PubMed

During thoracic impedance signal acquisition, noise is inherently introduced and hence, denoising is required to allow for accurate event detection. This paper investigates the effectiveness of Ensemble Emperical Mode Decomposition to filter random noise. The performance of the EEMD method is compared with an optimal FIR filter and wavelet denoising. The IMF selection for signal reconstruction in the EEMD denoising method is optimized using a sequential search. Denoising performance was evaluated by the SNR and the accuracy in event detection after filtering. When all criteria are taken into account, wavelet seems to outperform both EEMD and FIR denoising. PMID:22254433

De Ridder, S; Neyt, X; Pattyn, N; Migeotte, P-F

2011-01-01

251

Higher density wavelet frames with symmetric low-pass and band-pass filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new set of higher density wavelet frames with symmetric low-pass and band-pass wavelet filters. Based on the maximally flat low-pass linear-phase FIR filter and spectral factorization, two types of design approaches are proposed, which can respectively obtain odd-length FIR filters and even-length FIR filters. The two compact support wavelets respectively have a specified order of vanishing

Yi Qin; Jiaxu Wang; Baoping Tang; Yongfang Mao

2010-01-01

252

Multichannel Blind Deconvolution: Fir Matrix Algebra And Separation Of Multipath Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general tool for multichannel and multipath problems is given in FIR matrix algebra.With Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters (or polynomials) assuming the roleplayed by complex scalars in traditional matrix algebra, we adapt standard eigenvalueroutines, factorizations, decompositions, and matrix algorithms for use in multichannel\\/multipath problems. Using abstract algebra\\/group theoretic concepts, informationtheoretic principles, and the Bussgang property, methods of single channel...

Russell H. Lambert

1996-01-01

253

Comparison between EEMD, wavelet and FIR denoising: Influence on event detection in impedance cardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

During thoracic impedance signal acquisition, noise is inherently introduced and hence, denoising is required to allow for accurate event detection. This paper investigates the effectiveness of Ensemble Emperical Mode Decomposition to filter random noise. The performance of the EEMD method is compared with an optimal FIR filter and wavelet denoising. The IMF selection for signal reconstruction in the EEMD denoising

S. De Ridder; X. Neyt; N. Pattyn; P. F. Migeotte

2011-01-01

254

TIME-VARYING RECURSIVE FILTERS FOR DECIMATION AND INTERPOLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decimation and interpolation require filtering. In order to re- duce the hardware effort, FIR filters with linear phase are im- plemented as polyphase filters often. Still, the number of co- efficients cannot be reduced by this method. Comb filters im- plemented as cascaded-integrator-comb filters are hardware- efficient filters. Due to the periodicity of the comb section the number of registers

Tim Hentschel; Gerhard Fettweis

255

Corrosion resistant filter unit  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fluid filter assembly adapted for the filtration of corrosive fluid to be injected into a well bore at pressure levels which may exceed 10,000 pounds per square. It comprises: a frame assembly for the mounting of a portion of the fluid filter assembly therein, the frame assembly; filter pods, the plurality of filter pods forming at least two banks of filter pods, each bank having at least two filter pods therein, each bank of the filter pods being supported by one or more the supports of the plurality of supports secured to selected struts of the frame assembly; an inlet manifold to direct the corrosive fluid to the plurality of filter pods, the inlet manifold being interconnected to the banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods whereby flow of the corrosive fluid can be directed to each bank of the filter pods; an outlet manifold to direct the corrosive fluid from the filter pods, the outlet manifold being interconnected to the banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods; a first valve means to control the flow of the corrosive fluid between banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods whereby the flow of the corrosive fluid can be selectively directed to each bank of the filter pods; a second valve means to selectively control the flow of the corrosive fluid between the inlet manifold and the outlet manifold; and union means for interconnecting the filter pods, inlet manifold and outlet manifold, each of the union means including mechanical connection means and internal seal means for isolating the corrosive fluids from the mechanical connection means.

Gentry, J.M.

1992-02-18

256

Pole-cancelation error adaptive IIR filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an adaptive infinite-impulse response (IIR) filtering structure that is based on a novel performance measure. The proposed adaptive IIR filter consists of two finite-impulse response (FIR) filters that are directly driven by a noise-free input signal. One adaptive filter inversely estimates the poles, and the other filter directly estimates the zeros of an unknown system. Since the filter

Hyun-Chool Shin; Woo-Jin Song

2003-01-01

257

Design of Full-Band and Low-Pass FIR Differentiators: A Comparative Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital differentiators are useful in many fields of sciences and engineering. They can be designed using two approaches, namely, FIR filters design and FIR filters design. This paper is concerned by the first one in which great interest in the design of digital differentiators has encouraged the development of various design methods. The widely used methods for FIR differentiators are those based on criteria L1, L2, L? and that based on Taylor series. A comparison between these methods is carried out in terms of approximation accuracy and computational complexity. Numeric examples are presented to illustrate the performance of each method. It was found that the design results obtained by least squares method for fullband and low-pass differentiators are better than the other ones.

Mekhnache, C.; Ferdi, Y.; Taleb-Ahmed, A.

2008-06-01

258

Adaptive PD+I Control of a Switch-Mode DC–DC Power Converter Using a Recursive FIR Predictor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an alternative technique for the adaptive control of power electronic converter circuits. Specific attention is given to the adaptive control of a dc-dc converter. The proposed technique is based on a simple adaptive filter method and uses a one-tap finite impulse response (FIR) predic- tion error filter (PEF). The method is computationally efficient and based around a

Maher Algreer; Matthew Armstrong; Damian Giaouris

2011-01-01

259

High-speed recursive digital filter realization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipeline techniques have been successfully applied to speeding up processing in both general- and special-purpose digital computers. Application of these techniques to nonrecursive (FIR) filters has been suggested and is quite straightforward. Application to recursive (IIR) filters has not previously been shown. In this paper, the technique for applying pipeline techniques to recursive filters is shown and the advantages and

Herschel H. Loomis; Bhaskar Sinha

1984-01-01

260

New phenomena in pulsed FIR gas lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

New phenomena occur when pulsed far-infrared (FIR) gas lasers are pumped with the pulses of 10 ?m-hybrid-CO2 lasers truncated within 10 ps as well as when truncating directly the FIR laser pulses with the first FIR plasma shutter developed in our laboratory. These new phenomena include, e.g. new interrelations between superradiance, swept-gain superradiance and Raman emission, anticorrelated fluctuations of pump

D. P. Scherrer; J. Knittel; D. B. Moix; M. O. Baumgartner; F. K. Kneubühl

1995-01-01

261

New phenomena in pulsed fir gas lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

New phenomena occur when pulsed far-infrared (FIR) gas lasers are pumped with the pulses of 10 mum-hybrid-CO2 lasers truncated within 10 ps as well as when truncating directly the FIR laser pulses with the first FIR plasma shutter developed in our laboratory. These new phenomena include, e.g. new interrelations between superradiance, swept-gain superradiance and Raman emission, anticorrelated fluctuations of pump

D. P. Scherrer; J. Knittel; D. B. Moix; M. O. Baumgartner; F. K. Kneubühl

1995-01-01

262

High speed frequency response masking filter design using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of high-speed, multiplier free, arbitrary bandwidth shape FIR filters based on frequency response masking technique (FRM). The FRM filter structure has been modified to improve the throughput by replacing long bandedge shaping filter with several cascaded short filters [Yong Lian, 2000]. Genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced to simultaneously optimize all subfilters in a cascaded connection.

Ling Cen; Yong Lian

2003-01-01

263

Efficient implementation of sharpened CIC decimation filters for software radio receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an efficient structure for sharpened, cascaded integrator comb (CIC) based, decimation filter. Novelty of proposed structure is that it can be achieved for any decimation factor and its efficient finite impulse response (FIR) implementation form. It consists of multirate cascade of sharpened CIC filters with lower (prime) decimation factors. Every cascade stage can be implemented in nonrecursive FIR

Goran Rajic; Hrvoje Babic

2004-01-01

264

A Diversity Controlled Genetic Algorithm for Optimization of FRM Digital Filters over DBNS Multiplier Coefficient Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel diversity controlled (DC) genetic algorithm (GA) for the optimization of frequency-response masking (FRM) FIR digital filters over the double base number system (DBNS) multiplier coefficient space. The use of DBNS multiplier coefficients reduces the complexity and power consumption in the hardware implementation of the resulting FRM FIR digital filters. A direct application of GAs to

Sai Mohan Kilambi; Behrouz Nowrouzian

2007-01-01

265

Sharpening minimum-phase filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minimum-phase requirement restricts that filter has all its zeros on or inside the unit circle. As a result the filter does not have a linear phase. It is well known that the sharpening technique can be used to simultaneous improvements of both the pass-band and stop-band of a linear-phase FIR filters and cannot be used for other types of filters. In this paper we demonstrate that the sharpening technique can also be applied to minimum-phase filters, after small modification. The method is illustrated with one practical examples of design.

Jovanovic Dolecek, G.; Fernandez-Vazquez, A.

2013-02-01

266

Gigabit digital filter for radio astronomy observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gigabit digital filter prototype has been developed with the FPGA (FIeld Programmable Gate Array) for the radio astronomical observation. The digital filtering techniques enables a variety of observing modes defined on the data acquisition system, even with a fixed sampling frequency A/D converter. In this study, the principle of gigabit digital filter design is described in detail, parallel processing design of a FIR (Finite Inpulse Response) filter is presented, and the results of the test manufacturing are shown.

Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Ozeki, Kensuke; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Iguchi, Satoru; Hashimoto, Tamio

2000-07-01

267

Computationally efficient QMF filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a computationally efficient technique for splitting a signal into N equally spaced sub-bands subsampled by 1\\/N and for near perfectly reconstructing the original signal from the sub-band signals. This technique is based on a multirate approach where some operations are nested to decrease the computation load. Simulation results show that the performances are comparable to that of

H. Nussbaumer; M. Vetterli

1984-01-01

268

Fast algorithms for designing multirate cascade filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a multirate cascade of discrete time filters using a FWLS (frequency-weighted least squares) approach is considered. The design strategy enables one to compensate at each stage for errors introduced by preceding stages in the cascade. As a result, very simple filters can be designed for the stages operating at higher sampling rates. A cascade FIR example is

David C. Farden; Dehashis Banerjee; Brian L. Berg

2002-01-01

269

Frequency-Response Masking-Based Design of Nearly Perfect-Reconstruction Two-Channel FIR Filterbanks With Rational Sampling Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure a good filterbank (FB) performance in cases where there are significant changes in the subband signals, the filters in such FBs must have very narrow transition bandwidths. When using conventional finite-impulse response (FIR) filters as building blocks for generating these FBs, this implies that their orders become very high, thereby resulting in a high overall arithmetic

Robert Bregovic; Yong Ching Lim; Tapio Saramaki

2008-01-01

270

Key to Arboreal Spiders of Douglas-Fir and True Fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The illustrated key for identifying spiders inhabitating true fir and Douglas-fir is based on extensive collections from throughout the three North American Pacific Coast States. Details of the age classes present at budburst and the season in which to ex...

A. R. Moldenke B. L. Fichter W. P. Stephen C. E. Griswold

1987-01-01

271

Optimum Time Step and Memory for GPS-based Unbiased FIR Estimates of the Local Clock TIE Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address a theoretical analysis of errors of the l-degree unbiased finite impulse response (FIR) filter applied to the if-degree time interval error (TIE) model of a local clock. Emphasizing the fact that the TIE model originates from the slowly changing Brownian phase and thus cannot obligatorily be distinct on a horizon of N points, we investigate

Yuriy S. Shmaliy; Jorge Munoz-Diaz; Luis Arceo-Miquel; Oscar Ibarra-Manzano

2007-01-01

272

Implementation of overlapped block filtering using scheduling by edge reversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of overlapped block filtering using Scheduling by Edge Reversal (SER) is proposed in this paper. SER is a very simple and powerful synchronizer. It allows more efficient implementation of parallel structures. This technique is applied for the first time to FIR filters using the overlapped block digital filtering, and implemented on a parallel computer platform. The results confirm the

Charles B. do Prado; Paulo S. R. Diniz; Felipe M. G. Franca

2000-01-01

273

Optimal filters with heuristic 1-norm sparsity constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a design method for sparse optimal Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters that improve the visibility of a desired stochastic signal corrupted with white Gaussian noise. We emphasize that the filters we seek are of high-order but sparse, thus significantly reducing computational complexity. An optimal FIR filter for the estimation of a desired signal corrupted with white noise can be designed by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the filter output with the constraint that the magnitude (in 2-norm) of the FIR filter coefficients are set to unity.1, 2 This optimization problem is in essence maximizing the Rayleigh quotient and is thus equivalent to finding the eigenvector with the largest eigenvalue.3 While such filters are optimal, they are rarely sparse. To ensure sparsity, one must introduce a cardinality constraint in the optimization procedure. For high order filters such constraints are computationally burdensome due to the combinatorial search space. We relax the cardinality constraint by using the 1-norm approximation of the cardinality function. This is a relaxation heuristic similar to the recent sparse filter design work of Baran, Wei, and Oppenheim.4 The advantage of this relaxation heuristic is that the solutions tend to be sparse and the optimization procedure reduces to a convex program, thus ensuring global optimality. In addition to our proposed optimization procedure for deriving sparse FIR filters, we show examples where sparse high-order filters significantly perform better than low-order filters, whereas complexity is reduced by a factor of 10.

Yazdani, Mehrdad; Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

2011-09-01

274

Real-time integration and differentiation of analog signals by means of digital filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel filter design method for broadband recursive digital integrators and differentiators is presented. The performance of the digital infinite-impulse response (IIR) filters designed with the method is compared with that of finite-impulse response (FIR) filters and that of classical numerical integration and differentiation. The common conviction that IIR filters with excellent amplitude characteristics always have poor phase behavior is

R. Pintelon; J. Schoukens

1990-01-01

275

Compact capacitor/filter development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a program to develop compact capacitor banks and harmonic filters for transmission voltages with an installed cost equivalent to air insulated capacitor banks. The objective of this work was to develop, design, build, install, and field test such compact capacitor banks. For demonstration purposes, a single phase 362-kV shunt bank and a three phase 145-kV 11th harmonic filter were to be designed, constructed, and field tested.

Dodds, J.; Oswalt, N.; Johansson, A.; Danemar, A.

