Sample records for fir filter bank

  1. On the design and multiplierless realization of perfect reconstruction triplet-based FIR filter banks and wavelet bases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Chan; K. S. Yeung

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes new methods for the efficient design and realization of perfect reconstruction (PR) two-channel finite-impulse response (FIR) triplet filter banks (FBs) and wavelet bases. It extends the linear-phase FIR triplet FBs of Ansari et al. to include FIR triplet FBs with lower system delay and a prescribed order of K regularity. The design problem using either the minimax

  2. Design of FIR digital filters and filter banks by neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue-Dar Jou; Fu-Kun Chen; Lo-Chyuan Su; Shun-Min Wang

    2007-01-01

    The design of digital filters can be formulated as to solve a system of linear equations. This is completed by solving a system of linear equations or by using some matrix properties to simplify the optimization. The proposed approach establishes the quadratic error difference of the filter optimization in the frequency domain as the Lyapunov energy function. Consequently, the optimal

  3. The time domain analysis and design of exactly reconstructing FIR analysis\\/synthesis filter banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kambiz Nayebi; Thomas P. Barnwell; M. J. T. Smith

    1990-01-01

    A time-domain framework is introduced for the analysis and design of general M-band analysis\\/synthesis filter banks. The derivation results in a set of time-domain conditions for reconstruction which can be used in a filter design procedure. Preliminary investigations of this new approach have shown that the general and unrestricted nature of the framework allows for the design of many useful

  4. A low power FIR filtering core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Erdogan; M. Hasan; T. Arslan

    2001-01-01

    The authors present a DSP core for low power implementation of FIR filters. The core is based on direct form realisation of FIR digital filters and processes filter coefficients in a non-conventional order. The paper describes the architecture of the core and the implementation of its key components. An overall power reduction of up to 17% is obtained as compared

  5. Role of anticausal inverses in multirate filter-banks .II. The FIR case, factorizations, and biorthogonal lapped transforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Vaidyanathan; Tsuhan Chen

    1995-01-01

    For pt. I see ibid., vol.43, no.5, p.1090, 1990. In part I we studied the system-theoretic properties of discrete time transfer matrices in the context of inversion, and classified them according to the types of inverses they had. In particular, we outlined the role of causal FIR matrices with anticausal FIR inverses (abbreviated cafacafi) in the characterization of FIR perfect

  6. Auditory filter bank inversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lin; W. H. Holines; Eliathamby Ambikairajah

    2001-01-01

    Models of auditory filtering using the Gammatone filter bank are useful tools in speech processing. A perceptually accurate auditory inversion model has applications in speech and audio coding. This paper proposes a new auditory filter bank inversion method using a least squares optimization technique. The proposed method is computationally efficient and its low delay makes it suitable for frame-by-frame processing.

  7. A new class of two-channel biorthogonal filter banks and wavelet bases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    See-May Phoong; Chai W. Kim; P. P. Vaidyanathan; Rashid Ansari

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a novel framework for a new class of two-channel biorthogonal filter banks. The framework covers two useful subclasses: i) causal stable IIR filter banks. ii) linear phase FIR filter banks. There exists a very efficient structurally perfect reconstruction implementation for such a class. Filter banks of high frequency selectivity can be achieved by using the proposed framework with low

  8. Frame-theoretic analysis of oversampled filter banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Bolcskei; Franz Hlawatsch; Hans G. Feichtinger

    1998-01-01

    We provide a frame-theoretic analysis of oversampled finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (FIR) uniform filter banks (FBs). Our analysis is based on a new relationship between the FBs polyphase matrices and the frame operator corresponding to an FB. For a given oversampled analysis FB, we present a parameterization of all synthesis FBs providing perfect reconstruction. We find

  9. Exact reconstruction analysis/synthesis filter banks with time-varying filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrowood, J. L., Jr.; Smith, M. J. T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines some of the analysis/synthesis issues associated with FIR time-varying filter banks where the filter bank coefficients are allowed to change in response to the input signal. Several issues are identified as being important in order to realize performance gains from time-varying filter banks in image coding applications. These issues relate to the behavior of the filters as transition from one set of filter banks to another occurs. Lattice structure formulations for the time varying filter bank problem are introduced and discussed in terms of their properties and transition characteristics.

  10. 11.10 Filter Banks What Are Filter Banks?

    E-print Network

    Fowler, Mark

    1/7 11.10 Filter Banks #12;2/7 What Are Filter Banks? Often need to slice up a "wideband" signal into various "subbands" Figure from Porat's Book #12;3/7 Filter Banks Application: Cell Phone Basestation FDMA Converter & ADC Filter Bank Demod Demod Demod Antenna ... ...User 1 User M ff2f1 1 GHz ... ... User 1

  11. ThroughputMaximizing FIR Transmit Filters for Linear Dispersive Channels

    E-print Network

    Al-Dhahir, Naofal

    Throughput­Maximizing FIR Transmit Filters for Linear Dispersive Channels Naofal Al­Dhahir \\Lambda Abstract OptimumFIR transmit filters for symbol--by--symboltransmission on linear dispersive additive constraint. This maximized throughput is compared with that achievable with water--pour and flat transmit

  12. Some Results in the Theory Modulated Filter Banks and Modulated Wavelet Tight Frames

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Gopinath; C. S. Burrus

    1995-01-01

    Perfect reconstruction (PR) FIR filter banks, obtained by modulation of a linear-phase, lowpass, prototype filter and of length 2Mm are well known. Recently, PR modulated filter banks (MFBs) with the analysis and synthesis banks obtained from different prototypes have been reported. This paper describes a general form of modulation that includes modulations used in the literature. This modulation depends on

  13. Channel Equalization for Filter Bank Based Transmultiplexer System for Wireless Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Dang; Zaichen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the subband equalization issues of filter bank based transmultiplexer system for wireless communications. The zero ISI\\/ICI and minimum MSE conditions for subband equalization are formulated from a full-band equalizer in a simple way by utilizing multirate filter bank theory. Then a pointwise equalization method that uses a complex FIR filter is employed to approximate the conditions for

  14. FIR filters for hardware-based real-time multi-band image blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Vladan; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2015-02-01

    Creating panoramic images has become a popular feature in modern smart phones, tablets, and digital cameras. A user can create a 360 degree field-of-view photograph from only several images. Quality of the resulting image is related to the number of source images, their brightness, and the used algorithm for their stitching and blending. One of the algorithms that provides excellent results in terms of background color uniformity and reduction of ghosting artifacts is the multi-band blending. The algorithm relies on decomposition of image into multiple frequency bands using dyadic filter bank. Hence, the results are also highly dependant on the used filter bank. In this paper we analyze performance of the FIR filters used for multi-band blending. We present a set of five filters that showed the best results in both literature and our experiments. The set includes Gaussian filter, biorthogonal wavelets, and custom-designed maximally flat and equiripple FIR filters. The presented results of filter comparison are based on several no-reference metrics for image quality. We conclude that 5/3 biorthogonal wavelet produces the best result in average, especially when its short length is considered. Furthermore, we propose a real-time FPGA implementation of the blending algorithm, using 2D non-separable systolic filtering scheme. Its pipeline architecture does not require hardware multipliers and it is able to achieve very high operating frequencies. The implemented system is able to process 91 fps for 1080p (19201080) image resolution.

  15. A 230 MHz 8 tap programmable FIR filter using redundant binary number system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-ho Baik; Kyung-nam Han; Euisik Yoon

    1999-01-01

    A high performance FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter using RB (Redundant Binary) number system is designed. In the past, FIR filters were implemented by NB (Normal Binary) number system; therefore, the speed was limited due to carry propagation. We realize a fast FIR filter by utilizing the carry-free property of the RB system. A RBPP (RB Partial Product) generator circuit

  16. Microphotonic Wideband Tapped Optical Delay Line FIR Filter Noise Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Jeffery; Kamal Alameh

    2005-01-01

    MicroPhotonic broadband RF signal processors utilize true-time-delay methods to perform processing functions that cannot be achieved by conventional electronic methods. Using a tapped optical-delay line, a low-cost adaptive wideband FIR filter can be realized. We analyse the sources of noise for such a filter using commercially available VCSEL sources, PIN diodes, and transimpedance amplifiers. The power at each tap can

  17. Design of FIR two- dimensional digital filters by successive projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abo-Taleb; M. Fahmy

    1984-01-01

    An iterative optimization technique based on the method of successive projections is proposed for the design of the two-dimensional (2-D) linear phase FIR digital filters. The technique is simple, fast, and compares favorably with the presently available design techniques. To illustrate the method several filters with masks up to25 times 25have been designed. The technique can also be used to

  18. Modelling Subsea Coaxial Cable as FIR Filter on MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanisin, D.; Nordin, M. S.; Hazrul, M. H.; Kumar, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the modelling of subsea coaxial cable as a FIR filter on MATLAB. The subsea coaxial cables are commonly used in telecommunication industry and, oil and gas industry. Furthermore, this cable is unlike a filter circuit, which is a "lumped network" as individual components appear as discrete items. Therefore, a subsea coaxial network can be represented as a digital filter. In overall, the study has been conducted using MATLAB to model the subsea coaxial channel model base on primary and secondary parameters of subsea coaxial cable.

  19. Application of DFT filter banks and cosine modulated filter banks in filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Pei Lin; P. P. Vaidyanathan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new under-decimated system. A filter bank is said to be under-decimated if the number of channels is more than the decimation ratio in the subbands. Two types of low-complexity filter banks can be used for the new system, the DFT filter bank and cosine modulated filter bank. The setup of the under-decimated system has

  20. The LOT: a link between block transform coding and multirate filter banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrique S. Malvar

    1988-01-01

    The lapped orthogonal transform (LOT) is a novel transform for block signal processing with overlapping basis functions. The LOT can also be viewed as an efficient quadrature-mirror-filter bank in which the analysis and synthesis filters have identical FIR (finite-impulse-response) responses. The author shows that the LOT filter bank leads to perfect signal reconstruction with a relative low level of spectral

  1. A High-Performance 8Tap FIR Filter Using Logarithmic Number System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Sun; Min Sik Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for implementing a 8-tap high-performance digital FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter using Logarithmic Number System(LNS). In the past, FIR filters were implemented by conventional number system; therefore, the speed was limited due to the multiply- accumulate operations. We realize a fast FIR filter by utilizing the Logarithmic Number System, which allows simple implementation of multiplication

  2. Studies of discrete-time unbiased FIR filters of polynomial state-space models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriy S. Shmaliy; Oscar Ibarra-Manzano

    2010-01-01

    We study an unbiased finite impulse response (FIR) filter in applications to discrete-time state space models with polynomial representation of the states. The unique l-degree polynomial FIR filter gain and the estimate variance are found for a general case. The noise power gain (NG) is derived for white Gaussian noises in the model and in the measurement. The filter does

  3. Nonlinear FIR Filter Clones R.K. Pearson, M. Gabbouj, and J. Astola

    E-print Network

    Gabbouj, Moncef

    Nonlinear FIR Filter Clones R.K. Pearson, M. Gabbouj, and J. Astola Tampere International Center- cept of a clone from universal algebra, generalizing the FIR-median hybrid (FMH) filter construction that are preserved under the clone interconnection strategy. 1 Introduction An important idea in many engineering

  4. On the Comparison of Different Number Systems in the Implementation of Complex FIR Filters

    E-print Network

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    On the Comparison of Different Number Systems in the Implementation of Complex FIR Filters Gian dissipation, the implementations of complex FIR filters based on the following number represen- tations: traditional two's complement (TCS), Quadratic Residue Number System (QRNS) and radix-2j Redundant Complex Num

  5. A fault tolerant oriented CMOS systolic implementation of a FIR filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranci, G. L.; Binda, C. A.; Clerici, U.; Comignaghi, E.

    The implementation of a FIR digital filter chip based on a systolic array is described. Using the intrinsic regularity of such linear array, the filter can be made fault tolerant with limited additional hardware.

  6. The Dual Carrier ABSK System Based on a FIR Bandpass Filter

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhimin; Wu, Lenan; Wang, Jiwu

    2014-01-01

    The special impacting filter (SIF) with IIR structure has been used to demodulate ABSK signals. The key points of SIF, including the resonance circuit's high Q value and the slope-phase discrimination character of the filter sideband, are demonstrated in the paper. The FIR narrow-band bandpass filtering system, which can also provide the impact-filtering effect, is proposed. A dual carrier system of ABSK signals is designed with the proposed FIR filter as its receiver. The simulation results show that the FIR filter can work well. Moreover, compared to the traditional SIF, the proposed FIR filter can not only achieve higher spectral efficiency, but also give better demodulation performance. PMID:24658625

  7. The dual carrier ABSK system based on a FIR bandpass filter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhimin; Wu, Lenan; Wang, Jiwu

    2014-01-01

    The special impacting filter (SIF) with IIR structure has been used to demodulate ABSK signals. The key points of SIF, including the resonance circuit's high Q value and the "slope-phase discrimination" character of the filter sideband, are demonstrated in the paper. The FIR narrow-band bandpass filtering system, which can also provide the impact-filtering effect, is proposed. A dual carrier system of ABSK signals is designed with the proposed FIR filter as its receiver. The simulation results show that the FIR filter can work well. Moreover, compared to the traditional SIF, the proposed FIR filter can not only achieve higher spectral efficiency, but also give better demodulation performance. PMID:24658625

  8. FIR filter structures having low sensitivity and roundoff noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanta, A.; Dutta Roy, S. C.; Agarwal, R. C.

    1982-12-01

    A class of structures for FIR filters is presented, which exhibits reduced coefficient sensitivity and superior roundoff noise properties as compared to the direct form realization. It is shown that using fixed-point arithmetic, these structures achieve the same accuracy and about the same roundoff noise as those obtained in the floating-point implementation. The optimum structure to achieve the minimum roundoff noise can be found; in most cases near optimum results are easily obtained by simple permutations and combinations of the impulse response coefficients. While a serial form realization of these structures requires a certain amount of software complexity, a parallel form, on the other hand, does not require additional complexity.

  9. A LOW POWER FIR FILTERING CORE A. T. Erdogan, M. Hasan and T. Arslan

    E-print Network

    Arslan, Tughrul

    1 A LOW POWER FIR FILTERING CORE A. T. Erdogan, M. Hasan and T. Arslan University of Edinburgh, Department of Electronics & Electrical Engineering, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, Scotland, United Kingdom. {ate,mh,arslan

  10. Non-convex optimization for the design of sparse FIR filters

    E-print Network

    Wei, Dennis

    This paper presents a method for designing sparse FIR filters by means of a sequence of p-norm minimization problems with p gradually decreasing from 1 toward 0. The lack of convexity for p < 1 is partially overcome by ...

  11. Interference rejection in PN spread-spectrum systems with LS linear phase FIR filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Theodoridis; N. Kalouptsidis; J. Proakis; G. Koyas

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a narrowband interference present in a pseudonoise (PN) spread-spectrum system can be minimized by using digital whitening techniques. A new efficient block LS algorithm for the design of an FIR filter with linear phase is derived and used as a whitening filter. Simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the LS optimum linear-phase filter in

  12. Comparison of Class 1 and Class 2 frequency domain matrix and vector estimation filters with adaptive FIR filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkan Duysal; Claude S. Lindquist

    1991-01-01

    Class 1 and 2 frequency domain block matrix and vector estimation filters are compared with adaptive FIR (finite impulse response) filters based on gradient search algorithms, including Newton, steepest descent, and LMS (least mean square). It is shown that the algorithm of the Class 1 filter considered has the same form as the Wiener-Hopf equation. It is found that the

  13. The Generalized Lapped Pseudo-Biorthogonal Transform: Oversampled Linear-Phase Perfect Reconstruction Filter Banks with Lattice Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihisa Tanaka; Yukihiko Yamashita

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a lattice structure for a special class of N-channel oversampled linear-phase perfect reconstruction filter banks with a decimation factor M smaller than N. We deal with sys- tems in which all analysis and synthesis filters have the same FIR length and share the same center of symmetry. We provide the minimal lattice factorization of a polyphase matrix of

  14. Optimization of Synthesis Oversampled Complex Filter Banks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    property on the synthesis side, which is serviceable to processing real-valued signals. As an invertible localization, frequency localiza- tion, lapped transforms, modulated filter banks. I. INTRODUCTION Since the 70s, filter banks (FBs) have become a central tool in signal/image processing and commu- nications

  15. A computer program for designing optimum FIR linear phase digital filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES H. MCCLELLAN; THOMAS W. PARKS; LAWRENCE R. RABINER

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a general-purpose computer program which is capable of designing a large Class of optimum (in the minimax sense) FIR linear phase digital filters. The program has options for designing such standard filters as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop filters, as well as multipassband-stopband filters, differentiators, and Hilbert transformers. The program can also be used to design filters

  16. A COEFFICIENT SEGMENTATION ALGORITHM FOR LOW POWER IMPLEMENTATION OF FIR FILTERS

    E-print Network

    Arslan, Tughrul

    with a number of practical FIR filter examples achieving up to 63% saving in power. Results are provided which filters, is to reduce the amount of switched capacitance during its operation. Example approachesi != |hk| 1 mk = hk-sk mk = hk-sk Figure 1. A flow chart of the algorithm III-359 0

  17. A new technique for the design of two-dimensional FIR and IIR filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lampropoulos; M. Fahmy

    1985-01-01

    The design problem of two-dimensional digital filters is the subject of this paper. The problem is formulated for both FIR and IIR filters in such a way that the performance index is a convex function of the optimization vector. The design technique is based on Newton's method. Each iteration consists of N easily computed steps, where N is the number

  18. Efficient and Accurate Optimal Linear Phase FIR Filter Design Using Opposition-Based Harmony Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S. K.; Dutta, R.; Choudhury, R.; Kar, R.; Mandal, D.; Ghoshal, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems. PMID:23844390

  19. METEOR: a constraint-based FIR filter design program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Steiglitz; Thomas W. Parks; James F. Kaiser

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to specify a filter only in terms of upper and lower limits on the response, find the shortest filter length which allows these constraints to be met, and then find a filter of that order which is farthest from the upper and lower constraint boundaries in a minimax sense. The simplex algorithm for linear programming is used

  20. Optimized FIR filters for digital pulse compression of biphase codes with low sidelobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanal, M.; Kuloor, R.; Sagayaraj, M. J.

    In miniaturized radars where power, real estate, speed and low cost are tight constraints and Doppler tolerance is not a major concern biphase codes are popular and FIR filter is used for digital pulse compression (DPC) implementation to achieve required range resolution. Disadvantage of low peak to sidelobe ratio (PSR) of biphase codes can be overcome by linear programming for either single stage mismatched filter or two stage approach i.e. matched filter followed by sidelobe suppression filter (SSF) filter. Linear programming (LP) calls for longer filter lengths to obtain desirable PSR. Longer the filter length greater will be the number of multipliers, hence more will be the requirement of logic resources used in the FPGAs and many time becomes design challenge for system on chip (SoC) requirement. This requirement of multipliers can be brought down by clustering the tap weights of the filter by kmeans clustering algorithm at the cost of few dB deterioration in PSR. The cluster centroid as tap weight reduces logic used in FPGA for FIR filters to a great extent by reducing number of weight multipliers. Since k-means clustering is an iterative algorithm, centroid for weights cluster is different in different iterations and causes different clusters. This causes difference in clustering of weights and sometimes even it may happen that lesser number of multiplier and lesser length of filter provide better PSR.

  1. The use of simple FIR filters for filtering of ECG signals and a new method for post-filter signal reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-Y. M. Slonim; M. A. Slonim; E. A. Ovsyscher

    1993-01-01

    Discusses new methods for ECG filtering and a novel approach to post-filter reconstruction. Oversampling (5 kHz sampling rate), which allows good results to be obtained, is used. Simple IT-shaped (time-domain) FIR filters were employed. A novel method for post-filter signal reconstruction was developed. Samples of real and artificial ECG signals enhanced with artificial noise (white and\\/or network noise, 10% in

  2. On Time Delay Estimation using an FIR Filter

    E-print Network

    So, Hing-Cheung

    : hcso@ee.cityu.edu.hk June 3, 2012 Keywords : Least Squares Filtering, Time Delay Estimation, Bias] that this interpolator is biased for finite and the delay bias decreases as the filter length increases. In this paper(-). With the use of (4), squaring both sides of (3) and taking expectation yields {2 ()} = + 2 =- 2

  3. Design Techniques for Uniform-DFT, Linear Phase Filter Banks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Honglin; DeLeon, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Uniform-DFT filter banks are an important class of filter banks and their theory is well known. One notable characteristic is their very efficient implementation when using polyphase filters and the FFT. Separately, linear phase filter banks, i.e. filter banks in which the analysis filters have a linear phase are also an important class of filter banks and desired in many applications. Unfortunately, it has been proved that one cannot design critically-sampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks and achieve perfect reconstruction. In this paper, we present a least-squares solution to this problem and in addition prove that oversampled, uniform-DFT, linear phase filter banks (which are also useful in many applications) can be constructed for perfect reconstruction. Design examples are included illustrate the methods.

  4. Block decimated analysis-synthesis filter banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kambiz Nayebi; Thomas P. Barnwell; Mark J. T. Smith

    1992-01-01

    Analysis-synthesis filter banks with nonuniform subsamplers (block decimators) are introduced, and their design is studied. In such systems, the channel downsamplers and upsamplers are allowed to be nonuniform, which results in a different type of reconstruction problem from that of uniformly subsampled systems. In the present work, it is shown that it is possible to design perfect reconstruction block decimated

  5. Adaptive FIR filter design and implementation empowered by reconfigurable FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawood, Anwar; Bergmann, Neil W.; Asdani, Zulfi; Bravo, Boris

    2000-05-01

    This paper explores the design and implementation of an adaptive Finite Impulse Response Filter on Reconfigurable Computing Technology (RCT). RCT deploys Field Programmable Gate Array technology as a flexible platform for implementing and improving digital systems design.

  6. Optimized FPGA Implementation of Multi-Rate FIR Filters Through Thread Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Jason Xin; Nguyen, Kayla; He, Yutao

    2010-01-01

    Multirate (decimation/interpolation) filters are among the essential signal processing components in spaceborne instruments where Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters are often used to minimize nonlinear group delay and finite-precision effects. Cascaded (multi-stage) designs of Multi-Rate FIR (MRFIR) filters are further used for large rate change ratio, in order to lower the required throughput while simultaneously achieving comparable or better performance than single-stage designs. Traditional representation and implementation of MRFIR employ polyphase decomposition of the original filter structure, whose main purpose is to compute only the needed output at the lowest possible sampling rate. In this paper, an alternative representation and implementation technique, called TD-MRFIR (Thread Decomposition MRFIR), is presented. The basic idea is to decompose MRFIR into output computational threads, in contrast to a structural decomposition of the original filter as done in the polyphase decomposition. Each thread represents an instance of the finite convolution required to produce a single output of the MRFIR. The filter is thus viewed as a finite collection of concurrent threads. The technical details of TD-MRFIR will be explained, first showing its applicability to the implementation of downsampling, upsampling, and resampling FIR filters, and then describing a general strategy to optimally allocate the number of filter taps. A particular FPGA design of multi-stage TD-MRFIR for the L-band radar of NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) instrument is demonstrated; and its implementation results in several targeted FPGA devices are summarized in terms of the functional (bit width, fixed-point error) and performance (time closure, resource usage, and power estimation) parameters.

  7. Embedded FIR filter design for real-time refocusing using a standard plenoptic video camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar

    2014-03-01

    A novel and low-cost embedded hardware architecture for real-time refocusing based on a standard plenoptic camera is presented in this study. The proposed layout design synthesizes refocusing slices directly from micro images by omitting the process for the commonly used sub-aperture extraction. Therefore, intellectual property cores, containing switch controlled Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, are developed and applied to the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) XC6SLX45 from Xilinx. Enabling the hardware design to work economically, the FIR filters are composed of stored product as well as upsampling and interpolation techniques in order to achieve an ideal relation between image resolution, delay time, power consumption and the demand of logic gates. The video output is transmitted via High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) with a resolution of 720p at a frame rate of 60 fps conforming to the HD ready standard. Examples of the synthesized refocusing slices are presented.

  8. Concept of Microwave Electronic Steered Array using Analogue FIR-Filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Neinhus; K. Solbach; S. Held

    2005-01-01

    A concept for wideband electronic steered array using analogue FIR-filters has been formulated. This paper fo- cuses on microwave applications, e.g. wideband antenna radiation pattern, where we explain the design of a desired radiation pattern for bandwidth 2:1. Therefore we consider a linear narrowband radiation pattern and expand it to a wideband array synthesis. The requirements for higher bandwidth, e.g.

  9. Non-maximally decimated filter bank-based single-carrier receiver: a pathway to next-generation wideband communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaofei; harris, fred; Venosa, Elettra; Rao, Bhaskar D.

    2014-12-01

    We present the design of a wideband digital modem based on non-maximally decimated filter bank (NMDFB) with perfect reconstruction (PR) property. The PR-NMDFB contains an analysis filter bank (AFB) and a synthesis filter bank (SFB) whose efficient polyphase forms are named as polyphase analysis channelizer (PAC) and polyphase synthesis channelizer (PSC). The waveform being processed is the legacy square root Nyquist-shaped quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). In contrast to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the shaped QAM transmission has much superior performance properties in throughput, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), and synchronization. We will show the PR-NMDFB is capable of efficiently performing several key tasks of a digital receiver with dramatic workload reduction. This includes digital filtering, carrier recovery, and symbol timing recovery. Moreover, the nature of NMDFB allows the signal processing to operate a significantly reduced sample rate, which is a desired characteristic for replacing current FIR implementation in wideband systems.

  10. Implementing a GammaTone Filter Bank* John Holdsworth

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Implementing a GammaTone Filter Bank* John Holdsworth Cambridge Electronic Design Science Park of this technical note is to provide a self-contained summary of properties of the GammaTone filter filters. Section 1 defines the GammaTone filter as an IIR filter in the time domain and describes its

  11. An unbiased FIR filter for TIE model of a local clock in applications to GPS-based timekeeping.

    PubMed

    Shmaliy, Yuriy S

    2006-05-01

    An unbiased finite impulse response (FIR) filter is proposed to estimate the time-interval error (TIE) K-degree polynomial model of a local clock in global positioning system (GPS)-based timekeeping in the presence of noise that is not obligatory Gaussian. Generic coefficients for the unbiased FIRs are derived. The low-degree FIRs and noise power gains are given. An estimation algorithm is proposed and examined for the TIE measurements of a crystal clock in the presence of the uniformly distributed sawtooth noise induced by the multichannel GPS timing receiver. Based upon this algorithm, we show that the unbiased FIR estimates are consistent with the reference (rubidium) measurements and fit them better than the standard Kalman filter. PMID:16764441

  12. Design and Implementation of Novel FIR Filter Architecture for Efficient Signal Boundary Handling on Xilinx VIRTEX FPGAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdsamad Benkrid; Khaled Benkrid; Danny Crookes

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the design and detailed implementation of a novel architecture proposed by the authors for FIR filters on Xilinx Virtex FPGAs. The architecture is particularly useful for handling the problem of signal boundaries filtering, which occurs in finite length signal processing (e.g. image processing). The key to that is a clever exploitation of the shift register logic (SRL16)

  13. Wavelets and multirate filter banks : theory, structure, design, and applications

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ying-Jui, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Wavelets and filter banks have revolutionized signal processing with their ability to process data at multiple temporal and spatial resolutions. Fundamentally, continuous-time wavelets are governed by discrete-time filter ...

  14. Optimization of Cosine Modulated Filter Bank for Narrowband RFI

    E-print Network

    Rajan, Dinesh

    Optimization of Cosine Modulated Filter Bank for Narrowband RFI Yingsi Liang Department frequency interfer- ence (RFI). The conventionally used optimization criterion for bandpass filtering ripple. The proposed optimization scheme is designed particularly to combat RFI with completely known

  15. Perfect reconstruction modulated filter banks without cosine constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Chan; C. W. Kok

    1993-01-01

    The theory of perfect reconstruction (PR) quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks is used to analyze the general class of modulated filter banks (MFBs). It is found that there is an inherent tradeoff between the constraints imposed on the prototype and the modulation matrix to achieve PR. The authors propose a set of constraints on the modulation to achieve PR while

  16. Nonuniform principal component filter banks: definitions, existence, and optimality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sony J. Akkarakaran; Palghat P. Vaidyanathan

    2000-01-01

    The optimality of principal component filter banks (PCFBs) for data compression has been observed in many works to varying extents. Recent work by the authors has made explicit the precise connection between the optimality of uniform orthonormal filter banks (FBs) and the principal component property: The PCFB is optimal whenever the minimization objective is a concave function of the subband

  17. Filter banks for prediction-compensated multiple description coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Wang; Jie Liang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a prediction-compensated multiple description (MD) coding framework for two-band filter banks is proposed, in which the coefficients in each subband are split into two descriptions. Each description also includes the prediction residuals of the data in the other description. The designs of the optimal orthogonal and biorthogonal filter banks are formulated in a unified framework, and both

  18. Optimized FPGA Implementation of Multi-Rate FIR Filters Through Thread Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Kayla N.; He, Yutao; Zheng, Jason X.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-rate finite impulse response (MRFIR) filters are among the essential signal-processing components in spaceborne instruments where finite impulse response filters are often used to minimize nonlinear group delay and finite precision effects. Cascaded (multistage) designs of MRFIR filters are further used for large rate change ratio in order to lower the required throughput, while simultaneously achieving comparable or better performance than single-stage designs. Traditional representation and implementation of MRFIR employ polyphase decomposition of the original filter structure, whose main purpose is to compute only the needed output at the lowest possible sampling rate. In this innovation, an alternative representation and implementation technique called TD-MRFIR (Thread Decomposition MRFIR) is presented. The basic idea is to decompose MRFIR into output computational threads, in contrast to a structural decomposition of the original filter as done in the polyphase decomposition. A naive implementation of a decimation filter consisting of a full FIR followed by a downsampling stage is very inefficient, as most of the computations performed by the FIR state are discarded through downsampling. In fact, only 1/M of the total computations are useful (M being the decimation factor). Polyphase decomposition provides an alternative view of decimation filters, where the downsampling occurs before the FIR stage, and the outputs are viewed as the sum of M sub-filters with length of N/M taps. Although this approach leads to more efficient filter designs, in general the implementation is not straightforward if the numbers of multipliers need to be minimized. In TD-MRFIR, each thread represents an instance of the finite convolution required to produce a single output of the MRFIR. The filter is thus viewed as a finite collection of concurrent threads. Each of the threads completes when a convolution result (filter output value) is computed, and activated when the first input of the convolution becomes available. Thus, the new threads get spawned at exactly the rate of N/M, where N is the total number of taps, and M is the decimation factor. Existing threads retire at the same rate of N/M. The implementation of an MRFIR is thus transformed into a problem to statically schedule the minimum number of multipliers such that all threads can be completed on time. Solving the static scheduling problem is rather straightforward if one examines the Thread Decomposition Diagram, which is a table-like diagram that has rows representing computation threads and columns representing time. The control logic of the MRFIR can be implemented using simple counters. Instead of decomposing MRFIRs into subfilters as suggested by polyphase decomposition, the thread decomposition diagrams transform the problem into a familiar one of static scheduling, which can be easily solved as the input rate is constant.