1984-04-01

276

Low Power and Low Leakage Implementation of RNS FIR Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CMOS technology scaling is leading to the integration of ever more complex systems on silicon. On the other hand, the shrinking of the devices and the reduction of the supply voltage have significantly increased the static power dissipation, that in power budgets of nanometer technologies, cannot be neglected any longer. In this work, we take advantage of the properties

Gian Carlo Cardarilli; A. Del Re; A. Nannarelli; M. Re

2005-01-01

277

FIR filtering by the modified Fermat number transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Right-angle circular convolution (RCC) and the modified Fermat number transform (MFNT) are introduced. It is shown that a linear convolution of two N-point sequences can be obtained by a corresponding N-point RCC. It is also shown that the MFNT supports RCC so that a linear convolution can be computed by an N -point MFNT and its inverse plus N multiplies

W. Li; A. M. Peterson

1990-01-01

278

Precocious Cone Production in Fraser Fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fraser fir trees often produce large amounts of cones in Michigan Christmas tree plantations. In heavy cone years growers must devote significant labor resources to picking cone buds. Ironically, Abies species are considered poor cone producers. Most of our knowledge of cone production in Abies and related conifers comes from studies directed at improving cone production in seed orchards. In

Bert Cregg; Jill O'Donnell; Mel Koelling

279

Broadband FIR Beamformer for Underwater Aoustic Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beamforming for underwater acoustic communication (UAC) is affected by the broadband feature of UAC signal, which has relatively low center frequency compared with the signal bandwidth. The narrow-band assumption does not hold good in the UAC. (Unrealistic assumption) In this paper, we present computer simulation results of a broadband FIR beamformer for UAC using the baseband equivalent array signal model

Youngchol Choi; Yong-kon Lim

2006-01-01

280

Differential male reproductive success in Douglas fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential male reproductive success was studied in clones at two seed orchards of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The performance of tester pollen parents was compared in controlled pollinations with two-parent pollen mixes. Marker pollen homozygous for a rare IDH allele was the genetic marker in each pollen mix. The resulting seeds were analyzed electrophoretically. At both seed orchards,

V. J. Apsit; R. R. Nakamura; N. C. Wheeler

1989-01-01

281

Matched-filter bank interpretation of some spectral estimators 1 1 This work was supported in part by the Senior Individual Grant Programme of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, the Swedish National Board for Technical Development (NUTEK), the NSF Grant MIP9457388 and the ARPA Grant MDA972-93-1-0015  

Microsoft Academic Search

We make use of a matched-filter bank (MAFI) approach to derive spectral estimators for stationary signals with mixed spectra. We show that the Capon spectral estimator as well as the more recently introduced APES (amplitude and phase estimation) method are members of the MAFI class. A seemingly new MAFI-based spectral estimator is shown to reduce to APES as well. The

Petre Stoica; Andreas Jakobsson; Jian Li

1998-01-01

282

DNA Banking  

SciTech Connect

The author is involved in the ethical, legal, and social issues of banking of DNA and data from DNA analysis. In his attempt to determine the extent of DNA banking in the U.S., the author surveyed some commercial companies performing DNA banking services. This article summarizes the results of that survey, with special emphasis on the procedures the companies use to protect the privacy of individuals. 4 refs.

Reilly, P.R. (Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States))

1992-11-01

283

Design of Optimal Digital Filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four methods for designing digital filters optimal in the Chebyshev sense are developed. The properties of these filters are investigated and compared. An analytic method for designing narrow-band FIR filters using Zolotarev polynomials, which are extensions of Chebyshev polynomials, is proposed. Bandpass and bandstop narrow-band filters as well as lowpass and highpass filters can be designed by this method. The design procedure, related formulae and examples are presented. An improved method of designing optimal minimum phase FIR filters by directly finding zeros is proposed. The zeros off the unit circle are found by an efficient special purpose root-finding algorithm without deflation. The proposed algorithm utilizes the passband minimum ripple frequencies to establish the initial points, and employs a modified Newton's iteration to find the accurate initial points for a standard Newton's iteration. The proposed algorithm can be used to design very long filters (L = 325) with very high stopband attenuations. The design of FIR digital filters in the complex domain is investigated. The complex approximation problem is converted into a near equivalent real approximation problem. A standard linear programming algorithm is used to solve the real approximation problem. Additional constraints are introduced which allow weighting of the phase and/or group delay of the approximation. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The desired constant group delay which gives the minimum Chebyshev error is found to be smaller than that of a linear phase filter of the same length. These filters, in addition to having a smaller, approximately constant group delay, have better magnitude characteristics than exactly linear phase filters with the same length. The filters have nearly equiripple magnitude and group delay. The problem of IIR digital filter design in the complex domain is formulated such that the existence of best approximation is guaranteed. An efficient and numerically stable algorithm for the design is proposed. The methods to establish a good initial point are investigated. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The magnitudes of the filter poles near the passband edge are larger than of those far from the passband edge. A delay overshooting may occur in the transition band (don't care region), and it can be reduced by decreasing the maximum allowed pole magnitude of the design problem at the expense of increasing the approximation error.

Chen, Xiangkun

284

Nonlinear Filtering: Analysis and Numerical Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the research during the reporting period we focused on the following areas: (1) Nonlinear filtering for acutely maneuvering targets; (2) Development of banks of interacting Bayesian spatial-temporal matched filters for track-before-detect (TBD) based o...

B. Rozovskii A. Tartakovsky

2001-01-01

285

Bio-impedance signal processing using adaptive digital filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-impedance evaluation is one of the medicine diagnostic methods for the evaluation of tissue perfusion. The bioimpedance on the patient's body surface is evaluated by analogue HF-vector Z-meter. The Z signal is converted into a digital form and further digitally processed and filtered. Spurious disturbing signals distorting the bio-impedance signal are suppressed by adaptive FIR filter.

Vaclav Papez; Stanislava Papezova

2011-01-01

286

Defect detection in textured materials using optimized filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of automated defect detection in textured materials is investigated. A new approach for defect detection using linear FIR filters with optimized energy separation is proposed. The performance of different feature separation criteria with reference to fabric defects has been evaluated. The issues relating to the design of optimal filters for supervised and unsupervised web inspection are addressed. A

Ajay Kumar; Grantham K. H. Pang

2002-01-01

287

FIR properties of VCC galaxies (Auld+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) is the deepest, confusion-limited survey of the Virgo Cluster at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. The entire survey at full depth covers ~55deg2 in five bands (100-500um), encompassing the areas around the central dominant elliptical galaxies (M87, M86 and M49) and extends as far as the NW cloud, the W cloud and the Southern extension. The survey extends beyond this region with lower sensitivity so that the total area covered is 84 deg2. In this paper we describe the data, the data acquisition techniques and present the detection rates of the optically selected Virgo Cluster Catalogue (VCC). We detect 254 (34%) of 750 VCC galaxies found within the survey boundary in at least one band and 171 galaxies are detected in all five bands. For the remainder of the galaxies we have measured strict upper limits for their FIR emission. (2 data files).

Auld, R.; Bianchi, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Davies, J. I.; Bendo, G. J.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Cortese, L.; Baes, M.; Bomans, D. J.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; de Looze, I.; Fritz, J.; Gavazzi, G.; Pappalardo, C.; Grossi, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Magrini, L.; Pohlen, M.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zibetti, S.

2013-08-01

288

FIR interferometer and scattering measurements of ATF  

SciTech Connect

A 15-channel far-infrared (FIR) interferometer system has been constructed to measure the electron densities on the ATF plasmas. The system consists of a pair of cw 214-..mu..m difluoromethane (CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/) lasers, optically pumped by separate CO/sub 2/ lasers. The large number of channels is achieved by the use of reflective beam expansion optics to create a beam of 2 cm /times/ 45 cm. After passing through the plasma discharge, the elongated beam produced by the cylindrical mirrors is dissected by an array of 15 off-axis paraboloid reflectors, each of which illuminates a single Schottky-diode detector. The use of the beam expanding optics system reduces the number of optical elements required for the interferometer to approximately 2-3 per channel. The FIR laser beams are transported from the laser room to the experimental area by 25 mm i.d. dielectric waveguides purged with dry nitrogen. The system can also be operated at a wavelength of 119-..mu..m by changing the gas in FIR laser cavities to methanol for high density experiments. Details of the system are described. A study is underway to determine the optimum design of a FIR scattering system for the ATF. This scattering system will be used to investigate density fluctuations with scale lengths from 0.1 cm to the plasma radius. The laser for this scattering system may be operated at wavelengths of 447, 307, 214, 184, and 119 ..mu..m with power levels of 100 to 500 mW. A summary of the study is presented. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Fockedey, Y.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Bennett, C.A.

1989-01-01

289

Optimal Gabor filters for texture segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texture segmentation involves subdividing an image into differently textured regions. Many texture segmentation schemes are based on a filter-bank model, where the filters, called Gabor filters, are derived from Gabor elementary functions. The goal is to transform texture differences into detectable filter-output discontinuities at texture boundaries. By locating these discontinuities, one can segment the image into differently textured regions. Distinct

Dennis F. Dunn; William E. Higgins

1995-01-01

290

Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

2009-09-01

291

ACTIVE FIRE MONITORING OVER BULGARIA: VALIDATION OF SEVIRI FIR PRODUCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the EUMETSAT Active Fire Monitoring product (FIR) on the two satellite missions MSG-2 Full Earth disc scanning and MSG-1 Rapid Scan Service has been studied. The accuracy and sensitivity of the FIR algorithm to detect thermal anomalies and actual forest fires over Bulgaria are assessed. The FIR validation is performed in cloud-free scenes for certain conditions (under\\/at

Julia Stoyanova; Christo Georgiev; Dilyana Yordanova; Krasimir Mladenov

292

On parameter filtering in continuous subword-unit-based speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple IIR or FIR filters have been widely used in isolated or connected word recognition tasks to filter the time sequence of speech spectral parameters, since, despite their simplicity, they significantly improve recognition performance. Those filters, when applied to continuous speech recognition, where phoneme-sized modelling units are used, induce spectral transition spreading and a cross-boundary effect. In this work, we

Pau Pachès-Leal; Climent Nadeu

1996-01-01

293

Fusion of multispectral and panchromatic satellite sensor imagery based on tailored filtering in the Fourier domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new methodology for fusing satellite sensor imagery, based on tailored filtering in the Fourier domain is proposed. Finite-duration Impulse Response (FIR) filters have been designed through an objective criterion, which depends on source image characteristics only. The designed filters allow a weighted fusion of the information contained in a fine spatial resolution image (PAN) and in a multispectral image

M. Lillo-Saavedra; C. Gonzalo; A. Arquero; E. Martinez

2005-01-01

294

George Bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides a rich feast for anyone who has a hunger to learn more about Georges Bank! Its 593 large pages provide articles on a wide variety of scientific and resource management topics. Many human interest features are also included. Among the latter are a photograph demonstrating the only proper way for a seagoing chemist to imbibe, and articles entitled, “My First Trip on Georges Bank,” and “‘Bait Up!’: Dory Fishing on Georges Bank.”Proving that every cloud has a silver lining, interest in producing this book was driven by the climate of controversy that surrounded Georges Bank in the latter 1970s and early 1980s. This was a time when exploratory wells were being driven to search for oil and when disputes between Canada and the United States about jurisdiction over the Bank were reaching their peak. As Backus notes in the Foreword, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., set up a Coastal Research Center in 1979 when “the oil/fish dispute on Georges Bank was hot.” The direct costs of publishing this book were, in turn, supported by the Coastal Research Center.

Codispoti, L. A.

295

Digital beamforming and filtering circuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A beamformer system is disclosed which includes an array of sensors such as hydrophones which produce signals from which information relating to a target is to be determined. The beamformer system includes a channel for each sensor, the channel including a variable length shift register which provides bulk delay to received signals, a FIR interpolation filter which provides vernier delay and shading. The system also includes a summation tree which adds the received signals and a sign extension/bit reversal filter to avoid overflow.

Odell, Douglas L.

1993-12-01

296

[Algorithm of digital demodulation and filtering in MRI spectrometers].  

PubMed

In the design of RF receiver of the digital MRI spectrometer console, a digital demodulation and filtering algorithm is presented in this thesis. The MR signals are firstly converted to digital signals by the A/D converter, and then quadrature-demodulated from high frequency carrier wave. The CIC filter, half-band filter and linear phase FIR filter are designed to process the cascaded filtering and decimation of the demodulated signals. This method achieves a satisfying processing speed and filtering effect, and also reduces the data size obviously. The experiment based on the permanent magnetism resonance imaging system proves its effectiveness and practicability. PMID:18973037

Pan, Wen-Yu; Liu, Zheng-Min; Zhou, He-Qin

2008-07-01

297

Ultrasensitive TES bolometers for space based FIR astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the development of a background limited transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer for the wavelength band 30-60 ?m. The bolometer consists of a Ti/Au superconducting thermometer and a Ta radiation absorber deposited on a 200?m×300?m membrane of SixNy suspended on long, narrow legs. This device is voltage biased and the current through the device is measured by a SQUID amplifier. The thermometer has transition temperature Tc = 108 mK and the device is operated from a 70 mK base plate. FIR radiation is coupled into a multimodc horn with entrance aperture of 450 ?m, length 4.5 mm and exit aperture of 45 ?m, which feeds a metal integrating cavity containing the detector. The radiation band is defined by a pair of lowpass and highpass mesh filters in front of the horn. Here we present measurements of optical noise equivalent power (NEP), optical efficiency, dynamic range and time constant. The results show that measured TES detectors are close to meeting the requirement of the ``Band 3'' of SAFARI FTS imaging instrument [1] on the SPICA mission [2].

Morozov, D.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Ade, P.; Bruijn, M.; de Korte, P. A. J.; Hoevers, H.; Ridder, M.; Khosropanah, P.; Dirks, B.; Gao, J.-R.

2009-12-01

298

FIR Space Heterodyne Interferometer Mission (ESPRIT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a mission concept for a free-flying FIR imaging interferometer using radio techniques. The ultimate goal is to reach a Hubble ST-equivalent spatial resolution for the FIR wavelength range. The main scientific objectives are imaging in the water and molecular ions emission lines, imaging in important atomic fine-structure lines: CII, NII, OI and imaging in high excitation lines of CO, HCN, HCO+, etc, of star forming regions and proto-stellar/proto-planetary systems with emphasis on disks. The facility will be the FIR complement of the ground-based ALMA without any atmospheric attenuation and disturbance in phase and transmission. It will be a follow-up mission of ISO-LWS, SWAS, ODIN, SIRTF, ASTRO-F; Herschel-PACS and -HIFI and of MIRI on JWST. The aimed characteristics are Telescope sizes : ˜ quad >3.5 meter ; off-axis Number of elements: N >6 ; free-flying Proj. Baselines: ˜ 7- 500 meter Frequency coverage: in the 1.5- -- 6 THz range (200 ? m -- 50 ? m) Spectral Resolution: 1 Km/s at 100 ? m. (0.1 goal) Spatial Resolution: 0.02'' at 100 ? m F.O.V.: ˜ 6'' Pointing Requirements: - accuracy: 0.2''; - knowledge: 0.1'' Image Dynamic range: 100 Spectral Dynamic range: 1000 Tsys: 1000 K (N receiver bands; HEB mixers @5 K; dual polarisation; QCL as LO's) IF: 4 GHz wide; InP pre-amps Correlator: 4 sections of 1 GHz, each 128 channels We will present the results of studies covering the scientific objectives, instrumentation, interferometer configuration, delay lines and correlation techniques. From the inherent narrow band capability of heterodyne techniques, the substantial advantages for path length difference compensation and tracking will be elaborated as well as the expected detection and imaging sensitivity.

de Graauw, T.; Team

299

CHARACTERIZATION OF EASTERN U.S. SPRUCE-FIR SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

he spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. his chapter will describe the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, includ...

300

The ISS Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR): a Summary of Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user scientific research facility that will fly in the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR will be one of the two racks that will make up the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) - the other being the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The ISS will provide the

F. Gati; M. E. Hill

2002-01-01

301

Design of FIR lasers with integrated pump lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tokamak diagnostics require high power, compact, stable FIR sources for plasma diagnostics. In an effort to meet these requirements, an FIR/CO2 laser package that has operated in the rather harsh environment of the ISX-B Tokamak experiment for approximately 5000 discharges totaling an operating time of approximately 3000 h was developed.

Hutchinson, D. P.; Ma, C. H.; Price, T. R.; Staats, P. A.; Vandersluis, K. L.

302

Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications  

PubMed Central

Far infrared (FIR) radiation (? = 3–100 ?m) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 ?m) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

2013-01-01

303

Lamb wave interactions through dispersion 2D filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic surface waves are widely used to sense and map the properties of the propagation media. In order to characterise local space-time waves, methods such as Gabor analysis are powerful. Nevertheless, knowing which wave is observed, extracting its full bandwidth contribution from the others and to map it in the signal domain is also of great interest. In the Fourier domain, the acoustic energy of a wave is concentrated along the wave-number frequency (k-?) dispersion curve, a way to extract one wave from others is to filter the signals by mean of k-? band-pass area that keeps only the selected surface wave. The objective of the present paper is to propose 2D Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters based on an arbitrary area shape designed to extract selected waves. FIR filtering is based on convolving the impulse response of the filter with the signals. Impulse responses derived from using k-? elliptical areas (E-FIR) are presented. The E-FIR filters are successfully tested on three experimental space-time signals corresponding to the propagation of Lamb waves measured by standard transducers on a cylindrical shell, by laser Doppler on a plate and generated by a circular pulse and observed by shearography on a rectangular plate.

Martinez, L.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Caplain, E.; Sarens, B.; Glorieux, C.

2012-03-01

304

A Phase-Sensitive Approach to Filtering on the Sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines filtering on a sphere, by first examining the roles of spherical harmonic magnitude and phase. We show that phase is more important than magnitude in determining the structure of a spherical function. We examine the properties of linear phase shifts in the spherical harmonic domain, which suggest a mechanism for constructing finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters. We show that those filters have desirable properties, such as being associative, mapping spherical functions to spherical functions, allowing directional filtering, and being defined by relatively simple equations. We provide examples of the filters for both spherical and manifold data.

Kakarala, Ramakrishna; Ogunbona, Philip

2012-12-01

305

Banking Theory, Deposit Insurance, and Bank Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. Introduction The last several years have seen extensive change in the U.S. banking industry. ' In the 1950s and 1960s the banking industry was a symbol of stability. By contrast, recent years have seen the greatest frequency of bank failures since the Great Depression. During the same period, the banking environment has undergone the most significant changes since 1933,

Douglas W. Diamond; Philip H. Dybvig

1986-01-01

306

Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

2009-01-01

307

Architecture design for deblocking filter in H.264\\/JVT\\/AVC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient VLSI architecture for the deblocking filter in H.264\\/JVT\\/AVC. We use an array of 8×4 8-bit shift registers with reconfigurable data path to support both horizontal filtering and vertical filtering on the same circuit (a parallel-in parallel-out reconfigurable FIR filter). Two SRAM modules are carefully organized not only for the storage of current macroblock data and

Yu-Wen Huang; To-Wei Chen; Bing-Yu Hsieh; Tu-Chih Wang; Te-Hao Chang; Liang-Gee Chen

2003-01-01

308

Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

Bertschinger, G.; Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

2008-10-01

309

Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation  

SciTech Connect

Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

Bertschinger, G.; Oosterbeek, J. W. [Institut fuer Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

2008-10-15

310

Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation.  

PubMed

Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating. PMID:19044527

Bertschinger, G; Endres, C P; Lewen, F; Oosterbeek, J W

2008-10-01

311

Madrone Duff and the Natural Regeneration of Douglas-fir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Excellent natural regeneration of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) often occurs under canopies of Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii), but the effects of madrone duff on regeneration are poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted in a thinned ...

D. Minore

1987-01-01

312

Stem volume losses in grand firs topkilled by western spruce ...  

Treesearch

Damage to the stands resulted from three outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) in ... Stem volume losses in grand firs topkilled by western spruce budworm in Idaho. Res. ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.

313

Examining soil parent material influence over Douglas-fir stem ...  

Treesearch

Estimating effects of fertilizers and soil parent materials on Douglas-fir growth ... in time and space introduce latent variables that drive between-site variation. ... First, we employed a mixed model approach to test the primary hypothesis of soil  ...

314

Differential Susceptibility of White Fir Provenances to Balsam Twig Aphid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Susceptibility of Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona provenances of white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.) to crown injury caused by balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch.) was assessed in an experimental plantation in the cent...

G. T. Ferrell

1989-01-01

315

Effect of solid matrix priming during moist chilling on dormancy breakage and germination of seeds of four fir species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of solid matrix priming (SMP) to overcome seed dormancy ofseeds of four fir species (Pacific silver fir, subalpine fir, grand fir andnoble fir), was examined. Seeds were subjected to treatments that combinedmoistchilling and SMP (SMP-chilling) and their germination compared to that elicitedby traditional moist chilling. For the SMP-chilling, six solid matrices withdifferent water holding capacities were tested (sphagnum,

Yilun Ma; J. Allan Feurtado; Allison R. Kermode

2003-01-01

316

Ethylene triggers needle abscission in root-detached balsam fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-harvest needle abscission is a major challenge for Christmas tree and greenery industries. It was hypothesized that ethylene\\u000a triggers abscission in balsam fir. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In experiment 1, 70 balsam fir\\u000a branches were collected, placed in water, and ethylene evolution was observed over time. In experiment 2, a 2 × 5 factorial\\u000a experiment was designed to

Mason T. MacDonald; Rajasekaran R. Lada; Alex I. Martynenko; Martine Dorais; Steeve Pepin; Yves Desjardins

2010-01-01

317

Cumulant based identification approaches for nonminimum phase FIR systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recursive and least squares methods for identification of non-minimum-phase linear time-invariant (NMP-LTI) FIR systems are developed. The methods utilize the second- and third-order cumulants of the output of the FIR system whose input is an independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) non-Gaussian process. Since knowledge of the system order is of utmost importance to many system identification algorithms, new procedures for determining

Saleh A. Alshebeili; A. N. Venetsanopoulos; A. Enis Cetin

1993-01-01

318

Perfect blind restoration of images blurred by multiple filters: theory and efficient algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of restoring an image from its noisy convolutions with two or more unknown finite impulse response (FIR) filters. We develop theoretical results about the existence and uniqueness of solutions, and show that under some generically true assumptions, both the filters and the image can be determined exactly in the absence of noise, and stably estimated in

Gopal Harikumar; Yoram Bresler

1999-01-01

319

Removal of dc-offset in current waveforms using digital mimic filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the capability of popular digital filters used in relaying applications to suppress DC offset in current waveforms over a broad range of time constants as encountered on real power systems. First, three mathematical performance indices are introduced to be able to compare filters on the same basis. Then the concept of the FIR

G. Benmouyal

1995-01-01

320

Filter method used to eliminate the zero-order image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of zero-order image has certain effect on the quality of reconstructed images in off-axis digital holography. For eliminating the zero-order image in off-axis digital holography, a method of zero-order image elimination in off-axis digital holography by using of FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter is proposed in this paper. This method is based on digital image processing. First, by analyzing the spatial spectrum characteristic of off-axis digital hologram and the principle of using FIR filter to eliminate zero-order image, the paper theoretically proved that the zero-order image can be effectively eliminated by the FIR filter method before reconstruction. Then, the digital simulation and experiment recorded holograms were processed in the program with the FIR filter method and reconstruction. Both the theoretical analysis and digital reconstruct results show that it can effectively eliminate the large bright spot in the center of the reconstructed image which caused by zero-order image, and improve the image quality significantly, give better contrast of the reconstructed image. This method is very simple and convenient for free of phase modulator or any extra optical element and needing only one time record.

Liu, Wenwen; Kang, Xin; He, Xiaoyuan

2008-11-01

321

Convergence analysis of the filtered-U algorithm for active noise control 1 1 This material is based upon work supported under a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship and NSF grant FD92-11025REN08195  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic gradient methods such as the filtered-X LMS (Widrow and Stearns, 1985) algorithm and its variants are the most widely used algorithms for adaptive active noise control. While these algorithms typically employ finite impulse response (FIR) filters, the filtered-U LMS algorithm developed by Eriksson and Allie (1989) uses an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter structure to achieve better performance and

A. Kuo Wang; Wei Ren

1999-01-01

322

Adaptive filtering with the self-organizing map: a performance comparison.  

PubMed

In this paper we provide an in-depth evaluation of the SOM as a feasible tool for nonlinear adaptive filtering. A comprehensive survey of existing SOM-based and related architectures for learning input-output mappings is carried out and the application of these architectures to nonlinear adaptive filtering is formulated. Then, we introduce two simple procedures for building RBF-based nonlinear filters using the Vector-Quantized Temporal Associative Memory (VQTAM), a recently proposed method for learning dynamical input-output mappings using the SOM. The aforementioned SOM-based adaptive filters are compared with standard FIR/LMS and FIR/LMS-Newton linear transversal filters, as well as with powerful MLP-based filters in nonlinear channel equalization and inverse modeling tasks. The obtained results in both tasks indicate that SOM-based filters can consistently outperform powerful MLP-based ones. PMID:16809020

Barreto, Guilherme A; Souza, Luís Gustavo M

2006-06-30

323

Effects of Grand Fir l\\\\lonoterpenes on the Fir Engraver') Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)~ and its Symbiotic Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoterpenes present in grand fir, Abies grand-iS (Douglas) Lindley, phloem were tested for their effects on fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, adults and the symbiotic fungus Trichosporium symbioticum ·Wright. All of the monoterpene vapors caused significant beetle mortality within 4 h. Toxicity was observed at doses normally found in the host tree, either in unattacked phloem or in reaction tissue

RAFFA K. F; A. A. BERRYMAN; J. SIMASKO; W. TEAL; B. L. WONG

324

Empirical mode decomposition as a filter bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has recently been pioneered by Huang et al. for adaptively representing nonstationary signals as sums of zero-mean amplitude modulation frequency modulation components. In order to better understand the way EMD behaves in stochastic situations involving broadband noise, we report here on numerical experiments based on fractional Gaussian noise. In such a case, it turns out that

Patrick Flandrin; Gabriel Rilling; Paulo Goncalves

2004-01-01

325

Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications for Bank Interest Margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the

Ross Levine

2003-01-01

326

Why Do Banks Need a Central Bank?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional view is that the joint provision of payments' services together with portfolio management functions by banks exposes the monetary system to contagious failure, which a Central Bank should prevent. The author argues, however, that the joint provision of payments' services and portfolio management could be safely conducted by mutual collective investment intermediaries without such Central Bank support, and

C. A. E. GOODHART

1987-01-01

327

Is bank supervision central to central banking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several central banks have lost their bank supervisory responsibilities, in part because it has not been shown that supervisory authority improves the conduct of monetary policy. This paper finds that confidential bank supervisory information could help the Board staff more accurately forecast important macroeconomic variables and is used by FOMC members to guide monetary policy. These findings suggest that

Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

1999-01-01

328

Adaptive notch filter for removal of coherent noise from infrared scanner data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the use of an adaptive noise canceling technique to eliminate the coherent noise generated in scanner data. The technique is based on a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) adaptive noise canceler. A two-weight FIR filter is used to adaptively learn the characteristics of a sinusoid. This sinusoid is then removed from the data. The least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm is used to converge to the coefficients of the adaptive filter during the learning process. An image corrupted with a single frequency periodic noise is used for investigating the algorithm. It is observed that the efficiency of the algorithm is dependent on the convergence gains and the initial positioning of the weights of the FIR filter. Because of the computational simplicity of the algorithm, it is possible to implement this in real-time mode.

Jaggi, Sandeep

1991-11-01

329

Environmental Characterisitcs of the Grand Fir Mosaic and Adjacent Habitat Types.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grand Fir Mosaic habitats differ from adjacent forest habitats in their slow rate of secondary succession to woody vegetation. Remote monitoring stations were used to sample the environment at a Grand Fir Mosaic site and three adjacent habitat types. The ...

D. E. Ferguson J. C. Byrne

2000-01-01

330

Multiresolution Bilateral Filtering for Image Denoising  

PubMed Central

The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that does spatial averaging without smoothing edges; it has shown to be an effective image denoising technique. An important issue with the application of the bilateral filter is the selection of the filter parameters, which affect the results significantly. There are two main contributions of this paper. The first contribution is an empirical study of the optimal bilateral filter parameter selection in image denoising applications. The second contribution is an extension of the bilateral filter: multiresolution bilateral filter, where bilateral filtering is applied to the approximation (low-frequency) subbands of a signal decomposed using a wavelet filter bank. The multiresolution bilateral filter is combined with wavelet thresholding to form a new image denoising framework, which turns out to be very effective in eliminating noise in real noisy images. Experimental results with both simulated and real data are provided.

Zhang, Ming; Gunturk, Bahadir K.

2008-01-01

331

A small animal model study of perlite and fir bark dust on guinea pig lungs.  

PubMed

Fir bark (Abies) and perlite (noncrystalline silicate) dusts have been reported to cause pulmonary disease in humans. Guinea pigs were exposed to either fir bark or perlite dust in a special chamber. Severe pathologic changes occurred in the lungs, consisting of lymphoid aggregated and a perivascular inflammatory response. Both dusts caused similar changes although one was vegetable (fir bark) and the other mineral (perlite). Fir bark and perlite dust appeared to be more than just nuisance dusts. PMID:6308352

McMichael, R F; DiPalma, J R; Blumenstein, R; Amenta, P S; Freedman, A P; Barbieri, E J

1983-05-01

332

RF Analog Beamforming Fan Filters Using CMOS All-Pass Time Delay Approximations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous-time (CT) radio frequency (RF) antenna array beamformer and analog circuit based on a discrete-space-continuous-time (DSCT) 2-D fan-filter having transfer function $H_{F,A}\\\\left (z_{x},s_{ct}\\\\right)$ is derived. The proposed transfer function is based on a 2-D FIR discrete domain fan filter. The discrete domain prototype is converted to the proposed mixed-domain DSCT analog filter by replacing unit sampled delays with CT

Chamith Wijenayake; Yongsheng Xu; Arjuna Madanayake; Leonid Belostotski; Len T. Bruton

2012-01-01

333

Design of 1-D Stable Variable Fractional Delay IIR Filters Using Finite Impulse Response Fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel finite impulse response fitting-based approach for the design of 1-D stable variable fractional delay IIR filters is proposed. The design algorithm is decomposed into three design stages: Firstly, a set of fixed delay FIR filters is designed by using weighted least-squares method. Then, the related set of fixed delay stable IIR filters is determined via

Hui Zhao; Hon Keung Kwan; Li Wan; Lei Nie

2006-01-01

334

Switched-capacitor Litton-code matched filter for satellite ODBH bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a switched-capacitor matched filter for the satellite on-board data handling (OBDH) Litton coded bus. The proposed filter represents the analog front-end of the bus interface (modem) in the central data management unit (CDMU) and in each remote terminal unit (RTU) of the satellite on-board communication system. The filter consists of a 16-taps switched-capacitor FIR structure,

R. Boi; S. Brigati; F. Francesconi; C. Ghidini; Piero Malcovati; Franco Maloberti; M. Poletti

1999-01-01

335

Sydowia polyspora associated with current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on true fir ( Abies spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25y. Approximately 2–4 weeks after bud break, needles develop chlorotic spots or bands that later turn necrotic. The symptoms have been observed on noble fir (Abies procera), Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana) and grand

Venche Talgø; Gary Chastagner; Iben Margrete Thomsen; Thomas Cech; Kathy Riley; Kurt Lange; Sonja Sletner Klemsdal; Arne Stensvand

2010-01-01

336

GROWTH-TREND DECLINES OF SPRUCE AND FIR IN MID-APPALACHIAN SUBALPINE FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dendroecological analysis of 258 increment growth cores collected from red spruce, balsam fir, and Fraser fir in central West Virginia and western Virginia indicates marked declines in growth-trend during the past 20 years similar to that reported for spruce and fir in high-eleva...

337

The FIR-RC Correlation within Starforming Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation between the radio continuum (RC, typically 2cm < ? < 20cm) and the far-infrared (FIR, in the 40 to 120 micron range) is among the tightest known of global parameters of galaxies, and eludes an adequate explanation. We highlight the results of an extensive study that explores the local FIR-RC relationship within several nearby extended starforming galaxies. In addition, we briefly review some of the models proposed to explain this correlation, with an emphasis on those that invoke a tighter physicalcoupling between dust-grains and cosmic rays.

Wells, Brett

338

Effects of filter housing and ductwork configuration on air flow uniformity inside air cleaning filter housings  

SciTech Connect

Each new HEPA filter installation presents a different physical configuration based on the system requirements the available space and designer preference. Each different configuration can result in variations of air flow uniformity inside the filter housing across the filter banks. This paper will present the results of air flow uniformity testing for six different filter housing/ductwork configurations and discuss if any of the variations in air flow uniformity is attributable to the difference in the physical arrangements for the six cases.