  19. Interactive banks of Bayesian matched filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozovskii, Boris L.; Petrov, Anton; Blazek, Rudolf B.

    2000-07-01

    There exist a number of powerful methods for detecting small low observable targets with stationary dynamics in image sequences provided by IR and other imaging sensors (see e.g.12). However, these methods need to be extended to handle maneuvering targets. In this paper, we demonstrate that banks of interacting Bayesian filters (BIBF) can be utilized for this purpose. We are considering target dynamics modeled by jump-linear systems. In contrast to previous studies, we do not assume that the mode jump process is a Markov chain. In particular, we allow the probabilities of jumps to be conditioned on the state variable. Then, we present a computationally efficient (real time) algorithm for detection and tracking of low observable agile targets. A comparison of BIBY and IMM approaches is carried out in a simple example.

  20. Digital Modem Design Based on Multirate Filter Banks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.; Raphaeli, D.; Hinedi, S.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach for the architecture of an all digital modem design is presented. The key feature is a lower processing rate than that of the Nyquist rate (the input sampling rate) and even the symbol rate. The lower processing rate is achieved by the use of a parallel structure, based on multirate filter banks concepts. In this proposed scheme, matched filtering is implemented in the subbands of an analysis/synthesis filter bank.

  1. The optimally reconstructed design of the causal stable synthesis filters in the M-band maximally decimated filter bank system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Der-Feng Huang

    2005-01-01

    In the traditional design of the M-band maximally decimated filter bank system, the resulting designed synthesis filters may be unstable. Based on the least square criterion and employing the calculus of variation and the spectral factorization techniques, a modified synthesis filter can be obtained. A causal stable synthesis filter bank is proposed to replace the conventional synthesis filter bank system

  2. A two-dimensional logarithmic number system (2DLNS)-based Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahzad Azarmehr; Majid Ahmadi; Graham A. Jullien

    2011-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for low power DSP applications has directed researchers to contemplate a variety of potential approaches in different contexts. In this regard, using some alternative number systems, which inherently are capable of reducing the hardware complexity, have been propounded. In this work, a 2DLNS-based platform for multiplication intensive DSP applications is presented. Implementing an FIR filter structure

  3. Integrated Optical Fir-filters for Adaptive Equalization of Fiber Channel Impairments at 40 Gbit\\/s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Bohn; Werner Rosenkranz; Folkert Horst; Bert Jan Offrein; Gian-Luca Bona; Peter Krummrich

    In high bitrate optical transmission systems the dynamic changes of the transmission channel easily exceed the system tolerances for an error free operation. To meet the tolerances an adaptive equalizer is necessary. We demonstrate the capabilities of planar lightwave circuit integrated optical FIR-filters for an adaptive compensation of optical fiber channel impairments with electrical spectrum monitoring as feedback in simulations

  4. BI-ORTHOGONAL FILTER BANKS WITH DIRECTIONAL VANISHING MOM ENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur L. da Cunha; Minh N. Do

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study 2-D nonseparable filter banks that anni hi- late information along a certain discrete direction. This i s done by having filters with directional vanishing moments (DVM). We study the approximation property of such filters and the desi gn problem providing conditions for its solvability. In parti cular we completely characterize the solution and propose a

  5. Development of superconductive microwave filters for mobile communications and filter banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Marcilhac; Y. Lemaitre; D. Mansart; J. C. Mage

    1999-01-01

    The development of superconductive microwave filters connected to the use of cooled electronics is now in the critical phase of system integration. All the different steps of filter development, design and fabrication must be controlled, reproducible and technically realisable by conventional microelectronics tools. We developed filters for mobile communications and filter banks with the goal of optimising these aspects. Lanthanum

  6. Design of FIR beamformer with frequency invariant patterns via jointly optimizing spatial and frequency responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shefeng Yan; Yuanliang Ma

    2005-01-01

    An approach to the optimal design of FIR broadband beamformer with frequency invariant patterns via joint optimizing the spatial and frequency responses is proposed. The beam responses are jointly optimized to satisfy some spatial and frequency domain specifications by designing a bank of FIR filters corresponding to the input channels. It minimizes the maximum error between the designed beam patterns

  7. A new class of subband adaptive filter using alias-free maximally decimated DFT-bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Ochi; Y. Yamada; H. Kiya

    1992-01-01

    Conventional subband adaptive filters (ADFs) using filter banks have shown degradation in performance because of the nonideal nature of the filters. A frequency sampling filter (FSF) bank is proposed which enables identification of an unknown system. An efficient implementation of the FSF bank using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is illustrated and a class of ADFs using the FSF bank

  8. Filter banks and the EM algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Mair, B.A.; Carroll, R.B.; Anderson, J.M.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present a wavelet based modification of the ML-EM algorithm for reconstructing positron emission tomography images. By using the filter bank implementation of the wavelet transform, this algorithm has the flexibility to incorporate a priori information, while maintaining the same computational complexity as the standard ML-EM algorithm. Thus, it has a significant computational advantage over usual Bayesian methods. It differs from recent wavelet-based Bayesian methods as it achieves {open_quotes}regularization{close_quotes} by an adaptive, wavelet-based method of thresholding which minimizes Stein`s Unbiased Estimate of Risk. The basic method consists of applying Donoho and Johnstone`s SureShrink wavelet denoising of the Poisson data, and then applying the standard ML-EM algorithm to the denoised data. A more elaborate method is discussed in which a wavelet denoising step is inserted after each EM iteration. This technique differs from previous smoothing techniques applied to the ML-EM algorithm since it is able to recover edges in discontinuous images.

  9. A unitary parallel filter bank approach to magnetic resonance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binz, Ernst; Schempp, Walter

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to establish a unitary parallel multichannel filter bank approach to clinical magnetic resonance tomography and magnetic resonance microscopy. The approach which is based on the Stern-Gerlach filter explains the high resolution capabilities of these non-invasive cross-sectional imaging modalities which revolutionized the field of clinical diagnostics.

  10. Texture Image Retrieval Using Complex Directional Filter Bank

    E-print Network

    Oraintara, Soontorn

    of complex directional filter bank (CDFB). One of the approaches to texture feature extraction is the filter is that no method performs well in all kinds of textures. Several previous works extract texture features based, this function is dilated and rotat

  11. Adaptive recursive least squares algorithm for joint FIR filtering and pre-delay tracking and its application in the chemical industry process modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingxing Yu; Dali Zhang; Pingfan Yan

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the joint FIR filtering and pre-delay tracking system identification problem is considered. The input signal to the unknown system is first delayed then filtered. An adaptive recursive least squares algorithm based on fast transversal filters is developed and applied to the field data from the chemical industry process of some synthetic ammonia plant. In the simulation of

  12. Phasor-Banks: Customizable Filter Banks for Robust Dynamic Time-Frequency Analysis

    E-print Network

    Stankovi, Aleksandar

    Phasor-Banks: Customizable Filter Banks for Robust Dynamic Time-Frequency Analysis Hanoch Lev, USA {levari,astankov}@ece.neu.edu Abstract-- The paper extends the concept of dynamic phasors to allow customizations that could benefit a num- ber of diverse applications. Connections between dynamic phasors and non

  13. The Most General Time-Varying Filter Bank and Time-Varying Lapped Transforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangyu Wang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based method is used to analyze the most general time-varying filter bank, where all parameters in the filter bank change with time, including filter length, decimator factor, and the number of channel. Through modeling the time-varying filter bank at a fixed time point as a time-invariant filter bank, we change the study of the most general

  14. Real-time evaluation of ventilation filter-bank systems.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Ernest S; Commodore, Michael A; Hayes, Jeffrey L; Fotta, Steven A; Berardinelli, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated two government facility ventilation systems. One was a metropolitan government office complex with a recirculation system where outside air was the makeup air; the other was a NIOSH facility that used 100% outside air with no recirculation. The methodology employed was a modified American Society of Agricultural Engineers standard (S525) for testing total enclosure filtration efficiency, in agricultural tractor cabs, with optical particle counters (OPC). The low-efficiency bag filters were tested when new and after being in the ventilation system for 3 months. The replacement medium-efficiency filters were evaluated for 6 months (the manufacturer's suggested change-out schedule). These eight-chamber, medium-efficiency filters had an increased filter surface area that resulted in increased airflow through the system. Unfortunately, these filters contained electrostatic filter media and lost filtration efficiency rapidly, which was subsequently confirmed in a 30-day study conducted to determine an appropriate change-out schedule for the eight-chamber bag filters. The study determined that less than 6 months' use was justified due to the reduced efficiency of the electrostatic filter media. The NIOSH facility's air handler #8 (100% outside air unit) was upgraded from electrostatic bag filters, which had a suggested 9-month change-out schedule, to V Bank mechanical, wet-laid, glass fiber filters. The results of a 3-year evaluation showed that the V Bank filters had better filter efficiency after 3 years of service than the electrostatic filters had at 9 months. Both studies employed matched OPC instruments to reduce instrument-to-instrument bias. The methodology is adaptable to monitoring the total efficiency of most air filtration systems, and results can help make decisions about upgrading filter performance. PMID:17162482

  15. Narrowband Interference Cancellation in an UWB Filter Bank Receiver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omid Abedi; John Nielsen; Abu B. Sesay; Nasser Fallah

    2006-01-01

    In this article we will briefly describe the performance of a single user UWB* communication system with time hopping pulse position modulation, TH-PPM, by applying the ideal rake, IRAKE, and partial rake, PRAKE, and filter bank receiver. These receivers have been evaluated in several scenarios, such as line of sight, LOS, and extremely non line of sight, ENLOS, and have

  16. Optimization design of biorthogonal filter banks for image compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Shang; Longzhuang Li; Benjamin W. Wah

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for designing filter banks for image compression. This approach has two major components: optimization and generalization. In the optimization phase, we formulate the design problem as a nonlinear optimization problem whose objective consists of both the performance metrics of the image coder, such as the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and those of

  17. New results and open problems on nonuniform filter-banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sony Akkarakaran; P. P. Vaidyanathan

    1999-01-01

    Nonuniform filter-banks (FBs) have traditionally been built either by cascading uniform ones in a tree structure or by direct design methods that lead to near-perfect reconstruction. However many theoretical issues remain unresolved. This paper begins by pointing out a number of these issues, and summarizes the known conditions for existence of nonuniform perfect reconstruction (PR) FBs. As a new contribution,

  18. M-Channel Nonlinear Phase Filter Banks in Image Compression: Structure, Design, and Signal Extension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Uto; Tomohiro Oka; Masaaki Ikehara

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a transform coding technique based on M-channel perfect reconstruction filter banks with a nonlinear phase. In contrast with linear-phase filter banks, the nonlinearity provides an extra degree of freedom that can be used to design a more efficient transform. We present new lattice structures of paraunitary and perfect reconstruction (biorthogonal) filter banks, which can be implemented with

  19. Design of the FEM-FIR filter for displacement reconstruction using accelerations and displacements measured at different sampling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yun Hwa; Lee, Se Gun; Lee, Hae Sung

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a displacement reconstruction scheme using acceleration measured at a high sampling rate and displacement measured at a considerably low sampling rate. The governing equation and the boundary conditions for the reconstruction are derived using the variational statement of an inverse problem to minimize the errors between measured and reconstructed responses. The transfer function of the governing equation is identically 1 over whole frequency domain, and the proposed scheme would not result in any reconstruction error. A finite impulse response filter (FIR filter) is formulated through the finite element discretization of the governing equation. The Hermitian shape function is adopted to interpolate the displacement in a finite element. The transfer functions of the FIR filter are derived, and their characteristics are thoroughly discussed. It is recommended that the displacement sampling rate should be higher than the Nyquist rate of the target frequency, which is the lowest physically meaningful frequency in measured acceleration. In case the displacement sampling rate is lower than the recommended rate, the use of a higher target accuracy, which is the predefined accuracy at the target frequency, is required. The reconstruction of velocity with the proposed scheme is also presented. The validity of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with a numerical simulation study and a field test on a simply-supported railway bridge.

  20. RADIOACTIVE FILTER BANK FIRE DETECTION SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1961-01-01

    The detection of radioactive air filter fires is discussed. Criteria ;\\u000a requirements for a suitable fire detection system were established. The ;\\u000a applicability of aircraft-type fire detection systems for this use was evaluated. ;\\u000a The operation of a discrete eutectic salt type continuous fire detection tubing ;\\u000a system is outlined. (M.C.G.)

  1. FIR Filter Design based on All Phase Symmetric Frequency Sampling Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huang Xiaohong; Sun Jinsheng; Wang Zhaohua

    2006-01-01

    All phase symmetric frequency sampling method is put forward in this paper, which can setup shift variable according to the cut-off frequency. This method exerts inverse phase-shifts on two sub-filters, constructs a compensation filter, and at last combines sub-filters with compensation filter to form the needed low-pass, band-pass filter and notch filter. The design method is simple with a specific

  2. Iterated oversampled filter banks and wavelet frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selesnick, Ivan W.; Sendur, Levent

    2000-12-01

    This paper takes up the design of wavelet tight frames that are analogous to Daubechies orthonormal wavelets - that is, the design of minimal length wavelet filters satisfying certain polynomial properties, but now in the oversampled case. The oversampled dyadic DWT considered in this paper is based on a single scaling function and tow distinct wavelets. Having more wavelets than necessary gives a closer spacing between adjacent wavelets within the same scale. As a result, the transform is nearly shift-invariant, and can be used to improve denoising. Because the associated time- frequency lattice preserves the dyadic structure of the critically sampled DWT it can be used with tree-based denoising algorithms that exploit parent-child correlation.

  3. Principal component filter banks for optimal multiresolution analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michail K. Tsatsanis; Georgios B. Giannakis

    1995-01-01

    An important issue in multiresolution analysis is that of optimal basis selection. An optimal P-band perfect reconstruction filter bank (PRFB) is derived in this paper, which minimizes the approximation error (in the mean-square sense) between the original signal and its low-resolution version. The resulting PRFB decomposes the input signal into uncorrelated, low-resolution principal components with decreasing variance. Optimality issues are

  4. An EHW Architecture for the Design of Unconstrained Low-Power FIR Filters for Sensor Control Using Custom-Reconfigurable Technology

    E-print Network

    Arslan, Tughrul

    -Boeing micro-machined gyroscope. Our scope is to implement a low-power, autonomously reconfigurable-Boeing micro-machined gyroscope [1]. Our architecture is specifically tailored for the design of FIR filters Using Custom-Reconfigurable Technology Evangelos F. Stefatos, Tughrul Arslan School of Engineering

  5. Modulated Filter Banks with Arbitrary System Delay: Efficient Implementations and the Time-Varying Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald D. T. Schuller; Tanja Karp

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for the design and implementation of modulated filter banks with perfect recon- struction. It is based on the decomposition of the analysis and syn- thesis polyphase matrices into a product of two different types of simple matrices, replacing the polyphase filtering part in a mod- ulated filter bank. Special consideration is given

  6. An EHW Architecture for the Design of Unconstrained Low-Power FIR Filters for Sensor Control Using Custom-Reconfigurable Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos F. Stefatos; Tughrul Arslan; Didier Keymeulen; Ian Ferguson

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a power-optimized evolvable hardware (EHW) architecture that employs custom- reconfigurable technology. It comprises a preliminary research work towards the implementation of filtering circuits associated with the JPL-Boeing micro-machined gyroscope. Our scope is to implement a low-power, autonomously reconfigurable architecture that is tailored for the realization of arbitrary response FIR filters. For the purpose of this paper the

  7. Sub-Band Coding Of Images Using Nonrectangular Filter Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rashid; Cetin, A. Enis; Lee, Sang H.

    1988-12-01

    A procedure for image coding using a non-rectangular subband decomposition is described in this paper. The procedure provides a hierarchical partition where at each stage a decomposition into two subbands is accomplished with no bias toward either the horizontal or the vertical high frequency content of the signal. The filters used in the processing are low order IIR filters with approximately linear phase and the analysis/synthesis filter banks provide exact reconstruction in the absence of quantization and coding. The filters are implemented using a generalized notion of separable processing. A two stage decomposition was investigated in which the subband signal with lowest frequency content was coded using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and the outer bands were coded using runlength coding and pulse code modulation (PCM) . The coding scheme is demonstrated on some test images. The scheme provides a natural hierarchy of image resolution where the sampling is reduced by a factor of two at each stage. In this diamond shaped frequency subband analysis/synthesis scheme if the information of the outer band is lost, the reconstructed signal appears visually more acceptable than in the case where either the high vertical or high horizontal information in the rectangular subband analysis/synthesis is ignored.

  8. Classifying transient signals with nonlinear dynamic filter banks

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, J.S. [Cambridge Research Associates, 1430 Spring Hill Road, Suite 200, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    In recent years, several specific advances in the study of chaotic processes have been made which appear to have immediate applicability to signal processing. This paper describes two applications of one of these advances, nonlinear modeling, to signal detection & classification, in particular for short-lived or transient or signals. The first method uses the coefficients from an adaptively fit model as a set of features for signal detection and classification. In the second method, a library of predictive nonlinear dynamic equations is used as a filter bank, and statistics on the prediction residuals are used to form feature vectors for input data segments. These feature vectors provide a mechanism for detecting and classifying model transients at signal-to-noise ratios as low as {minus}10 dB, even when the generating dynamics of the transient signals are not present in the filter bank. The second method and some validating experiments are described in detail. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. An x\\/sin (x) FIR digital filter for DVB-C\\/DAVIC modulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shen Bo; Li Wenhong; Zhang Qianling

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel 7-tap sin(x)\\/x correction digital filter suitable for DVB-C\\/DAVIC modulator, which can compensate the sinc effect of D\\/A converter. This filter adopts the modified direct form structure, which has high performance as well as smaller chip area. In addition, it adopts an efficient BIST (built in self test) scheme to greatly improve the testability

  10. USING PHASE AND MAGNITUDE INFORMATION OF THE COMPLEX DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANK FOR TEXTURE SEGMENTATION

    E-print Network

    Oraintara, Soontorn

    USING PHASE AND MAGNITUDE INFORMATION OF THE COMPLEX DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANK FOR TEXTURE and segmentation. Simulation results show that the CDFB phase information is complementary to the magnitude. Lower- mentation. This paper discusses how magnitude and phase informa- tion of the complex directional filter bank

  11. A New Facial Expression Recognition Method Based on Local Gabor Filter Bank and PCA plus LDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Bo Deng; Lian-Wen Jin; Li-Xin Zhen; Jian-Cheng Huang

    This paper proposes a facial expression recognition system based on Gabor feature using a novel local Gabor filter bank. Traditionally, a global Gabor filter bank with 5 frequencies and 8 orientations is often used to extract the Gabor feature. A lot of time will be involved to extract feature and the dimensions of such Gabor feature vector are prohibitively high.

  12. Results on principal component filter banks: Colored noise suppression and existence issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sony Akkarakaran; P. P. Vaidyanathan

    2001-01-01

    We have recently made explicit the precise connec- tion between the optimization of orthonormal filter banks (FBs) and the principal component property: The principal component filter bank (PCFB) is optimal whenever the minimization objective is a concave function of the subband variances of the FB. This ex- plains PCFB optimality for compression, progressive transmission, and various hitherto unnoticed white-noise suppression

  13. FILTER-BANK OPTIMIZATION WITH CONVEX OBJECTIVES, AND THE OPTIMALITY OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT FORMS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sony Akkarakaran; P. P. Vaidyanathan

    This paper proposes a general framework for the optimization of orthonormal filter banks (FB's) for given input statistics. This includes as special cases, many recent results on filter bank optimization for compression. It also solves problems that have not been considered thus far. FB optimization for coding gain maximization (for compression applications) has been well studied before. The optimum FB

  14. An analytical formula for the design of quadrature mirror filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GIANCARLO PIRANI; VALERIO ZINGARELLI

    1984-01-01

    Quadrature mirror filters have an outstanding relevance in the implementation of filter banks for dividing the speech signal into frequency bands and for reconstructing it from these subbands. An analytical formula is given, which allows one to optimize the design of the basic low-pass FIR filter by means of a straight nonlinear minimization procedure.

  15. LOW BIT-RATE IMAGE CODING BASED ON PYRAMIDAL DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANKS Yilong Liu, Truong T. Nguyen and Soontorn Oraintara

    E-print Network

    Oraintara, Soontorn

    LOW BIT-RATE IMAGE CODING BASED ON PYRAMIDAL DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANKS Yilong Liu, Truong T. Nguyen a novel embedded image coding system based on the pyramidal multidirectional image representation. The mul- tiscale filter bank is a combination of the overcomplete pyramidal directional filter bank at higher

  16. The Complex Subband Decomposition and its Application to the Decimation of Large Adaptive Filtering Problems

    E-print Network

    Reilly, James P.

    -channel filter bank with a diagonal system inserted between the analysis and synthesis filter banks may be used noise control [4]. In this paper however, we con- centrate on the acoustic echo cancellation (AEC to decompose an FIR system of order L into M complex subband components each of order L K , where K

  17. Design of FIR digital filters for pulse shaping and channel equalization using time-domain optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, R. C.; Vaughn, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    Three algorithms are developed for designing finite impulse response digital filters to be used for pulse shaping and channel equalization. The first is the Minimax algorithm which uses linear programming to design a frequency-sampling filter with a pulse shape that approximates the specification in a minimax sense. Design examples are included which accurately approximate a specified impulse response with a maximum error of 0.03 using only six resonators. The second algorithm is an extension of the Minimax algorithm to design preset equalizers for channels with known impulse responses. Both transversal and frequency-sampling equalizer structures are designed to produce a minimax approximation of a specified channel output waveform. Examples of these designs are compared as to the accuracy of the approximation, the resultant intersymbol interference (ISI), and the required transmitted energy. While the transversal designs are slightly more accurate, the frequency-sampling designs using six resonators have smaller ISI and energy values.

  18. Textural Segmentation of Sidescan Sonar Images Based on Gabor Filters Bank and Active Contours without Edges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaveh Samiee; Gholamali Rezai-rad

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with textural segmenting of high resolution sidescan sonar images by using active contours and Gabor filters. In fact this method is a modification of Chan and Vese Active contour model. It makes the method suitable for textural segmenting of above said images. First, image is passed through a symmetric bank of Gabor filters. Then, filtered images that

  19. A filter bank approach to earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, M.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a race against time. The longer it takes to detect and characterize an ongoing event, the larger is the blind zone - the region where a warning arrives only after the most damaging ground motion has occurred. The problem is most acute during medium size earthquakes, where damaging ground motion is confined to a small zone around the epicenter. An ideal EEW algorithm which is fast enough to provide relevant alerts for such scenario events would have to produce reliable event characterization based on observations of very short snippets of data recorded at only very few stations. For such a scheme to work, without significant numbers of false alarms (which continue to hamper both single-station and network based approaches today), the real-time information that is available for an earthquake has to be exploited in a more optimal way than what is currently done. Our approach is to fully mine the broadband frequency content of incoming waveforms that contains significant information on the size and epicentral distance of the ongoing event. We propose a filter bank approach with minimum phase delay filters which allows us to use frequency information from each frequency band at each triggered station at the earliest possible time. We have compiled and processed an extensive event dataset of near-field earthquake waveforms. In an empirical maximum likelihood scheme, we use the filter bank output from the first seconds after the P-wave onset of each waveform to estimate a) the likelihood that the waveform corresponds to a local seismic event; and b) the most likely magnitude and epicentral distance to have caused this waveform. We show how our single station approach can be integrated into an evolutionary and fully probabilistic network EEW system. This method could be expanded to a Bayesian framework by considering prior information, as proposed in the Virtual Seismologist (Cua and Heaton, 2007). We demonstrate that our method can allow sufficiently accurate characterization of an ongoing event with two stations, with consistent characterization of the evolving uncertainty of the location and magnitude.

  20. Analog FIR Filter Used for Range-Optimal Pulsed Radar Applications

    E-print Network

    Su, Eric Chen

    2014-08-13

    friends in AMSC, in particular, Barry, Yanjie Sun, Congyin Shi, Jun Yan, Qiyuan Liu, Cheng-Ming Chien Mengde Wang and Han Chen for the happy times we shared Finally, thanks to my parents and my sister. Mere words cannot express my gratitude... OTA was reviewed and proposed, after some analysis we chose one that was suitable, and implemented it on chip to meet the required specification for the system. The main challenge in designing the filter for this application is to design a reliable...

  1. Palm print image recovery and de-noising via multi-channel wavelet filter bank.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Y-H; Li, F-Q; Qiao, A-K; Zhang, J-H; Liang, K; Zeng, Y-J

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a 3-channel wavelet transform method is introduced to recover palm print images following serious deformation. The deformation processing is actually a kind of digital re-sampling. A filter bank consisting of three filters is implemented for wavelet decomposition of the palm print image, and then a procedure of binary interpolation is performed after the image is reconstructed by another filter bank consisting of another three filters. The design of multi-channel wavelet filter bank is based on the Quadrature Mirror Filter (QMF) method. Because the noise is caused by the Morie stripe, the images are further de-noised after the geometry deformation is addressed. Acceptable results have been obtained. PMID:16980286

  2. Methods and apparatuses using filter banks for multi-carrier spread-spectrum signals

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Hussein; Farhang, Behrouz; Kutsche, Carl A

    2014-05-20

    A transmitter includes a synthesis filter bank to spread a data symbol to a plurality of frequencies by encoding the data symbol on each frequency, apply a common pulse-shaping filter, and apply gains to the frequencies such that a power level of each frequency is less than a noise level of other communication signals within the spectrum. Each frequency is modulated onto a different evenly spaced subcarrier. A demodulator in a receiver converts a radio frequency input to a spread-spectrum signal in a baseband. A matched filter filters the spread-spectrum signal with a common filter having characteristics matched to the synthesis filter bank in the transmitter by filtering each frequency to generate a sequence of narrow pulses. A carrier recovery unit generates control signals responsive to the sequence of narrow pulses suitable for generating a phase-locked loop between the demodulator, the matched filter, and the carrier recovery unit.

  3. A class of M-channel linear-phase biorthogonal filter banks and their applications to subband coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Chan; A. Nallanathan; T. S. Ng; P. C. K. Kwok

    1999-01-01

    This correspondence presents a new factorization for linear-phase biorthogonal perfect reconstruction (PR) FIR filter hanks. Using this factorization, we propose a new family of lapped transform called the generalized lapped transform (GLT). Since the analysis and synthesis filters of the GLT are not restricted to be time reverses of each other, they can offer more freedom to avoid blocking artifacts

  4. A filter bank based ultra-wideband receiver front-end for ranging applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Artiga; Llus Berenguer

    2009-01-01

    This paper is intended to detail the practical implementation of a receiver front-end, used in an impulse radio ultra-wideband testbed for low data rate communications and ranging. The receiver architecture consists of a filter bank followed by a downconversion stage that relaxes the analog-to-digital converters requirements in terms of input analog bandwidth. The filter bank is implemented by a four-way

  5. M-Channel Paraunitary Multirate Filter Bank Factorisation over Fields of Characteristic Two

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catriona M. Lucey; Massimiliano Sal; Colin C. Murphy

    2006-01-01

    It has been proposed that all M-channel paraunitary (PU) multirate filter banks over GF(2r) can be described using the product of basic lattice blocks. In this paper this conjecture is proven by considering a redefinition of degree-0 lattice blocks. A factorisation algorithm that factors all degree-J PU filter banks over GF(2r) is presented. In the course of this work M-channel

  6. Efficient Implementation of the Fast Filter Bank For Critically Decimated Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Wei Lee; Yong Ching Lim

    2006-01-01

    The fast filter bank (FFB) is a tree-structured filter bank comprising cascaded two-channel subfilters. These subfilters are obtained by using a frequency response masking decomposition. In this paper, the application of the FFB in a critically decimated system is considered. The authors evaluate the conditions that are imposed on the subfilters, for the design of a pair of near-perfect-reconstruction analysis-synthesis

  7. USING PHASE AND MAGNITUDE INFORMATION OF THE COMPLEX DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANK FOR TEXTURE IMAGE RETRIEVAL

    E-print Network

    Oraintara, Soontorn

    USING PHASE AND MAGNITUDE INFORMATION OF THE COMPLEX DIRECTIONAL FILTER BANK FOR TEXTURE IMAGE, Fontainebleau, 77305 France ABSTRACT This paper discusses how to utilize both magnitude and phase in- formation images. This paper discusses how magnitude and phase information of the complex directional lter bank

  8. On the Construction of Invertible Filter Banks on the 2-Sphere

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Boon Thye Thomas; Ou, Wanmei; Golland, Polina

    2009-01-01

    The theories of signal sampling, filter banks, wavelets, and overcomplete wavelets are well established for the Euclidean spaces and are widely used in the processing and analysis of images. While recent advances have extended some filtering methods to spherical images, many key challenges remain. In this paper, we develop theoretical conditions for the invertibility of filter banks under continuous spherical convolution. Furthermore, we present an analogue of the Papoulis generalized sampling theorem on the 2-Sphere. We use the theoretical results to establish a general framework for the design of invertible filter banks on the sphere and demonstrate the approach with examples of self-invertible spherical wavelets and steerable pyramids. We conclude by examining the use of a self-invertible spherical steerable pyramid in a denoising experiment and discussing the computational complexity of the filtering framework. PMID:18270119

  9. On the Application of Under-Decimated Filter Banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-P. Lin; P. P. Vaidyanathan

    1994-01-01

    In this article, under-decimated systems are introduced to solve the problem. The new system is decimated only by half the number of channels. Two types of fllter banks can be used in the under-decimated system: the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) fllter banks and the cosine modulated fllter banks. They are well known for their low complexity. In both cases, the

  10. Lifted linear phase filter banks and the polyphase-with-advance representation

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, C. M. (Christopher M.); Wohlberg, B. E. (Brendt E.)