Paul, J.D.

1992-12-31

339

Effects of filter housing and ductwork configuration on air flow uniformity inside air cleaning filter housings  

SciTech Connect

Each new HEPA filter installation presents a different physical configuration based on the system requirements the available space and designer preference. Each different configuration can result in variations of air flow uniformity inside the filter housing across the filter banks. This paper will present the results of air flow uniformity testing for six different filter housing/ductwork configurations and discuss if any of the variations in air flow uniformity is attributable to the difference in the physical arrangements for the six cases.

Paul, J.D.

1992-01-01

340

Autocorrelation noise removal for optical coherence tomography by sparse filter design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a reconstruction method to eliminate the autocorrelation noise (ACN) in optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this method, the optical fields scattered from the sample features are regarded as the response of a sparse finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Then the OCT reconstruction is formulated as one of identifying the parameters of a sparse FIR filter, which are obtained via an ?1 optimization with soft thresholding. The experimental results show that the proposed method can obtain OCT reconstruction results with effective attenuation of ACN.

Seck, Hon Luen; Zhang, Ying; Soh, Yeng Chai

2012-07-01

341

Autocorrelation noise removal for optical coherence tomography by sparse filter design.  

PubMed

We present a reconstruction method to eliminate the autocorrelation noise (ACN) in optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this method, the optical fields scattered from the sample features are regarded as the response of a sparse finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Then the OCT reconstruction is formulated as one of identifying the parameters of a sparse FIR filter, which are obtained via an [script-l](1) optimization with soft thresholding. The experimental results show that the proposed method can obtain OCT reconstruction results with effective attenuation of ACN. PMID:22894512

Seck, Hon Luen; Zhang, Ying; Soh, Yeng Chai

2012-07-01

342

Bank incentives, contract design and bank runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the Diamond–Dybvig [Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity, J. Polit. Econ. 91 (1983) 401–419] model as developed in Green and Lin [Implementing efficient allocations in a model of financial intermediation, J. Econ. Theory 109 (2003) 1–23] and Peck and Shell [Equilibrium bank runs, J. Polit. Econ. 111 (2003) 103–123]. We dispense with the notion of a bank as

David Andolfatto; Ed Nosal

2008-01-01

343

Natural regeneration in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Natural regeneration of five conifer species was surveyed in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. The habitat types range from warm, dry (grand fir/white spirea) to mesic (Grand fir/Mountain Maple). Four harvest-regeneration methods and four site preparation techniques were sampled. Recommendations for obtaining natural regeneration vary primarily by habitat type. Conifer seedlings in the warm, dry grand fir white spirea habitat type require site protection for establishment. In the mesic grand fir/mountain maple habitat type, tall shrub potential can reduce the opportunity to establish early seral conifer species.

Geier-Hayes, K.

1994-03-01

344

Douglas-Fir Bark Tannin Decomposition in Two Forest Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Purified Douglas-fir bark tannin equivalent to the amount in a 2-inch bark mulch was added to two widely different soils in the laboratory. About 22 percent of the tannin decomposed in 180 days. Soil microflora generally increased. Nitrate production was ...

W. B. Bollen K. C. Lu

1969-01-01

345

The Wolf, the Moose, and the Fir Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces a case study for upper grade levels and undergraduate students that is designed to increase students' ability to read and comprehend scientific information. Discusses ecological parameters and evaluates trophic level interactions. Questions the fluctuations in the moose and wolf populations and the growth rates of balsam firs. Includes…

Fortier, Gary

2000-01-01

346

Water and Methanol Maser Activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 6 Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s-1 day-1. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Jeong-Eun

2012-11-01

347

Seeding Habits of Upper-Slope Tree Species IV. Seed Flight of Noble Fir and Pacific Silver Fir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Noble and Pacific silver fir seed fall declined rapidly as distance from uncut timber at the edge of clearcuts increased. Observations were made at four locations in the Washington and Oregon Cascade Range. There were no differences in dispersal of sound ...

R. E. Carkin J. F. Franklin J. Booth C. E. Smith

1978-01-01

348

A nonlinear connectionist approach to performance enhancement of correlation filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlation-based filters (e.g MACE, MACH) have been widely employed for automatic target acquisition. In general, a bank of filters is developed wherein each filter is trained to respond to a particular range of conditions (such as aspect angle). Individual filter outputs are utilized to determine a best match between objects in a scene and the training information. However, it is not uncommon for discrete clutter objects to correlate well with an individual filter, resulting in an unacceptable false alarm rate (FAR). It is the authors" hypothesis that although a clutter event may correlate well with an individual filter, there are discernable differences in the way clutter and targets correlate across the bank of filters. In this paper, the authors investigate a connectionist based approach that combines the individual filter outputs in a non-linear manner for improved performance. Particular attention is given to designing the correlation filter constraints in conjunction with the combination approach to optimize performance.

Brucks, Timothy; Riddle, Jack G.; VanMaasdam, Peter J.

2003-09-01

349

Lessons from internet banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus on new technologies in service situations is growing and is of particular importance in financial services contexts. It is argued that there is mutuality of benefit for both bank and customer through the adoption of self-service technologies (SSTs), of which e-banking is but one example. While the economic imperative for banks' adoption of e-banking solutions is clear, the

Mark Durkin

350

Bank of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

351

Efficiency in European banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the established literature on modelling the cost characteristics of banking markets by applying the flexible Fourier functional form and stochastic cost frontier methodologies to estimate scale economies, X-inefficiencies and technical change for a large sample of European banks between 1989 and 1997. The results reveal that scale economies are widespread for smallest banks and those in the

Y. Altunba?; E. P. M. Gardener; P. Molyneux; B. Moore

2001-01-01

352

European Central Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

353

Salt River Salt Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Salt River Salt Banks are located on the north shore of the Salt River on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Three small springs emerge above and flow over the salt banks resulting in the formation of stalactites. The mechanism by which the banks wer...

E. L. Smith G. L. Bender

1973-01-01

354

40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...required under paragraph (a) of this section using either one or a combination of the following: bag filters, bank filtration, cartridge filters, chlorine dioxide, membranes, ozone, or UV, as described in §§ 141.716 through...

2010-07-01

355

40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...required under paragraph (a) of this section using either one or a combination of the following: bag filters, bank filtration, cartridge filters, chlorine dioxide, membranes, ozone, or UV, as described in Sec. Sec. 141.716 through...

2009-07-01

356

40 CFR 141.711 - Filtered system additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...required under paragraph (a) of this section using either one or a combination of the following: bag filters, bank filtration, cartridge filters, chlorine dioxide, membranes, ozone, or UV, as described in §§ 141.716 through...

2013-07-01

357

The Evolution of Central Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1995What have we learned about central banks? The principal factors affecting central bank autonomy in the past two centuries have been prevailing political conditions, a laissez faire environment, and the exchange rate regime (whether fixed or floating).Institutions we know as central banks emerged or were established as commercial banks or government banks. Their evolution into central banks came with

Forrest Capie

1999-01-01

358

78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association...National Association, Retail Bank, Franklin, Pennsylvania (TA-W-82,188...separations at PNC's Retail Banks in Franklin, Pennsylvania and West Chester,...

2013-02-22

359

Disk filter  

DOEpatents

An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1986-01-01

360

Lumber recovery and deterioration of beetle-killed douglas-fir and grand fir in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time since death over a 4-year period on the amount of usable product volume and value, and to determine the species of fungi associated with wood deterioration in the stems of Douglas-fir and grand fir trees killed by bark beetles in northeastern Oregon.

Parry, D.L.; Filip, G.M.; Willits, S.A.; Parks, C.G.

1996-09-01

361

The Application and Computer Simulation of MultiChannel Cochlear Implant Based on All Phase DFT Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Band-pass filter bank is an essential part in cochlear implant (CI). Its characteristics are important for synthesized sound quality because the outputs of filter bank contain a lot of fine structure cues which need to be encoded and transmitted to implanted electrode and then to stimulate auditory nerves. All phase DFT (APDFT) filter is a novel and high efficient digital

Lan Tian; Zhengxin Hou; Zhimin Pang

2007-01-01

362

Spiral systolic design with asynchronous controls for LPF digital filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of spiral systolic arrays (Sas) with asynchronous controls for efficient and flexible implementation of linear phase FIR filters is presented. In this approach, (1) reduction of filter due to symmetry, (2) conversion of sequential input signal into input blocks by means of a spiral systolic mesh that is (a) suitable for highly parallel processing and (b) flexible for enabling various array sizes, and (3) making data streams independent of computations executed in each processor will collectively minimize computation time. The SA architecture processes the input signal row by row, and eliminates the complex shift register organization of the traditional FIR realization. Incorporated in this design are maximum parallelism and pipelinability, trade-off among computations, communications, and memory. Moreover, the systolic array will use simple local interconnection without undesirable properties such as preloading input data or global broadcasting. The key component of the asynchronous spiral SA is a communication protocol that controls input data flow properly and efficiently.

Fan, Yiping; Thompson, Wiley E.; Reihani, Kamran

1996-06-01

363

Bank Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bank Information Center (BIC) is a nonprofit, independent, non-governmental organization that "provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)." The organization's Website contains information about BIC's ongoing activities and offers useful publications and toolkits for those interested in and involved with MDBs. The Toolkits for Activists section includes fact sheets that explain the inner workings of the World Bank, covering topics such as basic information about the World Bank, the Country Assistance Strategy, World Bank policy framework, and information on World Bank's lending. Each fact sheet is available in both .pdf and HTML formats. The publications section offers a variety of resources including papers, case studies, and meeting reports, many of which are available online. Also provided are links to other monitoring organizations around the world and several online forums. An information services page will be added soon.

364

Cascaded integrator comb filters with smoothly varying coefficients for reduced delay in synchrotron feedback loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the J-PARC complex in Tokai, Japan, is designed to accelerate a high intensity proton beam from 181 MeV, and later 400 MeV to 3 GeV in 20 ms within the 40 ms machine cycle. The beam power up to 1 MW demands a stable beam control to avoid excessive losses and activation of the accelerator chain. The fully digital control system is based on quadrature modulation and demodulation. In the amplitude control loops standard FIR filters separate the harmonics (h=2) and (h=4) after down conversion. For the phase loops at (h=2) and (h=4), intended to damp synchrotron oscillations, the delay in a FIR filter would limit the loop stability. Cascaded integrator comb filters, also called CIC filters, provide a shorter delay because they filter the longitudinal beam signal only where it is necessary. The notches are located at multiples of the revolution frequency of the proton beam. For fixed frequency accelerator applications, digital comb filters with fixed clock frequency are widely used to improve loop stability. For variable frequency accelerator applications, as in a proton synchrotron, where the frequency swing is larger than the notch width, usually the clock frequency of the comb filter is variable and chosen to be an integer multiple of the particle revolution frequency. At J-PARC RCS, the clock frequency has to be fixed. Tracking the frequency would require a variable noninteger number of filter taps. Here we present a filter, based on the weighted output of 2 CIC filters with variable length, and one tap difference. The filter function looks like a CIC with smoothly varying coefficients, where the notches follow the revolution frequency of the proton beam. The delay of this filter is approximately half of the corresponding FIR filter, so that the phase loops have a higher stability margin.

Schnase, A.; Nomura, M.; Tamura, F.; Yamamoto, M.; Anami, S.; Ezura, E.; Hara, K.; Ohmori, C.; Takagi, A.; Yoshii, M.

2005-12-01

365

A review of metal mesh filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Instrumentation Group at Cardiff University has been developing metal mesh optical filters for more than 30 years, which are currently in use in many ground-, balloon- and space-based instruments. Here we review the current state of the art with respect to these quasi-optical components (low-pass, high-pass and band-pass filters, dichroics and beam-dividers) as developed for the FIR and sub-millimetre wavelength region. We compare performance data with various modelling tools (HFSS, transmission line theory or Floquet mode analysis). These models assist with our understanding of the behaviour of these filters when used at non-normal incidence or in the diffraction region of the grid structures. Interesting artefacts, such as the Wood anomalies and behaviour with S and P polarisations, which dictate the usage of these components in polarisation sensitive instruments, will be discussed.

Ade, Peter A. R.; Pisano, Giampaolo; Tucker, Carole; Weaver, Samuel

2006-07-01

366

Evaluation to digital filtering to obtain Sagnac shift in open loop-IFOG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to find the best way to obtain the Sagnac phase shift in the output signal of open loop interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes (IFOGs). Also, the utilized digital filtering based on FIR kaiser window for implementing the digital signal processing part is evaluated. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is based on implementing four kaiser

Mohammad Reza Nasiri Avanaki; Alireza Toloei

2009-01-01

367

Composite filter trees and image recognition via binary search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction rules for building composite binary phase-only filters (CBPOFs) designed for use at the nodes of a binary tree have been developed using upweighted superposition algorithms. This paper describes the use of this method to build a four-target, rotation-invariant CBPOF bank on which binary tree searches can be performed. Each of the four trees in this filter bank consists of 256 simple filters (BPOFs) and 254 composites. Sequential search of the 256 simple filters is replaced by a binary search which uses at most 26 composites and 4 simple BPOFs. An image recognition system utilizing the filter bank has been developed, assembled, and evaluated by simulation and experiment. The empirical results obtained using a hybrid optical correlator with computer-controlled magneto-optic spatial light modulators (MOSLMs) at the input and filter planes are presented.

Carhart, Gary W.; Walsh, Thomas R.; Giles, Michael K.

1990-09-01

368

Iterative learning controller synthesis using FIR models for batch processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive iterative learning control based on the measured input-output data is proposed to solve the traditional iterative\\u000a learning control problem in the batch process. It produces a control law with self-tuning capability by combining a batch-to-batch\\u000a model estimation procedure with the control design technique. To build the unknown batch operation system, the finite impulse\\u000a response (FIR) model with the lifted

Junghui Chen; Kuo-Tong Chou

2009-01-01

369

The FIR emission lines in NGC6946 and NGC1313  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present ISO--LWS FIR observations in the CII (158 ? m) and OI (63 ? m) emission lines of the starbusrt galaxy NGC6946 and the irregular galaxy NGC1313. For both galaxies full maps at 158? m are available. The CII emission peaks on the central regions and the spiral arms, traced also by the MIR emission at 7 and 15 ? m, but a diffuse extended emission, probably associated with the atomic gas, is also present. The CII/FIR, CII/(7? m) and CII/(15? m) ratios as a function of the IRAS (60/100? m) ratio, tracer of heating intensity, are presented and compared to the same ratios derived from the integrated emission of 60 more distant normal galaxies (Malhotra et al. 1998, 1999). The trends in the integrated emission plots and in the spatially resolved plots are quite similar. The CII/FIR and the CII/(15? m) ratios decrease as the systems become more active whereas the CII/(7? m) stays quite constant. This is interpreted in terms of differences in the coupling of the gas with different grains populations. The relation between FIR emission lines and other gas components (CO and HI) is also investigated and compared to the PDRs models. We thus derive the ISM main parameters (n,G0) for nuclear, spiral arms and diffuse emission in both galaxies and we establish that no more than the 30% of the CII emission comes from the diffuse atomic medium. This work was supported by ISO data analysis funding from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and carried out at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology. ISO is an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA member states (specially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK) with the partecipation of ISAS and NASA.

Contursi, A.; Brauher, J.; Helou, G.; Silbermann, N.; Malhotra, S.; Dale, D.

1999-12-01

370

Blind identification of multichannel FIR blurs and perfect image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its practical importance in image processing and computer vision, blind blur identification and blind image restoration have so far been addressed under restrictive assumptions such as all-pole stationary image models blurred by zero or minimum-phase point-spread functions. Relying upon diversity (availability of a sufficient number of multiple blurred images), we develop blind FIR blur identification and order determination schemes.