    2004-01-01

    A matrix theory is developed for the noncausal polyphase-with-advance representation that underlies the theory of lifted perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet transforms as developed by Sweldens and Daubechies. This theory provides the fundamental lifting methodology employed in the ISO/IEC JPEG-2000 still image coding standard, which the authors helped to develop. Lifting structures for polyphase-with-advance filter banks are depicted in Figure 1. In the analysis bank of Figure 1(a), the first lifting step updates x{sub 0} with a filtered version of x{sub 1} and the second step updates x{sub 1} with a filtered version of x{sub 0}; gain factors 1/K and K normalize the lowpass- and highpass-filtered output subbands. Each of these steps is inverted by the corresponding operations in the synthesis bank shown in Figure 1(b). Lifting steps correspond to upper- or lower-triangular matrices, S{sub i}(z), in a cascade-form decomposition of the polyphase analysis matrix, H{sub a}(z). Lifting structures can also be implemented reversibly (i.e., losslessly in fixed-precision arithmetic) by rounding the lifting updates to integer values. Our treatment of the polyphase-with-advance representation develops an extensive matrix algebra framework that goes far beyond the results of. Specifically, we focus on analyzing and implementing linear phase two-channel filter banks via linear phase lifting cascade schemes. Whole-sample symmetric (WS) and half-sample symmetric (HS) linear phase filter banks are characterized completely in terms of the polyphase-with-advance representation. The theory benefits significantly from a number of new group-theoretic structures arising in the polyphase-with-advance matrix algebra from the lifting factorization of linear phase filter banks.

  11. UWB receiver based on filter bank architecture for suppression of narrowband interference noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pasand; J. Nielsen; A. Sesay

    2004-01-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) links are inherently subject to narrowband interference from other communication links which results in frequent disruptive outage conditions. This paper proposes a solution for suppressing the narrowband interference noise based on analog filter bank pre-processing in conjunction with maximum ratio combining (MRC) and generalized matched filter (GMF) processing. This receiver architecture requires significantly less processing than the

  12. Compact front-end filter banks for wideband multi-role AESA systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Billstrom; J. Sandwall

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents design and measurements of filter banks for T\\/R-modules in potential wideband multi-role two-dimensional active phased array (AESA) systems. Two different technologies of implementation have been evaluated in this context. Firstly, a multilayer printed circuit boards (PCB) approach; using distributed filters, microstrip and stripline filter, is evaluated in terms of size and performance. Especially, the performance in terms

  13. Optimal Orthogonal Boundary Filter Banks Ricardo L. de Queiroz

    E-print Network

    de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

    signals ykm. In a PUFB, we can de ne a lapped transform matrix P with elements pij as pij = fiL,1 ,j = gij increasing attention and so are the problems resulting from the processing of nite length signals. This work lter bank PUFB. The input signal, xn is, thus, transformed by the analysis lter bank into the subband

  14. Spacecraft precision entry navigation using an adaptive sigma point Kalman filter bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyne, Martin Cornelius

    This work documents the development of a sigma point Kalman filter for the purpose of precision spacecraft navigation during the atmospheric entry, descent and landing phase. The use of the sigma point Kalman filter is driven by the desire to avoid complex partial derivatives associated with the standard extended Kalman filter. The strategy increases the likelihood that the navigation algorithm will be compatible with the Electra. Using Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (MER-A) and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) data, experiments were conducted to validate the proposed navigation concept. Beginning at atmospheric entry interface, the hypersonic entry phase is considered and the navigation architecture performance is quantified. Using the sigma point Kalman filter as the main computational unit, a filter bank for environmental parameter identification is investigated. The focus of the investigation is atmospheric parameter identification. The MER-A mission is used to verify the ability of the filter bank to make appropriate selections. The navigation architecture is implemented on the Electra programmable radio, a flight hardware communication node available on spacecraft build for Mars exploration. The investigations show that the sigma point Kalman filter structure is very applicable to the atmospheric entry navigation problem. When used in conjunction with the filter bank concept, the overall navigation architecture is shown to be able to improve navigation accuracy over standard dead-reckoning, while providing robustness to uncertainties in the atmosphere. The navigation algorithm is successfully hosted on the Electra programmable radio and is capable of processing actual MER inertial measurement data.

  15. Secure optical generalized filter bank multi-carrier system based on cubic constellation masked method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun

    2015-06-15

    A secure optical generalized filter bank multi-carrier (GFBMC) system with carrier-less amplitude-phase (CAP) modulation is proposed in this Letter. The security is realized through cubic constellation-masked method. Large key space and more flexibility masking can be obtained by cubic constellation masking aligning with the filter bank. An experiment of 18Gb/s encrypted GFBMC/CAP system with 25-km single-mode fiber transmission is performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:26076243

  16. Designs and architectures of filter bank trees for spectrally efficient multi-user communications: review, modifications and extensions of wavelet packet filter bank trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Sablatash

    2008-01-01

    A review is presented first of the evolution of transmultiplexers since about 1966, in the context of a long progression of\\u000a theoretical advances and developments leading to recent proposals to fundamentally improve OFDM type systems using principles\\u000a of perfect reconstruction filter (PRF) banks. The equivalence of transmultiplexers to OFDM type multi-user systems is discussed.\\u000a The desirable goals for performance and

  17. Elaborate analysis and design of filter-bank-based sensing for wideband cognitive radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliatsos, Konstantinos; Adamis, Athanasios; Kanatas, Athanasios G.

    2014-12-01

    The successful operation of a cognitive radio system strongly depends on its ability to sense the radio environment. With the use of spectrum sensing algorithms, the cognitive radio is required to detect co-existing licensed primary transmissions and to protect them from interference. This paper focuses on filter-bank-based sensing and provides a solid theoretical background for the design of these detectors. Optimum detectors based on the Neyman-Pearson theorem are developed for uniform discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and modified DFT filter banks with root-Nyquist filters. The proposed sensing framework does not require frequency alignment between the filter bank of the sensor and the primary signal. Each wideband primary channel is spanned and monitored by several sensor subchannels that analyse it in narrowband signals. Filter-bank-based sensing is proved to be robust and efficient under coloured noise. Moreover, the performance of the weighted energy detector as a sensing technique is evaluated. Finally, based on the Locally Most Powerful and the Generalized Likelihood Ratio test, real-world sensing algorithms that do not require a priori knowledge are proposed and tested.

  18. On the application of optimal wavelet filter banks for ECG signal classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiloucas, S.; Jannah, N.; Hwang, F.; Galvo, R. K. H.

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses ECG signal classification after parametrizing the ECG waveforms in the wavelet domain. Signal decomposition using perfect reconstruction quadrature mirror filter banks can provide a very parsimonious representation of ECG signals. In the current work, the filter parameters are adjusted by a numerical optimization algorithm in order to minimize a cost function associated to the filter cut-off sharpness. The goal consists of achieving a better compromise between frequency selectivity and time resolution at each decomposition level than standard orthogonal filter banks such as those of the Daubechies and Coiflet families. Our aim is to optimally decompose the signals in the wavelet domain so that they can be subsequently used as inputs for training to a neural network classifier.

  19. Design of oversampled DFT modulated filter banks optimized for acoustic echo cancellation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qin Li; Wei-Ge Chen; Chao He; Henrique S. Malvar

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method for designing oversampled DFT filter banks (FB) optimized for subband acoustic echo cancellation (AEC). For this application, the design require- ments typically are good echo cancellation quality, low delay, small reconstruction error, and low computation complexity. Our method explicitly includes a model for echo return loss enhancement (ERLE) as part of the optimization criteria. Convergence

  20. M-CHANNEL LIFTING STRUCTURE FOR UNIMODULAR FILTER BANK Rohit Kumar

    E-print Network

    Oraintara, Soontorn

    , we present the design of first- order unimodular transforms (a.k.a. lapped unimodular transform filter banks (FBs) have found several applications in the field of signal processing [1, 2]. Signals can the lapped orthogonal transform (LOT) and the lapped biorthogonal transform (BOLT) [7]. Hence it is possible

  1. DMT Bit Rate Maximization With Optimal Time Domain Equalizer Filter Bank Architecture

    E-print Network

    Evans, Brian L.

    DMT Bit Rate Maximization With Optimal Time Domain Equalizer Filter Bank Architecture Milos-tone (DMT) is a multicarrier modula- tion method in which the available bandwidth of a com- munication create nearly orthogonal subchannels. DMT has been standardized in [1, 2, 3, 4]. A similar multi- carrier

  2. OVERSAMPLED FILTER BANKS: OPTIMAL NOISlE SHAPING, DESIGN FREEDOM, AND NOISE ANALY!SIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Bolcskei; Franz Hlawatsch

    We show that oversampled filter banks FBs) of- fer more design freedom and less noise sensitivity t 6 an crit- ically sampled FBs. We provide a parameterization of all synthesis FBs satisfyin perfect reconstruction for a given oversampled analysis FE, and we derive bounds and expres- sions for the variance of the reconstruction error due to noisy subband signals. Finally,

  3. INVERTIBLE FILTER BANKS ON THE 2-SPHERE B.T. Thomas Yeo Wanmei Ou Polina Golland

    E-print Network

    Golland, Polina

    INVERTIBLE FILTER BANKS ON THE 2-SPHERE B.T. Thomas Yeo Wanmei Ou Polina Golland Computer Science to the sphere, many key challenges remain. In this paper, we develop conditions for the invertibility be incorpo- rated into the design of self-invertible axis-symmetric wavelets. Self- invertibility

  4. M. D. Adams, Multiresolution Signal and Geometry Processing: Filter Banks, Wavelets, and Subdivision (Version 2013-09-26), University of Victoria, Victo-

    E-print Network

    Adams, Michael D.

    M. D. Adams, Multiresolution Signal and Geometry Processing: Filter Banks, Wavelets.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Multiresolution Signal and Geometry Processing: Filter Banks, Wavelets://www.ece.uvic.ca/~mdadams/waveletbook #12;#12;Multiresolution Signal and Geometry Processing: Filter Banks, Wavelets, and Subdivision

  5. Satellite fault diagnosis using a bank of interacting Kalman filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Tudoroiu; K. Khorasani

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this work is development and testing of a detection, isolation, and diagnosis algorithm based on interacting multiple model (IMM) filters for both partial (soft) and total (hard) reaction wheels faults in a spacecraft. This is shown to be accomplished under a number of different faulty mode scenarios for these actuators associated with the attitude control system

  6. Medical Volume Segmentation using Bank of Gabor Filters Adebayo Olowoyeye

    E-print Network

    Tuceryan, Mihran

    Terms Algorithm, Design, and Experimentation Keywords Segmentation, Classification, Gabor Filters, K-Means-1-60558-166-8/09/03 ...$5.00. using algorithms that segment based on statistical analysis of image features. Segmentation a variety of clustering algorithms (k-means, fuzzy clustering) to group similar pixels together, resulting

  7. A Low-Power, Programmable Bandpass Filter Section for Higher-Order Filter-Bank Applications

    E-print Network

    Graham, David W.

    Chawla, David W. Graham, Paul D. Smith and Paul Hasler School of Electrical and Computer Engineering], [3]. Figure 1 shows the circuit schematic of our core pro- grammable 2nd -order filter element, which. 1. Block diagram and schematic of the filter element: Block diagram of 10th-order filter and circuit

  8. First results from the FPGA/NIOS Adaptive FIR Filter Using Linear Prediction Implemented in the AERA Radio Stations to Reduce Narrow Band RFI for Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    E-print Network

    Zbigniew Szadkowski; D. G?as; C. Timmermans; T. Wijnen for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-06-03

    The FPGA/NIOS FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP) to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI) has been installed in several radio stations in the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) experiment. AERA observes coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays to make a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio signals provide complementary information to that obtained from Auger surface detectors, which are predominantly sensitive to the particle content of an air shower at the surface. The radio signals from air showers are caused by the coherent emission due to geomagnetic and charge-excess processes. These emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 - 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. A FIR filter implemented in the FPGA logic segment of the front-end electronics of a radio sensor significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we present first results of the efficiency of the adaptive LP FIR filter, deployed in real AERA station on pampas, with a comparison to the currently used IIR notch filter with constant coefficients. The laboratory tests confirms the stability of the filter. Using constant LP coefficients the suppression efficiency remains the same for hours, which corresponds to more than $\\bf 10^{12}$ clock cycles. We compared in real conditions several variants of the LP FIR filter with various lengths and various coefficients widths (due to fixed-point representations in the FPGA logic) with the aim to minimize the power consumption for the radio station while keeping sufficient accuracy for noise reduction.

  9. Multiscale Feature Analysis Using Directional Filter Bank W.Y. Chan, N.F. Law and W.C. Siu

    E-print Network

    Law, Bonnie N.F.

    that the energy distribution of the filter in the Laplacian pyramid should match with the analyzed pattern, a Laplacian pyramid is combined with directional filter bank. This requires the analysis on the design of both the filter in the Laplacian pyramid and the overall directional decomposition structure. Our analysis shows

  10. Nearly perfect-reconstruction cosine-modulated filter bank design for VDSL modems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Viholainen; T. Saramaki; M. Renfors

    1999-01-01

    In our previous paper, we applied the idea of perfect-reconstruction cosine-modulated filter banks to develop efficient transmultiplexers for multicarrier VDSL transmission systems of the discrete wavelet multitone type. However, it is sometimes judicious to relax perfect-reconstruction conditions by allowing amplitude and\\/or aliasing distortions. In this paper, we present a nearly perfect-reconstruction cosine-modulated transmultiplexer approach for VDSL modems. The effects of

  11. Invertible temporal subband\\/wavelet filter banks with half-pixel-accurate motion compensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-ta Hsiang; John W. Woods; Jens-rainer Ohm

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) subband\\/wavelet coding with motion compensation has been demonstrated to be an efficient technique for video coding applications in some recent research works. When motion compensation is performed with half-pixel accuracy, images need to be interpolated in both temporal subband analysis and synthesis stages. The resulting subband filter banks developed in these former algorithms were not invertible due to

  12. A blind watermarking scheme using new nontensor product wavelet filter banks.

    PubMed

    You, Xinge; Du, Liang; Cheung, Yiu-Ming; Chen, Qiuhui

    2010-12-01

    As an effective method for copyright protection of digital products against illegal usage, watermarking in wavelet domain has recently received considerable attention due to the desirable multiresolution property of wavelet transform. In general, images can be represented with different resolutions by the wavelet decomposition, analogous to the human visual system (HVS). Usually, human eyes are insensitive to image singularities revealed by different high frequency subbands of wavelet decomposed images. Hence, adding watermarks into these singularities will improve the imperceptibility that is a desired property of a watermarking scheme. That is, the capability for revealing singularities of images plays a key role in designing wavelet-based watermarking algorithms. Unfortunately, the existing wavelets have a limited ability in revealing singularities in different directions. This motivates us to construct new wavelet filter banks that can reveal singularities in all directions. In this paper, we utilize special symmetric matrices to construct the new nontensor product wavelet filter banks, which can capture the singularities in all directions. Empirical studies will show their advantages of revealing singularities in comparison with the existing wavelets. Based upon these new wavelet filter banks, we, therefore, propose a modified significant difference watermarking algorithm. Experimental results show its promising results. PMID:21078567

  13. Real-Time Diagnosis of Faults Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    A new robust method of automated real-time diagnosis of faults in an aircraft engine or a similar complex system involves the use of a bank of Kalman filters. In order to be highly reliable, a diagnostic system must be designed to account for the numerous failure conditions that an aircraft engine may encounter in operation. The method achieves this objective though the utilization of multiple Kalman filters, each of which is uniquely designed based on a specific failure hypothesis. A fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) system, developed based on this method, is able to isolate faults in sensors and actuators while detecting component faults (abrupt degradation in engine component performance). By affording a capability for real-time identification of minor faults before they grow into major ones, the method promises to enhance safety and reduce operating costs. The robustness of this method is further enhanced by incorporating information regarding the aging condition of an engine. In general, real-time fault diagnostic methods use the nominal performance of a "healthy" new engine as a reference condition in the diagnostic process. Such an approach does not account for gradual changes in performance associated with aging of an otherwise healthy engine. By incorporating information on gradual, aging-related changes, the new method makes it possible to retain at least some of the sensitivity and accuracy needed to detect incipient faults while preventing false alarms that could result from erroneous interpretation of symptoms of aging as symptoms of failures. The figure schematically depicts an FDI system according to the new method. The FDI system is integrated with an engine, from which it accepts two sets of input signals: sensor readings and actuator commands. Two main parts of the FDI system are a bank of Kalman filters and a subsystem that implements FDI decision rules. Each Kalman filter is designed to detect a specific sensor or actuator fault. When a sensor or actuator fault occurs, large estimation errors are generated by all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis. By monitoring the residual output of each filter, the specific fault that has occurred can be detected and isolated on the basis of the decision rules. A set of parameters that indicate the performance of the engine components is estimated by the "correct" Kalman filter for use in detecting component faults. To reduce the loss of diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in the face of aging, the FDI system accepts information from a steady-state-condition-monitoring system. This information is used to update the Kalman filters and a data bank of trim values representative of the current aging condition.

  14. Variable-length lapped transforms with a combination of multiple synthesis filter banks for image coding.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Hirasawa, Yasutaka; Yamashita, Yukihiko

    2006-01-01

    A class of lapped transforms for image coding, which are characterized by variable-length synthesis filters, is introduced. In this class, the synthesis filter bank (FB) is first defined with an arbitrary combination of finite impulse response synthesis filters of perfect reconstruction FBs. An analysis FB is then obtained using direct matrix inversion or iterative implementation of Neumann series expansion. Moreover, to improve compression, we introduce a unitary transform that follows the analysis FB. This class enables a greater freedom of design than previously presented variable-length lapped transforms. We illustrate several design examples and present experimental results for image coding, which indicate that the proposed transforms are promising and comparable with conventional subband transforms including wavelets. PMID:16435538

  15. Application of a Bank of Kalman Filters for Aircraft Engine Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a bank of Kalman filters is applied to aircraft gas turbine engine sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation (FDI) in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, thereby isolating the specific fault. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The proposed FDI approach is applied to a nonlinear engine simulation at nominal and aged conditions, and the evaluation results for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions are given. The ability of the proposed approach to reliably detect and isolate sensor and actuator faults is demonstrated.

  16. A spatial filter bank model of the Veselago-Pendry superlens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Ravi S.; Hor, Yew Li; Hoefer, Wolfgang J. R.

    2015-07-01

    We present a canonical filter bank model that emulates the transmission of both propagating and evanescent electromagnetic fields through a Veselago-Pendry Superlens. The model consists of an array of coupled resonator pairs; each pair transmits one term of the spatial Fourier series of the object field. In addition to emulating the steady-state transfer function of the superlens, the model also approximates its dynamic response. Closed-form expressions for the values of the circuit elements are derived in terms of the geometry and the constitutive parameters of the lens at the frequency of operation in the steady state. Losses can be included by adding dissipative elements to the equivalent circuit. The concept of the Veselago-Pendry superlens as a filter in k-space provides physical insight into the resonant nature of image transmission and may suggest new ways to realize such a device.

  17. On-chip filter bank spectroscopy at 600-700 GHz using NbTiN superconducting resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, A.; Sfiligoj, C.; Yates, S. J. C.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Thoen, D. J.; Javadzadeh, S. M. H.; van der Werf, P. P.; Baryshev, A. M.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2013-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the principle of an on-chip submillimeter wave filter bank spectrometer, using superconducting microresonators as narrow band-separation filters. The filters are made of NbTiN/SiNx/NbTiN microstrip line resonators, which have a resonance frequency in the range of 614-685 GHz, two orders of magnitude higher in frequency than what is currently studied for use in circuit quantum electrodynamics and photodetectors. The frequency resolution of the filters decreases from 350 to 140 with increasing frequency, most likely limited by dissipation of the resonators.

  18. An optimization of the FPGA/NIOS adaptive FIR filter using linear prediction to reduce narrow band RFI for the next generation ground-based ultra-high energy cosmic-ray experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Fraenkel, E. D.; Glas, Dariusz; Legumina, Remigiusz

    2013-12-01

    The electromagnetic part of an extensive air shower developing in the atmosphere provides significant information complementary to that obtained by water Cherenkov detectors which are predominantly sensitive to the muonic content of an air shower at ground. The emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 and 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. The Auger Engineering Radio Array currently suppresses the RFI by multiple time-to-frequency domain conversions using an FFT procedure as well as by a set of manually chosen IIR notch filters in the time-domain. An alternative approach developed in this paper is an adaptive FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP). The coefficients for the linear predictor are dynamically refreshed and calculated in the virtual NIOS processor. The radio detector is an autonomous system installed on the Argentinean pampas and supplied from a solar panel. Powerful calculation capacity inside the FPGA is a factor. Power consumption versus the degree of effectiveness of the calculation inside the FPGA is a figure of merit to be minimized. Results show that the RFI contamination can be significantly suppressed by the LP FIR filter for 64 or less stages.

  19. Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  20. Digital Control of a Bank of IIR Filters in Optimal Processing of Signals From Pulse Radiation Detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djordje Aponji; Vojislav Arandjelovi; Mili Stoji

    2006-01-01

    New algorithm for measurement of mean count rate of pulses from radiation detectors is described. The algorithm is based on the control of a bank of digital IIR filters governed by the state of mean count rate-stationary or transient. The algorithm solves successfully the compromise between the contradictory requirements for low statistical fluctuations in steady state and fast response to

  1. First results from the FPGA/NIOS Adaptive FIR Filter Using Linear Prediction Implemented in the AERA Radio Stations to Reduce Narrow Band RFI for Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    E-print Network

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Timmermans, C

    2014-01-01

    The FPGA/NIOS FIR filter based on linear prediction (LP) to suppress radio frequency interference (RFI) has been installed in several radio stations in the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) experiment. AERA observes coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays to make a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio signals provide complementary information to that obtained from Auger surface detectors, which are predominantly sensitive to the particle content of an air shower at the surface. The radio signals from air showers are caused by the coherent emission due to geomagnetic and charge-excess processes. These emissions can be observed in the frequency band between 10 - 100 MHz. However, this frequency range is significantly contaminated by narrow-band RFI and other human-made distortions. A FIR filter implemented in the FPGA logic segment of the front-end electronics of a radio sensor significantly improves the signal...

  2. Application of multirate digital filter banks to wideband all-digital phase-locked loops design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin; Shah, Biren; Hinedi, Sami

    1993-01-01

    A new class of architecture for all-digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) is presented in this article. These architectures, referred to as parallel DPLL (PDPLL), employ multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to track signals with a lower processing rate than the Nyquist rate, without reducing the input (Nyquist) bandwidth. The PDPLL basically trades complexity for hardware-processing speed by introducing parallel processing in the receiver. It is demonstrated here that the DPLL performance is identical to that of a PDPLL for both steady-state and transient behavior. A test signal with a time-varying Doppler characteristic is used to compare the performance of both the DPLL and the PDPLL.

  3. Design of two-channel filter bank using nature inspired optimization based fractional derivative constraints.

    PubMed

    Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (?p), stopband error (?s), transition band error (?t), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. PMID:25034647

  4. Separable spectro-temporal Gabor filter bank features: Reducing the complexity of robust features for automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Schdler, Marc Ren; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-04-01

    To test if simultaneous spectral and temporal processing is required to extract robust features for automatic speech recognition (ASR), the robust spectro-temporal two-dimensional-Gabor filter bank (GBFB) front-end from Schdler, Meyer, and Kollmeier [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 4134-4151 (2012)] was de-composed into a spectral one-dimensional-Gabor filter bank and a temporal one-dimensional-Gabor filter bank. A feature set that is extracted with these separate spectral and temporal modulation filter banks was introduced, the separate Gabor filter bank (SGBFB) features, and evaluated on the CHiME (Computational Hearing in Multisource Environments) keywords-in-noise recognition task. From the perspective of robust ASR, the results showed that spectral and temporal processing can be performed independently and are not required to interact with each other. Using SGBFB features permitted the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to be lowered by 1.2?dB while still performing as well as the GBFB-based reference system, which corresponds to a relative improvement of the word error rate by 12.8%. Additionally, the real time factor of the spectro-temporal processing could be reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Compared to human listeners, the SNR needed to be 13?dB higher when using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient features, 11 dB higher when using GBFB features, and 9?dB higher when using SGBFB features to achieve the same recognition performance. PMID:25920855

  5. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-11-20

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician's time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a "texton histogram" of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different "textons" representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  6. Beat-to-Beat ECG ventricular late potentials variance detection by filter bank and wavelet transform as beat-sequence filter.

    PubMed

    Vai, M I; Zhou, Li-Gao

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method that employs a wavelet transform and filter bank to detect ventricular late potentials (VLPs) from beat to beat in order to keep its variance. Conventionally, three time-domain features, which are highly related to the QRS complex endpoint, are generally accepted as criteria for classifying VLPs. Signal averaging is a general and effective de-noising method in electroencephalogram late potentials detection, but it may also eliminate the beat-to-beat variance. Other types of filter applied to the time sequence may destroy the late potentials as well when trying to filter out the noise. To preserve the variance from beat to beat as well as late potentials as much as possible, the concept of a beat-sequence filter will be introduced and the wavelet transform can be directly applied to the beat sequence, as will be demonstrated in this paper. After de-noising, instead of applying the voltage comparison on the de-noised signal to determine the QRS complex endpoint, the signal will be processed by a filter bank, and the QRS complex endpoint will be determined by consideration of the correlation between two beats. Both simulation and clinical experimental results will be presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. PMID:15311826

  7. Evaluation of an Enhanced Bank of Kalman Filters for In-Flight Aircraft Engine Sensor Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for in-flight fault detection and isolation (FDI) of aircraft engine sensors based on a bank of Kalman filters is developed. This approach utilizes multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific fault hypothesis. When the propulsion system experiences a fault, only one Kalman filter with the correct hypothesis is able to maintain the nominal estimation performance. Based on this knowledge, the isolation of faults is achieved. Since the propulsion system may experience component and actuator faults as well, a sensor FDI system must be robust in terms of avoiding misclassifications of any anomalies. The proposed approach utilizes a bank of (m+1) Kalman filters where m is the number of sensors being monitored. One Kalman filter is used for the detection of component and actuator faults while each of the other m filters detects a fault in a specific sensor. With this setup, the overall robustness of the sensor FDI system to anomalies is enhanced. Moreover, numerous component fault events can be accounted for by the FDI system. The sensor FDI system is applied to a commercial aircraft engine simulation, and its performance is evaluated at multiple power settings at a cruise operating point using various fault scenarios.

  8. Oversampled linear-phase perfect reconstruction filter banks with higher-order feasible building blocks: Structure and parameterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Tanaka; Masaaki Ikehara; Truong Q. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes new building blocks for the lattice structure of oversampled linear-phase perfect reconstruction filter banks (OLPPRFBs). The structure is an extended version of higher-order feasible building blocks for critically-sampled LPPRFBs. It uses fewer number of building blocks and design parameters than those of tra- ditional OLPPRFBs, whereas the frequency characteristic of the new OLPPRFB is comparable to that

  9. THIS PAPER APPEARED IN THE PROCEEDINGS OF SECOND INTERNATIONAL WORK-SHOP ON TRANSFORMS AND FILTER BANKS, BRANDENBURG AN DER HAVEL, GER-

    E-print Network

    Oraintara, Soontorn

    for signal processing and communications have a rich mathematical structure, and are introducing an entirely]. Linear phase (LP) property of the filters is also needed in processing limited length signal which. Such filter banks (PULP) are also known as the lapped orthogonal transform (LOT) and its generalized version

  10. Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern Algorithm on BCI Competition IV Datasets 2a and 2b

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Kai Keng; Chin, Zheng Yang; Wang, Chuanchu; Guan, Cuntai; Zhang, Haihong

    2012-01-01

    The Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) algorithm is an effective and popular method for classifying 2-class motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG) data, but its effectiveness depends on the subject-specific frequency band. This paper presents the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) algorithm to optimize the subject-specific frequency band for CSP on Datasets 2a and 2b of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Competition IV. Dataset 2a comprised 4 classes of 22 channels EEG data from 9 subjects, and Dataset 2b comprised 2 classes of 3 bipolar channels EEG data from 9 subjects. Multi-class extensions to FBCSP are also presented to handle the 4-class EEG data in Dataset 2a, namely, Divide-and-Conquer (DC), Pair-Wise (PW), and One-Versus-Rest (OVR) approaches. Two feature selection algorithms are also presented to select discriminative CSP features on Dataset 2b, namely, the Mutual Information-based Best Individual Feature (MIBIF) algorithm, and the Mutual Information-based Rough Set Reduction (MIRSR) algorithm. The single-trial classification accuracies were presented using 10??10-fold cross-validations on the training data and session-to-session transfer on the evaluation data from both datasets. Disclosure of the test data labels after the BCI Competition IV showed that the FBCSP algorithm performed relatively the best among the other submitted algorithms and yielded a mean kappa value of 0.569 and 0.600 across all subjects in Datasets 2a and 2b respectively. PMID:22479236

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION 1 A New Design Framework for Sparse FIR MIMO

    E-print Network

    Al-Dhahir, Naofal

    -end crosstalk cancellation on vectored very high-speed digital subscriber line systems for cellular backhaul networks. Index Terms--Sparse FIR filter, MIMO equalizer, DFE, chan- nel shortening, crosstalk. I and implementing (i.e. filtering the received signal) finite impulse response (FIR) equalizers which grows propor

  12. An adaptive filtering approach to spectral estimation and SAR imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Li; Petre Stoica

    1996-01-01

    We present an adaptive FIR filtering approach, which is referred to as the amplitude and phase estimation of a sinusoid (APES), for complex spectral estimation. We compare the APES algorithm with other FIR filtering approaches including the Welch (1967) and Capon (1969) methods. We also describe how to apply the FIR filtering approaches to target range signature estimation and synthetic

  13. Noise robust oversampled linear phase perfect reconstruction filter bank with a lattice structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihisa Tanaka; Yukihiko Yamashita

    2002-01-01

    An oversampled linear phase (LP) perfect reconstruction (PR) fil- ter banks (FB) with a lattice structure involving the noise robust building block is presented. The structure is based on the gen- eralized lapped pseudo-biorthogonal transform (GLPBT), which represents a large class of lapped transforms. Given an analysis bank of the GLPBT and a correlation matrix of noise, the pro- posed

  14. Hybrid Filter Banks with Fractional Delays: Minimax Design and Application to

    E-print Network

    Do, Minh N.

    /D converters with different antialiasing filters, digital expanders, and digital synthesis filters (to matrix inequalities. Moreover, the induced error is robust against delay estimate errors. Numerical--Multichannel sampling, sampled-data control, H optimization, model-matching, linear matrix inequality, polyphase

  15. Directional Filter Banks for detecting un-patterned TFT-LCD defect No Kap Park, Hye Won Kim, and Suk In Yoo

    E-print Network

    Yoo, SukIn

    Directional Filter Banks for detecting un-patterned TFT-LCD defect No Kap Park, Hye Won Kim liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) has become an actively used front of panel display technology several effort were dedicated in classifying the patterned TFT-LCD defects, only few researches were

  16. coastal Douglas-fir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bradley; Richard A. Sniezko

    Tree improvement programs have generally relied on testing families in open light environments. With increased interest in multiaged silvicultural systems, some people have questioned whether families selected in the open are appropriate for planting in the shade. We grew Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) families from two climatically distinct seed sources for 2 years under four levels of

  17. Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel biorthogonal filter banks for lossy-to-lossless image coding.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Taizo; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2012-07-01

    Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel (M > 2) biorthogonal filter banks (BOFBs) for lossy-to-lossless image coding is presented in this paper. Since the proposed block-lifting structure is more general than the conventional lifting factorizations and does NOT require many restrictions such as paraunitary, number of channels, and McMillan degree in each building block unlike the conventional lifting factorizations, its coding gain is higher than that of the previous methods. Several proposed BOFBs are designed and applied to image coding. Comparing the results with conventional lossy-to-lossless image coding structures, including the 5/3- and 9/7-tap discrete wavelet transforms in JPEG 2000 and a 4 8 hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform in JPEG XR, the proposed BOFBs achieve better result in both objective measure and perceptual visual quality for the images with a lot of high-frequency components. PMID:22434801

  18. Crosstalk Cancellation and Memory Truncation in Transmultiplexer Filter Banks - Transmission over Non-Ideal Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred Mertins

    1996-01-01

    When transmultiplexers with overlapping frequencybands are used for the transmission of data over non-idealchannels, intersymbol interference and crosstalk betweendifferent data channels will arise. This paper addressesthe design of optimal linear networks that reduce theeffects mentioned above. A receiver structure based on acombination of crosstalk reduction, memory truncationand Viterbi detection will be proposed. The filter designmethod presented here is based on

  19. Optimal FIR pre- and postfilters for decimation and interpolation of random signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Malvar; D. H. Staelin

    1988-01-01

    A technique for the design of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters for decimation and interpolation in multirate systems is introduced. FIR prefilters and postfilters that jointly minimize a frequency-weighted mean-square error between the original and reconstructed signals can be designed. There is no need for ideal filter prototypes: the optimal pre-postfilter pair is determined from the signal and noise spectra and the

  20. RFI suppression in SAR based on filtering interpretation of SSA and fast implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Weidong; Qi, Xiangyang; Liu, Yue

    2012-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has proven to be a powerful remote sensing instrument for underground and obscured object detection. However, SAR echoes are often contaminated by radio frequency interferences (RFI) from multiple broadcasting stations. Essentially, RFI suppression problem is one-dimensional stationary time series denoising problem. This article proposed a novel RFI suppression algorithm based on singular spectral analysis (SSA) from a linear invariant systems perspective. It can be seen that SSA algorithm has an equivalence relation with finite impulse response (FIR) filter banks. Besides, this article first introduce two approximated methods which can remarkably speed up spectral decomposition--Nystrm method and Column-Sampling approximation--to obtain the coefficients of above SSA-FIR-filter. Simulation results and imaging results of measured data have proved the efficiency and validity of this algorithm.

  1. Embedded Real-Time Systems Introduction to Digital Filtering

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    -2014) 2 Outline Introduction Z Transform FIR Filters IIR Filters Fixed-point Implementation Kalman Filter/Decompression Audio filtering (bass, treble, equalization) Video filtering (enhancement, contours, ..) Noise Filters IIR Filters Fixed-point Implementation Kalman Filter #12;In4073 Emb RT Sys (2013-2014) 16 Analysis

  2. A new design method based on artificial bee colony algorithm for digital IIR filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurhan Karaboga

    2009-01-01

    Digital filters can be broadly classified into two groups: recursive (infinite impulse response (IIR)) and non-recursive (finite impulse response (FIR)). An IIR filter can provide a much better performance than the FIR filter having the same number of coefficients. However, IIR filters might have a multi-modal error surface. Therefore, a reliable design method proposed for IIR filters must be based

  3. Ll-filters-a new class of order statistic filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCESCO PALMIERI; CHARLES G. BONCELET

    1989-01-01

    The Ll-filters are introduced to generate the order statistic filters (L-filters) and the nonrecursive linear, or finite-duration impulse-response (FIR), filters. Such estimators are particularly effective filtering signals that do not necessarily follow Gaussian distributions. They can be designed to restore one-dimensional or multidimensional signals corrupted by noise of impulsive type. Such filters are appealing since they are suitable for being

  4. Grbner Bases and Multidimensional FIR Multirate Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ton Kalker; Martin Vetterli

    1997-01-01

    The polyphase representation with respect to sampling lattices in multidimensional (M-D) multirate signal processing allows us to identify perfect reconstruction (PR) filter banks with unimodular Laurent polynomial matrices, and various problems in the design and analysis of invertible MD multirate systems can be algebraically formulated with the aid of this representation. While the resulting algebraic problems can be solved in

  5. 69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d)

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d) Location This established (fig. 139). Ecological subsection High Cascades (M261Df). Target Element Red Fir (Abies magnifica) Distinctive Features Shasta Red Fir Forest: Taxonomically, the description of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica

  6. Comparison between EEMD, wavelet and FIR denoising: influence on event detection in impedance cardiography.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, S; Neyt, X; Pattyn, N; Migeotte, P-F

    2011-01-01

    During thoracic impedance signal acquisition, noise is inherently introduced and hence, denoising is required to allow for accurate event detection. This paper investigates the effectiveness of Ensemble Emperical Mode Decomposition to filter random noise. The performance of the EEMD method is compared with an optimal FIR filter and wavelet denoising. The IMF selection for signal reconstruction in the EEMD denoising method is optimized using a sequential search. Denoising performance was evaluated by the SNR and the accuracy in event detection after filtering. When all criteria are taken into account, wavelet seems to outperform both EEMD and FIR denoising. PMID:22254433

  7. Inverse Filter Design Using Minimax Approximation Techniques for 3-D Audio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. I. K. Rao; V. John Mathews; Young-Cheol Park

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for implementing immersive audio rendering filters for a single listener using loudspeakers. We address the problem of crosstalk cancellation inherent in loudspeaker rendering and propose to implement the crosstalk cancellation filters using minimax finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The formulation is based on the Atal-Schroeder crosstalk canceller. The use of the optimal FIR filter

  8. A New Class of Detail-Preserving Filters for Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ari Nieminen; Pekka Heinonen; Yrj Neuvo

    1987-01-01

    A new class of median type filters for image processing is proposed. In the filters, linear FIR substructures are used in conjunction with the median operation. The root signals and noise attenuation properties of the FIR-median hybrid filters are analyzed and compared to representative edge preserving filtering operations. The concept of multilevel median operation is introduced to improve the detail

  9. FIR statistics of paired galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, Jack W.

    1990-11-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the effects of interaction on galaxies (see reviews in this volume by Heckman and Kennicutt). Evidence for enhanced emission from galaxies in pairs first emerged in the radio (Sulentic 1976) and optical (Larson and Tinsley 1978) domains. Results in the far infrared (FIR) lagged behind until the advent of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The last five years have seen numerous FIR studies of optical and IR selected samples of interacting galaxies (e.g., Cutri and McAlary 1985; Joseph and Wright 1985; Kennicutt et al. 1987; Haynes and Herter 1988). Despite all of this work, there are still contradictory ideas about the level and, even, the reality of an FIR enhancement in interacting galaxies. Much of the confusion originates in differences between the galaxy samples that were studied (i.e., optical morphology and redshift coverage). Here, the authors report on a study of the FIR detection properties for a large sample of interacting galaxies and a matching control sample. They focus on the distance independent detection fraction (DF) statistics of the sample. The results prove useful in interpreting the previously published work. A clarification of the phenomenology provides valuable clues about the physics of the FIR enhancement in galaxies.

  10. Velocity filtering of acoustic well logging waveforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Hsu; T. L. Marzetta

    1989-01-01

    A velocity filter that is based on a particularly convenient and effective combination of an up\\/down filter and slanting (time-shift) operations is presented. The up\\/down filter is based on a cascade of spatial and temporal Hilbert transform filters. The Hilbert transform filters and the time-shift operators are finite-duration impulse response (FIR) filters designed according to the minimax criterion. The velocity

  11. FIR Emission From Rich Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Caroline

    1994-12-01

    Previous searches for far infrared (FIR) emission from dominant cluster galaxies using small, X-ray selected samples have found 20% to 50% of clusters to have significant FIR emission. In a new study, I have analyzed the 60microns and 100microns emission properties of cD galaxies in a complete sample of 163 Abell Clusters. For comparison, a control sample of 207 blank fields was analyzed to determine the distribution of spurious detections, which is greater than expected from Gaussian statistics. The contribution of Galactic cirrus at 60 microns and 100 microns to non-Gaussian noise is clearly demonstrated by the correspondence of a 98% confidence level to a signal to noise of 4 or 4.5 rather than to a signal to noise of 2 as expected from Gaussian statistics. After correcting for contaminated fields and spurious signals, I find that about 10% of cD galaxies in rich clusters are sources of FIR emission. Typical detected cDs have FIR luminosities of about 3 times 10(44) erg sec(-1) , which is comparable to the blue luminosities from these objects and an order of magnitude greater than the X-ray luminosities produced in the cores of clusters. Dust masses derived from the 60microns and 100 microns fluxes are ~ 10(7) M _sun. Because only about 10% of the clusters have high FIR luminosities, such strong emission is probably a transient state for an individual cluster. It has been suggested that this FIR emission is due to dust heated by electron collisions from the hot gas that dominates the intra-cluster medium. Study of the optical and X-ray properties of these clusters allows us to test models for the heating process of the dust, the origin of the dust, and its importance as a mechanism for cooling the hot gas. The central electron density and the temperature distribution for the hot gas are determined from analysis of ROSAT PSPC observations of four of these clusters. My program of UBVI imaging is designed to identify dust lanes and morphology that might indicate that stripping of gas and dust from a galaxy has been or is occuring in these clusters.

  12. Adaptive PD+I Control of a Switch-Mode DCDC Power Converter Using a Recursive FIR Predictor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maher Algreer; Matthew Armstrong; Damian Giaouris

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative technique for the adaptive control of power electronic converter circuits. Specific attention is given to the adaptive control of a dc-dc converter. The proposed technique is based on a simple adaptive filter method and uses a one-tap finite impulse response (FIR) predic- tion error filter (PEF). The method is computationally efficient and based around a

  13. 2638 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 46, NO. 10, OCTOBER 1998 Frequency-Warped Filter Banks and

    E-print Network

    Vetterli, Martin

    2638 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 46, NO. 10, OCTOBER 1998 Frequency-Warped Filter transforms, such as the wavelet transform, wavelet packets, and lapped orthogonal transforms have been general and mostly refers to continuous- time signal processing. In this paper, we propose novel discrete

  14. Longitudinal enhancement of the hyperechoic regions in ultrasonography of muscles using a Gabor filter bank approach: a preparation for semi-automatic muscle fiber orientation estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2011-04-01

    In this study, to complement our previously proposed method for estimating muscle fiber orientation, the Gabor filter bank (GF) technique was applied to sonograms of the biceps and forearm muscles to longitudinally enhance the coherently oriented and hyperechoic perimysiums regions. The method involved three steps: orientation field estimation, frequency map computation and Gabor filtering. The method was evaluated using a simulated image distorted with multiplicative speckle noises where the "muscles" were arranged in a bipennate fashion with an "aponeurosis" located in the middle. After enhancement using the GF approach, most of the original hyperechoic bands in the simulated image could be recovered. The proposed method was also tested using a group of biceps and forearm muscle sonograms collected from healthy adult subjects. Compared with the sonograms without enhancement, the enhanced images led to the detection of more linear patterns including muscle fascicles and smaller angle differences compared with the mean of manual results from two operators, therefore, were better prepared for the automatic estimation of muscle fiber orientation. The proposed method has the potential of assisting in the visualization of strongly oriented patterns in skeletal muscle sonograms as well as in the semi-automatic estimation of muscle fiber orientations. PMID:21371811

  15. Subband Blind Audio Source Separation Using a Time-Domain Algorithm and Tree-Structured QMF Filter Bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zbynek Koldovsk; Petr Tichavsk; Jir Mlek

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a T-ABCD is a time-domain method for blind linear separation of audio sources proposed by Koldovsk and Tichavsk (2008). The\\u000a method produces short separating filters (5-40 taps) and works well with signals recorded at the sampling frequency of 8-16\\u000a kHz. In this paper, we propose a novel subband-based variant of T-ABCD, in which the input signals are decomposed into subbands\\u000a using

  16. FIR multichannel identification using weighted cumulant matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Liang; Zhi Ding

    2000-01-01

    Blind identification of FIR multichannel using higher-order statistics (HOS) is investigated. A new linear approach is proposed which generalizes the weighted slices method for single FIR channel estimation. By finding the proper linear combinations, channel response is obtained from the weighted cumulant matrix with Toeplitz structure. This general algorithm works for both single user and multiuser scenario. It relaxes the

  17. New demodulation filter in digital phase rotation beamforming.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Fabio Kurt; Yoo, Yang Mo; Agarwal, Anup; Koh, Liang Mong; Kim, Yongmin

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new quadrature demodulation filter to reduce hardware complexity in digital phase rotation beamforming. Due to its low sensitivity to phase delay errors, digital quadrature demodulation is commonly used in ultrasound machines. However, since it requires two lowpass filters for each channel to remove harmonics, the direct use of conventional finite impulse response (FIR) filters in ultrasound machines is computationally expensive and burdensome. In our new method, an efficient multi-stage uniform coefficient (MSUC) filter is utilized to remove harmonic components in phase rotation beamforming. In comparison with the directly implemented FIR (DI-FIR) and the previously-proposed signed-power-of-two FIR (SPOT-FIR) lowpass filters, the proposed MSUC filter reduces the necessary hardware resources by 93.9% and 83.9%, respectively. In simulation, the MSUC filter shows a negligible degradation in image quality. The proposed method resulted in comparable spatial and contrast resolution to the DI-FIR approach in the phantom study. These preliminary results indicate that the proposed quadrature demodulation filtering method could significantly reduce the hardware complexity in phase rotation beamforming while maintaining comparable image quality. PMID:16563453

  18. How anti-aliasing filter affects image contrast: An analysis from majorization theory perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ketan Tang; Oscar C. Au; Lu Fang; Zhiding Yu; Yuanfang Guo

    2011-01-01

    When we design an anti-aliasing low pass filter, it is usually an IIR filter. We need to truncate the filter to an FIR filter. One may think that the more taps there are, the better the image quality is. However, we find that there exists an optimal value of tap number that will give the best visual quality. Filters with

  19. Decreased needle longevity of fertilized Douglas-fir and grand fir in the northern Rockies.

    PubMed

    Balster, Nick J.; Marshall, John D.

    2000-11-01

    Changes in nutrient availability significantly affect canopy dynamics in conifers. To elucidate these effects, we experimentally fertilized mixed conifer stands at several sites across the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured needle longevity, total branch length and foliated length along the main branch axis, and determined mean retained cohort length on mid-canopy branches of shade-intolerant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and shade-tolerant grand fir (Abies grandis Lindl.). Needle longevity ranged from 6 to 8 years in Douglas-fir and from 7 to 8 years in grand fir on unfertilized plots. Fertilization significantly decreased needle longevity by 26 and 27% in Douglas-fir and grand fir, respectively. However, the foliated branch length remained unchanged following fertilization and was similar for both species, indicating a 33% increase in mean branch length per needle cohort in Douglas-fir and a 27% increase in grand fir. These data are consistent with the theory that foliated branch length and needle longevity are a result of the ecological light compensation point (ELCP), which links the inherent physiology of the leaf with the availability of resources in the leaf environment. Mid-canopy ELCP was approximately 74 and 71 cm from the branch terminus in Douglas-fir and grand fir, respectively, regardless of fertilization. We hypothesize that fertilization-enhanced needle production and annual shoot growth resulted in a higher rate of shading of older needles. The shaded needles were unable to maintain a positive carbon balance and abscised. The results demonstrate that foliated branch length of Douglas-fir and grand fir in the northern Rocky Mountains can be treated as a homeostatic response to fertilization, whereas foliar turnover is plastic. PMID:12651495

  20. Design of Microwave Band Pass Filters for the Debuncher Stochastic Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Deibele, C.; /Fermilab

    2001-01-01

    The FIR filters designed for the debuncher stochastic cooling system needed improvement. Its bandwidth was too wide, its magnitude was not flat, its phase ripple was too great, and it was difficult to control the characteristics of the filter. A simple microwave technique was employed to have a short time delay, simple robust layout, and small board size. A significant savings was seen over the FIR technique and these filters were installed in the Antiproton Source Debuncher while the FIR filters were removed from the debuncher stochastic cooling entirely.

  1. Linear optimal FIR estimation of discrete time-invariant state-space models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriy S. Shmaliy

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a general p-shift linear optimal finite impulse response (FIR) estimator intended for solving universally the problems of filtering (p = 0), smoothing (p 0) of discrete time-invariant models in state space. An optimal solution is found in the batch form with the initial mean square state function self-determined by solving the discrete algebraic Riccati equation. An unbiased

  2. A Scalar Resonant-Filter-Bank-Based Output-Voltage Control Method and a Scalar Minimum-Switching-Loss Discontinuous PWM Method for the Four-Leg-Inverter-Based Three-Phase Four-Wire Power Supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyyup Demirkutlu; Ahmet M. Hava

    2009-01-01

    An all-scalar-control and pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) approach for the four-leg-inverter (FLI)-based three-phase transformerless four-wire power supply (PS) is proposed. The output voltage of each phase is controlled independently, and its controller is formed by a stationary-frame resonant-filter bank accompanied with proportional-control and output-capacitor current-based active-damping loops. The simple and easy to implement scalar-control method exhibits superior overall steady-state and dynamic performance

  3. Low Power and Low Leakage Implementation of RNS FIR Filters

    E-print Network

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    and in a 90 nm library. We used the same timing constraint, the delay of 25 inverters with fanout of 4 (a Abstract-- The CMOS technology scaling is leading to the integration of ever more complex systems's power budgets. Moreover, the increasing smaller CMOS transistors allow the hardware implementation

  4. Design of perfect reconstruction FIR multifilters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Kok

    1998-01-01

    The design of perfect reconstruction FIR multifilters is discussed in this paper. The Schur algorithm is applied to factorize the polyphase matrix of multifilters into lattice blocks. The multifilters are characterized by the chain parameters in each lattice block. The complete parameterization of paraunitary multifilters and a class of biorthogonal multifilters are derived. The parameterizations are minimal and result in

  5. Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using item banks while providing useful information to those who are considering implementing an item banking project in their school district. The primary advantage of item banking is in test development. Also describes start-up activities in implementing item banking. (SLD)

  6. About Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieslak, Raymond F.

    The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy

  7. Development of a non-linear smoothing filter for the processing of eye-movement signals.

    PubMed

    Engelken, E J; Stevens, K W; Enderle, J D

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of eye-movement (EM) signals poses problems for the designer of smoothing filters since many of the interesting types of EMs are bimodal. For example, optokinetic and/or vestibular stimulation results in an EM pattern called nystagmus consisting of alternating fast- and slow-phase components. Also, saccadic (refixation) EMs do not occur continuously, but are interspersed with periods of fixation. Conventional linear, low-pass filters (both finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) types) smear the boundries between the fast- and slow-phases of nystagmus and the fixation and fast components of saccadic EMs. We have adapted a nonlinear smoothing filter (originally designed to optimize edge preservation in image processing applications) for the smoothing of EM signals. This filter is called a Predictive FIR-Median Hybrid (PFMH) filter. The PFMH filter operates on a moving window of data samples centered at the current point of interest. Several predictive FIR filters are applied to the "upper" and "lower" halves of the window and each are designed to predict the sample value at the center of the window. The median of these FIR filter outputs and the actual center data sample are taken as the PFMH filter output for each window position. By properly choosing the length and structure of the FIR subfilters, a PFMH filter can be designed to smooth a bimodal EM signal without blurring the boundries between the two signal components. PMID:2334779

  8. Nonlinear filtering for robust signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Palmieri, F.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized framework for the description and design of a large class of nonlinear filters is proposed. Such a family includes, among others, the newly defined Ll-estimators, that generalize the order statistic filters (L-filters) and the nonrecursive linear filters (FIR). Such estimators are particularly efficient in filtering signals that do not follow gaussian distributions. They can be designed to restore signals and images corrupted by noise of impulsive type. Such filters are very appealing since they are suitable for being made robust against perturbations on the assumed model, or insensitive to the presence of spurious outliers in the data. The linear part of the filter is used to characterize their essential spectral behavior. It can be constrained to a given shape to obtain nonlinear filters that combine given frequency characteristics and noise immunity. The generalized nonlinear filters can also be used adaptively with the coefficients computed dynamically via LMS or RLS algorithms.

  9. Study on optical finite impulse response filter Guangjie Zeng

    E-print Network

    Study on optical finite impulse response filter Ying Zhou Guangjie Zeng Feihong Yu Zhejiang for Display Research and Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering Clear Water Bay, Kowloon Hong Kong Abstract. We present an optical finite impulse response (FIR) filter de- sign method. Based

  10. Matched-filter bank interpretation of some spectral estimators 1 1 This work was supported in part by the Senior Individual Grant Programme of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, the Swedish National Board for Technical Development (NUTEK), the NSF Grant MIP9457388 and the ARPA Grant MDA972-93-1-0015

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petre Stoica; Andreas Jakobsson; Jian Li

    1998-01-01

    We make use of a matched-filter bank (MAFI) approach to derive spectral estimators for stationary signals with mixed spectra. We show that the Capon spectral estimator as well as the more recently introduced APES (amplitude and phase estimation) method are members of the MAFI class. A seemingly new MAFI-based spectral estimator is shown to reduce to APES as well. The

  11. Improved tunable InSb FIR detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Strasser; K. Bochter; M. Witzany; E. Gornik

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports n-InSb tunable photoconductive detectors with a high resolution in the FIR region. The detection range can be tuned from 10 to 500 wavenumbers as a function of magnetic field. The limiting process of the signal to noise ratio in InSb detectors was found to be the recombination of electrons into surface states. By passivating these states the

  12. Multirate adaptive filtering for immersive audio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-soong Lim; Chris Kyriakakis

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a method for implementing immersive audio rendering filters for single or multiple listeners and loudspeakers. In particular, the paper is focused on the case of single or two listeners with different loudspeaker arrays to determine the weighting vectors for the necessary FIR and IIR filters using the LMS (least-mean-squares) adaptive inverse algorithm. It describes transform-domain LMS adaptive

  13. Xilinx Virtex II Pro Implementation of a Reconfigurable UMTS Digital Channel Filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Chandran; R. Kaluri; Jugdutt Singh; Viktor wall; Ronny Veljanovski

    2004-01-01

    A reconfigurable digital root raised cosine (RRC) filter for a UMTS terrestrial radio access (UTRA) mobile terminal receiver is implemented on a Xilinx Vitrex II Pro Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The filter employs a finite impulse response (FIR) and monitors in- band and out-of-band received signal powers and calculates the appropriate filter length that meets the bit- energy to

  14. A SYNCHRONIZED FIR/VUV LIGHT SOURCE AT JEFFERSON LAB

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Benson, David Douglas, George Neil, Michelle D. Shinn, Gwyn Williams

    2012-07-01

    We describe a dual free-electron laser (FEL) configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that allows simultaneous lasing at FIR/THz and UV wavelengths. The FIR/THz source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing nearly diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules. The FIR source would use the exhaust beam from a UVFEL. The coherent harmonics in the VUV from the UVFEL are out-coupled through a hole. The FIR source uses a shorter resonator with either hole or edge coupling to provide very high power FIR pulses. Simulations indicate excel-lent spectral brightness in the FIR region with over 100 W/cm-1 output.

  15. Optimal Design of Dispersion Filter for Time-Domain Split-Step Simulation of Pulse Propagation in Optical Fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Zhu; David V. Plant

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear Schrdinger equation can be solved by split-step methods, where in each step, linear dispersion and nonlinear effects are treated separately. This paper considers the optimal design of an FIR filter as the time-domain implementation for the linear part. The objective is to minimize the integral of the squared error between the FIR frequency response and the desired dispersion

  16. Pacific Silver fir Current Figure S5a. Projected habitat of pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis Douglas ex J. Forbes). The left

    E-print Network

    Hamann, Andreas

    Pacific Silver fir Current Figure S5a. Projected habitat of pacific silver fir (Abies-2006 Recent Average1961-1990 Climate Normal #12;Pacific Silver fir 2020s Figure S5b. Projected habitat of pacific silver fir for the 20112040 normal period according to 18 climate

  17. Centrifugal Barrel Finishing Of Turbine-Blade "Fir Trees"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.

    1990-01-01

    Modified centrifugal barrel-finishing machine imparts desired residual compressive stresses to "fir trees" of turbine blades. Centrifugal forces generate compressive stresses, which are transmitted to turbine blades through abrasive slurries in which suspended. Eliminates need for shot peening, rounding of edges and burrs caused by shot peening and, consequently, need for mass finishing operations to remove burrs. Improves surface finish of "fir trees".

  18. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (? = 3100 ?m) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3 12 ?m) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

  19. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (? = 3-100 ?m) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 ?m) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

  20. Multichannel recursive-least-square algorithms and fast-transversal-filter algorithms for active noise control and sound reproduction systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Bouchard; Stephan Quednau

    2000-01-01

    There has been much research on active noise control (ANC) systems and transaural sound reproduction (TSR) systems. In those fields, multichannel FIR adaptive filters are extensively used. For the learning of FIR adaptive filters, recursive-least-squares (RLS) algorithms are known to produce a faster convergence speed than stochastic gradient descent techniques, such as the basic least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm or even the

  1. Magnesium deficiency in Douglas-fir and Grand fir growing on a sandy outwash soil amended with sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Harrison; Charles L. Henry; Dongsen Xue

    1994-01-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from chlorotic plantations of Grand fir (Abies grandis) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in Winter, 1989. The soils had been amended in 1981 with an average of 300 dry Mg ha-1 of municipal sewage sludge. The sludge amendment resulted in an N application rate of approximately 8000 kg ha-1. Foliage analysis indicated a severe Mg

  2. Lamb wave interactions through dispersion 2D filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, L.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Caplain, E.; Sarens, B.; Glorieux, C.