Georgios B. Giannakis

2000-01-01

371

Steam pretreatment of douglas-fir wood chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglas-fir sapwood and heartwood were impregnated with SO2 and steam exploded at three severity levels, and the cellulose-rich, water-insoluble component was enzymatically hydrolyzed.\\u000a The high-severity conditions resulted in near complete solubilization and some degradation of hemicelluloses and a significant\\u000a improvement in the efficiency of enzymatic digestibility of the cell ulose component. At lower severity, some of the hemicellulose\\u000a remained un

Abdel-Latif Boussaid; Ali R. Esteghlalian; David J. Gregg; Keun Ho Lee; John N. Saddler

2000-01-01

372

Sorption of heavy metals by untreated red fir sawdust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium and rate relationships have been determined for the sorption of divalent copper (Cu2+) and hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) onto untreated Red Fir sawdust. For both ions, the equilibrium sorption levels were determined to be a function of the solution\\u000a pH and temperature. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the sawdust for Cu2+ was found to increase with increasing pH. However, for

Patrick S. Bryant; James N. Petersen; James M. Lee; Thomas M. Brouns

1992-01-01

373

Molecular basis of FIR-mediated c-myc transcriptional control  

PubMed Central

The Far UpStream Element (FUSE) regulatory system promotes a peak in the concentration of c-Myc during cell cycle. First, the FBP transcriptional activator binds to the FUSE DNA element upstream of the c-myc promoter. Then, FBP recruits its specific repressor (FIR) which acts as an on/off transcriptional switch. Here we describe the molecular basis of FIR recruitment showing that the tandem RNA recognitions motifs of FIR provide a platform for independent FUSE DNA and FBP protein binding and explaining the structural basis of the reversibility of the FBP-FIR interaction. We also show that the physical coupling between FBP and FIR is modulated by a flexible linker positioned sequentially to the recruiting element. Our data explain how the FUSE system regulates precisely c-myc transcription and suggest that a small change in FBP–FIR affinity leads to a substantial effect on c-Myc concentration.

Cukier, Cyprian D.; Hollingworth, David; Martin, Stephen R.; Kelly, Geoff; Diaz-Moreno, Irene; Ramos, Andres

2010-01-01

374

Measurements of filter-cake properties  

SciTech Connect

The Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) programs of the U.S. Department of Energy require filtration, at temperatures from about 600 to 900 {degrees}C, of fine particles of coal ash, char, or spent and unreacted sorbent from hot-gas streams. Achieving acceptable filter lifetimes requires solutions to or avoidance of, such problems as incomplete filter cleaning, re-entrainment (i.e., re-filtration) of particles from filter cleaning, and bridging of filter cake between adjacent filters. These and other potential problems may arise from the materials properties of filter cakes, from the filter-bank design, and from the mechanisms of filter cleaning. Avoiding re-entrainment requires that some bonding and agglomeration of particles occur in the cakes (so that the agglomerates from filter cleaning are too large to be re-entrained), but excessive agglomeration can produce poor cleaning or bridging. For both PFBC and IGCC applications, we can form filter cakes at process temperatures, gas compositions, and gas flow rates, and measure the gas-phase permeabilities, porosities, tensile strengths, and deformation coefficients of these filter cakes to determine their dependencies on temperature, reaction time, gas composition, particle compositions, and particle size distributions. Filter-cake shear strengths and flow factors can be measured for powders ``as received,`` for filter cakes that we have heated to process temperatures, or for powders heated in reactive gases to simulate gas-solid reactions in process filter cakes.

Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.J.

1996-12-31

375

Characteristics of foliar chemistry in a commerical spruce-fir stand of northern New England, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly foliage samples were evaluated for elemental composition from red spruce and balsam fir trees in a commercial, low\\u000a elevation spruce-fir stand at Howland, Maine during the 1987 growing season. Balsam fir showed consistently higher concentrations\\u000a in A1 and to a lesser extent N, Ca, Mg, and Fe when compared to red spruce. Red spruce exhibited consistently higher Mn and

I. J. Fernandez; G. B. Lawrence; K. J. Richards

1990-01-01

376

Filter Design Considerations for Acquisition of BOC-modulated Galileo Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the effect of the transition band in designing both FIR- and IIR-types of digital filters, as possible bandwidth-limiting receiver filters, during the CDMA code acquisition of a BOC-modulated and over-sampled Galileo signal. It is shown that using an asymmetric transition band (i.e., the band between the passband and stopband frequencies) with respect to one fourth

Adina Burian; Elena Simona Lohan; Markku Renfors

2005-01-01

377

Frequency response masking filter design using an oscillation search genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an efficient optimization scheme is proposed for the design of frequency-response masking (FRM) FIR filters in the signed power-of-two (SPoT) space. The scheme is generated by integrating the genetic algorithm (GA) with an oscillation search (OS) algorithm. The optimization process is controlled by the GA. The OS algorithm is developed based on the properties of filter coefficients,

Ling Cen

2007-01-01

378

A unified approach to multistage frequency-response masking filter design using the WLS technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unified approach to the optimal design of sharp linear-phase finite-impulse-response (FIR) digital filters synthesized using the multistage frequency-response masking (FRM) technique. In this approach, the design of a k-stage FRM filter is achieved in a recursive manner. The minimax design problem arising at each step of the synthesis process is converted into a corresponding weighted least-squares

Wei Rong Lee; Lou Caccetta; Kok Lay Teo; Volker Rehbock

2006-01-01

379

The Origins of Banking Panics: Models, Facts, and Bank Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banking panics are the central event informing and rationalizing government intervention into the banking industry. In the last decade progress has been made in understanding the origins of panics. This essay reviews recent theoretical and empirical work on the origins of banking panics. New evidence on the causes of banking panics is introduced. Banking panics do not appear to have

Charles W. Calomiris; Gary Gorton

1991-01-01

380

Bank and near-bank processes in an incised channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravitational forces acting on in situ bank material act in concert with hydraulic forces at the bank toe to determine rates of bank erosion. The interaction of these forces control streambank mechanics. Hydraulic forces exerted by flowing water on in situ bank-toe material and failed cohesive material at the bank toe are often sufficient to entrain materials at relatively frequent

Andrew Simon; Andrea Curini; Stephen E. Darby; Eddy J. Langendoen

2000-01-01

381

International accounting harmonization, banking regulation, and Islamic banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islamic banks perform both commercial and investment banking services but do not establish firewalls to separate these two services legally, financially, and managerially. Unlike conventional commercial banks, Islamic banks are prohibited from charging or paying of interest. Instead, Islamic banks offer profit-sharing investment accounts, such that investors' return depends on the return on the assets financed by the investors' funds.

Rifaat Ahmed Abdel Karim

2001-01-01

382

Banking Intelligence: Application of data warehouse in bank operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the development of information technology, business intelligence plays an important role in the bank operation process. Bank Intelligence is a method of storing and presenting key bank business data so that anyone in the bank can quickly and easily ask questions of accurate and timely data. In a bank network, hundreds of millions of customer data records are

Zhonglin Lin; Minghua Zhu; Wenjun Yin; Jin Dong

2008-01-01

383

User's guide to the douglas-fir beetle impact model. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Douglas-fir beetle occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir. At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precendent conditions for epidemics of Douglas-fir beetle. An impact model has been developed to simulate tree mortality during such epidemics. The model has been linked to the Stand Prognosis Model (Forest Vegetation Simulator). This is a guide for using the model.

Marsden, M.A.; Eav, B.B.; Thompson, M.K.

1994-09-01

384

GenBank  

Microsoft Academic Search

GenBank1 is a comprehensive database that con- tains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 165000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web- based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the

Dennis A. Benson; Ilene Karsch-Mizrachi; David J. Lipman; James Ostell; David L. Wheeler

2003-01-01

385

GenBank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GenBank ® sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of >55 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (Web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA

Dennis A. Benson; Ilene Karsch-Mizrachi; David J. Lipman; James Ostell; Barbara A. Rapp; David L. Wheeler

2000-01-01

386

FILTER TREATMENT  

DOEpatents

A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

1958-08-26

387

Kidney Filtering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students filter different substances through a plastic window screen, different sized hardware cloth and poultry netting. Their model shows how the thickness of a filter in the kidney is imperative in deciding what will be filtered out and what will stay within the blood stream.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

388

Thresholds for perception of ripple depth in the passband of a low-pass filter.  

PubMed

Filters are often used in research related to speech and tone perception. Idealized filters with flat pass-bands, flat stop-bands, and infinitely steep rolloff are impossible to implement, thus practical filters often have a frequency response curve that has a certain degree of ripple, and always have finite rolloff. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature concerning the sensitivity of the ear to such artifacts. In the current study we examined the threshold of sensitivity to ripple depth in the pass-band of a digital low pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter. FIR filters are often used due to their lack of phase distortion, and due to the fact that their ripple depth can be closely controlled. Using an adaptive threshold detection paradigm, we found the threshold of noticeable ripple depth to be 2.7 dB (SD = 1.45) for filtered noise, and 4.89 dB (SD = 2.09) for a filtered chirp signal. This is significantly larger than the difference limen in intensity (DLI) for noise or pure tones. Notably, the threshold for filtered noise is significantly lower and more uniform across subjects, compared to the threshold for a filtered chirp signal. We conclude that these issues must be addressed when the necessity for filtering arises, though they cannot be considered independently of the signals themselves. PMID:16285469

Amir, Noam; Milhim, Makram; Radai, Liron

2005-01-01

389

Bank Failure and Bank-Specific Factors: A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys recent empirical literature to identify what are the bank-specific factors of banking failure. It shows that the five elements of the CAMEL framework are the principal bank-specific factors of banking failure. The results of selected papers suggest that capital level and earnings are the most relevant bank-specific factors. Nevertheless, because all the other bank-specific factors rely on

Raulin Lincifort Cadet

390

Adaptive lattice filters for block RLS based on QR decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the QR decomposition (QRD) method has been extensively used in the recursive least squares (RLS) adaptive filtering problems. And the least squares lattice (LSL) algorithm has been rederived based on the QRD method. On the other hand, in order to increase the throughput in the general RLS, a triangular systolic array for block processing based on the QRD method with Householder transformations has been derived. In this paper, we derive an adaptive FIR lattice filter structure for block processing based on QRD with Householder transformations.

Sakai, Hideaki; Imura, Tomoshi

1993-11-01

391

14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) Federal Special Federal Aviation...Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) 1. Applicability....

2013-01-01

392

The Singular Value Filter: A General Filter Design Strategy for PCA-Based Signal Separation in Medical Ultrasound Imaging  

PubMed Central

A general filtering method, called the singular value filter (SVF), is presented as a framework for principal component analysis (PCA) based filter design in medical ultrasound imaging. The SVF approach operates by projecting the original data onto a new set of bases determined from PCA using singular value decomposition (SVD). The shape of the SVF weighting function, which relates the singular value spectrum of the input data to the filtering coefficients assigned to each basis function, is designed in accordance with a signal model and statistical assumptions regarding the underlying source signals. In this paper, we applied SVF for the specific application of clutter artifact rejection in diagnostic ultrasound imaging. SVF was compared to a conventional PCA-based filtering technique, which we refer to as the blind source separation (BSS) method, as well as a simple frequency-based finite impulse response (FIR) filter used as a baseline for comparison. The performance of each filter was quantified in simulated lesion images as well as experimental cardiac ultrasound data. SVF was demonstrated in both simulation and experimental results, over a wide range of imaging conditions, to outperform the BSS and FIR filtering methods in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and motion tracking performance. In experimental mouse heart data, SVF provided excellent artifact suppression with an average CNR improvement of 1.8 dB (P < 0.05) with over 40% reduction (P < 0.05) in displacement tracking error. It was further demonstrated from simulation and experimental results that SVF provided superior clutter rejection, as reflected in larger CNR values, when filtering was achieved using complex pulse-echo received data and non-binary filter coefficients.

Lin, Dan; Hossack, John A.

2012-01-01

393

40 CFR Banking - General Information  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false General Information Banking Averaging, Banking and Trading (ABT) Program Protection of Environment...at 67 FR 40183, June 12, 2002] Averaging, Banking and Trading (ABT) ProgramâGeneral...

2010-07-01

394

GenBank.  

PubMed

GenBank® (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for almost 260 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assigns accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:23193287

Benson, Dennis A; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

2012-11-27

395

Physics and banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum atomic models and kinetic theory of gases prove suitable for studying dynamic structures such as a bank's balance-sheet. The bank is considered to be a complex economical system which is segmented by different units, whereas it interacts with the economic environment and thus, it can be studied according to the complex networks methodology. The application of Fair Value according

Stella Stamataki Smyrnaki; Titos Smyrnakis

2008-01-01

396

Government Ownership of Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate a neglected aspect of financial systems of many countries around the world: government ownership of banks. We assemble data which establish four findings. First, government ownership of banks is large and pervasive around the world. Second, such ownership is greater in countries with low levels of per capita income, backward financial systems, interventionist and inefficient

Rafael La Porta; Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes; Andrei Shleifer

2001-01-01

397

Government Ownership of Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate a neglected aspect of financial systems of many countries around the world: government ownership of banks. We assemble data which establish four findings. First, government ownership of banks is large and pervasive around the world. Second, such ownership is particularly significant in countries with low levels of per capita income, underdeveloped financial systems, interventionist and

Rafael La Porta; Andrei Shleifer

2000-01-01

398

GenBank  

PubMed Central

GenBank® is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 165?000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in the UK and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps to ensure worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

2005-01-01

399

GenBank  

PubMed Central

GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 205?000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the Web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at .

Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

2006-01-01

400

Banking (Conservatively) with Optimists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial banks frequently encounter optimistic entrepreneurs whose perceptions are biased by wishful thinking. Bankers are left with a difficult screening problem: separating realistic entrepreneurs from optimists who may be clever, knowledgeable, and completely sincere. We build a game-theoretic model of the screening process. We show that although entrepreneurs may practice self-restraint to signal realism, competition may lead banks to be

Michael Manove; A. Jorge Padilla

1999-01-01

401

umbilical cord blood banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current therapeutic uses of umbilical cord blood stem cells and the promise of these cells for the treatment of degenerative diseases in the future have led to the establishment of cord blood banks in many parts of the world. Although umbilical cord blood banking raises many ethical and legal issues, this article focuses on the controversy created by the coexistence

Sylvie Bordet; Linda Kharaboyan; André Lebrun

2007-01-01

402

Soviet Banks and Bankers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description of the organization of the Soviet banking system and the functions performed by it, as well as some glimpses of the role which Soviet bankers play in the economy of the Soviet Union are presented. The history of the Soviet banking syst...

E. Neuberger

1964-01-01

403

Banking on Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank

Roach, Ronald

2010-01-01

404

GenBank.  

PubMed

The GenBank((R))sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of >55 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (Web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank data is accessible through NCBI's integrated retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping and protein structure information, plus the biomedical literature via PubMed. Sequence similarity searching is provided by the BLAST family of programs. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. NCBI also offers a wide range of WWW retrieval and analysis services based on GenBank data. The GenBank database and related resources are freely accessible via the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov PMID:10592170

Benson, D A; Karsch-Mizrachi, I; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J; Rapp, B A; Wheeler, D L

2000-01-01

405

The Green Bank Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green Bank Telescope The 100-m NRAO Green Bank Telescope will be completed in early 2000. The GBT has a large number of unique design and performance features that will give it unprecedented scientific capability. This poster display will review those features, which include an offset feed (clear aperture) design, an active surface, a closed-loop laser metrology system for surface

P. R. Jewell

1999-01-01

406

FED: Our Central Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States. Congress created the Federal Reserve through a law passed in 1913, charging it with a responsibility to foster a sound banking system and healthy economy. This remains, today, the broad ...

2000-01-01

407

Central Bank Transparency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank transparency has become one of the key features of monetary policy recently. This survey article provides a structured review of the theoretical literature on the consequences of transparency of monetary policy, proposing a distinction between uncertainty and incentive effects of transparency. The theoretical insights are compared to the various ways in which central banks have become transparent in

Petra M. Geraats

2002-01-01

408

Banking. Teaching Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One in a series of consumer education materials for teenagers, this document focuses on banking and banking services. The series is based on the philosophy that teens need the training and guidance to develop the skills needed to become competent consumers. Developed for 4-H Club members, the material is designed to acquaint students with the…

Florida Univ., Gainesville. Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

409

Adaptively combined FIR and functional link artificial neural network equalizer for nonlinear communication channel.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel computational efficient adaptive nonlinear equalizer based on combination of finite impulse response (FIR) filter and functional link artificial neural network (CFFLANN) to compensate linear and nonlinear distortions in nonlinear communication channel. This convex nonlinear combination results in improving the speed while retaining the lower steady-state error. In addition, since the CFFLANN needs not the hidden layers, which exist in conventional neural-network-based equalizers, it exhibits a simpler structure than the traditional neural networks (NNs) and can require less computational burden during the training mode. Moreover, appropriate adaptation algorithm for the proposed equalizer is derived by the modified least mean square (MLMS). Results obtained from the simulations clearly show that the proposed equalizer using the MLMS algorithm can availably eliminate various intensity linear and nonlinear distortions, and be provided with better anti-jamming performance. Furthermore, comparisons of the mean squared error (MSE), the bit error rate (BER), and the effect of eigenvalue ratio (EVR) of input correlation matrix are presented. PMID:19244019

Zhao, Haiquan; Zhang, Jiashu

2009-02-24

410

Spatial changes in forest floor and foliar chemistry of spruce-fir forests across New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S., high elevation spruce-fir forests receive greater amounts of nitrogen deposition relative to low elevation areas. At high elevations the cycling of nitrogen is naturally low due to slower decomposition and low biological N demand. The combination of these factors make spruce-fir ecosystems potentially responsive to changes in N inputs.

S. G. McNulty; J. D. Aber; R. D. Boone

1991-01-01

411

The war against corruption in Nigeria: a new role for the FIRS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the implications which the recent Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act (FIRS Act), 2007 have for the ongoing war against corruption in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines the relevant provisions of the Act, which confers on the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) some anti-corruption-related powers. It discusses how the

Ige Omotayo Bolodeoku

2009-01-01

412

Stand density index applied to timber and goshawk habitat objectives in Douglas-fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural guidelines are presented for the management of intermountain Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands for sawtimber production and goshawk ( Accipiter gentilis) nesting habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains. Data from 14 goshawk nest stands in Douglas-fir forests on the Targhee National Forest in Idaho (Patla 1991) were used to characterize the range of stand conditions considered suitable for goshawk

Robert J. Lilieholm; Winifred B. Kessler; Karren Merrill

1993-01-01

413

Dwarf Mistletoe in Red and White Firs in California-23 to 28 Years After Inoculation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spread and buildup of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium abietinum, was studied on inoculated white fir, Abies concolor, and red fir, A. magnifica, in northern California for 23 to 28 years. At the end of these studies (1986), and in the absence of overstory i...

J. R. Parmeter R. F. Scharpf

1989-01-01

414

How to Identify Brooms in Douglas-fir Caused by Dwarf Mistletoe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dwarf mistletoe causes obvious brooms in Douglas-fir. The brooms are the easiest means of recognizing the presence of dwarf mistletoe: however, dwarf mistletoe is not the only cause of brooming in Douglas-fir. Therefore, accurate identification of dwarf m...

R. O. Tinnin D. M. Knutson

1985-01-01

415

Phellinus (Poria) weirii Root Rot in Douglas-Fir-Alder Stands 10-17 Years Old.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Red alder growing in even-aged mixture with Douglas-fir did not reduce initial losses to Phellinus weirii 10- to 17-year-old Douglas-fir plantations. P. weirii is creating openings in these young stands with 3 percent of the trees already dead in one case...

E. Hansen

1975-01-01

416

INDUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF GRAND FIR (ABIES GRANDIS LINDL.) CALLUS IN TISSUE CULTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research is a methodological analysis of the first stage of micro-propagation of grand fir (Abies grandis Lindl.), which is included in the group of coniferous tree species introduced in Poland and characterised by a fast growth rate. The experiments were conducted on four types of grand fir explants (mature seeds, mega-gametophytes, mature zygotic embryos, buds collected in springtime from

Katarzyna Nawrot-Chorabik

2007-01-01

417

Comparison of Wavelet Packets With Cosine-Modulated Pseudo-QMF Bank for ECG Compression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electrocardiogram (ECG) compression technique based on subband coding has been developed in this paper to compare with compression techniques based on Wavelet Packets (WP). The filter bank designed is a cosine-modulated pseudo-QMF bank using the Kaiser...

M. Blanco-Velasco F. Cruz-Roldan F. Lopez-Ferreras P. Martin-Martin

2001-01-01

418

A wavelet time-scale deconvolution filter design for nonstationary signal transmission systems through a multipath fading channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to develop a time-scale deconvolution filter for optimal signal reconstruction of nonstationary processes with a stationary increment transmitted through a multipath fading and colored noisy channel with stochastic tap coefficients. A deconvolution filter based on wavelet analysis\\/synthesis filter bank is proposed to solve this problem via a three-stage filter bank. A fractal signal transmitted through a multipath

Bor-Sen Chen; Yue-Chiech Chung; Der-Feng Huang

1999-01-01

419

Filtering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

1992-09-01

420

Design Considerations for Large Format FIR Array Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient long wavelength broadband and spectral imaging on SOFIA and in future FIR/sub-mm missions will require large two-dimensional detector arrays. While monolithic near infrared arrays of up to 2048 x 2048 pixels are available, observations at wavelengths beyond 40 microns are still limited to mosaics of 32 x 32 or less pixels. We describe how to combine state-of-the-art FIR/sub-mm photoconductor technology and the elaborate industrial production techniques of the near and mid-infrared to produce larger, more reliable and eventually easier to make long wavelength arrays. This approach includes monolithic photoconductor array configurations optimized for quantum efficiency and dark current. For electrical connection to a two-dimensional readout chip indium bump bonds similar to those in shorter wavelengths large-format arrays are used. The readout is based on the successful cryo-CMOS technology developed for SIRTF and SOFIA/AIRES. Differences in thermal contraction between detector and readout materials are addressed using techniques developed for large HgCdTe arrays. Initially, we plan on extrinsic Germanium photoconductor arrays of up to 128 x 128 pixels for wavelengths out to 130 microns. Longer wavelengths can be covered as blocked-impurity band Germanium, GaAs or other new detectors become available. Larger arrays may become feasible once the design concepts have been proven.

Wolf, Juergen; Hoffman, Alan W.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Farhoomand, Jam

421

Secondary dispersal of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa ) seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-seeded pines ( Pinus spp.) are known to be dispersed by seed-caching corvids (i.e. jays and nutcrackers) and rodents (e.g. chipmunks and mice), with a concomitant decrease in seed dispersability by wind. We tested the idea that seeds of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), which are winged but larger than the seeds of other members of Pseudotsuga, are dispersed by a combination of wind and seed-caching rodents. We compared characteristics of seeds from P. macrocarpa in southern California (mean seed mass 132.6 mg) to seeds of a population of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) in northern California (24.8 mg). We also tested whether rodents would cache seeds of P. macrocarpa. Seeds of P. macrocarpa had greater wing loadings (1.37 mg/mm 2) and descent velocities (2.47 m/s) than those of P. menziesii (0.52 mg/mm 2 and 1.28 m/s, respectively). These data indicate that the wind dispersability of P. macrocarpa is likely to be less than that of P. menziesii, but this loss of wind dispersability is partially compensated for by secondary dispersal of seeds by rodents, which readily gathered and cached the larger seeds of P. macrocarpa up to 34 m from source trees. Large seed size confers several advantages to P. macrocarpa, most importantly attracting seed-caching animals that effectively bury seeds.

Vander Wall, Stephen B.; Borchert, Mark I.; Gworek, Jennifer R.

2006-07-01

422

High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues  

SciTech Connect

New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong [Centre for Laser, Atomic and Molecular Studies (CLAMS), University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B. [Canadian Light Source, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 101 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada)

2010-02-03

423

Exploring the Determinant Factors of Bank’s Net Earnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the determinants of bank net earnings defined as profit after tax and deductibles in selected banks in Nigeria. Data used were extracted from balance sheets and income statement accounts and analyzed with the Ordinary Least square regression model. The results confirmed that customer’s deposits and reserves all impacted positively on the net earnings but only one bank’s

Okoli Margaret Nnenna

2012-01-01

424

Electronic Money Free Banking and Some Implications for Central Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses electronic money, its relation to free banking and some implications for central banking. It begins by introducing its conceptual framework for modern central banking, in terms of which it then rehearses the free banking argument. It then reviews the development of e-money in terms of both electronic payment methods and electronic issue, with special attention paid to

Yuksel Gormez; Christopher Houghton Budd

2004-01-01

425

Explaining Bank Efficiency: Bank Size or Ownership Structure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses cost and profit functions to estimate efficiency at the bank level for the 90s in Chile. Using these measures we explained cross-bank differences over time, which are related to bank size, ownership structure and other relevant variables. Our main findings are 1) banks that are established as open corporations in Chile tend to show higher level of

Rodrigo Fuentes; Marcos Vergara

426

Banks’ Internationalization Strategies: The Role of Bank Capital Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how capital requirements influence a bank’s mode of entry into foreign financial markets. We develop a model of an internationally operating bank that creates and allocates liquidity across countries and argue that the advantage of multinational banking over offering cross-border financial services depends on the benefit and the cost of intimacy with local markets. The benefit is

Diemo Dietrich; Uwe Vollmer

2006-01-01

427

Improved Overcurrent Protection of Capacitor Banks Using Mathematical Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical overcurrent relays used to protect capac- itor banks can better discriminate between faults and switching inrush compared to their electromechanical counterparts. How- ever, there is still scope and use for faster and reliable operation. This paper describes the implementation of a filter based on math- ematical morphology that creates distinct signatures for capacitor inrush and faults. These signatures are

Sravan K. Buggaveeti; Sukumar M. Brahma

2011-01-01

428

Core 4: Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Image Bank supplements the coursework for Core 4: The Shaping of the Modern World, an introductory course offered by the History Department of Brooklyn College. The Image Bank indexes numerous historical images spanning from the Scientific Revolution to the present. The images are divided into eight major topic indexes: Ancien Regime and Critics; Age of Revolutions; Industry and Society; Liberalism and Nationalism; Varieties of Imperialism; The World Turned Upside Down; Fascism, Depression & WWII; and, The World Since 1945. Indexes for major topics contain clustered subtopics, allowing users to locate relevant images quickly. This Image Bank presents students and educators with a valuable, visual method for understanding Modern Western History.

429

Iris Recognition Based on Multichannel Gabor Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for personal identification based on iris recognition is presented in this paper. The body of this paper details the steps of iris recognition, including image preprocessing, feature extraction and classifier design. The proposed algorithm uses a bank of Gabor filters to capture both local and global iris characteristics to form a fixed length feature vector. Iris matching

Li Ma; Yunhong Wang; Tieniu Tan

430

Iris Recognition Based on Multichannel Gabor Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Anew approach for personal identification based on iris recognition is presented in this paper. The body of this paper details the steps of iris recognition, including image preprocessing, feature extraction and classifier design. The proposed algorithm uses a bank ,of Gabor filters to capture ,both ,local and ,global iris characteristics to form a fixed length feature vector. Iris matching

L. Ma; Y. Wang; T. Tan

2002-01-01

431

Iris Recognition Using Circular Symmetric Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new method for personal identification based on iris recognition. The method consists of three major components: image preprocessing, feature extraction and classifier design. A bank of circular symmetric filters is used to capture local iris characteristics to form a fixed length feature vector. In iris matching, an efficient approach called nearest feature line (NFL) is used.

Li Ma; Yunhong Wang; Tieniu Tan

2002-01-01

432

Rational Filters for Passive Depth from Defocus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental problem in depth from defocus is the measurement of relative defocus between images. The performance of previously proposed focus operators are inevitably sensitive to the frequency spectra of local scene textures. As a result, focus operators such as the Laplacian of Gaussian result in poor depth estimates. An alternative is to use large filter banks that densely sample

Masahiro Watanabe; Shree K. Nayar

1998-01-01

433

Understanding Attitudes Towards Internet Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes towards the adoption of Internet Banking have been identified in this paper. This study provides an early analysis of the impediments users perceive as inhibiting non-users adoption of Internet banking Internet Banking has been broadly defined in this paper as as the ability of the customer to transact business with the bank through the use of the Internet.

Danielle Hain; Holly Tootell; Carole Alcock

434

Bank Risk and Deposit Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguing that a relatively high cost of deposit insurance indicates that a bank takes excessive risks, this article estimates the cost of deposit insurance for a large sample of banks in 14 economies to assess the relationship between the risk-taking behavior of banks and their corporate governance structure. The results suggest that banks with concentrated ownership tend to take the

Luc Laeven

2002-01-01

435

Why do banks provide leasing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks are engaging in leasing activities at an increasing rate which is shown by aggregated data for European as well as for US banking companies. However, little is known about leasing activities at the bank level. The contribution of this paper is to introduce the nexus of leasing in banking. Starting from an institutional base, it shows key features of

Dilek Bülbül; Felix Noth

436

The Evolution of Central Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Evolution of Central Banks employs a wide range of historical evidence and reassesses current monetary analysis to argue that the development of non-profit-maximizing and noncompetitive central banks to supervise and regulate the commercial banking system fulfils a necessary and natural function. Goodhart surveys the case for free banking, examines the key role of the clearing house in the evolution

Charles Goodhart

1988-01-01

437

Can Relationship Banking Survive Competition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How will banks evolve as competition increases from other banks and from the capital market? Will banks become more like capital market underwriters and offer passive transaction loans or return to their roots as relationship lending experts? These are the questions we address. Our key result is that as interbank competition increases, banks make \\

Arnoud W. A. Boot; Anjan V. Thakor

2000-01-01

438

Can Relationship Banking Survive Competition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of the banking firm that is intended to reflect contemporary trends in the evolution of banks. In particular, we focus on the effects of both interbank and capital market competition on the role of banks in funding corporations. In our model, banks can choose to provide loans that are similar to capital market funding (transaction loans)

Arnoud W A Boot; Anjan Thakor

1997-01-01

439

Water Bank Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Water Bank Program provides incentive payments to landowners and operators for conserving waters, preserving or improving migratory waterfowl habitat and other wildlife resources. The program will help in reducing the loss of wetlands in the Nation. T...

1972-01-01

440

Milk Banking in California  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Milk Banking in California Presented by: Jan Otey, Examiner II ... Page 2. California Health & Safety Code §1635 – 1644.5 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

441

Accurate Quantification of 1H Spectra: From Finite Impulse Response Filter Design for Solvent Suppression to Parameter Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme for accurate quantification of 1H spectra is presented. The method uses maximum-phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters for solvent suppression and an iterative nonlinear least-squares (NLLS) algorithm for parameter estimation. The estimation algorithm takes the filter influence on the metabolites of interest into account and can thereby correctly incorporate a large variety of prior knowledge into the estimation

Tomas Sundin; Leentje Vanhamme; Paul Van Hecke; Ioannis Dologlou; Sabine Van Huffel

1999-01-01

442

A programmable 32 tap digital interpolation filter in 1.5 ?m CMOS with 80 MHz output data rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 32 tap programmable, digital FIR filter for pulse shaping is presented. The filter performs interpolation of the input data sampled at a maximum clock frequency of 40 MHz. The output data rate is 80 MHz. The data inputs and outputs are emitter-coupled-logic (ECL)-compatible. The stepped coefficient set contains 256 coefficient bits, which can be serially loaded. To reduce the

Wolfgang Haberecht; Erik DeMan; Michael Schulz

1990-01-01

443

Multiagent system for optimizing filter coefficients in image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a new intelligent agent-based method to design filter banks that maximize compression quality. In this method, a multi-agent system containing cooperating intelligent agents with different roles is developed to search for filter banks that improve image compression quality. The multi-agent system consists of one generalization agent, and several problem formulation, optimization, and compression agents. The generalization agent performs problem decomposition and result collection. It distributes optimization tasks to optimization agents, and later collects results and selects one solution that works well on all training images as the final output. Problem formulation agents build optimization models that are used by the optimization agents. The optimization formulation includes both the overall performance of image compression and metrics of individual filters. The compression performance is provided by the image coding agent. Optimization agents apply various optimization methods to find the best filter bank for individual training images. Our method is modular and flexible, and is suitable for distributed processing. In experiments, we applied the proposed method to a set of benchmark images and designed filter banks that improve the compression performance of existing filter banks.