    2012-03-01

    Acoustic surface waves are widely used to sense and map the properties of the propagation media. In order to characterise local space-time waves, methods such as Gabor analysis are powerful. Nevertheless, knowing which wave is observed, extracting its full bandwidth contribution from the others and to map it in the signal domain is also of great interest. In the Fourier domain, the acoustic energy of a wave is concentrated along the wave-number frequency (k-?) dispersion curve, a way to extract one wave from others is to filter the signals by mean of k-? band-pass area that keeps only the selected surface wave. The objective of the present paper is to propose 2D Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters based on an arbitrary area shape designed to extract selected waves. FIR filtering is based on convolving the impulse response of the filter with the signals. Impulse responses derived from using k-? elliptical areas (E-FIR) are presented. The E-FIR filters are successfully tested on three experimental space-time signals corresponding to the propagation of Lamb waves measured by standard transducers on a cylindrical shell, by laser Doppler on a plate and generated by a circular pulse and observed by shearography on a rectangular plate.

  3. Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertschinger, G.; Oosterbeek, J. W. [Institut fuer Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

  4. Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, G; Endres, C P; Lewen, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2008-10-01

    Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating. PMID:19044527

  5. Temporal Stability and Dendroclimatology in Silver Fir and Red Spruce

    E-print Network

    Cufar, Katarina

    in Slovenia and red spruce in the northeastern US were calibrated to monthly climate variables for two periods at lower elevations and lower latitudes for silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Slovenia and red spruce (Picea

  6. Original article Water relations of European silver fir

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    , irrespective of predawn needle water potential. Furthermore, in both stands, stomata closed at vapor pressure better adapted to drought. Abies alba Mill = European silver fir / Alps / stomata / water potential

  7. RANDOM FILTERS FOR COMPRESSIVE SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION Joel A. Tropp,m

    E-print Network

    Tropp, Joel

    RANDOM FILTERS FOR COMPRESSIVE SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION Joel A. Tropp,m Michael B. Wakin,r Marco on convolution with a fixed FIR filter having random taps. The method is designed for sparse and compressible process. While simpler and more efficient than other random acquisition techniques like Compressed Sensing

  8. Cumulant-based parametric multichannel FIR system identification methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Alshebeili; M. T. Ozgen; A. E. Cetin; A. N. Venetsanopoulos

    1993-01-01

    The least squares and recursive methods for simultaneous identification of four nonminimum phase linear, time-invariant FIR systems are presented. The methods utilize the second- and fourth-order cumulants of outputs of the four FIR systems whose common input is an independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) non-Gaussian process. The new methods can be extended to the general problem of simultaneous identification of three

  9. Ethylene triggers needle abscission in root-detached balsam fir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mason T. MacDonald; Rajasekaran R. Lada; Alex I. Martynenko; Martine Dorais; Steeve Pepin; Yves Desjardins

    2010-01-01

    Post-harvest needle abscission is a major challenge for Christmas tree and greenery industries. It was hypothesized that ethylene\\u000a triggers abscission in balsam fir. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In experiment 1, 70 balsam fir\\u000a branches were collected, placed in water, and ethylene evolution was observed over time. In experiment 2, a 2נ5 factorial\\u000a experiment was designed to

  10. Wideband digital filter using FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoffier, Raymond P.; Webber, John C.; D'Addario, Larry R.; Broadwell, Charles M.

    2000-07-01

    A digital filter being developed by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is presented here. The filter is designed using field programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits and has an equivalent clock rate of 4 GHz. The ALMA radio astronomy array being developed by the NRAO in cooperation with several European scientific agencies will consist of up to 64 twelve-meter diameter antennas to be used for observing astronomical sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This instrument is to observe with bandwidths up to 16 GHz per antenna in eight unbroken RF bands of 2 GHz each. Bandwidth-resolution trade-offs are done in ALMA by providing each of the eight 4-Gsample/s digitizers per antenna with a programmable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filter. The filter can be selected to perform 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, . . ., 1/64 band filtering and sample decimation. In the 1/2 band mode, the filter has the equivalent of 128 tap weight multiplications. Tap weights increase by factors of two to the limit of 2048 tap weights when the filter is programmed to be a 1/32 band low-pass or high-pass filter. The filter is designed to process the output of a four-bit digitizer. The filter utilizes RAM look-up tables for tap weight multiplications. The output of the tap weight multiplications drive an adder tree which has 10-bit precision in the early stages and 7-bit precision in latter stages. Output quantizing of the adder tree output is done in look-up table RAM to 2- bit, 4-level precision. The filter is implemented on a 280-mm, 6-U, Euro card using FPGA ICs running with a system clock rate of 125 MHz.

  11. Nonlinear Locally Adaptive Wavelet Filter Gerlind Plonka (1)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    adaptive wavelet filter banks by connecting the lift- ing scheme with the idea of image smoothing restoration in image processing, e.g., for denoising purposes. In particular, the choice of nonlin- earNonlinear Locally Adaptive Wavelet Filter Banks Gerlind Plonka (1) and Stefanie Tenorth (1) (1

  12. Online banking applications and community bank performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram N. Acharya; Albert Kagan; Srinivasa Rao Lingam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of online banking intensity on the financial performance of community banks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach This study estimates online banking intensity and bank performance indices using a combination of primary and secondary data. Online banking intensity is specified as a latent construct and estimated using web feature data collected from

  13. Multiresolution bilateral filtering for image denoising.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Gunturk, Bahadir K

    2008-12-01

    The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that does spatial averaging without smoothing edges; it has shown to be an effective image denoising technique. An important issue with the application of the bilateral filter is the selection of the filter parameters, which affect the results significantly. There are two main contributions of this paper. The first contribution is an empirical study of the optimal bilateral filter parameter selection in image denoising applications. The second contribution is an extension of the bilateral filter: multiresolution bilateral filter, where bilateral filtering is applied to the approximation (low-frequency) subbands of a signal decomposed using a wavelet filter bank. The multiresolution bilateral filter is combined with wavelet thresholding to form a new image denoising framework, which turns out to be very effective in eliminating noise in real noisy images. Experimental results with both simulated and real data are provided. PMID:19004705

  14. DISCRIMINATIVETRAINING OF AUDITORY FILTERS OF DIFFERENT SHAPES FOR ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION

    E-print Network

    Mak, Brian Kan-Wing

    of Computer Science Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong ABSTRACT The bank-of-filters spectrum analysis modelDISCRIMINATIVETRAINING OF AUDITORY FILTERS OF DIFFERENT SHAPES FOR ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION Brian component in the analysis model is a bank of bandpass filters. In this paper, we studied a data-driven ap

  15. Distribution of Fine Roots of Ponderosa Pine and Douglas-Fir in a Central Idaho Forest

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    menziesii var. glauca [Beissn.] Franco) and either grand fir (Abies grandis [Dougl.] Forbes) or white fir (Abies concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl.) have encroached into the once-open areas between the ponderosa

  16. Bank Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

  17. Simulations of a FIR Oscillator with Large Slippage parameter at Jefferson Lab for FIR/UV pump-probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Campbell, L. T. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (Great Britain); Daresbury Laboratory and Cockcroft Institute, Warrington (Great Britain); McNeil, B.W.T. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (Great Britain); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Shinn, Michelle D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We previously proposed a dual FEL configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that would allow simultaneous lasing at FIR and UV wavelengths. The FIR source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules, using the exhaust beam from a UVFEL as the input electron beam. Since the UV FEL requires very short pulses, the input to the FIR FEL is extremely short compared to a slippage length and the usual Slowly Varying Envelope Approximation (SVEA) does not apply. We use a non-SVEA code to simulate this system both with a small energy spread (UV laser off) and with large energy spread (UV laser on).

  18. The ISOPHOT 170 mum Serendipity Survey. III. FIR statistics of optically identified galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Stickel; U. Klaas; D. Lemke

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To shed more light on the integrated FIR properties of galaxies, the ≈2000 compact sources in the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey associated with identified galaxies are investigated statistically. They provide the only sample large enough to determine the FIR properties such as dust temperatures and masses, FIR luminosities, and HI-to-dust ratios not only for the group as a whole, but

  19. Image Denoising Using Directional Filter Banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos-gerardo Rosiles; Mark J. T. Smith

    2000-01-01

    The use of wavelet thresholding has been investigated with much success in the areas of denoising, density estimation, image restoration, etc. Significant attention has been given to wavelet thresholding as a signal denoising technique. The algorithm is simple and provides good results. The 2-D discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and its relatives have been used to generalize the denoising methods to

  20. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on

  1. General Banking Conditions 2009 General Banking Conditions

    E-print Network

    Franssen, Michael

    or to the integrity of the financial system. 3 Activities and objectives The Customer provides information to the Bank activities. The Bank may give goods, docu- ments of title, securities or financial instruments that belongGeneral Banking Conditions 2009 r #12;#12;1 General Banking Conditions (Version 2009

  2. Investigation of microwave photonic filter based on multiple longitudinal modes fiber laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng; Feng, Xinhuan; Lu, Chao; Guan, Bai-ou; Wai, P. K. A.

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically study the transfer function of a finite impulse response microwave photonic filter (FIR-MPF) system using a multi-wavelength fiber laser source by considering multiple longitudinal modes in each wavelength. The full response function with the response from longitudinal mode taps is obtained. We also discussed the influence of the longitudinal mode envelope and mode spacing on the performance of FIR-MPF. The response function of the longitudinal mode taps is fully discussed and the contribution is compared with the response of the carrier suppression factor for double sideband (DSB) modulation. The multiple longitudinal modes structure in the wavelength taps can be utilized to engineer the response of the FIR-MPF such that desirable features such as high side lode suppression ratio can be realized. The analysis provides a guideline for designing incoherent FIR-MPF systems.

  3. Bank ownership type and banking relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen N. Berger; Leora F. Klapper; Maria Soledad Martinez Peria; Rida Zaidi

    2008-01-01

    We formulate and test hypotheses about the role of bank ownership typeforeign, state-owned, and private domestic banksin banking relationships. Our application uses data from India, an important developing nation. The empirical results are consistent with all of our hypotheses with regard to foreign banks. First, these banks tend to establish relationships with relatively transparent firms. Second, firms that have relationships

  4. Wood pole properties. Volume 2. Douglas fir data

    SciTech Connect

    Bodig, J.; Goodman, J.R.; Phillips, G.E.; Fagan, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental test data collected in this study on the strength and stiffness of transmission-size untreated Douglas fir poles will help transmission line designers optimize the reliability of wood transmission poles. The research also produced a computerized nondestructive method of assessing the aggregate strength of a group of new or in-service poles.

  5. Anomalous dispersion and the pumping of far infrared (FIR) lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the anomalous dispersion at the pump transition in molecular far-infrared lasers (FIR) can lead to sizable focusing and defocusing effects. Criteria for beam spreading and trapping are considered with CH2F as an example.

  6. BA EDHD HHS MUS Tec/Fir escorts, MA,

    E-print Network

    Moore, Paul A.

    Disabled Seating BA EDHD HHS MUS Tec/Fir LINE - D MBA, MAcc, MOD, EdS, Med, MFCS, MIT, MRC, MM, MPH LINE - C P.h.D / Ed.D. and faculty escorts, MA, MAT, MFA, MPA, MS BA BAC BLS BFA BS BSENVH & BSJ Arts

  7. Blind identification of FIR channels via antenna arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babak H. Khalaj; Babak Hassibi; Arogyaswami Paulraj; Thomas Kailath

    1993-01-01

    Proposes a new method for blind identification of possibly nonminimum phase FIR channels using antenna arrays. Based on a frequency domain formulation, the authors show that even a nonminimum phase channel driven by stationary sequences can be identified from the second-order statistics. Although in the single antenna case it is necessary to use cyclostationary signals or higher order statistics to

  8. Adaptive bilateral filter and Bayesian threshold based image denoising

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Santhanamari; V. R. Vijaykumar; A. V. V. B. Rao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid denoising algorithm which combines adaptive bilateral Filter and Bayesian thresholding for digital images corrupted by Gaussian noise is proposed. The wavelet filter bank is used to decompose the image into approximation sub band and detail sub band. The adaptive bilateral filter is applied to approximation sub band and Bayesian thresholding is applied to detail sub

  9. Bioinformatics Activity Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This resource is designed for educators hoping to teach students about the world of biotechnology and bioinformatics, and the lesson plans here are top-notch. The lessons span a variety of topics, including applied mathematics, DNA, and genetics. Visitors can scroll through six sections, including Organisms and Evolution or Proteins and Proteomics. Visitors can scroll through each area, keeping in mind that each activity is categorized by grade level, subject area, and type. For those looking for specific areas, they will find a set of activity filters that can be used to easily identify specific resources. Some of the activity offerings here include "Genetic Disorder Research," "What is Cloning?" and "DNA Detectives: Extract your Own DNA." Finally, visitors can visit In The News to learn more about ongoing activities at the Bioinformatics Activities Bank. [KMG

  10. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  11. Filter arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, T.M.

    1981-06-09

    A filter arrangement is described that includes a venturi element carried within a tubular filter by a flexible attachment ring at one end of the filter removably securing the filter in the aperture of an apertured plate member in a gas filtration system. The outermost diameter of the venturi element is slightly less than the diameter of the aperture to accommodate withdrawal of the venturi element from either side of the plate attendant to installation and removal of the filter arrangement.

  12. New LMS adaptive filter for GPR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, F. N.; Devlin, John C.

    2000-04-01

    The DFT method popular in GPR processing assumes that data is infinite outside a given interval. The selection of a finite time interval and of the orthogonal trigonometric basis over a given interval means that only those frequencies which coincide with the basis will project onto a single basis vector. The rest of the frequency set will give nonzero projections on the entire basis set [harris, 1978]. The finite data set is obtained by windowing an infinite data sequence. The assumption is that the unmeasured data is zero and this is not true. When the power of the signal is concentrated on a narrow BW this operation spreads that power into adjacent frequency regions. This phenomenon is called spectral leakage. Leakage affects power estimation, resolution, dynamic range, implementation and detectability of a sinusoidal component. Parametric methods can be used to describe the process that creates a signal. A priori knowledge is required to extrapolate the information from the input signal. This approach eliminates spectral leakage problems. Parametric methods create a model that use a number of parameters to describe the process that create the signal under observation. Adaptive filters are parametric and iterative, theses filters respond to the input by changing their model parameters. The number of samples used at the input is small, however the samples are stored in memory so that the parameters obtained from an estimate are statistically combined with those of the previous estimates. This gives an accurate reading over several iterations. To date the closed loop adaptive filters have been used more commonly in radar signal processing. The closed loop adaptive filters have a feedback factor. One of the main disadvantages of closed loop adaptive filters are firstly the need for continual optimization and secondly instability. The second little known group of adaptive filters are called open loop adaptive filters. These filters differ from open loop ADF in that they do not require feedback, the input signal is used to change the parameters of the filter. An adaptive algorithm used by an ALP in closed loop filters changes the FIR filter coefficients such that the transfer function of the adaptive filter become the inverse of that possessed by the input process. Once adapted the frequency response of the FIR filter will be unity at the frequency of the input signal and the ALP's output. The error will be at a minimal value. By comparison the frequency response of the FIR filter in an open loop configuration will be zero at the frequency of the input signal. Open loop filters are more stable than closed loops adaptive filters. A novel frequency domain open loop adaptive filter is also introduced. This filter offers more stability, does not need feed back and has increased convergence speed.

  13. A 0.18m-CMOS near-end crosstalk (NEXT) noise canceller utilizing tunable active filters for 4PAM\\/20Gbps throughput backplane channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Chun; Youngsik Hur; Moonkyun Maeng; Hyoungsoo Kim; Soumya Chandramouli; Edward Gebara; Joy Laskar

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, active filter structures in a near-end crosstalk (NEXT) noise canceller for 20Gbit\\/s throughput is investigated. The active filters provide tunable noise emulation circuits and comprise the primary components of an analog NEXT canceller architecture. The two topologies proposed are a pole-zero (PZ) filter and a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. The NEXT canceller is designed in a

  14. Ranking the Banks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ranking the Banks, sponsored by American Banker, does just what the title suggests: ranks banks, worldwide. Five catagories of banks -- World Banks, Thrifts, Industry, Bank Holding Companies, and Commercial banks -- are subdivided into a number of different subcatagories including Top 100 Banking Companies in Assets, Top 100 World Banking Companies in Deposits, and Top 25 Lead Legal Advisers. Each compilation of data is ranked and tabled and the current ranking is displayed against the last. All tables are clearly dated, and those exclusive to American Banker online are highlighted with an icon.

  15. Internet Banking System Prototype

    E-print Network

    Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

    2010-01-01

    Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

  16. Are private banks more efficient than public banks?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexei Karas; Koen Schoors; Laurent Weill

    2010-01-01

    AbstractWe study whether bank efficiency is related to bank ownership in Russia. We find that foreign banks are more efficient than domestic private banks and, surprisingly, that domestic private banks are not more efficient than domestic public banks. These results are not driven by the choice of production process, the banks environment, managements risk preferences, the banks activity mix or

  17. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  18. Low Power Adder Based Auditory Filter Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65?nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%. PMID:25506073

  19. Low power adder based auditory filter architecture.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, P F Khaleelur; Jayanthi, V S

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder architectures are utilized to add the output samples of the LUT, available at every clock cycle. The design is developed and modeled using Verilog HDL, simulated using Mentor Graphics Model-Sim Simulator, and synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler tool. The design was mapped to TSMC 65?nm technological node. The standard ASIC design methodology has been adapted to carry out the power analysis. The proposed FIR filter architecture has reduced the leakage power by 15% and increased its performance by 2.76%. PMID:25506073

  20. Is bank supervision central to central banking?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several central banks have lost their bank supervisory responsibilities, in part because it has not been shown that supervisory authority improves the conduct of monetary policy. This paper finds that confidential bank supervisory information could help the Board staff more accurately forecast important macroeconomic variables and is used by FOMC members to guide monetary policy. These findings suggest that

  1. Statistical analysis of median type and morphological filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neejarvi, Jukka; Koskinen, Lasse; Neuvo, Yrjo A.

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, we analyze statistical properties of 1-D median type and morphological filters. Analytical formulas for the expectation of the dilation and closing in the case of i.i.d. Laplacian noise and explicit formulas for the expectation and variance of the morphological filters in the case of i.i.d. uniformly distributed noise are given. Noise attenuation figures of the filters for Gaussian, Laplacian and uniformly distributed noise are shown. It is shown that noise attenuation of the morphological filters varies considerably depending on the distribution of the noise. We analyze also the five point Morphological-FIR-Median Hybrid (MFMH) filter and its special case, the three point Morphological-Median Hybrid (MMH) filter structure. Responses for rectangular pulses of the MFMH and MMH filters are shown, and the behavior of the filters around noisy edges is studied. The performance of the MFMH filter near noisy edges is better than that of the FMH filter and the properties of the filter are adjustable in larger detail. In addition, an illustrative example of the noise attenuation performance of median type and morphological filters with an image is shown.

  2. Effect of simulated acid fog on needles of fir seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu Igawa; Hideki Kameda; Fumitaka Maruyama; Hiroshi Okochi; Ichiro Otsuka

    1997-01-01

    Fir seedlings (Abies firma) were treated with simulated acid fog from September 1992 to April 1995. The simulated acid fog was at pH 3 and consisted of 1 mM nitric acid, 1 mM sodium chloride, and 1 mM ammonium sulfate. In 1993 spring, needles of the seedlings treated with the simulated acid fog became greener than those of the control,

  3. Primary Attraction of the Fir Engraver, Scolytus ventralis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Macas-Smano; J. H. Borden; R. Gries; H. D. Pierce; G. Gries; G. G. S. King

    1998-01-01

    In laboratory bioassays, Porapak Q-captured and steam-distilled volatiles from the bark of host trees, Abies grandis, particularly from root-rot-infected trees, attracted 5070% of male and female fir engravers, Scolytus ventralis. Gas chromatographicelectroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of Porapak Q-captured bark volatiles revealed 19 EAD-active compounds of which 13 (mostly monoterpenes) were identified by GCmass spectrometry (GC-MS). In separate field experiments, multiple-funnel

  4. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. The relation between FIR and H I emission in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    This project explored the relationship between the global far-infrared and neutral hydrogen (H I) emission from galaxies, based on data from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) and published radio data. 100 and 60 micron IRAS fluxes were used to establish a temperature corrected measure of the cold dust emission, and H I fluxes were drawn from the literature with the greatest possible consistency. The degree of correlation between the FIR and H I fluxes was found to be better than in previous studies, comparable to the correlation previously found between FIR and CO fluxes. The improvement was obtained largely by (1) separating 'stripped' from 'unstripped' galaxies, and (2) using compatible sources of H I data. Stripping occurs in clusters of galaxies and is probably caused by ram-pressure effects as a galaxy travels through the intergalactic medium. Our results suggest that stripped galaxies have had their outer-disk gas removed (approximately 80% of their total H I) while retaining most of their 100-micron-emitting dust. This strongly shifts the ratio of their 100-micron-to-H I fluxes. The second problem, arising from diverse sources of data, arises because differing telescopes and observational techniques give rise to substantial disagreement in the measured H I flux, and this degrades the correlation of the FIR and H I fluxes.

  6. A unified optimization framework for equalization filter synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihong Ren; Mark R. Greenstreet

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel method for jointly optimizing FIR filters for pre-equalization, decision feedback equalization, and near-end crosstalk cancellation. The unified optimization problem is a linear program, and we describe sparse matrix techniques for its efficient solution. We illustrate our approach with uni- and bi-directional buses using differential signaling in both intra-board and cross-backplane scenarios.

  7. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  8. Strategic online banking adoption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubn Hernndez-Murillo; Gerard Llobet; Roberto Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the determinants of banks decisions to adopt a transactional website for their customers. Using a panel of commercial banks in the United States for the period 20032006, we show that although bank-specific characteristics are important determinants of banks adoption decisions, competition also plays a prominent role. The extent of competition is related to the geographic

  9. JAMAICA & eBANKING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W Jones

    2004-01-01

    In Jamaica there has been some improvement in electronic banking referred to e- banking worldwide. We are definitely on the road to this ultimate digital revolution. Especially with products coming out of National Commercial Bank (primarily) and to Bank Of Nova Scotia to a lesser extent. You can either go online or via telephone and pay a number of bills

  10. HI and FIR emission from S0 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Pogge, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    A large body of work has accumulated in recent years which throws into disarray the traditional assumption that S0 systems are inert, non-starforming galaxies with uniform, old stellar populations. The copious 21-cm data have been recently reviewed and assessed by Wardle and Knapp (1986). This work showed that roughly a third of the several hundred observed S0's contain detectable amounts of neutral hydrogen (HI). More recently, Pogge and Eskridge (1987) have shown that a significant fraction of HI-rich systems also exhibit H alpha emission. Thronson et al. (1989) report detection of CO line emission from two thirds of the S0's in their sample. Both of these last papers, however, report on fairly small data sets (approx. 20 objects each). From co-added Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, Knapp et al. (1989) report that roughly two thirds of a sample of several hundred S0's are detected at 60 and 100 microns. Work by Bally and Thronson (1989) and Walsh et al. (1989) has shown that, while a large number of S0's follow a relation between radio continuum and far infrared radiation (FIR) emission similar to that found for spirals, significant numbers of both radio-bright, and FIR-bright S0's exist. Clearly, a large number of factors are involved in determining the state of the interstellar medium in S0 galaxies. The class is probably heterogeneous, suggesting that large data samples are required to sort out various sorts of objects. The 21 cm and FIR samples are the two largest currently available. It is therefore of interest to compare the two and see where this leads. The following results are already clear: HI and FIR flux data can be used to isolate strong candidates for systems which have gained their HI gas via accretion; a rough power-law relationship exists for galaxies which are undergoing relatively normal star-forming activity; a heterogeneous class of galaxies with strong FIR emission compared to their HI emission exists. Further work is required to determine the various physical processes responsible for this last class.

  11. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF DOUGLAS-FIR PERPENDICULAR TO THE GRAIN AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURESL

    E-print Network

    RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF DOUGLAS-FIR PERPENDICULAR TO THE GRAIN AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURESL Qinglin Wu deformation under dif- ferent combinationsof mechanicalloadingand moisture change at elevated temperatures

  12. Simulated Performance of an FIR-Based Feedback System to Control the Electron Cloud Single-Bunch Transverse Instabilities in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Secondo, R.; Vay, J. L.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J. D.; Rivetta, C. H.; Hofle, W.

    2011-03-28

    The operation at high current of high-energy proton machines like the SPS at CERN is affected by transverse single-bunch instabilities due to the Electron Cloud effect [1]. As a first step toward modeling a realistic feedback control system to stabilize the bunch dynamics, we investigate the use of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter to represent the processing channel. The effect of the processing channel on the bunch dynamics is analyzed using the macro-particle simulation package Wart-Posinst. We discuss the basic features of the feedback model, report on simulation results, and present our plans for further development of the numerical model.

  13. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Monroeville, PA); Dilmore, William J. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

  14. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

    1992-09-01

    A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

  15. Banking on the past: seed banks as a reservoir for rare and native species in restored vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Faist, Akasha M.; Ferrenberg, Scott; Collinge, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    Soil seed banks serve as reservoirs for future plant communities, and when diverse and abundant can buffer vegetation communities against environmental fluctuations. Sparse seed banks, however, may lead to future declines of already rare species. Seed banks in wetland communities are often robust and can persist over long time periods making wetlands model systems for studying the spatial and temporal links between above- and belowground communities. Using collected soils and germination trials, we assessed species diversity and density in the seed banks of restored, ephemeral wetlands (vernal pools) in California's Central Valley, USA. Using long-term vegetation surveys, we compared the community structure of seed banks to that of aboveground vegetation and assessed the temporal links between below- and aboveground communities. We also compared the proportional abundances of different cover classes as well as the abundance of native plants in seed banks to aboveground communities. The proportional abundances of both rare and native species were greater in seed bank samples than in aboveground samples, yet the seed bank had lower species richness than aboveground vegetation. However, the seed bank had greater levels of differentiation among pools (beta diversity; ?) than aboveground samples. Additionally, the seed bank was more similar to the earlier (200306) aboveground community than the more recent (200710) aboveground community. The correlation of species composition in the current seed bank to an earlier aboveground community suggests that seed banks exhibit storage effects while aboveground species composition in this system is not driven by seed bank composition, but is perhaps due to environmental filtering. We conclude that the seed bank of these pools is neither prone to the same temporal rates of invasion as the aboveground community, nor is seed abundance presently a limiting factor in the aboveground frequency of native species or a promoting factor in plant invasions of these restored habitats.

  16. Annosus Root Disease in True Firs in Northern and Central California National Forests1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Annosus Root Disease in True Firs in Northern and Central California National Forests1 G. W stand and tree characteristics associated with the occurrence of annosus root disease-feet) of the total dead firs during a 1.5-year period. Annosus root disease was estimated to infest 18 percent

  17. G. AussenacEcophysiology of circum-Mediterranean firs Original article

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    G. AussenacEcophysiology of circum-Mediterranean firs Original article Ecology and ecophysiology the ecology and ecophysiology of firs. In the original ranges of these species climatic data is rare and very a numerical approach, this index allowed us to have a general and comparative view of the climatology

  18. Stratifying, partially redrying and storing Douglas-fir seeds : effects on growth and physiology during germination

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Stratifying, partially redrying and storing Douglas-fir seeds : effects on growth and physiology.S.A. Summary Douglas-fir [Psea!dotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] seeds collected from a coastal and an interior, and storage and their impacts on seed vigor and resultant seedling growth could be investigated. Stratified

  19. Computer simulation of fir forest dynamics in the Bieszczady Mountains in response to climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. KOZAK; V. MENSHUTKIN; M. J?WINA; G. POTACZA?A

    2002-01-01

    Results of investigation of fir forest dynamics in the Bieszczady Mountains using a FORKOME (FORest KOzak MEnshutkin) model in response to climate changes are presented. The model was verified in field trials in 1998-2001 in a fir forest in forest district Procisne in the Bieszczady Mountains (Poland). Prediction of tree biomass and tree number was made for the next 600

  20. Plasmon Enhancements for FIR Detection A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, P. V. V. Jayaweera

    E-print Network

    Perera, A. G. Unil

    Plasmon Enhancements for FIR Detection A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, P. V. V. Jayaweera Department Council-Canada Ont. CANADA Abstract--The use of plasmons to improve the response of FIR and THz detectors is generating extensive interest. Increased absorption due to the plasmonic absorption in a GaAs wafer

  1. Past and present outbreaks of the balsam fir sawfly in western Newfoundland: An analytical review

    E-print Network

    Past and present outbreaks of the balsam fir sawfly in western Newfoundland: An analytical review whether a sustained outbreak of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Harris) in western Newfoundland America (Martineau, 1985) but the current outbreak on the west coast of the island of Newfoundland (Fig. 1

  2. Tree Height Estimation in Redwood/Douglas-fir Stands in Mendocino

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    649 Tree Height Estimation in Redwood/Douglas-fir Stands in Mendocino County Helge Eng1 Abstract In this study, height-diameter equations were developed for managed stands of coastal redwood/Douglas-fir stands in Mendocino County. Equations were developed by species to predict tree height as a function of diameter

  3. Overstory/understory relationships in old growth Grand fir habitat types of northeast Oregon

    E-print Network

    Schreder, Peter Todd

    2000-01-01

    Layers in the Understory . . Prediction of Understory Response Grand Fir Ecotypes Douglas Fir Ecotypes Pseudaisuga menzi esiilCalamagrasiis rubescens Ecotypes . IV DYNAMICS OF UNDERSTORY VEGETATION. . . . . . . . 46 Seasonal Composition. Seasonal... ofresiduals of understory attributes in stands of the Pseudotsuga menziesii /Caiamagrostis rubescens ecotype 45 9 Seasonal composition of grazed and ungrazed understory vegetation in the Minam allotment . . . . . . . 47 10 Seasonal composition of grazed...

  4. PZTYOPHTHORUS ORARZUS BRIGHT (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE) INA NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DOUGLAS-FIR SEED ORCHARD: EFFECT OF CLONE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NANCY G. RAPPAPORT; DAVID L. WOOD

    The Canadian Entomologist 126: 11 11 -1 118 (1994) The geographic range of the Douglas-fir twig beetle, Pityophthorus orarius Bright, was extended beyond the original provenance of southern British Columbia to northern California. A survey of 457 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees in 1985 revealed that those with heavy cone crops were more likely to be infested by twig

  5. INDUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF GRAND FIR (ABIES GRANDIS LINDL.) CALLUS IN TISSUE CULTURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Nawrot-Chorabik

    2007-01-01

    The research is a methodological analysis of the first stage of micro-propagation of grand fir (Abies grandis Lindl.), which is included in the group of coniferous tree species introduced in Poland and characterised by a fast growth rate. The experiments were conducted on four types of grand fir explants (mature seeds, mega-gametophytes, mature zygotic embryos, buds collected in springtime from

  6. Michael.Gensch @ DESY.DE Light at the FLASH FIR beamline second coming

    E-print Network

    Michael.Gensch @ DESY.DE Light at the FLASH FIR beamline second coming #12;2Michael Gensch FLASH Seminar 19.2.2008 Status of the beamline Comissioning Next Steps #12;3Michael Gensch FLASH Seminar 19 timeschedule as presented to PSC in 09/2007 #12;4Michael Gensch FLASH Seminar 19.2.2008 FIR beamline

  7. Michael.Gensch @ DESY.DE (First) Photondiagnostic of the FIR Undulator

    E-print Network

    Michael.Gensch @ DESY.DE (First) Photondiagnostic of the FIR Undulator #12;2Michael Gensch FLASH Seminar 30th October 2007 Status First results #12;3Michael Gensch FLASH Seminar 30th October 2007 -> development of appropriate photondiagnostics for VUV/FIR pump probe experiments #12;4Michael Gensch FLASH

  8. Chemistry of throughfall under douglas fir and Rocky Mountain juniper. [Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca; Juniperus scopulorum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Hart; D. R. Parent

    1974-01-01

    Concentrations of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and nitrate were measured in throughfall under isolated douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) trees in northern Utah for 39 storms in 1970 and 1971. Concentrations were 3-16 times greater under the trees than in the open. Throughfall under douglas fir invariably had higher concentrations than that

  9. Aircraft Materials Test Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Microsoft Word document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a bank of test questions on materials used in the aircraft industry. 35 test questions and their correct answers are included in this test bank.

  10. Aircraft Fasteners Test Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Microsoft Word document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project provides a bank of test questions on the use of fasteners in the aerospace industry. Eighty three test questions and their correct answers are included in this test bank.

  11. Investment Banks Goldman Sachs

    E-print Network

    Aronov, Boris

    Investment Banks Goldman Sachs Merrill Lynch Morgan Stanley UBS Bear Stearns JP Morgan Chase Financial Corporation PNC Bank Wachovia Asset Management Firms Acadian Asset Management Alliance Capital Numeric Investors Old Mutual Asset Management Oppenheimer Capital Pareto Investment Management Limited

  12. Quantification and comparison of terpene concentrations in various balsam fir growth forms and foliage ages, and a simulation of moose browsing on balsam fir trees at Isle Royale

    E-print Network

    Terra-Berns, Mary Helen

    1993-01-01

    ) of the 15 major terpene compounds were purchased (Sigma Chemicals, St. Louis, MO; Aldrich, Milwaukee, Wl) or obtained from other labs. Chemical structures of the 15 Tricycline a -Pinene Canphene Sahinene lt -pinene OB Myrcene Phyllendrene OH OB *g...QUANTIFICATION AND COMPARISON OF TERPENE CONCENTRATIONS IN VARIOUS BALSAM FIR GROWTH FORMS AND FOLIAGE AGES, AND A SIMULATION OF MOOSE BROWSING ON BALSAM FIR TREES AT ISLE ROYALE A Thesis by MARY HELEN TERRA-BERNS Submitted to the Office...

  13. FIR filter optimization using bit-edge equalization in high-speed backplane data transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zhang; Tadeusz Kwasniewski

    2009-01-01

    A unique bit-edge equalization (BEE) method for mitigating intersymbol interference (ISI) in high-speed backplane applications is presented. Using a least-mean-square (LMS) adaptive algorithm as a receiver (RX) error convergence engine, the proposed BEE method aims to optimize the bit-edge amplitudes by equalizing only the edges of data bits with an adjustment of the sampling points where the error information is

  14. Low-Power Implementation ofFIR Filters within an Adaptive Reconfigurable Architecture

    E-print Network

    Arslan, Tughrul

    , Mayfield Rd, EH9 3JL, Scotland, UK 2Institute for System Level Integration, Alba Centre, Alba Campus electronic applied on reconfigurable designs, which target low-power applications gradually become more. Stefatos', Ilias Bravos2 and Tughrul Arslan" 2 'School ofEngineering & Electronics, King's Buildings

  15. An Efficient Arithmetic Sum-of-Product (SOP) based Multiplication Approach for FIR Filters and DFT

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Rajeev

    2013-04-24

    compression algorithm, and handles the sign of the input efficiently. The partial products of the computation are compressed down to 2 operands, which are then added using a single hybrid adder (which is comprised of a ripple carry adder for the early...

  16. Efficient Linear-Phase Directional Filters with Selectable Centre Frequencies

    E-print Network

    Gckler, Heinz G.

    ) that extract from an incoming complex-valued frequency division multiplex (FDM) signal, being composed of up halfband filters (CHBF) are restricted to integer multiples of fn/8, where fn = 1/Tn represents) A four-channel uniform complex-modulated FDMUX filter bank undercriti- cally decimating by two, where

  17. Water Filter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Boston

    2002-01-01

    In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective.
    Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

  18. Filtering Light

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students learn how CCD cameras use color filters to create astronomical images in this Moveable Museum unit. The four-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity notes, and step-by-step directions. Students look at black-and-white photos to understand gray scale and construct simple red and green cellophane filters and observe magazine images through them.

  19. Method and system for training dynamic nonlinear adaptive filters which have embedded memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabinowitz, Matthew (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Described herein is a method and system for training nonlinear adaptive filters (or neural networks) which have embedded memory. Such memory can arise in a multi-layer finite impulse response (FIR) architecture, or an infinite impulse response (IIR) architecture. We focus on filter architectures with separate linear dynamic components and static nonlinear components. Such filters can be structured so as to restrict their degrees of computational freedom based on a priori knowledge about the dynamic operation to be emulated. The method is detailed for an FIR architecture which consists of linear FIR filters together with nonlinear generalized single layer subnets. For the IIR case, we extend the methodology to a general nonlinear architecture which uses feedback. For these dynamic architectures, we describe how one can apply optimization techniques which make updates closer to the Newton direction than those of a steepest descent method, such as backpropagation. We detail a novel adaptive modified Gauss-Newton optimization technique, which uses an adaptive learning rate to determine both the magnitude and direction of update steps. For a wide range of adaptive filtering applications, the new training algorithm converges faster and to a smaller value of cost than both steepest-descent methods such as backpropagation-through-time, and standard quasi-Newton methods. We apply the algorithm to modeling the inverse of a nonlinear dynamic tracking system 5, as well as a nonlinear amplifier 6.

  20. High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong [Centre for Laser, Atomic and Molecular Studies (CLAMS), University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B. [Canadian Light Source, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 101 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada)

    2010-02-03

    New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

  1. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

  2. Snow Bank Detectives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Audrey C. Rule

    2005-01-01

    Local professors teamed up with a fourth-grade teacher to show students the similarities and differences between sedimentary rock layers and snow banks. Students observed and drew snow banks and explored the effects of melting and salting on the snow banks.

  3. European Central Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

  4. Banking on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer

  5. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... match in these cases. Back Continue Is Banking Right for You? If you are considering banking your newborn's cord blood, be sure to discuss your options with your obstetrician. Here are a few questions to consider before choosing a cord-blood bank: What are the pros and cons of public ...

  6. Knowledge Management in Banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Ping; Wu Kebao

    2010-01-01

    In modern times, more and more banks are operating with knowledge. So, this paper first discusses the definitions of knowledge and knowledge management, and then analyzes the necessities and feasibilities for knowledge management in banks. At the end of the paper, it studies ways for banks to manage knowledge, which include incentive mechanism, knowledge capital management and three levels of

  7. Optimal Data Distribution for Versatile Finite Impulse Response Filtering on Next-Generation Graphics Hardware Using CUDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrik Goorts; Sammy Rogmans; Philippe Bekaert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate discrete finite impulse response (FIR) filtering of images, while harnessing the powerful computational resources of next-generation GPUs. These novel platforms exhibit a massive data parallel architecture with an advanced SIMT execution model and thread management, to enable designers to better cope with the infamous memory wall, i.e. the growing gap between the cost of data

  8. Oversampled Inverse Complex Lapped Transform Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jrme Gauthier; Laurent Duval; Jean-Christophe Pesquet

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT When an oversampled,FIR filter bank structure is used for signal analysis, a main problem is to guarantee its invertibil- ity and to be able to determine an inverse synthesis filter bank. As the analysis scheme corresponds to a redundant decompo- sition, there is no unique inverse filter bank and some of the solutions can lead to artifacts in textured

  9. World Bank Group

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank group consists of IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development); IDA (International Development Agency); IFC (International Finance Corporation); MIGA (Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency); and ICSID (International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes). Visitors to the site will find information on the goals and activities of these agencies. Press releases, project reports and speeches by World Bank officials are also available at the site. The highlight of the site is the publications section which contains various online versions of World Bank periodicals such as World Bank News, Environment Matters, Finance & Development (discussed in the March 21, 1997 Scout Report) and Private Sector Notes, among others.

  10. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS LIABILITIES... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The...

  11. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS LIABILITIES... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The...

  12. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS LIABILITIES... Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The...

  13. Radio Observations of the Star Formation Activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-07-01

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwestsoutheast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.23.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the methanol maser action, which suggests that methanol class II masers are not necessarily excited by high-mass YSOs. Also discussed are properties of other centimeter continuum sources in the field of view and the water masers associated with FIR 6n. Some of the continuum sources are radio thermal jets, and some are magnetically active young stars.

  14. Tree Biomass Estimation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Based on Bayesian Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) is the most important conifer species for timber production with huge distribution area in southern China. Accurate estimation of biomass is required for accounting and monitoring Chinese forest carbon stocking. In the study, allometric equation was used to analyze tree biomass of Chinese fir. The common methods for estimating allometric model have taken the classical approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability. However, many different biotic and abiotic factors introduce variability in Chinese fir biomass model, suggesting that parameters of biomass model are better represented by probability distributions rather than fixed values as classical method. To deal with the problem, Bayesian method was used for estimating Chinese fir biomass model. In the Bayesian framework, two priors were introduced: non-informative priors and informative priors. For informative priors, 32 biomass equations of Chinese fir were collected from published literature in the paper. The parameter distributions from published literature were regarded as prior distributions in Bayesian model for estimating Chinese fir biomass. Therefore, the Bayesian method with informative priors was better than non-informative priors and classical method, which provides a reasonable method for estimating Chinese fir biomass. PMID:24278198

  15. Sydowia polyspora associated with current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on true fir (Abies spp.).

    PubMed

    Talg, Venche; Chastagner, Gary; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Cech, Thomas; Riley, Kathy; Lange, Kurt; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Stensvand, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Current season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25y. Approximately 2-4 weeks after bud break, needles develop chlorotic spots or bands that later turn necrotic. The symptoms have been observed on noble fir (Abies procera), Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana) and grand fir (A. grandis) on both continents. CSNN was reported as a physiological disorder with unknown aetiology from USA, Denmark, and Ireland, but was associated with the fungus Kabatina abietis in Germany, Austria and Norway. In 2007, a fungus that morphologically resembled K. abietis was isolated from symptomatic needle samples from Nordmann fir from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and USA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of these cultures, plus a K. abietis reference culture from Germany (CBS 248.93), resulted in Hormonema dematioides, the imperfect stage of Sydowia polyspora, and thus the taxonomy is further discussed. Inoculation tests on Nordmann fir seedlings and transplants with isolates of S. polyspora from all five countries resulted in the development of CSNN symptoms. In2009, S. polyspora was also isolated from symptomatic needles from Nordmann fir collectedin Slovakia. PMID:20943166

  16. 17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF AIR LOCK ENTRY DOOR. BANKS OF AIR FILTERS ARE VISIBLE TO THE SIDES OF THE DOORS. THE BUILDING WAS DIVIDED INTO ZONES BY AIRLOCK DOORS AND AIR FILTERS. AIR PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS WERE MAINTAINED IN THE ZONES, SUCH THAT AIRFLOW WAS PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION. (9/24/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.

    2013-06-01

    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 ?bar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 ?bar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (?_2 to ?_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Mller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  18. World Bank challenge.

    PubMed

    Carty, W P

    1992-01-01

    Founded in 1945 to meet the needs of post-war European reconstruction, the World Bank was formerly know as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. While Bank principals increasingly recognize the relationship between population growth and economic development, social investments in family planning have traditionally been less important than conventional Bank activities. Bank staff are generally maladroit in relating to demographic issues and favor carefully designed infrastructure projects over Third World social projects. Dr. Thomas Merrick has recently been appointed Senior Population Adviser to the World Bank. In this position, Dr. Merrick must accomplish the formidable task of convincing skeptical Bank economists that population is directly relevant to their work. He plans to argue the importance of population activities on a country- and issue-specific basis and stress population and family planning policies' bearing on capital formation, health, education, environment, job creation, urban development, and other Bank sectors. Dr. Merrick will also have to build up the number and competence of the World Bank's demographic staff. After having accomplished these internal tasks, the new Senior Population Adviser may also need to address the World Bank's tendency to work with recipient officials who give only low priority to borrowing for family planning. PMID:12344705

  19. International accounting harmonization, banking regulation, and Islamic banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rifaat Ahmed Abdel Karim

    2001-01-01

    Islamic banks perform both commercial and investment banking services but do not establish firewalls to separate these two services legally, financially, and managerially. Unlike conventional commercial banks, Islamic banks are prohibited from charging or paying of interest. Instead, Islamic banks offer profit-sharing investment accounts, such that investors' return depends on the return on the assets financed by the investors' funds.

  20. Determinants of Internet banking adoption by banks in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pooja Malhotra; Balwinder Singh

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The current exploratory study is an attempt to discover the factors affecting a bank's decision to adopt Internet banking in India. Particularly, it seeks to examine the relationship between the bank's adoption decision and various bank and market characteristics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The data for this study consist of panel data of 88 banks in India covering the financial

  1. Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J

    1993-01-01

    Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline. PMID:15091853

  2. Experiments and experiences using filtering and data reduction techniques for imaging in nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernus, L. V.; Mohr, F.; Schmeidl, T.; Ag, Siemens; Elangen; Ermert, H.; Pollakowski, M.; Kroening, M.; Schmitz, V.; Langenberg, K. J.

    The theory of quantitative ultrasonic imaging places high demands on the data to be collected. When using imaging techniques in the field, restrictions have to be faced which are imposed by the physical limitations of transducers or by limits on computer memory in terms of sampling density. In order to overcome these limitations it can be helpful to incorporate a priori knowledge in to the reconstruction algorithm, e.g., by application of filter techniques. Filtering is a convenient way to select the minimum necessary information to be sampled, stored or evaluated. The following filter techniques are investigated here: finite impulse response (FIR) filter in the time domain; ALOK i, k filter; K-space filter; and image processing.

  3. Bank Director Magazine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created for directors of financial companies, Bank Director Magazine is a quarterly publication that examines issues of importance to bank directors. The online publication includes the complete table of contents, as well as a selection of articles from the current issue. The site also features a directory of names, addresses, and phone numbers of M&A investment banking and law firms, consulting firms, and technology and retail delivery companies.

  4. The European Central Bank: The Bank that rules Europe?

    E-print Network

    Howarth, D.

    2009-01-01

    The power of the European Central Bank (ECB) is rooted in its independence established in the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. This power is reinforced though the banks monetary policy credibilityachieved through meeting its ...

  5. Are private banks more efficient than public banks? Evidence from Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexei Karas; Koen Schoors; Laurent Weill

    2008-01-01

    We study whether bank efficiency is related to bank ownership in Russia. We find that foreign banks are more efficient than domestic private banks and surprisingly that domestic private banks are not more efficient than domestic public banks. These results are not driven by the choice of production process, the banks environment, managements risk preferences, the banks activity

  6. Historical Statistics on Banking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Historical Statistics on Banking (HSOB), from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, "provides annual statistical information on the banking industry beginning in 1934." The site contains commercial banking reports, savings institution reports, and bank and thrift failure reports from 1934 to 1999. The Milestones feature offers a chronological retrospective on the FDIC's collection and use of data. Although the database is fairly easy to use, the HSOB Help section contains additional detailed instructions on saving and printing charts, and also offers a helpful glossary of terms used.

  7. The World Bank's role

    SciTech Connect

    Cartselos, T.

    1993-11-01

    The World Bank is fast becoming an important institution in the emerging international private power industry. Aside from being a significant source of debt and equity capital through its traditional lending programs and its private sector merchant banking arm, the International Finance Corp. (IFC), the World Bank often wields influence beyond its capability to directly fund investments. World Bank review of power proposals can either make or break a project requiring multilateral financing. Independent Energy recently interviewed Anthony Churchill of the World Bank at his offices in Washington to gain some insight on the role the Bank is playing in the development and realignment of the global energy sector. Churchill is currently the principal advisor to the vice president of Finance and Private Sector Development at the Bank and was formerly director of the Industry and Energy Department. An economist, has has been with the World Bank for more than 29 years. As principal advisor, Churchill is instrumental in determining policy for the Bank's activities in restructuring the energy sectors of many rapidly growing economies in the developing world.

  8. Picture 1 (Left) Okefenokee Wildlife Refuge Picture 2 (Above) Dead fir trees caused by

    E-print Network

    Picture 1 (Left) Okefenokee Wildlife Refuge canoe trip Picture 2 (Above) Dead fir trees caused to the Great Smoky Mountain National Park and the Okefenokee Wildlife Refuge to study issues such as acid

  9. EFFECTS OF PRECOMMERCIAL THINNING ON STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF YOUNG COAST REDWOOD - DOUGLAS-FIR FORESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse Forrest Plummer

    ABSTRACT EFFECTS OF PRECOMMERCIALTHINNING ON STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF YOUNG COAST REDWOOD DOUGLAS-FIR FORESTS Jesse Forrest Plummer In the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) region, the development of effective

  10. The Lost Research of Early Northeastern Spruce-Fir Experimental A Tale of Lost Opportunities

    E-print Network

    spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) with vary- ing forests or northern coniferous forests. They are typ- ically dominated by red spruce (Picea rubens), black

  11. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  12. Filter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kuban, Daniel P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Singletary, B. Huston (Oak Ridge, TN); Evans, John H. (Rockwood, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A plurality of holding tubes are respectively mounted in apertures in a partition plate fixed in a housing receiving gas contaminated with particulate material. A filter cartridge is removably held in each holding tube, and the cartridges and holding tubes are arranged so that gas passes through apertures therein and across the partition plate while particulate material is collected in the cartridges. Replacement filter cartridges are respectively held in holding canisters mounted on a support plate which can be secured to the aforesaid housing, and screws mounted on said canisters are arranged to push replacement cartridges into the cartridge holding tubes and thereby eject used cartridges therefrom.

  13. Soil microbial properties and nutrients in pure and mixed Chinese fir plantations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Kui Wang; Si-Long Wang

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on soil organic carbon, total N and P, NO3?-N, available P, microbial biomass C, N and P, basal respiration and metabolic quotients (qCO2) was conducted to compare differences in soil microbial properties and nutrients between 15-year-old pure Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and two mixed Chinese fir plantations (mixed plantations with Alnus cremastogyne, mixed plantations with Kalopanax septemlobus) at

  14. On identification of FIR multichannel models using higher-order statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jitendra K. Tugnait

    1996-01-01

    The problem of estimating the impulse response function of an FIR multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system given only the noisy measurements of the vector output of the system, is considered. The system is assumed to be driven by a spatially and temporally i.i.d. non-Gaussian vector sequence (which is not observed). The model order is unknown. The FIR NM (N⩾M) MIMO transfer

  15. Transient response and design methodology of an Applebaum adaptive filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloor, George J.; Higgins, Robert P.

    In the spread-spectrum/antijam scenario, significant processing gains can be achieved by the insertion of an antijam (AIS) filter in the receiver in front of the detector. In the present work the transient response of an FIR (finite impulse response) AIS filter, whose tap weights are updated by the Applebaum algorithm, is derived. An expression is then derived for the transient response of the correlator. Given an expression for the transient response of the correlator, the correlation may be maximized as a function of the loop gain and steering vector gain contained in the Applebaum algorithm. Moreover, this may be done at any time in the transient correlation response as opposed to the typical steady-state case. To motivate the use of the Applebaum algorithm, it is contrasted to the LMS (least mean square) algorithm and shown to have a significantly larger correlation. A filter design example is provided.

  16. Corporate governance and banking regulation

    E-print Network

    Alexander, Kern

    The globalisation of banking markets has raised important issues regarding corporate governance regulation for banking institutions. This research paper addresses some of the major issues of corporate governance as it relates to banking regulation...

  17. Dimerization of FIR Upon FUSE DNA Binding Suggests Mechanism of c-myc Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Crichlow,G.; Zhou, H.; Hsiao, H.; Frederick, K.; Debrosse, M.; Yang, Y.; Folta-Stogniew, E.; Chung, H.; Fan, C.; et al

    2008-01-01

    c-myc is essential for cell homeostasis and growth but lethal if improperly regulated. Transcription of this oncogene is governed by the counterbalancing forces of two proteins on TFIIH--the FUSE binding protein (FBP) and the FBP-interacting repressor (FIR). FBP and FIR recognize single-stranded DNA upstream of the P1 promoter, known as FUSE, and influence transcription by oppositely regulating TFIIH at the promoter site. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with light scattering reveals that an FIR dimer binds one molecule of single-stranded DNA. The crystal structure confirms that FIR binds FUSE as a dimer, and only the N-terminal RRM domain participates in nucleic acid recognition. Site-directed mutations of conserved residues in the first RRM domain reduce FIR's affinity for FUSE, while analogous mutations in the second RRM domain either destabilize the protein or have no effect on DNA binding. Oppositely oriented DNA on parallel binding sites of the FIR dimer results in spooling of a single strand of bound DNA, and suggests a mechanism for c-myc transcriptional control.

  18. Automated Sensing of Douglas Fir Bud-Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintz, H. E.; Kruger, A.; Wagner, D. A.; Tenney, I. J.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of plant biological events such as budburst in the spring can have major impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem carbon balance. While research efforts that address the timing of events is gaining considerable momentum, the technology available for sensing and recording the timing of events is limited, especially for trees. Thus, researchers often perform manual measurements, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This has resulted in efforts such as Project BudBurst, a network of professional and volunteer observers across the United States that monitor plants as seasons change. Access to forest trees can be difficult during periods of greatest interest, such as when buds open in the spring. For example, high elevation, snow, and melting snow during the spring hamper access to trees in alpine regions. Researchers at Oregon State University and The University of Iowa are developing instrumentation for automating sensing of budburst in Douglas firs. While the instrumentation targets Douglas firs, it can find application in studying budburst in other species. We present an initial bud-burst sensor that uses optical techniques to sense bud opening. An optical fiber illuminates a target bud with modulated light, a second fiber detects, and guides reflect light to a photodetector and signal processing electronics. Changes in the reflected light indicate the budburst. The instrumentation exploits advances in microelectronics, particularly miniaturization and low power consumption, and uses advanced signal processing techniques such as lock-in detection. The instrumentation records the reflected light every 15 minutes on high-capacity, non-volatile Flash media. Power consumption is very low and sensors have an extrapolated, continuous operating time more than 9 months, suggesting their deployment in the fall, and retrieval in the following spring. We believe the sensor will enable a caliber of research not yet achievable owing to the difficulty of phenological data collection. We aim to make the sensor cost-effective and ultimately deployable in a wireless network. We envision its application in various disciplines and sectors including forestry, agriculture, climate change research, and genomics.

  19. Phosphorus Filter

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Tom Kehler, fishery biologist at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania, checks the flow rate of water leaving a phosphorus filter column.The USGS has pioneered a new use for acid mine drainage residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, usi...

  20. Drug Filtering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence F. Iles

    2010-01-01

    In this math meets health science activity, learners observe a model of exponential decay, and how kidneys filter blood. Learners will calculate the amount of a drug in the body over a period of time. Then, they will make and analyze the graphical representation of this exponential function. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

  1. China's Banking Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dick Nanto; Radha Sinha

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the main problems facing the Chinese banking system and concludes that, despite serious problems, the risk seems small that, in the near future, a financial crisis will occur that will pose severe problems for the international financial system. An internal financial crisis, however, could occur. Without government support, the economic viability of many of China's banks is

  2. Banking (Conservatively) with Optimists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Manove; A. Jorge Padilla

    1999-01-01

    Commercial banks frequently encounter optimistic entrepreneurs whose perceptions are biased by wishful thinking. Bankers are left with a difficult screening problem: separating realistic entrepreneurs from optimists who may be clever, knowledgeable, and completely sincere. We build a game-theoretic model of the screening process. We show that although entrepreneurs may practice self-restraint to signal realism, competition may lead banks to be

  3. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Rapp, Barbara A.; Wheeler, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The GenBank sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of >55 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (Web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank data is accessible through NCBIs integrated retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping and protein structure information, plus the biomedical literature via PubMed. Sequence similarity searching is provided by the BLAST family of programs. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. NCBI also offers a wide range of WWW retrieval and analysis services based on GenBank data. The GenBank database and related resources are freely accessible via the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov PMID:10592170

  4. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for almost 260 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assigns accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:23193287

  5. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L

    2008-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 260 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:18073190

  6. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bi-monthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:19910366

  7. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2011-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 380,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:21071399

  8. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Clark, Karen; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 250,00 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:22144687

  9. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 280,000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:24217914

  10. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2009-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank(R) staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:18940867

  11. Why Food Banks?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Lougheed

    2009-01-01

    The following is a speech give at Laurentian University. This educational facility, just as the other 2 colleges in Sudbury, has an active food bank. You will find my words open a dialogue as to the history, reasoning and future of food banks. I have given a wide scope of activities that fall under the tent of food security.

  12. Exchange Bank Position Description

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Exchange Bank Position Description Position Title: Web Technical Administrator FLSA Status: Non applications to support Bank operations Administer existing vendor supplied web based applications. Work with vendors and consultants that provide web applications or content. Work with LAN Administrator to develop

  13. Precision Capacitor Bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Bushnell; J. B. Ennis; M. Dobrino; P. Gaywood

    2007-01-01

    Summary form only given. High voltage capacitor banks may be required to deliver precise amounts of energy to the load. Various industrial and scientific systems including lasers, magnets and flash lamps may require precise and repeatable energy delivery. This paper discusses the design of capacitor banks to meet these requirements. This includes precise voltage control and stable capacitors. Film capacitors

  14. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  15. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  16. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  17. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  18. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  19. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  20. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  1. 12 CFR 152.19 - Conversion to National banking association or state bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or state bank. 152.19 Section 152.19 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  2. Seed parasitism redirects ovule development in Douglas fir

    PubMed Central

    von Aderkas, Patrick; Rouault, Galle; Wagner, Rebecca; Rohr, Ren; Roques, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Many parasitic species of insects complete their entire development in seeds. They feed off storage reserves within the ovule. These reserves only normally accumulate in fertilized ovules. Consequently, female insects that oviposit their eggs directly into the plant ovule need to be able to select correctly, as unfertilized ovules of conifers normally become so-called empty seed. We provide clear evidence that in conifers, seed-parasitizing insects do not need to discriminate between fertilized and unfertilized plant ovules when ovipositing their eggs. A host-specific insect, the chalcid Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), lays its eggs in ovules of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) before fertilization has taken place in the plant. Oviposition not only prevents the expected degeneration and death of unfertilized ovules, but it induces energy reserve accumulation. Ovules that would otherwise develop as empty seed are redirected in their development by the insect to provide food for the developing larvae. Instead of the insect exploiting normal events during seed development, the insect manipulates seed development for its own reproductive advantage. PMID:16011924

  3. Springtime resumption of photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea).

    PubMed

    Goodine, G K; Lavigne, M B; Krasowski, M J

    2008-07-01

    Photosynthesis in balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) was measured in the field at two locations in New Brunswick, Canada from late winter to late spring in 2004 and 2005. No photosynthesis was detectable while the soil remained below 0 degrees C throughout the rooting zone. In both years, photosynthesis began once soil temperature rose to 0 degrees C. In potted seedlings in growth chambers, there was no photosynthesis at an air temperature of 10 degrees C if the pots were frozen. These findings suggest that, once air temperatures permit photosynthesis, it is the availability of unfrozen soil water that triggers the onset of photosynthesis. In the field, full recovery of photosynthetic capacity following the onset of soil thaw was dependent on air temperature and took 5 weeks in 2005, but 10 weeks in 2004. There were two substantial frost events during the recovery period in 2004 that may explain the extended recovery period. In 2005, recovery was complete after the accumulation of 200 growing degree days above 0 degrees C after the start of soil thaw. PMID:18450571

  4. Fresh-stem bending of silver fir and Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Lundstrm, Tor; Stoffel, Markus; Stckli, Veronika

    2008-03-01

    The bending and growth characteristics of large fresh stems from four silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and three Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were studied. Twenty logs taken from different stem heights were subjected to four-point bending tests. From the bending test records, we calculated stress-strain curves, which accounted for detailed log taper, shear deformation and self weight. From these curves we determined, among other parameters, the modulus of elasticity (MOE), the modulus of rupture (MOR) and the work absorbed in bending (W). No significant differences were found between species for the wood properties examined. Values of MOE, MOR and W generally decreased with stem height, with MOR in the range of 43 to 59 MPa and MOE ranging from 10.6 to 15.6 GPa. These MOE values are twice or more those reported for stems of young Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) trees. Based on the radial growth properties measured in discs from the logs, we calculated predicted values of MOE and MOR for the stem cross section. The predictions of MOE were precise, whereas those of MOR were approximate because of a complex combination of different failure mechanisms. Methods to test and calculate MOE, MOR and W for the stems of living trees are discussed with the aim of improving analyses of tree biomechanics and assessments of forest stability protection. PMID:18171659

  5. Exploiting bank locality in multi-bank memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guilin Chen; Mahmut T. Kandemir; Hendra Saputra; Mary Jane Irwin

    2003-01-01

    Bank locality can be defined as localizing the number of load\\/store accesses to a small set of memory banks at a given time. An optimizing compiler can modify a given input code to improve its bank locality. There are several practical advantages of enhancing bank locality, the most important of which is reduced memory energy consumption. Recent trends indicate that

  6. The world banks role in tourism development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun Mann

    2007-01-01

    Over the last four decades, commitment to tourism as a development strategy for developing economies has fluctuated within the World Bank. This article reviews the banks experience from 1966 to the present as it has evolved through various phases of its own institutional role towards development. Today, driven by strong country demand, there is renewed interest within the bank in

  7. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 300 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:25414350

  8. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    GenBank() (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 300 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:25414350

  9. Drug Filtering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson from Illuminations looks at exponential decay. The example of how kidneys filter blood is used. The material asks students to determine the amount of a drug that remains in the body over a period of time. Students will predict behavior by an exponential decay model and graph an exponential set of data. The lesson is appropriate for grades 9-12 and should require 1 class period to complete.