Shang, Yi; Li, Longzhuang

1999-10-01

444

Gabor Filter-Based Fingerprint Anti-spoofing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Gabor filter-based method to detect spoof fingerprint attacks in fingerprint biometric systems. It is\\u000a based on the observation that, real and spoof fingerprints exhibit different textural characteristics. Textural measures based\\u000a on Gabor energy and co-occurrence texture features are used to characterize fingerprint texture. Fingerprint image is filtered\\u000a using a bank of four Gabor filters, and then a

Shankar Bhausaheb Nikam; Suneeta Agarwal

2008-01-01

445

A template bank to search for gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: I. Physical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries are searched for using the matched filtering technique. As the model waveform depends on a number of parameters, it is necessary to filter the data through a template bank covering the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. The choice of templates is defined by the maximum allowed drop in signal-to-noise ratio due to

S. Babak; R. Balasubramanian; D. Churches; T. Cokelaer; B. S. Sathyaprakash

2006-01-01

446

Gas properties in dwarf galaxies from Herschel FIR spectroscopic observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dwarf galaxies are of great importance in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. They are often metal-poor and can show extreme star formation activity, while they are known to be deficient in CO, the usual molecular gas tracer (Leroy et al. 2009). Under low-metallicity conditions, the [CII] line, coming from a warmer phase, might be a better tracer of the molecular gas content. Observations show that the [CII]/CO(1-0) ratio can be an order of magnitude higher than in normal galaxies (Madden 2000). The [CII]/LFIR ratio is also high, as observed previously in dwarfs (Poglitsch et al. 1995, Madden et al. 1997, Hunter et al. 2001). As part of the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey (PI: S.C. Madden), we present observations of the dominant FIR fine-structure lines ([OIII] 88um, [CII] 158?m, [OI] 63?m ...) in a sample of about 30 local dwarf galaxies with the Herschel/PACS spectrometer. These lines probe the gas in different phases of the ISM, and ratios of [OIII]/[CII] and [OI]/[CII] are indicators of the density and radiation field in these environments. While we have no detection for the faintest objects, [CII] is detected in about 2/3 of the sample. More specifically, we find that the [CII] is the most extended line and brighter than the [OI] 63?m, dominating the cooling in the warm neutral medium. The [OIII] 88?m line traces the highly ionized medium and is the brightest of all, indicating young active star formation. All the FIR lines together can contribute to up to 1% of LFIR. We explore the correlation between the observed line intensities and ratios with global galaxy parameters, in particular metallicity, star formation activity and star formation history. This analysis shows that the structure of the ISM and star formation activity in these metal-poor environments are notably different than in more metal-rich galaxies.

Cormier, D.; Madden, S.; Lebouteiller, V.; Galliano, F.; Hony, S.

2011-05-01

447

A mixture-of-experts framework for adaptive Kalman filtering.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a modular and flexible approach to adaptive Kalman filtering using the framework of a mixture-of-experts regulated by a gating network. Each expert is a Kalman filter modeled with a different realization of the unknown system parameters such as process and measurement noise. The gating network performs on-line adaptation of the weights given to individual filter estimates based on performance. This scheme compares very favorably with the classical Magill filter bank, which is based on a Bayesian technique, in terms of: estimation accuracy; quicker response to changing environments; and numerical stability and computational demands. The proposed filter bank is further enhanced by periodically using a search algorithm in a feedback loop. Two search algorithms are considered. The first algorithm uses a recursive quadratic programming approach which extremizes a modified maximum likelihood function to update the parameters of the best performing filter in the bank. This particular approach to parameter adaptation allows a real-time implementation. The second algorithm uses a genetic algorithm to search for the parameter vector and is suited for post-processed data type applications. The workings and power of the overall filter bank and the suggested adaptation schemes are illustrated by a number of examples. PMID:18255884

Chaer, W S; Bishop, R H; Ghosh, J

1997-01-01

448

Bending creep and load duration of Douglas-fir 2 by 4s under ...  

Treesearch

Title: Bending creep and load duration of Douglas-fir 2 by 4s under constant load ... Compared to results for testing in a controlled environment, results confirm ... a threshold below which stress levels for lumber can be maintained indefinitely.

449

The resolved radio-FIR correlation in nearby galaxies with Herschel and Spitzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the correlation between the far-infrared (FIR) and radio continuum emission from NGC6946 on spatial scales between 0.9 and 17 kpc. We use the Herschel PACS (70, 100, 160?m) and SPIRE (250?m) data from the KINGFISH project. Separating the free-free and synchrotron components of the radio continuum emission, we find that FIR is better correlated with the free-free than the synchrotron emission. Compared to a similar study in M33 and M31, we find that the scale dependence of the synchrotron-FIR correlation in NGC6946 is more similar to M31 than M33. The scale dependence of the synchrotron-FIR correlation can be explained by the turbulent-to-ordered magnetic field ratio or, equivalently, the diffusion length of the cosmic ray electrons in these galaxies.

Tabatabaei, Fatemeh S.; Schinnerer, Eva; Murphy, Eric; Beck, Rainer; Hughes, Annie; Groves, Brent

2012-08-01

450

Treatment Duration and Time since Disturbance Affect Vegetation Development in a Young California Red Fir Plantation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The density and development of greenleaf manzanita, snowbrush, goldenbush (rabbitbrush), and graminoids were evaluated in a young California red fir plantation in northern California from 1986 through 1995. Manual grubbing and herbicides created treatment...

P. M. McDonald G. O. Fiddler

1997-01-01

451

Changes in wood product proportions in the Douglas-fir region with ...  

Treesearch

Visual lumber grades were combined into four broad value classes. ... grade lumber is manufactured in the Douglas-fir region and price premiums have ... Also In: Sustainable Forestry Management and Wood Production in a Global Economy.

452

Control of Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth by Aerially Applied Dimilin (TH 6040).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were made in 1976 on epidemic Douglas-fir tussock moth populations in the North Thompson River Valley north of Kamloops, British Columbia, to determine the minimum effective amount of Dimilin required for tussock moth population control. Three dosag...

J. S. Hard J. D. Ward S. Linytzky

1978-01-01

453

Stratification Period and Germination of Douglas-Fir Seed from Oregon Seed Orchards: Two Case Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effect of stratification period (S) and incubation temperature (T) on germination behavior were tested by using two groups of Douglas-fir orchard seedlots that had given low germination percentages in standard tests. Seedlots with poor or slow germination...

F. C. Sorensen

1991-01-01

454

Laminated Root Rot of Douglas-Fir in Western Oregon and Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The important killer of Douglas-fir and associated species varies greatly in abundance, even over short distances. Most infection in present stands results from vegetative perisitence of the fungus (Poria weirii) in dead roots of preceding stands. Most sp...

T. W. Childs

1970-01-01

455

Development of Western Spruce Budworm on Douglas-Fir Callus Tissue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The success of feeding and development of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) on callus tissue of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was determined. Fewer insects died when fed pure callus tissue than when fed on st...

R. C. Beckwith B. Goldfarb

1991-01-01

456

World Bank Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has a number of specialized units designed to perform research in order to allow the organization to make informed policy decisions throughout the world. This website happens to provide information on the World Bank Institute, which effectively serves as the capacity development arm of the Bank and also "helps countries share and apply global and local knowledge to meet development challenges". On the Institute's site, visitors can find out about its various programs, which include work on preventing HIV/AIDS risk in the Balkans and scholarships designed to promote knowledge sharing and capacity building in the developing world. Visitors will want to pay close attention to the Publications area, as they may view or download working papers from a wide range of topics, including energy policy, labor force development, and development economics.

457

World Bank: News & Broadcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From logistics to international development, the World Bank's News & Broadcast website is worth bookmarking, particularly for public policy types, international affairs scholars, and anyone with a penchant for global matters. The homepage presents a news area, complete with icons which indicate whether there is video or audio associated with each item. Not only is it a good way to learn about the World Bank's activities, it is another way to stay on top of economic development strategies, political unrest, and foreign investment patterns. Visitors to the site can search all of the media available here, look over the World Bank's YouTube channel, and sign up for their RSS feed. Those persons looking for specific types of information can find a number of categories, including "Speeches", and "Issue Briefs".

458

World Bank Research Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank has collected its economic research so that users can access it through one easy-to-use Webpage. Research is organized into three main sections: Topics, Project Sites, and Key Outputs. These topics are further broken down into subcategories, which are accessible from the front page via pull-down menus or hyperlinked lists. The site also contains a What's New column, which lists the titles of new World Bank resources and classifies them by document type, such as working paper, evaluations of research, and project. Finally, the World Bank Research Website gives a short list of featured resources, which include research on hot topics such as poverty, civil war, and world development.

459

Bank Governance Contracts: Establishing Goals and Accountability in Bank Restructuring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides a comprehensive annotated model contract to assist policy makers and ban regulators, owners and managers in their efforts to impose discipline on troubled banks. The consequent improvements in these banks should improve the efficient a...

R. P. Roulier

1995-01-01

460

Synthesis and cathodoluminescence properties of porous wood (fir)-templated zinc oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood (fir)-templated ZnO with hierarchically porous structure has been successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process. Morphology and porosity of the products were investigated by FESEM, TEM, and N2 adsorption, respectively. The optical properties were measured by cathodoluminescence (CL) at room temperature. The morphologies of bulk and ground flake ZnO show an inheritance from the fir microstructure. Experimental results suggest

Zhaoting Liu; Tongxiang Fan; Jian Ding; Di Zhang; Qixin Guo; Hiroshi Ogawa

2008-01-01

461

Classification of grand fir mosaic habitats. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

Five habitat types, an elevation range, and plant indicator species were used to develop a key to Grand Fir Mosaic habitats. These habitats have a slow rate of secondary succession to woody vegetation. Successful management begins with proper identification, which will then allow land managers to prescribe appropriate practices. This paper discusses the process of developing the key and provides supporting information to confirm sites that are part of the Grand Fir Mosaic.

Ferguson, D.E.; Johnson, F.D.

1996-05-01

462

A Radio Study of the Ultra-luminous FIR Galaxy NGC 6240  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of galaxies observed in the IRAS mission are noted to emit ~ 99% of their bolometric flux in the FIR, with FIR luminosities in excess of 10(11) Lsun. The interacting galaxy NGC 6240 has often been referred to as the ``proto-typical'' ultra-luminous (L_FIR >~ 10(12) Lsun) FIR galaxy. The origin of the FIR excess remains a disputed subject in the literature. New observations of NGC 6240 were taken with the VLA at 20cm in the B-configuration, and at 3.6cm in the A-configuration. No significant radio emission was detected from or near the possible ultra-massive ``dark core'' hypothesized by Bland-Hawthorn et. al. (1991); however, approximately 30% of Seyfert galaxies have 20 cm radio luminosities weaker than the upper limit derived from the radio maps. The non-thermal radio emission from luminous FIR galaxies is tightly correlated with the FIR emission. Previous radio observations of NGC 6240 revealed two compact, steep-spectrum nuclear sources, nearly coincident with the two nuclear sources seen in optical images. The 2 images from the new VLA observations and 5 images from previous VLA observations are used to identify the morphological and spectral features of the strong, compact components in the nuclear regions (<~ 1.5 kpc; D=100 Mpc) and of the weaker ``clumps'' of diffuse emission south and west (>~ 3 kpc) from the nucleus. Feasible explanations for the radio emission are discussed. The models that have been proposed in the literature for the FIR excess of NGC 6240 are evaluated for consistency with the observed radio emission.

Colbert, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

1993-05-01

463

Stand density index applied to timber and goshawk habitat objectives in Douglas-fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural guidelines are presented for the management of intermountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands for sawtimber production and goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) nesting habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains. Data from 14 goshawk nest stands in Douglas-fir forests on the Targhee\\u000a National Forest in Idaho (Patla 1991) were used to characterize the range of stand conditions considered suitable for goshawk\\u000a nesting. A

Robert J. Lilieholm; Winifred B. Kessler; Karren Merrill

1993-01-01

464

Highly variable SSR markers in Douglas-fir: Mendelian inheritance and map locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two highly variable SSR markers were developed in Douglas-fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] from five SSR-enriched genomic libraries. Fifteen PCR primer pairs amplified a single codominant locus, while seven primer pairs occasionally amplified two loci. The Mendelian inheritance of all 22 SSRs was confirmed via segregation analyses in several Douglas-fir families. The mean observed heterozygosity and the mean number

G. T. Slavov; G. T. Howe; I. Yakovlev; K. J. Edwards; K. V. Krutovskii; G. A. Tuskan; J. E. Carlson; S. H. Strauss; W. T. Adams

2004-01-01

465

Allelopathy of Phenolics from Decomposing Stump-Roots in Replant Chinese Fir Woodland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change of total phenolic content in decomposing Chinese fir stump-roots of different ages in replant woodland and its effects was investigated. The total phenolic contents in stump-roots decreased with increasing stump-root age. The order of total phenolic content in different parts of stump-roots was, root > stump heartwood > stump sapwood. Phenolics released from Chinese fir stump-roots reduced the

Zhiqun Huang; Liping Liao; Silong Wang; Guangqiu Cao

2000-01-01

466

Soil Microclimate and Chemistry of Spruce–Fir Tree Islands in Northern Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the subalpine zone of the Intermountain West, dispersed tree clumps and islands are frequently ob- The objective was to investigate differences in soil properties in served at the boundary between spruce-fir forests and high-elevation tree islands composed of subalpine fir (Abies lasio- carpa (Hook.) Nutt.) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii subalpine meadows (e.g., Arno and Hammerly, 1984; Parry ex

Helga Van Miegroet; Molly T. Hysell; Amber Denton Johnson

2000-01-01

467

Negative effects of ant foraging on spiders in Douglas-fir canopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spiders and ants are potential competitors and mutual predators. Indirect evidence from previous research has suggested that\\u000a ant foraging may significantly lower the abundance of arboreal spiders in young Douglas-fir plantations in western Oregon.\\u000a This study tested the effect of foraging by ants, dominated by Camponotus spp., on spider assemblages in Douglas-fir canopies in a 5-month ant-exclusion experiment. The biomass

J. Halaj; D. W. Ross; A. R. Moldenke

1997-01-01

468

31 CFR 103.187 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 103.187 Section 103.187...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes...or in any jurisdiction. (4) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters,...

2010-07-01

469

31 CFR 103.187 - Special measures against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. 103.187 Section 103.187...against Myanmar Mayflower Bank and Asia Wealth Bank. (a) Definitions. For purposes...or in any jurisdiction. (4) Asia Wealth Bank means all headquarters,...

2009-07-01

470

World Bank Photo Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New from the World Bank, this photography library offers over 500 online images of development from around the world. The pictures, works of art in their own right, cover an extensive range of subjects including people, nature, and urban environments. Registration is required. Users may, however, browse the library by entering "guest" in the user name field and "browse" as the password. The library offers both a simple keyword search, as well as an advanced search which allows users to search for images in specific fields including country, topic, photographer, and description. The photographs, marked with a World Bank stamp, are displayed in large thumbnails and include accompanying information.

471

Government Ownership of Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We assemble,data,on government,ownership,of banks,around,the world. The data show that such ownership is large and pervasive, and higher in countries with low levels of per capita income, backward financial systems, interventionist and inef- ficient governments, and poor protection of property rights. Higher government ownership,of banks,in 1970 is associated,with,slower,subsequent,financial,devel- opment,and,lower,growth,of per capita,income,and,productivity. This evidence supports,“political” theories,of the effects of government,ownership,of firms.

Rafael La Porta; Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes; Andrei Shleifer

2002-01-01

472

Nuclear Plant Data Bank  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities.

Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

1986-01-01

473

Dimerization of FIR Upon FUSE DNA Binding Suggests Mechanism of c-myc Inhibition  

SciTech Connect

c-myc is essential for cell homeostasis and growth but lethal if improperly regulated. Transcription of this oncogene is governed by the counterbalancing forces of two proteins on TFIIH--the FUSE binding protein (FBP) and the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR). FBP and FIR recognize single-stranded DNA upstream of the P1 promoter, known as FUSE, and influence transcription by oppositely regulating TFIIH at the promoter site. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with light scattering reveals that an FIR dimer binds one molecule of single-stranded DNA. The crystal structure confirms that FIR binds FUSE as a dimer, and only the N-terminal RRM domain participates in nucleic acid recognition. Site-directed mutations of conserved residues in the first RRM domain reduce FIR's affinity for FUSE, while analogous mutations in the second RRM domain either destabilize the protein or have no effect on DNA binding. Oppositely oriented DNA on parallel binding sites of the FIR dimer results in spooling of a single strand of bound DNA, and suggests a mechanism for c-myc transcriptional control.

Crichlow,G.; Zhou, H.; Hsiao, H.; Frederick, K.; Debrosse, M.; Yang, Y.; Folta-Stogniew, E.; Chung, H.; Fan, C.; et al

2008-01-01

474

Banking productivity: an overview of the Greek banking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to examine the productivity of the Greek banking sector for the time period 2004-2006. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Standard ratio measures of bank financial performance have been used as output measures in a data envelopment analysis model in combination with efficiency ratios’ analysis. Findings – The Greek banking efficiency remains relatively constant throughout the

Prodromos D. Chatzoglou; Anastasios D. Diamantidis; Eftichia Vraimaki; Elena Polychrou; Kyriakos Chatzitheodorou

2010-01-01

475

SoftBank II 22  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... SoftBank II 22. Applicant: Soft Computer Consultants, Inc. 510(k) number: BK020021. Product: SoftBank II 22. Date: 09/11/2002. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

476

BANKING, RISK AND FINANCIAL MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the question of financial risk in the relation between the banks and the firms: a problem of great significance for Euroland, a recent monetary union largely dominated by banking (\\

Pasquale Lucio Scandizzo

477

Dissolved organic carbon on Georges Bank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in sea water from Georges Bank was measured by a high temperature combustion/direct injection (HTC/DI) technique during the spring bloom period in April 1993. Concentrations in surface waters (72-85 ?M) and deep waters (54-56 ?M) were similar to DOC concentrations measured in the oligotrophic north-west Atlantic Ocean by a number of other investigators by various techniques. Although surface values for Chl- a concentrations ranged from 2 to 5 ?g l -1, NO 3- ranged from 3 to 9 ?M and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 10?M, DOC concentrations only varied by <18‰ DOC was slightly higher (˜5 ?M) in the highly productive central bank region than in surrounding stratified surface waters. Relatively constant stable carbon isotopes (DO 13C = -22.0 ± 0.5 could not be used to identify a source for these small variations. Slight decreases of DOC (5-12?M) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) (0.5-1.0 ?M) in filtered sea water kept in the dark was observed over six months, suggesting the presence of a small, labile pool of dissolved organic matter in addition to a large, more refractory reservoir of DOC (˜70 ?M) during the spring bloom period on Georges Bank.

Chen, Robert F.; Fry, Brian; Hopkinson, Chuck S.; Repeta, Daniel J.; Peltzer, Edward T.

1996-04-01

478

[Dynamics of phenolics content of Chinese fir stump-roots and the rhizosphere soil and it's allelopathy].  

PubMed

Studies on the releasing pattern of phenolics during the decomposition of Chinese fir stump-root and on its allelopathy show that the phenolics contents in stump-roots decreased with their decomposition. Roots had a higher content of phenolics than heart stumps, and edge stumps had the least. The phenolics was released during decomposition, and accumulated in the soils around stump-roots. Pot culture experiment showed that phenolics affected the germination of Chinese fir seeds. The correlation analysis between the density of Chinese fir stump-root and the tree height and base diameter (BD) of its saplings proved that Chinese fir stump-roots had a negative impact on the growth of the next generation of Chinese fir plantations. It is suggested that the traditional operation of Chinese fir plantations should be reformed, and the stump-roots should be cleared from woodland before reforestation. PMID:11767591

Huang, Z; Liao, L; Wang, S; Lui, Y

2000-04-01

479

Ethernet filter  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that prevents access to unauthorized data in a local area network, such as Ethernet, in which information is transmitted from a transceiver to at least one workstation. Encoded data packets transmitted from the transceiver are filtered by splitting the packet into two signals. One signal contains the data that was transmitted, while the other signal contains tainted data. The filter determines whether a workstation is authorized to access the data, and then delivers either the tainted data to unauthorized workstations, or the data that was transmitted to authorized workstations.

Charney, E.J.; Tanzella, A.J.; Wujcik, J.G.

1990-11-09

480

Simultaneous Reactive-Power and Frequency Estimations Using Simple Recursive WLS Algorithm and Adaptive Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new simple approach to the design of digital algo- rithm for simultaneous reactive-power and frequency estimations of local system is presented. The algorithm is derived using the weighted-least-square method. During the algorithm derivation, a pure sinusoidal voltage model was assumed. Cascade finite- impulse-response (FIR) comb digital filters are used to minimize the noise effect and to eliminate the presence

Miodrag D. Kušljevi? Kusljevic; Predrag D. Poljak

2011-01-01

481

Banks in industrial networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks are important institutions by reason of their role as intermediaries between the holders of surplus capital and those in need of financial resources. They are therefore often mentioned as vital nodes in modern economies, with substantial power positions in relation to their clients. In recent years deregulation and the development of information technology have prompted several observers to conclude

Lars Engwall; Jan Johanson

1990-01-01

482

Pasture seed banks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

483

Personalized Electronic Banking Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personalization is without a doubt a promising area that might be able to answer some of the burning questions that Internet banking must deal with today and even more in the days to come. The possibilities of personalization are not yet fully utilized, nor is there sufficient hands-on experience or research-based knowledge about the most advanced ideas of how to

Mika Hiltunen; Leo Heng; Linda Helgesen

484

Snow Bank Detectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks.…

Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

2005-01-01

485

Blood Bank Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially, blood banks are facilities which procure, store, process, and dispense blood. To operate effectively in the face of both random supply and random demand, sizable buffer stocks of blood are maintained. The resulting inventory control problem is an extremely complex one for several reasons: (1) both supply and demand are random; (2) approximately 50 percent of all bloods demanded,

John B. Jennings

1973-01-01

486

National Trade Data Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

487

Automated Sensing of Douglas Fir Bud-Burst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of plant biological events such as budburst in the spring can have major impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem carbon balance. While research efforts that address the timing of events is gaining considerable momentum, the technology available for sensing and recording the timing of events is limited, especially for trees. Thus, researchers often perform manual measurements, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This has resulted in efforts such as Project BudBurst, a network of professional and volunteer observers across the United States that monitor plants as seasons change. Access to forest trees can be difficult during periods of greatest interest, such as when buds open in the spring. For example, high elevation, snow, and melting snow during the spring hamper access to trees in alpine regions. Researchers at Oregon State University and The University of Iowa are developing instrumentation for automating sensing of budburst in Douglas firs. While the instrumentation targets Douglas firs, it can find application in studying budburst in other species. We present an initial bud-burst sensor that uses optical techniques to sense bud opening. An optical fiber illuminates a target bud with modulated light, a second fiber detects, and guides reflect light to a photodetector and signal processing electronics. Changes in the reflected light indicate the budburst. The instrumentation exploits advances in microelectronics, particularly miniaturization and low power consumption, and uses advanced signal processing techniques such as lock-in detection. The instrumentation records the reflected light every 15 minutes on high-capacity, non-volatile Flash media. Power consumption is very low and sensors have an extrapolated, continuous operating time more than 9 months, suggesting their deployment in the fall, and retrieval in the following spring. We believe the sensor will enable a caliber of research not yet achievable owing to the difficulty of phenological data collection. We aim to make the sensor cost-effective and ultimately deployable in a wireless network. We envision its application in various disciplines and sectors including forestry, agriculture, climate change research, and genomics.

Lintz, H. E.; Kruger, A.; Wagner, D. A.; Tenney, I. J.

2011-12-01

488

Risk Management Strategies for Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze optimal risk management strategies of a bank financed with deposits and equity in a one period model. The bank's motivation for risk management comes from deposits which can lead to bank runs. In the event of such a run, liquidation costs arise. The hedging strategy that maximizes the value of equity is derived. We identify conditions under which

Wolfgang Bauer; Marc Ryser

2002-01-01

489

Commitment and Equilibrium Bank Runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the role of commitment in a version of the Diamond and Dybvig (JPE, 1983) model with no aggregate uncertainty. As is well known, the banking authority can eliminate the possibility of a bank run by committing to suspend payments to depositors if a run were to start. We show, however, that in an environment without commitment, the banking

Huberto M. Ennis; Todd Keister

2008-01-01

490

Banks' Corporate Governance and Merger  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore what corporate governance characteristics are associated with mergers in the banking industry, the sample of publicly traded banks in different countries between 2005 and 2007 and a variety of empirical methods are used in this paper. By introducing matched sample comparison, univariate comparison and multivariate comparison, the differences between the sample banks that do and do

Junxun Dai

2009-01-01

491

Bank Regulation, Compliance and Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented where the question of bank regulation is developed under a principal-agent scenario in a regime where the regulator has limited resources and banks may have an incentive to act ultra virus the regulatory standards. If banks are subject to random audit, then compliance is achieved through a system of fines determined according to the extent of

Rupinder Singh

2000-01-01

492

On the uniqueness of community banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the public, all banks seem alike. But banking insiders make important distinctions between community banks and all other banks. Policymakers worry that community banks’ unique characteristics threaten their survival in the face of industry consolidation. However, despite dramatic regulatory and technological changes in the industry in the past two decades, community banks have not only survived but often prospered.

Scott E. Hein; Timothy W. Koch; S. Scott MacDonald

2005-01-01

493

The Informative Contents of Bank Debt Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the concentration of corporate bank debt. In an economy with asymmetric information, we show that the bank debt concentration with a main bank possessing informational monopoly is a reliable signal of the firm's quality for the secondary banks. Precisely, the firm's choice of the parts lent by the main bank and the secondary banks allows use

Frederic Lobez; Jean-Christophe Statnik

2003-01-01

494

Filtered statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Column statistics are an important element of cardinality estimation frameworks. More accurate estimates allow the optimizer of a RDBMS to generate better plans and improve the overall system's efficiency. This paper introduces filtered statistics, which model value distribution over a set of rows restricted by a predicate. This feature, available in Microsoft SQL Server, can be used to handle column

Pawel Terlecki; Hardik Bati; César A. Galindo-legaria; Peter Zabback

2009-01-01

495

Drug Filtering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math meets health science activity, learners observe a model of exponential decay, and how kidneys filter blood. Learners will calculate the amount of a drug in the body over a period of time. Then, they will make and analyze the graphical representation of this exponential function. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Iles, Lawrence F.

2010-01-01

496

Filtering centrifuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Below, we propose a new automatic airtight filtering centrifuge for separating suspensions containing a nonabrasive solid phase with a particle size greater than 10 #m, andwe presentthe results of atest ofanexperimental model of such a centrifuge. It is based on a slotted-type screen. The centrifuge was developed and tested under laboratory conditions and in an experimental polyethylene-syn thesis unit in

A. E. Solokhnenko; V. I. Kukushkin

1978-01-01

497

High power pulsed FIR laser lines from CD3OH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FIR laser emissions from CD3OH using a pulsed TEA CO2 laser as optical pump are reported. The pump, which is similar to that described by Nicholson and Lipton (1977), has a tunable single-mode capability, being coarse-tuned by a grating reflector to most of the medium to high gain lines of the CO2 laser and fine-tuned by an intracavity etalon. The original solid germanium etalon described by Nicholson and Lipton is replaced by a design using a 4-cm air gap and a pair of germanium etalon plates that have antireflection coatings on the outside and are uncoated on the inside. A fused silica spacer makes temperature stabilization unnecessary. By angling the etalon, the laser may be tuned to nearly + or - 2GHz off the CO2 line center. Significantly large outputs are observed at 70.6 microns (10 P20 pump), 69.9 microns (10 R22), 42.3 microns (10 R6), and 105.3 microns and 41.7 microns (10 R8).

Ahmed, H.; Nicholson, J. P.

1983-02-01

498

FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 ?m spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter ? < 2 in low metallicity, active systems. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by Principal Investigator consortia. It is open for proposals for observing time from the worldwide astronomical community.

Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bock, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Bradford, M.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.; Corbelli, E.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J.; de Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Gear, W.; Giovanardi, C.; Glenn, J.; Gomez, H.; Griffin, M.; Grossi, M.; Hony, S.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L.; Isaak, K.; Jones, A.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Madden, S. C.; O'Halloran, B.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Rangwala, N.; Rigby, E.; Roussel, H.; Rykala, A.; Sabatini, S.; Sacchi, N.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Schirm, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Stevens, J.; Sundar, S.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Verstappen, J.; Vigroux, L.; Vlahakis, C.; Wilson, C.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zeilinger, W.; Zibetti, S.

2010-07-01

499

Performance evaluation of FIR sensor systems applied to pedestrian detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides resolution, an important performance parameter of a FIR camera is the sensitivity. It depends on the sensitivity of the detector array itself and the characteristics of the optic. The effects of the optic are considerably driven by the f-number, with high values resulting in decreased sensitivity, but providing the possibility for simple lens design and cheaper production costs. In this contribution 4 different sensor setups with different optics are evaluated for their impact on the performance of trained pedestrian classifiers. To overcome the expensive and time consuming process of ground truth generation for multiple sensors, an approach for reusing available high sensitivity reference data is presented. Classifiers are trained on specially transformed reference data with characteristics of sensors with degraded sensitivity. For the evaluation of the classifiers, data of real world road scenarios is collected simultaneously with the target sensors mounted in parallel in a test vehicle, following a detailed script for recording a pedestrian scene test catalogue. This allows for a direct analysis and comparison of the different sensors and their impact on the detection performance.

Franz, S.; Schweiger, R.; Loehlein, O.; Willersinn, D.; Kroschel, K.

2010-04-01

500

ACCUMULATION OF MONOTERPENES AND ASSOCIATED VOLATILES FOLLOWING INOCULATION OF GRAND FIR WITH A FUNGUS TRANSMITTED BY THE FIR ENGRAVER, SCOLYTUS VENTRALIS (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can. Ent. 114: 797-810 (1982) The accumulation of monoterpenes during the defensive response by grand fir was quantified over a 28-day period. Monoterpene content increased expo­ nentially with time and varied greatly among trees. Following analysis, sampled trees were observed for 4 years. Those trees which showed an extensive accu­ mulation of monoterpenes in response to artificial inoculation with fungi

Kenneth F. Raffa; Alan A. Berryman

1982-01-01