  10. Core 4: Image Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Image Bank supplements the coursework for Core 4: The Shaping of the Modern World, an introductory course offered by the History Department of Brooklyn College. The Image Bank indexes numerous historical images spanning from the Scientific Revolution to the present. The images are divided into eight major topic indexes: Ancien Regime and Critics; Age of Revolutions; Industry and Society; Liberalism and Nationalism; Varieties of Imperialism; The World Turned Upside Down; Fascism, Depression & WWII; and, The World Since 1945. Indexes for major topics contain clustered subtopics, allowing users to locate relevant images quickly. This Image Bank presents students and educators with a valuable, visual method for understanding Modern Western History.

  11. The Evolution of Online Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Ross

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the success of U.S. banks in utilizing online banking as a distribution channel for their products and services. The emergence of the Internet as a distribution medium of revolutionary potential in the mid-1990s was greeted by the majority of banks with reservation and caution. At the beginning of this era banks were

  12. The Baltics -- Banking Crises Observed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Fleming; Lily Chu

    1996-01-01

    Lessons learned from banking crises in three Baltic republics -- crises that all developed in the context of simultaneous transition and adjustment, putting tremendous strain on banks and their enterprise borrowers.Fleming, Chu, and Bakker compare the banking crises experienced in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, examining the causes, effects, and policy responses.The starting point for the three banking systems was the

  13. Commercial Banks Efficiency in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jehovaness Aikaeli

    Abstract Efficient banking,system reflects a sound intermediation process and hence the banks due contribution to economic growth. If commercial banks are functioning efficiently, monetary policies are likely to be effective. This study is motivated by the fact that, though banking sector is the largest part of the financial system in Tanzania, little is known about its efficiency status. Secondary time

  14. A SNP resource for Douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauca) are native to North America, the coastal variety is also widely planted for timber production in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Our main goal was to develop a SNP resource large enough to facilitate genomic selection in Douglas-fir breeding programs. To accomplish this, we developed a 454-based reference transcriptome for coastal Douglas-fir, annotated and evaluated the quality of the reference, identified putative SNPs, and then validated a sample of those SNPs using the Illumina Infinium genotyping platform. Results We assembled a reference transcriptome consisting of 25,002 isogroups (unique gene models) and 102,623 singletons from 2.76 million 454 and Sanger cDNA sequences from coastal Douglas-fir. We identified 278,979 unique SNPs by mapping the 454 and Sanger sequences to the reference, and by mapping four datasets of Illumina cDNA sequences from multiple seed sources, genotypes, and tissues. The Illumina datasets represented coastal Douglas-fir (64.00 and 13.41 million reads), interior Douglas-fir (80.45 million reads), and a Yakima population similar to interior Douglas-fir (8.99 million reads). We assayed 8067 SNPs on 260 trees using an Illumina Infinium SNP genotyping array. Of these SNPs, 5847 (72.5%) were called successfully and were polymorphic. Conclusions Based on our validation efficiency, our SNP database may contain as many as ~200,000 true SNPs, and as many as ~69,000 SNPs that could be genotyped at ~20,000 gene loci using an Infinium II arraymore SNPs than are needed to use genomic selection in tree breeding programs. Ultimately, these genomic resources will enhance Douglas-fir breeding and allow us to better understand landscape-scale patterns of genetic variation and potential responses to climate change. PMID:23445355

  15. Carbon and biomass partitioning in balsam fir (Abies balsamea).

    PubMed

    Xing, Zisheng; Bourque, Charles P-A; Swift, D Edwin; Clowater, Christopher W; Krasowski, Marek; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2005-09-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill) was extensively sampled to investigate the effects of forest management practices, site location, within-crown position, tree component (i.e., stem, foliage, branches and roots), and tree social classes on biomass and carbon (C) partitioning at the individual tree level and across ecological regions. The sites were located in three ecologically distinct forest regions of west-central New Brunswick, Canada. There were no significant differences in %C content of trees across ecological regions or across tree social classes. However, at the individual tree level, significant differences were evident in biomass and C allocation between different parts of the tree, between treatment types (i.e., unmanaged and pre-commercially thinned stands) and between within-crown positions, indicating the need for separate estimates of biomass and C content of tree components to obtain more precise estimates of quantities at the stand level. Calculating stand C content based on constant allocation values, as is commonly done, produced errors of up to 15% compared with the values calculated in this study. Three allometric equations of biomass and C that account for partitioning among different parts of the tree were developed and compared: (1) a third-order polynomial, (2) a modified inverse polynomial and (3) a modified Weibull equation. Diameter at breast height (DBH) was used as the only explanatory variable to describe fresh biomass, dry biomass and C content. All regressions derived showed a high correlation with DBH, with most r2 values > 0.95. A comparison of the equation results showed that the modified Weibull equation gave consistent results with the best overall fit and was the simplest of the three equations investigated. The regressions can be used to estimate forest biomass and tree C content at the stand level, given specific information on DBH. PMID:15996964

  16. [Genetic variability of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) inferred from AFLP markers].

    PubMed

    Semerikova, S A; Semerikov, V L

    2011-02-01

    Genetic variability of AFLP markers was studied in 20 populations of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica (Pinaceae) and in two populations of Far-Eastern Manchurian fir A. nephrolepis and Sakhalin fir A. sachalinensis each. Four pairs of selective primers were used. In total, 168 samples from three fir species were genotyped for 117 polymorphic loci. According to the AMOVA results, the variability proportion characterizing the differences between three Abies species was several times higher (F(CT) = 0.53) than that accounting for among-population differences within the species (F(SC) = 0.125). Differentiation of the A. sibirica populations based on AFLP markers exceeded 14% (F(ST) = 0.141). Significant correlation between the genetic distances calculated from the AFLP data and the geographic distances between populations was found. The results of AFLP variability analysis supported and supplemented the conclusions inferred previously from allozyme and cpSSR data: several genetically similar geographic groups of Siberian fir were identified. These groups differ both in allele frequencies and in the levels of genetic variation. PMID:21516799

  17. Bank market structure and entrepreneurship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammy M. Rogers

    This paper investigates the impact of bank market structure differences within U.S. states on entrepreneurial activity. A\\u000a panel model is used to evaluate differences in new firm starts within the states relative to the bank market structure and\\u000a competition. The results indicate that states with more small banks, as measured by the number of unit banks, and banks with\\u000a more

  18. Mile High Wetland Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The site listed here is provided by an environmental consulting firm that works with commercial and private landowners to establish Wetland Banks. An innovative concept (and growing reality) that has received mixed reviews from scientists, Wetland Banking attempts to combine the goals of developers (i.e., to develop a certain area) and wetland conservationists (i.e., to maintain/ restore areas of intact wetlands). If misused, this approach could work against wetland conservation; if properly instated, however, Wetland Banking might offer an alternative to the currently poor success rate of wetland mitigation projects. This resource by Mile High Wetlands Group, LLC, offers background information on Wetland banking, with an emphasis on the Group's local area (Colorado).

  19. Fall Math Idea Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wendy Petti

    2014-01-01

    This math idea bank includes autumn themed hands-on activities focused on the topics of leaves, spiders, and pumpkins. Also included in this resource are links to online activities and websites for research.

  20. World Bank: Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Many people are familiar with the World Bank's work in the areas of international finance and economic development, but they may not be aware of their work in the area of biodiversity. The World Bank happens to be the world's largest financier of biodiversity, and their work includes supporting the sustainable use of biodiversity outside protected areas, eradication of alien species, and land conservation. First-time visitors may wish to start their journey through the site by clicking on the "What's New" area. Here they will find reports on biodiversity, the role of indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation, and a review of the World Bank's conservation projects during the past twenty years. Another way to look through the materials on the site is by using the drop-down menus that read "Topic", "Country", and "Region/Income". Visitors can also read overview statements that cover the Bank's work on biodiversity and poverty, biosafety, and mountain ecosystems.

  1. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  2. Analog Rank-Order Filter using multiple-winners-take-all

    E-print Network

    Dake, Luthuli Edem

    2000-01-01

    in this field e. g. signal generated by heartbeat. Pixel focus I'ow processors M a X R 0 F D e c 0 d e r Estimated distance Analog range inputs Fig. 3. 4. CMOS range finder architecture, with ROF component. 19 Like FIR filters, median.... 14 3. 2 Spatial Rank-Order Filtering on 2-D Image 16 3. 3 Shows Blurred Image in (a) and Enhanced Image in (b). . . 17 3. 4 CMOS Range Finder Architecture, with ROF Component. . . 18 4. 1 Graphic Characteristics of Sign Function. 4. 2 Block...

  3. Adaptive wavelet Wiener filtering of ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Smital, Luk; Vtek, Martin; Kozumplk, Ji?; Provaznk, Ivo

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we focused on the reduction of broadband myopotentials (EMG) in ECG signals using the wavelet Wiener filtering with noise-free signal estimation. We used the dyadic stationary wavelet transform (SWT) in the Wiener filter as well as in estimating the noise-free signal. Our goal was to find a suitable filter bank and to choose other parameters of the Wiener filter with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained. Testing was performed on artificially noised signals from the standard CSE database sampled at 500Hz. When creating an artificial interference, we started from the generated white Gaussian noise, whose power spectrum was modified according to a model of the power spectrum of an EMG signal. To improve the filtering performance, we used adaptive setting parameters of filtering according to the level of interference in the input signal. We were able to increase the average SNR of the whole test database by about 10.6dB. The proposed algorithm provides better results than the classic wavelet Wiener filter. PMID:23192472

  4. Ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

  5. Competition and regeneration in quaking aspenwhite fir (Populus tremuloidesAbies concolor) forests in the Northern Sierra

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Alan

    Competition and regeneration in quaking aspenwhite fir (Populus tremuloidesAbies concolor competition between quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and white fir (Abies concolor) affect growth Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides, hereafter aspen) is the most widely distributed hardwood in North

  6. Use of Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Predict Klason Lignin Content of Bamboo, Chinese Fir, Paulownia, and Poplar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anmin Huang; Gaiyun Li; Feng Fu; Benhua Fei

    2008-01-01

    The use of calibrated visible and near infrared (NIR) (4002500 nm) spectroscopy to predict the klason lignin content of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens), Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.), Paulownia (Paulownia elongata), and Poplar (Populus nigra var.) samples was investigated. For bamboo, Chinese fir, and Paulownia, the lignin content predicted by means of chemical methods and that predicted by NIR

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAFIRES: Spitzer Archival FIR Extragalactic Survey (Hanish+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanish, D. J.; Capak, P.; Teplitz, H. I.; Desai, V.; Armus, L.; Brinkworth, C.; Brooke, T.; Colbert, J.; Edwards, L.; Fadda, D.; Frayer, D.; Huynh, M.; Lacy, M.; Murphy, E.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R.; Scarlata, C.; Shenoy, S.

    2015-04-01

    We present the Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SAFIRES). This program produces refined mosaics and source lists for all far-infrared (FIR) extragalactic data taken during the more than six years of the cryogenic operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The SAFIRES products consist of FIR data in two wavelength bands (70 and 160?m) across approximately 180 square degrees of sky, with source lists containing far-infrared fluxes for almost 40000 extragalactic point sources. Thus, SAFIRES provides a large, robust archival far-infrared data set suitable for many scientific goals. (2 data files).

  8. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...

  9. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...

  10. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...

  11. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...

  12. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...to shares owned indirectly by a bank holding company through a banking...as to shares held directly by the bank holding company. A contrary interpretation would impair the right that member banks controlled by bank holding...

  13. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal...4070 Section 614.4070 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...

  14. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal...4070 Section 614.4070 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...

  15. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal...4070 Section 614.4070 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...

  16. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal...4070 Section 614.4070 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...

  17. A WEIGHTED OVERLAP-ADD BASED WAVE DOMAIN ADAPTIVE FILTERING ALGORITHM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Peretti; Laura Romoli; Stefania Cecchi; Lorenzo Palestini; Francesco Piazza

    The application of adaptive algorithms like noise reduction or echo cancellation on Wave Field Synthesis and Wave Field Analysis may be performed by using Wave Domain Adaptive Filtering in order to limit the computational complexity. The computational cost can be furthermore reduced taking advan- tage of filter banks theory. Moreover, the signal decomposi- tion into subbands allows to achieve a

  18. Filtering Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2003-01-01

    The first site related to water filtration is from the US Environmental Agency entitled EPA Environmental Education: Water Filtration (1 ). The two-page document explains the need for water filtration and the steps water treatment plants take to purify water. To further understand the process, a demonstration project is provided that illustrates these purification steps, which include coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The second site is an interesting Flash animation called Filtration: How Does it Work (2 ) provided by Canada's Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. Visitors will learn various types of filtration procedures and systems and the materials that are used such as carbon and sand. Next, from the National Science Foundation is a learning activity called Get Out the Gunk (3 ). Using just a few simple items from around the house, kids will be able to answer questions like "Does a filter work better with a lot of water rushing through, or a small trickle?" and "Does it make the water cleaner if you pour it through a filter twice?" The fourth Web site, Rapid Sand Filtration (4 ), is provided by Dottie Schmitt and Christie Shinault of Virginia Tech. The authors describe the process, which involves the flow of water through a bed of granular media, normally following settling basins in conventional water treatment trains to remove any particulate matter left over after flocculation and settling. Along with its thorough description, readers can view illustrations and photographs that further explain the process. The Vegetative Buffer Strips for Improved Surface Water Quality (5) Web site is provided by the Iowa State University Extension office. The document explains what vegetative buffer strips are, how they filter contaminants and sediment from surface water, how effective they are, and more. The sixth offering is a file called Infiltration Basins and Trenches (6) that is offered by the University of Wisconsin Extension. These structures are intended to collect water, have it infiltrate into the ground, and have it purified along the way. This document explains how effective they are at removing pollutants, how to install them, design guidelines, maintenance, and more. Next, from a site called Wilderness Survial.net is the Water Filtration Devices (7) page. Visitors read how to make a filtering system out of cloth, sand, crushed rock, charcoal, or a hollow log, although as is stated, the water still has to be purified. The last site, from the US Geological Survey, is called A Visit to a Wastewater-Treatment Plant: Primary Treatment of Wastewater (8). Although geared towards children, the site does a good job of explaining what happens at each stage of the treatment process and how pollutants are removed to help keep water clean. Everything from screening, pumping, aerating, sludge and scum removal, killing bacteria, and what is done with wastewater residuals is covered.

  19. Development of tissue bank

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  20. Simulation of hearing loss using compressive gammachirp auditory filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongmei Hu; Jinqiu Sang; Mark E Lutman; Stefan Bleeck

    2011-01-01

    Hearing loss simulation (HLS) systems can provide normal hearing (NH) listeners with demonstrations of consequences of hearing impairment. An accurate simulation of hearing loss can be a valuable tool for developing signal processing strategies for hearing aids. This paper presents a novel HLS system which is based on a physiologically motivated compressive gammachirp auditory filter bank to simulate several aspects

  1. CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES FOR STEP SOUNDS BASED ON GAMMATONE-FILTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Annies; Hendrik Purwins; Klaus Obermayer

    In this study the classification performance of 2 machine learning methods and 2 sound representations schemes are compared, having the focus on short impact like sounds: Footsteps have been classified according to the material of the floor and the shoe type. The gamma-tone auditory filter- bank is a spectral analyser, that converts a given signal into a multi-channel simulation of

  2. 40 CFR 1037.715 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 1037.715 Section 1037.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification 1037.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

  3. 40 CFR 1036.715 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 1036.715 Section 1036.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification 1036.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

  4. 40 CFR 1036.715 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 1036.715 Section 1036.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification 1036.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

  5. 40 CFR 1037.715 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Banking. 1037.715 Section 1037.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification 1037.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

  6. 40 CFR 1037.715 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Banking. 1037.715 Section 1037.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification 1037.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

  7. 40 CFR 1036.715 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Banking. 1036.715 Section 1036.715 Protection...HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification 1036.715 Banking. (a) Banking is the retention...

  8. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office...a designated foreign country; any bank or trust company incorporated under...district of the United States, or any private bank or banker subject to...

  9. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office...a designated foreign country; any bank or trust company incorporated under...district of the United States, or any private bank or banker subject to...

  10. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office...a designated foreign country; any bank or trust company incorporated under...district of the United States, or any private bank or banker subject to...

  11. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office...a designated foreign country; any bank or trust company incorporated under...district of the United States, or any private bank or banker subject to...

  12. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office...a designated foreign country; any bank or trust company incorporated under...district of the United States, or any private bank or banker subject to...

  13. 31 CFR 500.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office...any designated foreign country: Any bank or trust company incorporated under...district of the United States, or any private bank or banker subject to...

  14. World Bank: News & Broadcast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From logistics to international development, the World Bank's News & Broadcast website is worth bookmarking, particularly for public policy types, international affairs scholars, and anyone with a penchant for global matters. The homepage presents a news area, complete with icons which indicate whether there is video or audio associated with each item. Not only is it a good way to learn about the World Bank's activities, it is another way to stay on top of economic development strategies, political unrest, and foreign investment patterns. Visitors to the site can search all of the media available here, look over the World Bank's YouTube channel, and sign up for their RSS feed. Those persons looking for specific types of information can find a number of categories, including "Speeches", and "Issue Briefs".

  15. World Bank Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World Bank has a number of specialized units designed to perform research in order to allow the organization to make informed policy decisions throughout the world. This website happens to provide information on the World Bank Institute, which effectively serves as the capacity development arm of the Bank and also "helps countries share and apply global and local knowledge to meet development challenges". On the Institute's site, visitors can find out about its various programs, which include work on preventing HIV/AIDS risk in the Balkans and scholarships designed to promote knowledge sharing and capacity building in the developing world. Visitors will want to pay close attention to the Publications area, as they may view or download working papers from a wide range of topics, including energy policy, labor force development, and development economics.

  16. Mozilla Digital Memory Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for History and New Media at George Mason University doesn't shy away from provocative digital archive projects, and the Mozilla Digital Memory Bank is certainly one such work. Drawing on support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mozilla Foundation this site serves as a permanent, open, peer-produced digital archive of Mozilla history. Users are welcome to start by browsing the "Memory Bank" section, which includes blogs, interviews, documents, testimonials, and press releases. For those with a geographical bent, there is the "Mozilla Map", which lets users find out where in the world Mozilla developers and users are located. And for those who can't make up their mind about where to start, they can just click on over to the "Featured Bank Deposit" and start reading.

  17. Master of Science in Banking and Finance Banking and Finance

    E-print Network

    Krause, Rolf

    Entrepreneurship Writing Business Plans 3 Risk Management 6 Behavioural finance 6 Introductory Corporate GovernanceMaster of Science in Banking and Finance Banking and Finance Goals and Contents The Master in Banking and Finance has been designed to provide graduates with the necessary tools and skills

  18. Master of Science in Banking and Finance Banking and Finance

    E-print Network

    Krause, Rolf

    Analysis 6 Financial Intermediation 6 Economics of Information or Behavioural Finance 6 Applied StatisticsMaster of Science in Banking and Finance Banking and Finance Goals and Contents The Master in Banking and Finance has been designed to provide graduates with the necessary tools and skills

  19. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES DATA BANK (HSDB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) is a factual, non-bibliographic data bank focusing upon the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with data from such related areas as emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, human exposure, detection method...

  20. The quest for quality blood banking program in the new millennium the American way

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae Un Kim

    2002-01-01

    For an industry to succeed and satisfy its customers, QUALITY must be a primary goal. Quality has been central to blood\\u000a banking from its inception, with the evolution of a Quality Program since the opening of the first blood bank in U.S. at the\\u000a Cook County Hospital in 1937. Over the ensuing decades, continuous scientific progress in blood preservation, filters,

  1. B-Plant D-Filter detector system qualification test report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes the results of qualification testing of the B Plant D-Filter Detector System. The purpose of this test was to verify that the system meets the performance requirements and that the unit is ready for field deployment. Testing was performed in the test pit in the 306E Facility. This detector system will be deployed in the B Plant D-Filter to measure beta/gamma dose rates from the filter bank.

  2. Stratifying, partially redrying, and storing Douglas-fir seeds : biochemical responses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Stratifying, partially redrying, and storing Douglas-fir seeds : biochemical responses * Marlene DE.) Franco] seeds and seedlings from a coastal and an interior seed source in Oregon to explore how seed stratification, redrying and storage interact to produce vigorous seedlings. Seeds were stratified at 45 p. 100

  3. Douglas-fir seedlings exhibit metabolic responses to increased temperature and atmospheric drought.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Kirstin; Du, Baoguo; Kayler, Zachary; Siegwolf, Rolf; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kammerer, Bernd; Jaeger, Carsten; Schaub, Marcus; Kreuzwieser, Jrgen; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves) will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i) plant biomass, (ii) carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii) apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv) the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought). Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions. PMID:25436455

  4. Understanding the pathology of Douglas-fir seedlings in Pacific Northwest nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas-fir seedlings are infected by a number of Pythium species causing damping-off and root rot. As soil fumigation continues to be more tightly regulated, knowledge about the identity and pathogenicity of Pythium species in forest nurseries will be increasingly important for studies that evaluat...

  5. Isolation of High-Quality Total RNA from Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Li, Shubin; Lin, Sizu

    2015-01-01

    RNA isolation with RNA in a high quantity is a basic analytical method in plant genetics, molecular biology and related physiological investigations. To understand the genetic and molecular biology of Chinese fir, sufficient high-quality total RNA must be obtained for cDNA library construction and other downstream molecular applications. However, extracting RNA from Chinese fir is difficult and often requires the modification of existing protocols. Chinese fir tissues containing large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds and are one of the most difficult plant tissues for RNA isolation. Therefore, we developed a simple method for extracting high-quality RNA from Chinese fir tissues. RNA isolations were performed within two hours, RNA quality was measured for yield and purity. Total RNA obtained from this procedure was successfully used for cDNA library construction, RT-PCR and transcriptome sequencing. It was proven that extracted RNA was intact and suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR, and other downstream molecular applications. Thus, this protocol represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost method. PMID:26083257

  6. Climatic correlations in the stable isotope records of silver fir (Abies pindrow) trees from Kashmir, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ramesh; S. K. Bhattacharya; K. Gopalan

    1986-01-01

    A high degree of coherence in the annual stable isotopic records along different radial directions of a silver fir tree and between two members of this species from the Kashmir Valley has recently been reported by us. Since such a common pattern of isotopic variability is most likely due to the climatic fluctuations in the site, we have compared the

  7. Stand-level prediction of balsam fir mortality in relation to spruce budworm defoliation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Pothier; Daniel Mailly

    2006-01-01

    Stand production and sustained yield calculations are largely affected by tree mortality, which can be caused by many factors such as competition, insect damage, or climatic events. In the eastern Canadian boreal forest, spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) defoliation can produce varying levels of mortality in balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) stands. This mortality was estimated for the entire

  8. Study of endogenous plant growth substances in Douglas fir I. Cytokinin analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Study of endogenous plant growth substances in Douglas fir I. Cytokinin analysis N. Imbault P. Cytokinin isolation Cytokinins were extracted with 80% methanol in phosphate buffer (pH 7.2). After on an immunoaffinity (IA) column (as described below) or on an octadecylsilica one. Cytokinins were then separated

  9. Changes in endogenous cytokinins during flowering induction in Douglas fir: effect of exogenous applications

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Changes in endogenous cytokinins during flowering induction in Douglas fir: effect of exogenous conside- red to be the major site of cytokinin synthesis (Kende, 1964). Endogenous cy- tokinins were iP was applied to shoots of 6 yr old trees. Cytokinin bases and ribosides were extracted

  10. Efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings. This effort was conducted as part of the IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture program to evaluate fungicides and biopesticides for management of root, crown and stem rot of ornamental plants ca...

  11. Neutralization and buffering capacity of leaves of sugar maple, largetooth aspen, paper birch and balsam fir.

    PubMed

    Liu, G E; Ct, B

    1993-01-01

    We compared the acidity, the external acid neutralizing capacity and the buffering capacity of leaves of four commercially important tree species, largetooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill), at two sites of contrasting soil fertility in southern Quebec. External acid neutralizing capacity (ENC) of leaves was determined by measuring the change in pH induced by soaking fresh leaves in an acidic solution (pH 4.0) for two hours. The ENC was highest for largetooth aspen (14.3 micro equiv H(+) g(-1)), and lowest for sugar maple and balsam fir (< 5 micro equiv H(+) g(-1)). The buffering capacity index (BCI) was determined by measuring the amount of acid necessary to produce a change of 5 micro equiv H(+) in the leaf homogenate. The BCI ranged from 883 micro equiv H(+) g(-1) for largetooth aspen to less than 105 micro equiv H(+) g(-1) for sugar maple and balsam fir. Leaves of sugar maple and balsam fir had a lower internal pH and a higher percentage of ENC over BCI than paper birch and largetooth aspen. Overall, ENC was correlated with the concentration of all leaf nutrients except Ca, and BCI was correlated with Mg, N and Ca. The site effect was relatively unimportant for all variables. PMID:14969931

  12. MEMORIES OF NATURAL DISTURBANCES IN PONDEROSA PINE DOUGLAS-FIR AGE STRUCTURE, SOUTHWESTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    E-print Network

    viii MEMORIES OF NATURAL DISTURBANCES IN PONDEROSA PINE DOUGLAS- FIR AGE STRUCTURE, SOUTHWESTERN: Master of Resource Management PROJECT TITLE: Memories of Natural Disturbances in Ponderosa Pine Douglas such influences. The overall objective of this thesis is to use the age structure of a ponderosa pine (Pinus

  13. Southward Pleistocene migration of Douglas-fir into Mexico: phylogeography, ecological niche modeling,

    E-print Network

    Gugger, Paul F.

    Southward Pleistocene migration of Douglas-fir into Mexico: phylogeography, ecological niche modeling, Mexico, mtDNA, phylogeography, Pseudotsuga menziesii, rear edge. Summary Poleward Pleistocene or Pleistocene origin for temperate `sky island' plant taxa in Mexico. These `rear edge' populations situated

  14. Blind identification of FIR channels with multiple users via spatio-temporal processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Aghajan; B. Hassibi; B. Khalaj; A. Paulraj; T. Kailath

    1994-01-01

    A new method is proposed for blind identification of possibly nonminimum phase FIR channels with multiple users. The technique exploits the structure of the signals received by an antenna array in both the temporal and spatial frequency domains. Although in the single antenna case it is necessary to use cyclostationary signals or higher order statistics to identify the magnitude and

  15. Analytical Solution of the Blind Identification Problem for Multichannel FIR Systems Based on Second Order Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos I. Diamantaras; Theophilos Papadimitriou

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel method for the blind identification problem of multichannel FIR systems based on the analytical solution of a linear system of equations derived from the output signal second order statistics. The method is very efficient computationally since it does not involve iterative optimization procedures. In addition, it is very robust to noise as shown by our experiments.

  16. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

  17. Species delimitation and biogeography of two fir species (Abies) in central China: cytoplasmic DNA variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Wang; R J Abbott; Y L Peng; F K Du; J-Q Liu

    2011-01-01

    It remains unclear how speciation history might contribute to species-specific variation and affect species delimitation. We examined concordance between cytoplasmic genetic variation and morphological taxonomy in two fir species, Abies chensiensis and A. fargesii, with overlapping distributions in central China. Range-wide genetic variation was investigated using mitochondrial (mt) and plastid (pt) DNA sequences, which contrast in their rates of gene

  18. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on leaf phenolic production of grand fir seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Muzikal; K. S. Pregitzer

    1992-01-01

    A significant decrease in production of total phenolics was apparent with nitrogen fertilization in three of five seed sources of grand fir [Abies grandis (Dougl.) Lindl.]. Subsequent extraction and identification of phenolics indicated that two compounds increased with fertilization, and when grouped by biosynthetic origin into cinnamic acids, benzoic acids, and flavonoids, no differences were apparent with fertilization. Total biomass

  19. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  20. Population size and diversity of Frankia in soils of Ceanothus velutinus and Douglas-fir stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soon-Chun Jeong; David D. Myrold

    2001-01-01

    The influence of host plants on Frankia populations was investigated using soils from Ceanothus velutinus (Dougl.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands. Population sizes of Ceanothus-infective Frankia in the soils were measured using plant bioassays with C. velutinus, C. sanguineus (Pursh), and C. integerrimus (H. & A.) as trap plants. The Frankia population in soil from the C. velutinus

  1. Formation of Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizae on California white fir in an eastern Sierra Nevada minesoil

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (USA))

    1990-03-01

    A recent report disclosed P. tinctorius occurring in ectomycorrhizal association with Jeffrey pine and Sierra lodgepole pine on spoils of the Leviathan Mine in Alpine County, California. Located on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada at an elevation of 2,200 m and consisting of approximately 100 ha, this open-pit sulfur mine has been inactive since 1962. The average annual precipitation of approximately 50 cm is primarily snowfall, and the minesoil has a pH of 4.0 to 4.5, a deficiency of plant-available N, and a potentially phytotoxic concentration of Al. Walker's report concerning examinations made in September 1988 of the probable hosts of P. tinctorius in Leviathan Mine noted that basidiocarps of this symbiont were absent in the immediate vicinity of the latter four tree species. Reexamination of Leviathan Mine spoils in August and September 1989, however, revealed numerous P. tinctorius basidiocarps near seedlings and saplings of California white fir. Typically, one or two dark yellow to brown basidiocarps, matching the description of Coker and Couch (1928), were observed around solitary white fir seedlings, while as many as five encircled individual white fir saplings. Stipitate, substipitate, and sessile forms were observed, varying in size from 9 to 17 cm in length and from 3 to 7 cm in diameter. Approximately 100 basidiocarps were found associated with white fir, and these were rarely more than 2 m from the host.

  2. Marginal effects of silvicultural treatments on soil nutrients following harvest in a Chinese fir plantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenhua Xiang; Hongxia Chai; Dalun Tian; Changhui Peng

    2009-01-01

    Despite the widespread recognition that silvicultural treatments (prescribed harvest residue burning, site preparation and replanting) applied following clearcutting may cause soil erosion and nutrient loss in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia Lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations, it is unclear which specific treatment leads to nutrient loss and whether an appropriate implementation of the treatments during the dry season could avert nutrient loss altogether.

  3. Optimal FIR and IIR Hilbert transformer design via LS and minimax fitting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ISTVAN KOLLAR; RIK PINTELON; JOHAN SCHOUKENS

    1990-01-01

    A method for the design of both finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse resonant (IIR) digital Hilbert transformers, based on a parameter estimation method for linear systems, is presented. The first approximation is performed in a least-squares (LS) sense in the complex domain. An iterative extension of the algorithm is also presented. It results in an approximation in a

  4. Northern Flying Squirrel Mycophagy and Truffle Production in Fir Forests in Northeastern California1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey R. Waters; Kevin S. McKelvey; Cynthia J. Zabel; Daniel Luoma

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the results of four studies in which we either examined the feeding habits of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), a mycophagous (consuming fungi) small mammal, or compared the abundance of truffles (sporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi) among different types of fir (Abies) forest. The studies were conducted within the Lassen National Forest in northeastern

  5. Seasonality and Abundance of Truffles from Oak Woodlands to Red Fir Forests1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm P. North

    Truffles are an important food source for many small mammals in forest ecosystems; however, we know little about the seasonality, abundance, or diversity of the truffle community in the Sierra Nevada. This study examined how truffle abundance and diversity varied between oak woodland, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed-conifer, and red fir (Abies magnifica) forests. Species richness (number of species) and

  6. Stratospheric spectroscopy with the far-infrared spectrometer (FIRS-2) - Overview and recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Chance, Kelly V.; Johnson, David G.; Jucks, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's program of balloon-borne stratospheric spectroscopic measurements is described, including instrumentation, recent scientific results, and future plans. The design and operation of the FIRS-2 far-infrared spectrometer is discussed. The current status of our efforts to recover mixing-ratio profiles with about 1 percent precision is presented. Representative recent results are shown giving mixing-ratio profiles from 20 to 50 km, selected from the suite HOCl, HCl, HF, NO2, N2O, HNO3, OH, HO2, H2O2, H2O (and isotopes), O2 (and isotopes), O3 (and isotopes), and CO2 (and isotopes). The utility of O2 and CO2 spectral lines for information on view angle or temperature and pressure is discussed. Future plans are mentioned, including the use of FIRS-2 on a balloon platform for UARS correlative measurements, the use of FIRS-2 on the NASA DC-8 platform for polar measurements, and the potential benefits of a FIRS instrument on a Shuttle platform.

  7. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision

    E-print Network

    McNeil, Alexander J.

    Basel Committee on Banking Supervision International Convergence of Capital Measurement, or for additions/changes to the mailing list, should be sent to: Bank for International Settlements Press Bank for International Settlements 2005. All rights reserved. Brief excerpts may be reproduced

  8. The Diffusion of Online Banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Bradley; Kate Stewart

    2003-01-01

    The financial services environment has been subject to changes on many fronts. Technological change and the advent of the Internet are among the most dramatic and challenging areas of change for the sector. This paper looks at retail banking and its adoption of online banking, in particular the factors driving and inhibiting adoption by banks. An international Delphi study confirms

  9. Assicurativo | Bancario | Finanziario DEUTSCHE BANK

    E-print Network

    Schettini, Raimondo

    Assicurativo | Bancario | Finanziario DEUTSCHE BANK CHI SIAMO Deutsche Bank, fondata nel 1870 Bank uno dei principali istituti di credito internazionali presenti in Italia con circa 4.000 dipen sportelli (con forte concentrazione in Lombardia, Liguria, Campania e Puglia), 7 sedi Private Wealth

  10. Optimised implementation of a matched filter bank for ultrawideband radios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sivanandan Muthuswamy; Ronny Veljanovski; Jugdutt Singh

    2005-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology dates back to early 1980s and was originally employed in radar applications. Unlike any narrowband or broadband communication systems, an UWB system does not employ any radio frequency (RF) carrier for data transmission. Instead it uses very short period electrical pulses in the order of hundreds of pico-seconds to few nano-seconds, which justifies the availability of an

  11. DMT systems, DWMT systems and digital filter banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Tzannes; M. C. Tzannes; J. G. Proakis; P. N. Heller

    1994-01-01

    A multicarrier modulation system called discrete multitone (DMT) was chosen by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as a working standard for asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) signaling. The DMT system uses the inverse and forward discrete Fourier transform (DFT) for modulation and demodulation. An alternative to the classic DMT system is to substitute a discrete wavelet transform in place

  12. Signal processing of triaxis fiber optic gyroscopes using filter banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhonghua Zhao; Yanhua Zhang

    2002-01-01

    The structural of triaxis fiber optic gyroscopes with frequency division multiplexing and frequency distribution characters of the system were introduced. The relationship among the output signal with modulation frequency and depth was focused on. The simulation results show that the output signal intensity of FOG presents the 'hump' effect on condition that the modulation depth varies in a certain range.

  13. A Compact Filter-Bank Waveguide Spectrometer for Millimeter Wavelengths

    E-print Network

    Bryan, Sean; Groppi, Christopher; Mauskopf, Philip; Underhill, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and measurements on a 90GHz prototype of a millimeter-wave channelizing spectrometer realized in rectangular waveguide for astronomical instrumentation. The device was fabricated using conventional high-precision metal machining, and the spectrometer can be tiled into a 2D array to fill the focal plane of a telescope. Measurements of the fabricated five-channel device matched well with electromagnetic simulations using HFSS and a cascaded S-matrix approach. This motivated the design of a 54-channel R=200 spectrometer that fills the single-moded passband of rectangular waveguide in the 130-175 GHz and 190-250 GHz atmospheric windows for millimeter-wave spectroscopic mapping and multi-object spectroscopy.

  14. Wideband speech and audio coding using gammatone filter banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliathamby Ambikairajah; Julien Epps; Lee Lin

    2001-01-01

    Considerable research attention has been directed towards speech and audio coding algorithms capable of producing high quality coded speech and audio, however few of these use signal representations which account for temporal as well as spectral detail. This paper presents a new technique for 16 kHz wideband speech and audio coding, whereby analysis and synthesis are performed using a linear

  15. PLATFORMS FOR DNA BANKING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accelerated use of genomic technology in biological research portends a changing pattern in the use of genetic resource collections and fuels the desire among researchers to establish DNA banks. DNA sequencing of herbarium sheet specimens, cell cultures and germplasm offers a new approach to st...

  16. Academic Interventions Bank Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Tom; Torrens, Meg

    This paper describes development of a bank of interventions in response to individual student needs identified by Student Study Teams (SSTs) in the Horry County (South Carolina) school district. It also describes the training of SST members in the selection, application, and monitoring of each intervention. Following a survey that identified basic

  17. Joseph Banks: Pacific pictures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Fara

    2003-01-01

    When Joseph Banks sailed to the Pacific with James Cook, two cultures clashed against each other. The Europeans looked down on the islanders as noble savages, but the local people were also amazed by these international encounters. Lacking any innate feelings of inferiority, they negotiated with their strange visitors, and resented attempts to indoctrinate Omai, a Tahitian, with the virtues

  18. HPCwire Job Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HPCwire Job Bank has become the matchmaker site of choice for bringing together the best talent and the leading employers in HPC commercial computing, research, academia, and the entire ecosystem of suppliers and users of HPC systems and technology, representing career opportunities in hardware, software, middleware, sales, marketing, consulting, design, development, engineering, research, testing, customer support and production.

  19. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When

  20. A bank management audit

    E-print Network

    Kennemer, Hoyt Granville

    1957-01-01

    on loans (Table IV, Item $) as a percentage of total earnings, however have ranged from 6. $ to 11 1 per cent below the average for member banks, The reason for these diffezences is zev'ealed, by Table V. This table shows that United. States Government...

  1. National Trade Data Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Trade Data Bank, U. S. Department of Commerce: Over 300,000 documents which include over 130 information programs from over 20 federal sources such as the Department's Foreign Trader's Index, the Export Yellow Pages, the Trade Opportunities Program, and Market Research Reports.

  2. Banking on Child Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Margaret; McBride, Andrea M.; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    1997-01-01

    The child-care facility is rapidly growing into the role of gatekeeper on food intake for children. This article describes guidelines for children's nutritional needs, what children are actually eating, how to make menus more nutritious (including recipes), how to strengthen menus and keep food costs low, and the use of food banks. (EV)

  3. Bank-a-Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Doris; Jordan, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    The article gives procedures for consumer foods teachers to use to actively involve students in making independent food purchasing decisions according to the school foods lab budget and food buying principles. Included are forms used to keep records for each lab: unit bank account, meat lab evaluation, and market order. (MF)

  4. Money, credit and banking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksander Berentsen; Gabriele Camera; Christopher Waller

    2007-01-01

    In monetary models where agents are subject to trading shocks there is typically an ex post inefficiency since some agents are holding idle balances while others are cash constrained. This problem creates a role for financial intermediaries, such as banks, who accept nominal deposits and make nominal loans. In general, financial intermediation improves the allocation. The gains in welfare come

  5. Idea Bank: Skyping Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adam Held

    2010-10-01

    Last year, the author of this month's Idea Bank had his 11th-grade physics students in Shanghai, China work with students from Chicago, Illinois. Both sets of students were given a list of questions and problems and asked to work together via Skype--a free

  6. RADIO IMAGING OF THE NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 REGION: A HYPERCOMPACT H II REGION CANDIDATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-10

    The NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 region was observed in the 6.9 mm continuum with an angular resolution of about 1.5 arcsec. The 6.9 mm continuum map shows four compact sources, FIR 5w, 5e, 6c, and 6n, as well as an extended structure of the ionization front associated with the optical nebulosity. FIR 6c has a source size of about 0.4 arcsec or 150 AU. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of FIR 6c is peculiar: rising steeply around 6.9 mm and flat around 1 mm. The possibility of a hypercompact H II region is explored. If the millimeter flux of FIR 6c comes from hot ionized gas heated by a single object at the center, the central object may be a B1 star of about 5800 solar luminosities and about 13 solar masses. The 6.9 mm continuum of FIR 6n may be a mixture of free-free emission and dust continuum emission. Archival data show that both FIR 6n and 6c exhibit water maser activity, suggesting the existence of shocked gas around them. The 6.9 mm continuum emission from FIR 5w has a size of about 1.8 arcsec or 760 AU. The SEDs suggest that the 6.9 mm emission of FIR 5w and 5e comes from dust, and the masses of the dense molecular gas are about 0.6 and 0.5 solar masses, respectively.

  7. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  8. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  9. ELECTRET AIR FILTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashmi Thakur; Dipayan Das; Apurba Das

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the research progress made so far on electret air filters used for separation of airborne particles from complex air stream. A set of different categories of these filters are delineated and the methods of manufacturing of these filters are described. The principles and mechanisms of filtration and modeling of pressure drop by these filters are analyzed. The

  10. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  11. (Mobile K'' Filter program)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-17

    This report documents progress through May 16, 1990 in the marketing of the Mobile K' filter. This air filter traps fine particulates. A total number of 167 of the filter units have been sold. An effort to increase sales by lowering the cost of the units by delivering the filters unassembled is under way. (GHH)

  12. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  13. Collaborative Filtering Recommender Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ben Schafer; Dan Frankowski; Jonathan L. Herlocker; Shilad Sen

    2007-01-01

    One of the potent personalization technologies powering the adap- tive web is collaborative filtering. Collaborative filtering (CF) is the process of filtering or evaluating items through the opinions of other people. CF technol- ogy brings together the opinions of large interconnected communities on the web, supporting filtering of substantial quantities of data. In this chapter we in- troduce the core

  14. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank....

  15. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank....

  16. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank....

  17. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank....

  18. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank....

  19. Properties of multilayer filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    New methods were investigated of using optical interference coatings to produce bandpass filters for the spectral region 110 nm to 200 nm. The types of filter are: triple cavity metal dielectric filters; all dielectric reflection filters; and all dielectric Fabry Perot type filters. The latter two types use thorium fluoride and either cryolite films or magnesium fluoride films in the stacks. The optical properties of the thorium fluoride were also measured.

  20. Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum in bank filtration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Atwill, E. R.; Hou, L. L.

    2003-04-01

    The protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a leading cause of waterborne disease. Many surface water systems therefore depend on filtration systems, including bank filtration systems, for the removal of the pathogenic oocysts. To better understand the effectiveness, e.g., of bank filtration systems, we have implemented a series of columns studies under various environmental conditions (column length: 10 cm - 60 cm, flow rates: 0.7 m/d - 30 m/d, ionic strength: 0.01 - 100 mM, filter grain size: 0.2 - 2 mm, various solution chemistry). We show that classic colloid filtration theory is a reasonable tool for predicting the initial breakthrough of C. parvum in pulsed injections of the oocyst through sand columns, although the model does not account for the significant tailing that occurs in C. parvum transport. Application of colloid filtration theory to bank filtration system is further limited by the intrinsic heterogeneity of the geologic systems used for bank filtration. We couple filtration theory with a stochastic subsurface transport approach and with percolation theory to account for the effects of intrinsic heterogeneity. We find that a 1-log removal can be achieved even under relatively adverse conditions (low collision efficiency, high velocity) if 85% - 90% of the sedimentary hydrofacies located within the bank filtration system or of the coarsest known hydrofacies connecting the riverbed with the extraction system has a grain-size distribution with a 10% passing diameter equal to 1 mm. One millimeter is a standard sieve size in sediment analysis.

  1. 12 CFR 615.5452 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation...any person against Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation...Section 615.5452 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5452 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation...any person against Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation...Section 615.5452 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5452 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation...any person against Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation...Section 615.5452 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5452 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation...any person against Federal Reserve Banks, Farm Credit banks, and Funding Corporation...Section 615.5452 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

  5. World Bank: Globalization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The word globalization is thrown around with reckless abandon by numerous parties these days, and as a result, the very notion of such a force is somewhat elusive. While this website from the World Bank may not end all of the fierce academic and pragmatic debates that rage on about globalization, it does offers some perspective from this organization on this wide-ranging phenomenon. The site itself contains audio and video selections, issue briefs, a data and statistics section, and an area dedicated to current research on the subject underway by the World Bank. The issue briefs are definitely worth a look as they address such questions as What is Globalization? and Does More International Trade Openness Increase World Poverty? The selection of videos is also quite nice, particularly a recent talk by Michael Moore (the former director-general of the World Trade Organization) entitled Globalization & Development: Its Implications & Institutions.

  6. 13C AND 15N IN MICROARTHROPODS REVEAL LITTLE RESPONSE OF DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under global change requires experiments maintaining natural interactions among soil structure, soil communities, nutrient availability, and plant growth. In model Douglas-fir ecosystems maintained for five growing seaso...

  7. 75 FR 10795 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below...CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are considered...Smith Associated Banking Corporation, Hot Springs, Arkansas; and indirectly...

  8. World Bank: Anticorruption [pdf[

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In its many different guises, corruption around the world tends to affect the poor, who are often the most reliant on the provision of public services, and are also least likely to be able to pay the extra costs associated with bribery and fraud. The World Bank has identified corruption as "the single greatest obstacle to economic and social development," and thusly has set up this anticorruption website to serve as an online resource for policy-makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other interested parties. On the site, the World Bank lays out its strategy for combating corruption, which includes increasing political accountability, strengthening civil society participation, and improving public sector management. The site also contains a number of helpful resources, such as toolkits for assessing government performance in this area, and information and reports on various regional and country-based approaches to dealing with corruption. The site is rounded out by a calendar of events and key strategy documents, such as "Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance, A World Bank Strategy."

  9. Virtual blood bank.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

  10. Governing Bankings Future: A View from the Fed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Robert Heller

    \\u000a No one who studies the history of American banking can fail to be struck by the ever-present tension between market forces\\u000a and the regulatory presence. In the early years of the Republic, the First and Second Banks of the United States provided\\u000a an anchor to Americas emerging banking system, but many Americans saw those institutions as an anchor that impeded

  11. Bank Portfolios and the Bank Lending Channel in Austria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johann Burgstaller; Johannes Kepler

    This paper analyzes the adjustments in the structure of assets and liabilities of the Austrian banking sector taking place after a monetary tightening. Following increases in short-term interest rates, the share of loans to non-banks in interest-earning assets rises, which is at odds with predictions from the bank lending channel of monetary policy transmission. An extension of credit to nonfinancial

  12. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir western hemlock forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest. With the use of Hawksworth six-class dwarf mistletoe rating system, infection status was assessed for 3516 hemlock and true firs ?5 cm diameter

  13. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations 225.101 Bank holding company's subsidiary banks...

  14. The effects of culture on banking strategy : a study of three banks in three countries

    E-print Network

    Kuroiwa, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Every company pursues a different strategy, and banks are no different. In the banking industry, each bank performs its business based on its own business strategies. Japanese banks have different strategies, but in terms ...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...OPERATIONS Investment Management 615.5144 Banks for cooperatives...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...OPERATIONS Investment Management 615.5144 Banks for cooperatives...

  17. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...OPERATIONS Investment Management 615.5144 Banks for cooperatives...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...OPERATIONS Investment Management 615.5144 Banks for cooperatives...

  19. Rigid porous filter

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Dennis, Richard A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  20. Cadmium (II) ions removal from aqueous solutions Using Romanian untreated fir tree sawdust a green biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Boldizsar; M?ic?neanu, Andrada; Indolean, Cerasella; Burc?, Silvia; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminita; Majdik, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption of cadmium ions from synthetic aqueous solution using popular Romanian fir tree sawdust (Abies Alba) as biosorbent, was investigated in this work. Prior to its utilization the considered biomass was washed, dried and sieved without further chemical treatments. The biosorbent was characterized using humidity, density and elemental analysis determinations and FTIR. FTIR analysis indicated that, on the biomass surface hydroxyl and carboxyl groups are presented. The effect of different biosorption parameters was studied. Higher biomass quantity, neutral pH, slightly elevated temperature and high cadmium ions concentration are all favouring the biosorption process. Equilibrium (Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm), kinetics and thermodynamics of the considered biosorption process were discussed in details. Equilibrium was best described by the Langmuir isotherm, while the kinetic of the process was best described by the pseudo-second-order model, suggesting monolayer coverage and a chemisorption process. Thermodynamic parameters showed that cadmium biosorption process on fir tree sawdust is an endothermic process. PMID:23878929

  1. Stand density index applied to timber and goshawk habitat objectives in Douglas-fir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilieholm, Robert J.; Kessler, Winifred B.; Merrill, Karren

    1993-11-01

    Silvicultural guidelines are presented for the management of intermountain Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands for sawtimber production and goshawk ( Accipiter gentilis) nesting habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains. Data from 14 goshawk nest stands in Douglas-fir forests on the Targhee National Forest in Idaho (Patla 1991) were used to characterize the range of stand conditions considered suitable for goshawk nesting. A density management regime is presented using Reineke's stand density index that includes a technical rotation designed to produce sawlogs with a single commercial thinning. On average timber-growing sites, stands reach goshawk habitat suitability when site height is 25 m at age 75 and provide 65 years of goshawk nesting habitat until the final harvest at age 140. Approximately 1320 m3/ha are harvested over the rotation. On higher-quality sites, rotation length declines from 140 to 85 years, of which roughly 35 years are suitable for goshawk nesting.

  2. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE DETECTION OF POLARIZATION-DEPENDENT H I ABSORPTION AND H I OUTFLOWS IN LOCAL ULIRGs AND QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Baker, Andrew J., E-mail: stacy.h.teng@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a 21 cm H I survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub 8{sub -{sub 1000{sub {mu}m}}}} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of H I absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with H I detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km s{sup -1} in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent H I absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground H I clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the {approx}10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into ''mature'' radio galaxies.

  3. Banks and Corporate Control in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Morck; Masao Nakamura

    1999-01-01

    Using a large sample of Japanese firm level data, we find that Japanese banks act primarily in the short term interests of creditors when dealing with firms outside bank groups. Corporate control mechanisms other than bank oversight appear necessary in these firms. When dealing with firms in bank groups, banks may act in the broader interests of a range of

  4. Understanding the high profitability of Chinese banks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Lchel; Helena Xiang Li

    2011-01-01

    The big Chinese state-owned banks came as winners out of the global financial crisis. According to the Banker ranking, Chinese banks led the global banking profitability ranking through the years from 2008 to 2010 and contributed one fifth of global banking profits in 2010. The Chinese banking sector, which was deemed as wholly insolvent ten years ago, was reborn like

  5. Spectral response and spatial pattern of Fraser fir mortality and regeneration, Great Smoky Mountains, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Allen; John A. Kupfer

    2001-01-01

    High elevation Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) forests of the Southern Appalachians have undergone widespread mortality since the introduction of the balsam woolly adelgid in the 1950s. Resulting changes in ecosystem pattern and process (e.g., stand dynamic processes) have greatly affected floral and faunal communities. In this project, we integrated field observations, geographic information system topographic models, and 19881998 satellite imagery

  6. Diversity and productivity of hypogeous fungal sporocarps in a variably thinned Douglas-fir forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wes Colgan III; Andrew B. Carey; James M. Trappe; Randy Molina; David Thysell

    1999-01-01

    Although ecosystem management techniques are designed to enhance species diversity in managed forests, no comprehensive study has been conducted to evaluate effects of such techniques on diversity and productivity of hypogeous fungi (truffles). During this study, truffles were collected in a 55- to 65-year-old Douglas-fir forest from March 1993 through December 1995 at approximately 6-week intervals. Half of the stands

  7. Effects of Different Management Regimes for Cutover Areas on Soil Carbon Storage in Chinese Fir Plantations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi Fang; Dalun Tian; Wenhua Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Based on data collected (through local observations) for several consecutive years, comparative analyses of Chinese fir plantations\\u000a in Huitong, Hunan, were made. Results show that, before harvesting, carbon storage in forest soils in these 22-year-old plantations\\u000a (060 cm) amounted to 160.38 t\\/hm2; 1 year after a 100% clear-cutting, loss of carbon storage in the soil (060 cm) of cutover areas

  8. Evaluation of transpiration models with observations over a Douglas-fir forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. Bosveld; W. Bouten

    2001-01-01

    Hourly observations of eddy-covariance water vapour fluxes obtained over a Douglas-fir forest are used to evaluate three transpiration models. The models are (1) the PenmanMonteith model with a Jarvis type of formulation for the canopy resistance, including an explicit function for specific humidity deficit, (2) the PenmanMonteith model in which the specific humidity deficit response is replaced by a response

  9. Estimates of Douglas-fir fine root production and mortality from minirhizotrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Tingey; Donald L. Phillips; Mark G. Johnson; Paul T. Rygiewicz; Peter A. Beedlow; William E. Hogsett

    2005-01-01

    Minirhizotrons were used to assess the influence of soil resources on fine root (diameter?2mm) production, mortality, and standing crop over a 2-year period. Two study sites were located, along an elevational transect, in the Oregon Cascade Mountains in mature (>100 years old), closed-canopy Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands growing on soils with differing resource levels. The low resource site

  10. Temperature and source material influence ecological attributes of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Gundale; Thomas H. DeLuca

    2006-01-01

    Charcoal has numerous physical and chemical properties that allow it to influence a variety of ecological processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate how several ecological properties of charcoal vary as a function of formation temperature and the source of woody material from which it is formed in ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir (Pinus ponderosa\\/Psuedotsuga menziesii) ecosystems. We generated charcoal in

  11. The normalized difference vegetation index of small Douglas-fir canopies with varying chlorophyll concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Yoder; R. H. Waring

    1994-01-01

    In an experiment with miniature canopies of 1-m-tall Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings, the authors modified leaf area index, light absorption capacity, and photosynthetic potential by altering the concentration of chlorophyll in foliage and by controlling the density of seedlings. They measured canopy photosynthesis and light transmission in controlled-environment chambers and then transferred seedlings to a hemispheric illumination system where they

  12. Measuring forest floor CO 2 fluxes in a Douglas-fir forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B Drewitt; T. A Black; Z Nesic; E. R Humphreys; E. M Jork; R Swanson; G. J Ethier; T Griffis; K Morgenstern

    2002-01-01

    CO2 exchange was measured on the forest floor of a coastal temperate Douglas-fir forest located near Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Continuous measurements were obtained at six locations using an automated chamber system between April and December, 2000. Fluxes were measured every half hour by circulating chamber headspace air through a sampling manifold assembly and a closed-path infrared gas analyzer.

  13. Transient physiological responses of planting frozen root plugs of Douglas-fir seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Anisul Islam; Douglass F. Jacobs; Kent G. Apostol; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    Short-term physiological responses of planting frozen (FR) and rapidly thawed (TR) root plugs of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were examined through time series (0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) measurements in two separate experiments: 10 8C day : 6 8C night, RH 75% and 30 8C day : 20 8C night,

  14. Changes in terpene production following nitrogen fertilization of grand fir ( Abies grandis (Dougl.) Lindl.) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Muzika; K. S. Pregitzer; J. W. Hanover

    1989-01-01

    Of ten terpenes that comprise most of the volatiles of grand fir foliage only four were affected by addition of nitrogen. Levels of beta-phellandrene, camphene and bornyl acetate and terpinolene were significantly reduced with nitrogen added to the equivalent amount of 44.8 g\\/m2. A quantity of 22.4 g\\/m2 did not affect terpene production. Several populations were examined and these did

  15. Monoterpene hydrocarbon contents of the resin from seeds of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. ?ermk

    1987-01-01

    Using gas-chromatographic methods, the variability of the contents of monoterpene hydrocarbons (a-pinene, -pinene, ?3carene and limonene) in the resin of silver fir seeds (Abies alba Mill.) was studied. Resin cavities were characterized according to their position on the seed surface. It was estabilished that the terpene content of the resin of cavities localized on the abaxialadaxial surfaces of the seed

  16. Evaluation of transpiration in a Douglas-fir stand by means of sap flow measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. GRANIER

    1987-01-01

    Transpiration of a Douglas-fir (Pseudorsuga menziesii (Mirb.) France) stand was evaluated by sap flow measurements during a 4-month period. Between-tree variation in sap flow depended on crown class. On a sunny day, total transpiration was 1.6, 8.0 and 22.0 liters day-' for suppressed, codomi- nant and dominant trees, respectively. Transpiration estimated by sap How fell below potential evapotranspiration when available

  17. Long-term effects of thinning and fertilization on growth of red fir in northeastern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianwei Zhang; William W. Oliver; Robert F. Powers

    2005-01-01

    To determine the impact of fertilization and thinning on growth and development of red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) stands, we established an experiment in a 60-year-old stand usin ga23f actorial design with nitrogen-fertilized and nonfertilized treatments and three stocking levels. Plots were established in 1976 and were measured every 5 years for 26 years. The periodic annual increment in

  18. Factors affecting the canopy resistance of a Douglas-fir forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Tan; T. A. Black

    1976-01-01

    The physiological nature of canopy resistance was studied by comparing the stomatal and canopy resistance of a 10-m high Douglas-fir forest. Stomatal resistance of the needles was measured using porometry, while the canopy resistance was calculated using energy balance\\/Bowen ratio measurements of evapotranspiration. A typical steady increase in the forest canopy resistance during daytime hours, even at high soil water

  19. Cordierite silicon nitride filters

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. (Acurex Environmental Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. (Aerotherm Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. (GTE Products Corp., Towanda, PA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  20. Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Miley, Harry S. (219 Rockwood Dr., Richland, WA 99352); Thompson, Robert C. (5313 Phoebe La., West Richland, WA 99352); Hubbard, Charles W. (1900 Stevens, Apt. 526, Richland, WA 99352); Perkins, Richard W. (1413 Sunset, Richland, WA 99352)

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, whereafter the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant.